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Sample records for dichromates

  1. Ammonium imidazolium dichromate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Run-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, (C(3)H(5)N(2))(NH(4))[Cr(2)O(7)], the anions and cations are linked through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional structure which contains three kinds of layers parallel to (001). One layer contains imidazole cations, the other two layers the ammonium cations and dichromate anions. The dichromate anion has an eclipsed conformation with a dihedral angle of 14.65 (18)° between the mean planes of the O-P-O-P-O backbone.

  2. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Meert, K L; Ellis, J; Aronow, R; Perrin, E

    1994-10-01

    We report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child that resulted in multiple-organ-system failure and death. Exchange transfusion and hemodialysis were ineffective in removing significant amounts of chromium or causing sustained clinical improvement. We suggest that immediate, large doses of the reducing agent ascorbic acid would allow effective reduction of hexavalent chromium with less cellular toxicity.

  3. Antihumidity dichromated gelatin holographic recording material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lurong; Dai, Chaoming; Guo, Yongkang; Cai, Tiequan

    1991-12-01

    In this paper we present an antihumidity dichromated gelatin holographic recording material called AHDCG. It possesses the good optical performances of common dichromated gelatin (DCG). The holograms produced by this material, under common laboratory circumstances (RH > 80 usually), have been kept for more than one year without degradation in efficiency. The method of making this material, the surface structure, and its holographic properties are presented.

  4. Diamond Head Revisited with Ammonium Dichromate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrigoni, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The classroom demonstration using ammonium dichromate to simulate a volcanic eruption can be modified into a more dramatic and accurate representation of the geologic processes involved in the formation of a volcanic crater. The materials, demonstration setup, safety procedures, and applications to instruction are presented. (Author/WB)

  5. Dielectric relaxations in partly deuterated ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, John le G.

    1987-12-01

    Two dielectric relaxations in partly deuterated ammonium dichromate are attributed to reorientations of mixed-isotope ammonium ions. Loss peaks were observed between 20 and 40 K and obey the Arrhenius law with activation energy 1.5 kcal/mol for the stronger relaxation. The dipole moment is of the order of 0.015 D.

  6. Simplified dichromated gelatin hologram recording process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgekutty, Tharayil G.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method for making dichromated gelatin (DCG) holographic optical elements (HOE) has been discovered. The method is much less tedious and it requires a period of processing time comparable with that for processing a silver halide hologram. HOE characteristics including diffraction efficiency (DE), linearity, and spectral sensitivity have been quantitatively investigated. The quality of the holographic grating is very high. Ninety percent or higher diffraction efficiency has been achieved in simple plane gratings made by this process.

  7. Hologram formation in hardened dichromated gelatin films.

    PubMed

    Lin, L H

    1969-05-01

    Hardened gelatin films sensitized with ammonium dichromate can be utilized to record high quality holograms. The maximum diffraction efficiency of the hologram approaches 90%. The light scattering from the hologram is so low that under ordinary light the hologram plate appears almost indistinguishable from a clear glass plate. Either a transmission or a reflection hologram can be recorded. Linear recording range of light amplitude is large. A practical method of preparing and processing the film is described, and the exposure characteristics are presented.

  8. The Sensitization Process Of Dichromated Gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, Thomas C.; Pawluczyk, Romuald; Hockley, Bernard S.

    1989-05-01

    The effects of varying the concentration of the ammonium dichromate sensitizing solution on the gelatin film properties were investigated quantitatively. The film thicknesses were measured following preparation, sensitization and processing. The refractive indices of the film surfaces were measured following sensitization and processing. The absorbances of the films were measured following sensitization. The results indicated that following sensitization the refractive indices of the films increased and the film thicknesses decreased for low ammonium dichromate concentrations and increased for high concentrations. Subsequent to processing, the refractive indices decreased and the film thicknesses increased for films sensitized at low concentrations and decreased for films sensitized at high concentrations. The expected shifts in the reconstruction wavelengths were determined from the changes in the film thicknesses and refractive indices and were found to agree well with the wavelength shifts measured using a spectrophotometer. The reconstruction wavelengths were determined to vary linearly with the specific absorbance. The diffraction efficiencies and bandwidths of the holograms produced increased as the concentration of the ammonium dichromate in the sensitizing bath was increased. The implications of the results for the production of highly efficient volume holograms were discussed.

  9. Pathology Report for Intraperitoneal Sodium Dichromate Exposure in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-12

    Intraperitoneal Sodium Dichromate Exposure in Rats Protocol No.15-002-3, 8 December 2015 Prepared by: Erica E. Carroll, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP...Toxicological Study No. S.0035303-15 Protocol No.15-002-3 Pathology Report for Intraperitoneal Sodium Dichromate Exposure in Rats 8 December...been administered a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of sodium dichromate dihydrate and then observed for either 24 hours (Day 1), 3 days, 7

  10. New dichromated gelatin technologies for diffraction optical element fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigovsky, Yury N.; Malov, Alexander N.; Malov, Sergey N.; Feshchenko, Valeriy S.; Konop, Sergey P.

    1998-01-01

    The hologram recording mechanism in the dichromated gelatin layers are discussed. A new technologies are described for red rainbow hologram recording in the photographic emulsion and selfdeveloped dichromated gelatin--glycerol layers. A new method is suggested and experimentally approbated for relief plastic replica of the rainbow hologram fabrication based on the tanning developed or bleached photographic emulsion. This method is modification of the old photographic `bromoil' process. Some aspects of the noncoherent hologram coping on the dichromated gelatin films are discussed too.

  11. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, H; Gopi, M; Arumugam, A

    2014-11-01

    Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate.

  12. Adsorption of dichromate ions on the red mud surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhova, M. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Artamonova, I. V.; Rusakova, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of using a red mud (waste of alumina production) as a sorbent of dichromate ions from aqueous solutions is studied. A method for the activation of red mud by hydrochloric acid is proposed. The dependences of the amount adsorbed of dichromate ions on the pH and initial concentration of aqueous solutions are studied.

  13. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993.

  14. Holographic imaging of 3D objects on dichromated polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Guylain; Jourdain, Anne; Manivannan, Gurusamy; Lessard, Roger A.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional volume transmission holograms of a 3D scene were recorded on dichromated poly(acrylic acid) (DCPAA) films under 488 nm light. The holographic characterization and quality of reconstruction have been studied by varying the influencing parameters such as concentration of dichromate and electron donor, and the molecular weight of the polymer matrix. Ammonium and potassium dichromate have been employed to sensitize the poly(acrylic) matrix. the recorded hologram can be efficiently reconstructed either with red light or with low energy in the blue region without any post thermal or chemical processing.

  15. Resistance of dichromated gelatin as photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pang; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Wu, Minxian

    1999-09-01

    Based on the photographic chemistry, chemically hardening method was selected to enhance the anti-etch capability of gelatin. With the consideration of hardener and permeating processing, formaldehyde is the most ideal option due to the smallest molecule size and covalent cross-link with gelatin. After hardened in formaldehyde, the resistance of the gelatin was obtained by etched in 1% HF solution. The result showed that anti-etch capability of the gelatin layer increased with tanning time, but the increasing rate reduced gradually and tended to saturation. Based on the experimental results, dissolving-flaking hypothesis for chemically hardening gelatin was presented. Sol-gel coatings were etched with 1% HF solution. Compared with the etching rate of gelatin layer, it showed that gelatin could be used as resist to fabricate optical elements in sol-gel coating. With the cleaving-etch method and hardening of dichromated gelatin (DCG), DCG was used as a photoresist for fabricating sol-gel optical elements. As an application, a sol-gel random phase plate was fabricated.

  16. 40 CFR 415.120 - Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... potassium dichromate production subcategory. 415.120 Section 415.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.120 Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  17. 40 CFR 415.120 - Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... potassium dichromate production subcategory. 415.120 Section 415.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.120 Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  18. 40 CFR 415.120 - Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... potassium dichromate production subcategory. 415.120 Section 415.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.120 Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  19. 40 CFR 415.120 - Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... potassium dichromate production subcategory. 415.120 Section 415.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.120 Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  20. 40 CFR 415.120 - Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... potassium dichromate production subcategory. 415.120 Section 415.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.120 Applicability; description of the potassium dichromate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  1. 75 FR 35796 - Busan 74 (2-hydroxypropyl methanethiosulfonate); Chlorine Gas; and Dichromic Acid, et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... AGENCY Busan 74 (2-hydroxypropyl methanethiosulfonate); Chlorine Gas; and Dichromic Acid, et al... harris.monisha@epa.gov Dichromic Acid EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-02 Rebecca VonDem- Disodium Salt 43 Hagen Dihydrate... Gas; Dichromic Acid, Disodium Salt, Dihydrate, Meta-Cresol (m-Cresol), and Xylenol. Dated: May...

  2. Tests Of Polyurethane And Dichromate Coats On Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to determine relative effectiveness of new polyurethane and more-conventional dichromate coat in helping to retard corrosion of anodized 6061-T6 aluminum. Concludes by suggesting greater protection against corrosion achieved by combining polyurethane-sealing method with hard-anodizing method and by increasing thickness of coat.

  3. Holographic material composed by dichromated gelatin with vanilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Ibarra, Juan C.; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel

    2003-05-01

    Dichromate gelatins are well known as good holographic materials. Now by doping this material with synthetic vanilla, a change in the spectral amplitude response is obtained. Due that the maximum absorption spectra from the dichromate ammonium is localized in UV region at λ = 390. With vanilla, the maximum spectral response is similar, exception for its optical density, reducing the exposure factor the order of 2 times. An important property with this mixture is the high resistance to humidity of the ambient. We have recorded some diffraciotn gratings, using the argon laser λ = 488 nm, which show good diffraction (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is its simply, only using solution composed of water and isopropyl alcohol, this process takes approximately one hour.

  4. Propane-1,3-diammonium dichromate(VI).

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Sonia; Marouani, Houda; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    The title compound, (C(3)H(12)N(2))[Cr(2)O(7)], consists of a discrete dichromate anion with an eclipsed conformation and a propane-1,3-diammonium cation. Both kinds of ions have a mirror plane passing through the bridging O atom and the central methyl-ene C atom of the Cr(2)O(7) (2-) and C(3)H(12)N(2) (2+) moieties, respectively. Anions and cations are alternately stacked to form columns parallel to the b axis. Ions are linked by intra- and inter-column hydrogen bonds of types N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O, involving O atoms of the dichromate anions as acceptors, and ammonium or methyl-ene groups as donors.

  5. Simplified Method for Preparing Methylene-Blue-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Kazumasa; Koike, Satoshi; Namba, Sinji; Mizuno, Toru; Kubota, Toshihiro

    1998-05-01

    Methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) is a suitable material for recording full-color holograms in a single layer. However, a drying process in an ammonia atmosphere is necessary to prepare the MBDCG plate. This process is time-consuming and unstable. A simplified method for preparing the MBDCG plate is presented in which the MBDCG can be dried without ammonia. Elimination of the drying process is possible when the methylene blue in MBDCG does not separate. This is achieved by a decrease in the concentration of dichromate in the photosensitized solution and the addition of an ammonia solution to the photosensitized solution. Last, the gelatin is allowed to gel. A Lippmann color hologram grating with a diffraction efficiency of more than 80% is obtained by use of this MBDCG.

  6. Bis(benzyl-trimethyl-ammonium) dichromate(VI).

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Liu, Ning

    2011-11-01

    The asymmetric part of the title compound, (C(10)H(16)N)(2)[Cr(2)O(7)], contains one cation and a half of the dichromate dianion, which has a staggered conformation and exhibits disorder of the bridging O atom around the inversion center over two positions in a 1:1 ratio. Weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link cations and anions into a three-dimensional structure.

  7. Fish gelatin and ammonium dichromate as photosensitive film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco-Muñoz, Rosa Elena; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Pérez-Cortés, Mario

    2014-02-01

    In this work we propose a phase material based on fish gelatin from Norland Productsmixed with ammonium dichromate deposited on a glass substrate. The photosensitive film has 110 mm thickness. In this material we record low frequency (264 lines/mm) holographic gratings using a λ=532 nm from an Ar laser and reconstruct the image with λ=594 nm from a He-Ne laser. The diffraction efficiency is approximately15% for the first order. The material no requires developing process and is very easy to make. Experimental results are shown.

  8. Holographic materials composed by rosin with ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos; Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Perez-Cortes, Mario; Iturbe Castillo, Marcelo D.

    2000-03-01

    We present a new material with potential application in holography. We have used a film of mixing ammonium dichromate with rosin resin diluted in isopropyl alcohol. This material can be easily elaborate in the laboratory. A phase grating in this material was recording using Argon-Ion laser at (lambda) equals 457 nm, showing good diffraction efficiency. This material is capable of high resolution when we record some diffraction gratings, observing 2,000 l/mm (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is their simplicity, takes approximately 25 seconds.

  9. Rosin (colophony) holograms sensitized with ammonium dichromate ®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ibarra-Torres, J. C.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Pérez-Cortés, M.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2005-12-01

    We report a photosensitive emulsion by mixing ammonium dichromate with rosin resin diluted in isopropyl alcohol. This material can be easily elaborated. A phase grating in this material was recorded using an argon-ion laser at λ = 457 nm, shows a moderate diffraction efficiency. This material is capable of a high resolution when we record some diffraction gratings, observing the order of 2000 l/mm (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is its simplicity that it takes approximately 25 s. It describes a hypothesis with respect to some mechanisms of photosensitivity in emulsions.

  10. Dichromate effect on energy dissipation of photosystem II and photosystem I in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Perreault, François; Ait Ali, Nadia; Saison, Cyril; Popovic, Radovan; Juneau, Philippe

    2009-07-17

    In this study, we investigated the energy dissipation processes via photosystem II and photosystem I activity in green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to dichromate inhibitory effect. Quantum yield of photosystem II and also photosystem I were highly decreased by dichromate effect. Such inhibition by dichromate induced strong quenching effect on rapid OJIP fluorescence transients, indicating deterioration of photosystem II electron transport via plastoquinone pool toward photosystem I. The decrease of energy dissipation dependent on electron transport of photosystem II and photosystem I by dichromate effect was associated with strong increase of non-photochemical energy dissipation processes. By showing strong effect of dichromate on acceptor side of photosystem I, we indicated that dichromate inhibitory effect was not associated only with PSII electron transport. Here, we found that energy dissipation via photosystem I was limited by its electron acceptor side. By the analysis of P700 oxido-reduction state with methylviolagen as an exogenous PSI electron transport mediator, we showed that PSI electron transport discrepancy induced by dichromate effect was also caused by inhibitory effect located beyond photosystem I. Therefore, these results demonstrated that dichromate has different sites of inhibition which are associated with photosystem II, photosystem I and electron transport sink beyond photosystems.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract on sodium dichromate-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2016-03-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber, commonly known as Dandelion, has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders and some women diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of T. officinale leaf extract (TOE) in treating sodium dichromate hazards; it is a major environmental pollutant known for its wide toxic manifestations witch induced liver injury. TOE at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w was orally administered once per day for 30 days consecutively, followed by 10 mg/kg b.w sodium dichromate was injected (intraperitoneal) for 10 days. Our results using Wistar rats showed that sodium dichromate significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. In the liver, it was found to induce an oxidative stress, evidenced from increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidative activities. In addition, histopathological observation revealed that sodium dichromate causes acute liver damage, necrosis of hepatocytes, as well as DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, animals that were pretreated with TOE, prior to sodium dichromate administration, showed a significant hepatoprotection, revealed by a significant reduction of sodium dichromate-induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. These finding powerfully supports that TOE was effective in the protection against sodium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity and, therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic use of this plant as an alternative medicine for patients with acute liver diseases.

  12. Chirality Change in Helical Crystals of Potassium Dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Jun-ichiro; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2004-02-01

    Specific morphologies occasionally appear in the crystal growth in gels. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) crystals grown in gelatin gel have been found to exhibit various morphologies by varying only initial concentrations of K2Cr2O7 and gelatin in the medium. Particularly unique are huge helical crystals grown under the condition of high concentrations of both solute and gelatin, and right-handedness is overwhelmingly superior to left-handedness in helical chirality. We have found for the first time that huge left-handed helical crystals grow when adding acidic amino acids such as aspartic acid or glutamic acid, revealing the existence of an enantiomer of huge helical crystals of K2Cr2O7. The present finding is expected to be relevant to biocrystallization such as the growth of seashells.

  13. Some principles for formation of self-developing dichromate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyuk, Valentin P.; Malov, Alexander N.; Maloletov, Sergei M.; Kalinkin, Vyacheslav V.

    1991-02-01

    The optical information recorded in dichromate gelatin (DCG) layers Induced the information of a latent. image Which rnder the action of water and alcohols transforms to a relief or Phase image. The action of water vapours ma appreciably increase diffraction efficiency. judging from the assumPtion that the introduction of multiatomic alcohols favours the retention of water'' moecu1es in a lager in the amount sufficient for deve1oment on its exposure and stabilization of chromium complexes1 a " self-development" regim has teen worked out. In this case the diffraction efficiency of recorded hc. 1ograms is c''ose to the theoretical limiting value for flatphase r''e c o rdI ng me (J i a. At present the occurence of a Primary latent holographic image (or structure) in dichromated gelatin (DCG) layers has been recognized The diffraction efficiency (DE) detected at a step of holographic recording is low (about 0. 1-IZ). It was shown earlier /j_ 2/ that the treatment bY water vaours or eXPOSUPC Of the layers under conditions of increased humidity results ma growth of DE up to the values enabling the use of DCG to record information in real time /3/j Latent image centres in exposed DC3 layers are predominantly chromium(V) compounds. It is particulary evidenced by the observed correlation between the rate of formation of Cr(V) compounds in a Photo process and the specific change in DE of a latent image /5/.

  14. Photoinduced holographic surface relief gratings in thin self-developing dichromated polymer films: parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Rene M.; Lessard, Roger A.; Bolte, Michel

    1998-09-01

    Photoinduced holographic surface relief gratings have been fabricate din dichromated poly(acrylic acid) films. These gratings are formed in darkness subsequent to the illumination at 442 nm and they are obtained without any chemical treatment or wet processing. The influence of chemical parameters, such as ammonium dichromate and dimethylformamide concentrations, on the holographic characteristics of these gratings have been investigated. Holographic characteristics of the recording medium such as diffraction efficiency as a function of exposure, ammonium dichromate and dimethylformamide concentrations, and spatial frequency are presented in this paper.

  15. Pathology Report for Intraperitoneal Sodium Dichromate Exposure in Rats, Protocol No. 15-002-3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-08

    Toxicological Study No. S.0035303-15, March 2016 Toxicology Portfolio Division of Toxicologic Pathology Pathology Report for Intraperitoneal Sodium ...3 Pathology Report for Intraperitoneal Sodium Dichromate Exposure in Rats 8 December 2015 1 Summary 1.1 Purpose The U.S. Army Center for Environmental...milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) per day. Rats had been administered a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of sodium dichromate dihydrate and then

  16. Determination of ethanol in wine by titrimetric and spectrophotometric dichromate methods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Pilone, G J

    1985-01-01

    A dichromate-spectrophotometric method for the determination of ethanol in wine was compared in a collaborative, matched pair study with the AOAC dichromate-titrimetric method, 11.008-11.011. Both methods require distillation of the sample into dichromate. The titrimetric method measures ethanol by titrating the excess dichromate with ferrous ammonium sulfate after conversion of ethanol to acetic acid; the spectrophotometric method directly measures the reduced dichromate formed after oxidation. In addition to comparing the 2 methods, the collaborative study also compared the use of 2 types of assemblies for obtaining the ethanol distillate: the Scott-type, which is used in 11.008-11.011, and the electric Kirk-type. Results of the collaborative study indicated that the repeatability and reproducibility of the official titrimetric method were generally far superior to those of the spectrophotometric method; therefore, adoption of the spectrophotometric method is not recommended. Comparison of titrimetric method results obtained using the 2 types of stills indicated that repeatability and reproducibility were somewhat better when Scott apparatus was used, but measurements using Kirk-type compared well in the range of ethanol concentrations found in table and fortified wines. The Kirk-type distillation apparatus has been adopted official first action as an alternative to Scott apparatus in the dichromate oxidation method for ethanol in wine, 11.008-11.011.

  17. URI prevents potassium dichromate-induced oxidative stress and cell death in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dongwei; Xu, Zhonghai; Hu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Fei; Bian, Huiqin; Li, Na; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yaojuan; Zheng, Qiping; Gu, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Chromium VI can provoke oxidative stress, DNA damage, cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Aberrantly high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. Notably, multiple previous studies have shown the increased level of ROS in chromium (VI) induced oxidative stress, but its effect on cell death and the underlying mechanism remain to be determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of URI, an unconventional prefoldin RBP5 interactor, in potassium dichromate induced oxidative stress and cell death through in vitro loss-of-function studies. We have shown that knockdown of URI in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells by URI siRNA enhanced potassium dichromate-induced production of ROS. The level of rH2AX, a marker of DNA damage, was significantly increased, along with a reduced cell viability in URI siRNA treated cells that were also exposed to potassium dichromate. Comet assay showed that URI knockdown increased the tail moment in potassium dichromate-treated SGC-7901 cells. Accordingly, the cell rates of apoptosis and necrosis were also increased in URI knockdown cells treated with potassium dichromate at different concentrations. Together, these results suggest that URI is preventive for the oxidative stress and cell death induced by potassium dichromate, which potentially leads to cancer cell survival and therapeutic resistance. PMID:28078011

  18. Hologram formation reconsidered in dichromated polyvinylalcohol: polymer cross-linking around chromium (V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolte, Michele; Israeli, Yael; Djouani, Fatma; Rivaton, Agnes; Frezet, Lawrence; Lessard, Roger A.

    2005-04-01

    The photochemical behavior of dichromated polyvinylalcohol (DCPVA) films was analysed upon exposure at 365 nm in connection with the hologram quality recorded in such a photosensitive material. The evolution of both involved species, chromium and polyvinylalcohol, were quantified by implementing an innovative approach. This approach combines the monitoring of the structural modification of the polymeric matrix and the fate of the various chromium species ((VI), (V) and (III)). For the first time, it was established that chromium (V) was at the origin of the cross-linking implied in the hologram formation by acting as a bridge between hydroxyl groups of the polymeric chains. A second unanswered question was also elucidated. The improvement brought by ammonium dichromate with respect to potassium dichromate involves amide groups as additional chelating sites for chromium (V) resulting in the increase of the matrix cross-linking.

  19. Full-color holograms recorded in methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Kazumasa; Koike, Satoshi; Namba, Shinji; Mizuno, Toru; Kubota, Toshihiro

    1995-07-01

    Methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) is a suitable recording material for full color hologram in a single layer. Such a hologram has the possibility of being used as the advanced display devices and optical elements. However, the process of drying in an ammonia atmosphere is necessary for making the MBDCG. This process is troublesome and instable. A new method for preparing the MBDCG has been developed. The sensitized solution is composed of MB, ammonium dichromate, and gelatin in alkaline state. The MBDCG does not need to dry in an ammonia atmosphere when the concentration of MB and ammonium dichromate is properly controlled. The limits of the most suitable concentration of these agents are studied. Some experimental results of Lippmann color holograms using this MBDCG are presented.

  20. Study on the photocatalytic reduction of dichromate and photocatalytic oxidation of dichlorvos.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shifu; Cao, Gengyu

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, dichromate and dichlorvos are selected as the deputies of inorganic and organic pollutants, respectively, and TiO2/beads is used as a photocatalyst. The effects of various parameters, such as the amount of the photocatalyst, H2O2 concentration, metal ions, anions, pH value, and organic compounds on the photocatalytic reduction of dichromate and photocatalytic oxidation of dichlorvos are studied. From the studies, the differences of the parameters effect on the photocatalytic degradation of organic and inorganic pollutants are obtained. The results show that the optimum amount of the photocatalyst used is 6.0 g cm(-3) for the photocatalytic reactions. With the addition of a small amount of H2O2, the photocatalytic reduction of dichromate is inhibited while the photocatalytic oxidation of dichlorvos is accelerated. With the addition of trace amounts of Fe3+ or Cu2+, both the reactions are accelerated, and with the addition of Zn2+ and Na+, no obvious effects on the reactions are observed. Acidic solution is favorable for the photocatalytic reduction of dichromate; and acidic and alkaline solutions are favorable for the photocatalytic oxidation of dichlorvos. Adding SO4(2-), the photocatalytic oxidation is accelerated and adding Cl- the reaction is inhibited; and with the addition of trace amounts of SO4(2-), Cl- and NO3-, no obvious effects on the photocatalytic reduction of dichromate are observed. With the addition of methanol and toluene, the photocatalytic reduction of dichromate is accelerated, and the photocatalytic oxidation of dichlorvos is inhibited. The possible roles of the additives on the reactions are also discussed.

  1. Towards optimum diffraction efficiency for methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changkakoti, R.; Pappu, S. V.

    1989-08-01

    A systematic investigation has been carried out into the optimization of diffraction efficiency ( η) of methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) holograms. The influence of the following parameters on η have been studied: prehardener concentration ( CH), concentrations of ammonium dichromate ( CA) and methylene blue ( CM) as photosensitizers, and exposure ( E). This study revealed that with CH ≃ 0.5, CA ≃ 30, CM ≃ 0.3, and E ≃ 400-600, optimum diffraction efficiency of over 80%, can be easily achieved in MBDCG holograms.

  2. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  3. The Reaction between Iron(II) Iodide and Potassium Dichromate(VI) in Acidified Aqueous Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" teaching lesson explores the possible reaction between the ions in a reaction mixture consisting of iron(II) iodide and potassium dichromate(VI) in acidified aqueous solution. The electrode potentials will be used to deduce any spontaneous reactions under standard thermodynamic conditions (298 K, 1 bar (approximately…

  4. The effect of UV radiation on the properties of diffraction gratings based on dichromated gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzherli, N. M.; Gulyaev, S. N.; Maurer, I. A.

    2016-10-01

    Results of experiments on the influence exerted by UV radiation on the height of the surface relief and on the diffraction efficiency of holographic diffraction gratings recorded on dichromated gelatin layers are reported. It is shown that the height of the surface relief substantially increases, which leads to a rise in the diffraction efficiency of the gratings to a value exceeding 25%.

  5. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning in a 2 year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2014-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are most commonly used in printing, dyeing, plastics and rayon manufacturing. Poisoning in children by ammonium dichromate, an odorless and bright orange-red crystal, are rarely reported. Acute poisoning will result in death due to multi-organ failure. The target organs that are affected by this poison are the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, eyes and skin. On ingestion, initially there is a relative lack of severe symptoms and signs. Hence, the delay in seeking medical attention could lead to the increased rate of mortality. In this case study, we report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child. Despite appropriate management, such as hepatic supportive measures and plasma transfusion, the toxicity progressed to multi-organ failure and death.

  6. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis.

  7. Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin (DCG) for an Improved Holographic Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    in its reduced ( leuco ) form. The reduction of the dye resulted from the interaction of the photo- excited dye , in its lowest triplet state, with...WORDS (Continue on reverse *Ida If neco..ry ed Identlly by block number) |tolography Triplet sensitizers Lasers Phase holograms Dichromated gelatin Dyes ...discussions onl dyes and photoimaging. Accession For NTIS mi’A&I 11V 1 Dis CONTENTS Section Title Page PREFACE iii TABLES v I INTRODUCTION I 1I

  8. Simplified color image-processing system using a dichromated gelatin holographic element.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y G

    1982-09-01

    A simplified color image-processing system using a dichromated gelatin hololens is described. Only two conventional lenses are needed in this system, and their apertures are much smaller than the image to be processed. The processed image has a resolution of more than 200 l/mm. Since the system does not use a color filter, the processed image can be clear and of high fidelity.

  9. Influence of some development parameters on the reflection grating structure in dichromated gelatin.

    PubMed

    Keinonen, T; Salminen, O

    1988-06-15

    We made reflection gratings by using the gelatin of Kodak 649F spectroscopic plates. The concentration of ammonium dichromate sensitizer was varied, and reflection efficiencies of fully developed plates were measured in different reconstructing angles. During the development process we varied the washing time, the time interval between the washing and isopropanol baths, and the duration of the isopropanol bath. The reflection efficiencies were measured for each processing variable. Finally, the characteristics of the gratings were tested by varying the recording geometry.

  10. Improvement of the transmittance of methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Shinji; Kurokawa, Kazumasa; Fujita, Tatsuya; Mizuno, Toru; Kubota, Toshihiro

    1992-05-01

    The monomer state methylene blue (MB) dye plays a major role as a sensitizer in methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG). The dimer state of the MB can be reduced significantly by controlling the concentration of the MB, the chromium and the water in the gelatin. The authors achieved over 80% transmittance of the MBDCG plate for red light without sacrificing the sensitivity. Some experimental results of full color holograms recorded by the single beam Lippmann method (Denisyuk configuration) are presented.

  11. Crystal structure and thermal analysis of the tetramethylammonium dichromate and trichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossé, Nathalie; Joubert, Olivier; Ganne, Marcel; Brohan, Luc

    2001-02-01

    The structures of the tetramethylammonium dichromate, [(CH 3) 4N] 2Cr 2O 7 and trichromate, [(CH 3) 4N] 2Cr 3O 10, were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. These compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic system (space group Pnma, with Z=4 and a=17.192(1) Å, b=8.55(1) Å, c=10.637(1) Å), for the dichromate and in the monoclinic system (space group P2 1/ n, with Z=4 and a=11.366(2) Å, b=8.493(2) Å, c=20.187(4) Å, β=103.98(3)° for the trichromate. The structures consist of discrete dichromate anions (Cr 2O 7) 2- or trichromate anions (Cr 3O 10) 2-, respectively, stabilized by quaternary ammonium [(CH 3) 4N] +. Phase transitions in [(CH 3) 4N] 2Cr 2O 7 have been evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry as well as a new allotropic variety of [(CH 3) 4N] 2Cr 2O 7 which was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallizes in an orthorhombic system with the unit cell parameters a=24.49(1) Å, b=8.85(1) Å, c=8.705(8) Å.

  12. Performance evaluation of phase holograms recorded in methylene-blue-sensitized dichromated gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappu, Sastry V.; Changkakoti, Rupak

    1990-04-01

    Systematic studies have been carried out on the performance evaluation of volume phase holograms recorded in methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to realize optimum difraction efficiency in such holograms.A noteworthy feature of the studies is that inexpensive nonstandard gelatin has been used. The studies have revealed that optimum diffraction efficiency can be achieved when, (a) the pH of the first development bath is kept around 65; (b) the concentration of axnmonium dichromate as prehardner is maintained around 0.5 '1. by weight of gelatin; (c) the concentration of ammonium dichromate and methylene blue photo.sensitizers is fixed around 30 gm/litre and 0.3 gm/litre respectively;and (d) no external electron donor is added.Further,it is found that the decrease in diffraction efficiency consequent upon the storage of holograms can be restored almost perfectly to the original level by reprocessing the holograms.Based on our studies, it is proposed that DCG can be used fruitfully as a model information recording medium to investigate such aspects as senility,information loss and restoration,in the context of the development of optical memories.

  13. Controlling the color of Lippmann holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tiequan; Tang, Yixing; Wang, Hui; Dai, Chaoming; Guo, Lurong

    1993-03-01

    The polyvinyl alcohol and several other organic materials are mixed into the aqueous gelatin while the film is coated. This thin solid film is sensitized by aqueous ammonium dichromate, so it is called a dichromated gelatin polyvinyl alcohol (DC-GPVA) holographic recording material. DC-GPVA not only possesses the same excellent holographic properties as the conventional dichromated gelatin (DCG) but also obviously improves its environmental stability. Experimental results have shown that the reconstruction wavelength of a Lippman hologram recorded in DC-GPVA can be shifted to longer or shorter wavelengths and freely controlled to a certain extent by varying the ratio of the gelatin and the polyvinyl alcohol and relative organic materials, or hardeners and its quantity, or heated temperature and heated time exerted on the drying films, or thickness of them. After the films are sensitized, they can be exposed by He-Cd or Ar+ laser (441.6 nm or 488.0 nm) and developed by the regular post processed method. Initial discussions are also presented about the functions and mechanisms of the polyvinyl alcohol and relative organic materials added into DC-GPVA.

  14. Effect of the Content of Ammonium Dichromate in Dichromated Gelatin on Cr 2 P 3 2 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Liang-Wen; Peng, Bi-Xian

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the content of (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 in dichromated gelatin (DCG) on the binding energy of the Cr 2 P 3 2 level was studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the binding energy of the Cr 2 P 3 2 level of chromium in DCG is lower than that of pure ammonium dichromate. When the content of (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 is not greater than 1%, the chromium in DCG has only one state, near 577.5 eV; when this content is between 1% and 20%, the chromium in DCG has two states, near 577.5 and 579.1 eV. The relative contents of these two states change with the content of (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 . As the (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 content increases, the relative content of the state near 577.5 eV decreases almost linearly, but its absolute content first increases, then reaches a maximum at 10% (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 , and finally decreases. In addition, the absolute content of the state near 577.5 eV changes very slowly between 5% and 15% (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 . According to these experimental results and holography data reported in the literature, it is inferred that the chromium of the state near 577.5 eV is the chromium that forms the latent image center after exposure and then forms the hologram after development. As a result the basis for the optimum content of (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 is found, and an approach to increasing sensitivity is suggested through this experiment.

  15. Effect of the content of ammonium dichromate in dichromated gelatin on Cr 2P3/2 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiong, L W; Peng, B X

    1999-01-10

    The effect of the content of (NH(4))(2)Cr(2)O(7) in dichromated gelatin (DCG) on the binding energy of the Cr 2P(3/2) level was studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the binding energy of the Cr 2P(3/2) level of chromium in DCG is lower than that of pure ammonium dichromate. When the content of (NH(4))(2)Cr(2)O(7) is not greater than 1%, the chromium in DCG has only one state, near 577.5 eV; when this content is between 1% and 20%, the chromium in DCG has two states, near 577.5 and 579.1 eV. The relative contents of these two states change with the content of (NH(4))(2)Cr(2)O(7). As the (NH(4))(2)Cr(2)O(7) content increases, the relative content of the state near 577.5 eV decreases almost linearly, but its absolute content first increases, then reaches a maximum at ~10% (NH(4))(2)Cr(2)O(7), and finally decreases. In addition, the absolute content of the state near 577.5 eV changes very slowly between 5% and 15% (NH(4))(2)Cr(2)O(7). According to these experimental results and holography data reported in the literature, it is inferred that the chromium of the state near 577.5 eV is the chromium that forms the latent image center after exposure and then forms the hologram after development. As a result the basis for the optimum content of (NH(4))(2)Cr(2)O(7) is found, and an approach to increasing sensitivity is suggested through this experiment.

  16. Coulometric assay of the primary standards potassium dichromate and ammonium hexanitratocerate.

    PubMed

    Knoeck, J; Diehl, H

    1969-02-01

    The high-precision coulometric titration apparatus of Eckfeldt and Shaffer (Leeds & Northrup Company) has been used for the precision assay of two primary standard materials for oxidation-reduction work. The purity found for NBS 136b Potassium Dichromate. 99.975 %, standard deviation 0.002 %, checks the earlier value of Marinenko and Taylor. Ammonium hexanitratocerate, if low in thorium, is also an excellent primary standard, two recent commercial preparations having purities of 99.972 and 99.984%, a higher standard deviation, 0.005 %, reflecting a minor difficulty in end-point detection caused by platinum oxide formation on the indicating electrodes.

  17. Final report of CCQM-K96.1 `Determination of amount content of dichromate'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Ma, Liandi; Wu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K96.1 key comparison was a subsequent bilateral comparison to the CCQM-K96 'Determination of amount content of dichromate'. The comparisons were organized jointly by the inorganic analysis and electrochemical analysis working groups of the CCQM to test the abilities of the metrology institutes to measure the content amount of dichromate. The NIM China has obtained unsatisfactory results from the CCQM-K96. The NIM requested a bilateral comparison to demonstrate its capability after improvement. The KRISS acted as the coordinating laboratory and served as a link to the reference value of CCQM-K96. Both participants used high-accuracy constant current coulometry. A good agreement of the results was observed. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Dichromated agar: a promising doped biocopolymer for real time holographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolte, Michèle; Israëli, Yaël; Rivaton, Agnès; Lessard, Roger A.

    2006-09-01

    Agar is a natural polysaccharide which, when doped with dichromate ammonium, can be considered as a promising light sensitive material used for real time hologram recording. The volume transmission gratings were recorded with a Kypton laser at 413 nm and they were read in real-time with a He/Ne laser at 632.8 nm contrary to dichromated gelatin. The so obtained holograms formed were phase holograms due to a refraction index modulation. The optimisation of chemical and physical parameters was investigated in order to form high quality holograms. It was demonstrated the crucial role played by the remaining water in the final film on the value of the diffraction efficiency. In the optimal conditions, a maximum diffraction efficiency of 37 % was attained. Both on-off experiments and the storage of the exposed materials at room temperature and in the dark reveal that the holograms were stable. An attempt to rationalize the set of results in terms of chemical structure of the polymeric matrix and of its ability to stabilize chromium (V) is presented.

  19. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. Objectives: (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Materials and Methods: All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). Results: All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes

  20. Holographic recording characteristics and applications of single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Min; Chen, Ligong; Guo, Yongkang; Guo, Lurong

    2005-09-01

    A high-quality single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material is achieved successfully by employing new types of multi-color photosensitizers and photochemical promoters to conventional photo-crosslinking gelatin system. Its holographic recording characteristics such as spectral response, the photosensitivity of three primary colors, spectral selectivity of volume reflection hologram, angular and wavelength selectivity of volume transmission hologram, are studied in detail. Using red, green and blue lasers, namely three primary colors, the bright volume transmission and reflection holograms can be recorded on the panchromatic material at the exposure level of 30 mJ/cm2. Some preliminary results of space, angle and wavelength multiplexing holographic storage for storing multiple binary and grey-tone optical images, are also reported in this paper.

  1. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K96: Determination of amount content of dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Máriássy, Michal; Hanková, Zuzana; Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Pratt, Kenneth W.; Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Bing, Wu; Liandi, Ma; Chao, Wei; Sobina, Alena; Shimolin, Alexandr; Junior, Wiler B. S.; Borges, Paulo P.; Matehuala, Francisco Javier; Segoviano, Francisco; Rivera, Griselda; Ramírez, Pedro; del Rocio Arvizu, María; Ortiz-Aparicio, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K96 was organized jointly by the inorganic and electrochemistry working groups of CCQM to test the abilities of the metrology institutes to measure the amount content of dichromate. Slovak Institute of Metrology with help of KRISS acted as the coordinating laboratories. Eight NMIs took part in the comparison. All participants used high accuracy constant current coulometry. Good agreement of the results was observed. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Fabrication of refractive microlens array by etching ammonium dichromate gelatin (ADG) with enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jun; Gao, Fuhua; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Yixiao; Su, Jingqin; Guo, Yongkang; Cui, Zheng

    2000-08-01

    A new method has been developed to fabricate refractive microlens by etching ammonium dichromate gelatin (ADG) with enzyme solution. Unlike previous methods which are used to fabricate refractive microlens with photoresist, the process of fabricating microlens by etching ADG with enzyme solution doesn't require the use of expensive equipment, and it isn't sophisticated and time consuming. The light exposes ADG through a high contrast binary mask, then the exposed parts of ADS generate cross- linking reaction. Usually, the relief achieved by water developing is very shallow (<1um) when nonpre-harden gelatin is used, so we compound a certain concentration enzyme solution, and because of surface tension, ADG turns to spherical structure after developing. The optimum technique parameters of this process are presented. Results are presented for experiments and evaluated by profile meter and interference microscope.

  3. 53Cr, 17O and 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance in ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Singh, Nadia

    2016-12-01

    The 53Cr resonance frequency in ammonium dichromate has been detected at 4202 kHz giving a Qcc of 8404 kHz (assuming η= 0). Calculations suggest that the value of the 53Cr quadrupole moment is about 84 mB lower that the currently accepted value. The resonance frequencies of two 17O nuclei have also been detected giving Qcc = 2800, 2890 kHz and η = 0.726, 0.780 respectively. The value for coupling and asymmetry parameter for 14N has been refined using zero field NQR giving a value Qcc = 78.8 kHz and η= 0.645 the asymmetry value being considerably lower than the value previous reported.

  4. Methylene-blue sensitized dichromated gelatin: wide-range colour adjustment of reflection hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Dong, Guangxing; Guo, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Li, Jianfeng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new technique is presented for adjusting the playback wavelength of reflection holograms recorded in methylene-blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG). During the fabrication of the MBDCG medium, a water-soluble organic reagent is introduced homogeneously into the photosensitive layer as a preswelling reagent and wavelength adjuster. This method has a wide wavelength adjustment range (up to 200 nm, almost covering the entire visible spectral region), high diffraction efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio, and can be applied to quantitatively adjust the playback wavelength of reflection hologram by changing the concentration of the preswelling reagent. Its possible applications include colour image display, holographic optical elements, optical communication and optical anti-counterfeiting.

  5. Characterization of PVA doped with different metallic salts as conductor polymer and as holographic film sensitized with ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Baltasar-Arroyo, R.; Ruiz-Limón, B.; Ponce-Lee, L.

    2007-02-01

    Multitudes of materials were and are investigated for holographic recording. materials and processes are advantageous because its has high exposure sensitivity, high diffraction efficiency, stability, etc. We report a photosensitive emulsion its electro-optical and chemical properties by mixing PVA with metallic salts and ammonium dichromate. We describe a hypothesis with respect to some mechanisms of photo and thermo sensitivity to different characteristics in emulsions.

  6. Fabrication of refractive microlens array by etching dichromate gelatin with enzyme solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jun; Gao, Fuhua; Guo, Yongkang; Cui, Zheng

    2001-09-01

    A new method is developed to fabricate a refractive microlens array by etching ammonium dichromate gelatin (ADG) with enzyme solution. The light exposes ADG through a high contrast binary mask, then the exposed parts of ADG generate a cross-linking reaction. Usually, the relief achieved by water developing is very shallow (< 1 micrometers ), so we compound a 0.2% concentration protein enzyme solution as the developer to develop ADG and deepen its relief. At 37 degree(s)C, the biochemical reaction occurs between ADG and the enzyme solution, and because of surface tension, ADG turns to spherical structure after developing. The optimum technique parameters of this process are presented. The principle of etching ADG with an enzyme solution to achieve deep relief and the swelling of ADG are discussed in detail. The process of fabricating microlens array does not require the use of expensive equipment, and it is not sophisticated and time consuming. Results are presented for experiments and evaluated by a profile meter and an interference microscope.

  7. Zea mays L. protein changes in response to potassium dichromate treatments.

    PubMed

    Labra, M; Gianazza, E; Waitt, R; Eberini, I; Sozzi, A; Regondi, S; Grassi, F; Agradi, E

    2006-03-01

    The plant metabolic response to heavy metal stress is largely unknown. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the influence of different concentrations of potassium dichromate on the Zea mays L. plantlets. A clear effect of chromium on maize plantlets growth and seed germination was observed strating from 100-300 ppm up to 1500 ppm. In this concentration range, chromium uptake was dependent on the concentration in the medium. Metallothioneins, involved in heavy metal binding, were measured by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and showed a dose-response induction. Protein profile analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential expression of several proteins. Identification of spots of upregulated proteins was performed by MALDI mass spectrometry. Results showed that proteins induced by heavy metal exposure are principally involved in oxidative stress tolerance or in other stress pathways. Induction of proteins implicated in sugar metabolism was also observed. Identification of factors involved in plant response may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell protection and tolerance. This information could be used to improve agricultural production and environmental quality.

  8. Fabrication of large-format holograms in dichromated gelatin films for sun control and solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanoff, Christo G.; Schuette, Hartmut; Schulat, Jochen; Kubiza, Ralf; Froening, Philipp

    1997-05-01

    Dichromated gelatin layers (DCG) facilitate the design and fabrication of large format holographic optical elements (HOE) of high optical quality and diffraction efficiency. The HOEs are used for the fabrication of spectrally selective solar concentrators and as glazing materials for daylighting and passive sun control in buildings. The suitability of HOEs in these applications depends upon the achievable bandwidth, operating central wavelength, dispersion characteristics and low absorption losses. The HOEs are fabricated on glass or plastic film substrata in a DCG-layer of 5 to 30 micrometer thickness. The layer thickness and the gradient ar precisely controlled during the layer deposition and drying (plus or minus 1 micrometer and 0.1 micrometer/cm for standard layer of 10 micrometer thickness). The production process is based on the fabrication of high quality master holograms that are copied by dry copying procedure. The current manufacturing facilities allow the fabrication of 1 m2 HOEs on glass substratum and a continuous production of HOEs on plastic substratum with a width of 20 cm and length of 50 m. This technology is also used to fabricate holograms for instrumentation optics in metrology and for optical interconnects in multichip modules. The fabricated HOEs exhibit the desired operational characteristics: high diffraction efficiency, small Braggshift, large bandwidth and a central wavelength that may be freely selected over a wide spectral range. In this paper, we present the results from the experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of large number of holograms of the transmissive and reflective types. We discuss the attained angular and wavelength spectra, bandwidths, wavelength shifts and the diffraction efficiencies as functions of the holographic parameters. The HOEs are made for technical applications and are designed to operate in the 300 nm - 1500 m spectral range.

  9. Kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of oxalic acid by its catalytic effect on the oxidation of safranine by dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Abbasi, S.; Rezaei, B.

    2001-08-01

    A new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of oxalic acid has been described based on its catalytic effect on the redox reaction between safranine and dichromate in dilute sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored photometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of safranine at the maximum wavelength of 530 nm. Under the optimum conditions, a calibration graph from 0.10 to 10.00 μg ml -1 of oxalic acid with a detection limit of 0.08 μg ml -1 was obtained. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for ten replicate measurements of 1.0 and 5.0 μg ml -1 oxalic acid was 2.7 and 2.5%, respectively. The purposed method is simple, sensitive, selective and inexpensive. The applicability of the proposed method was determined by the determination of oxalic acid in spinach and wastewater samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of oxalic acid by its catalytic effect on the oxidation of safranine by dichromate.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, A A; Abbasi, S; Rezaei, B

    2001-08-01

    A new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of oxalic acid has been described based on its catalytic effect on the redox reaction between safranine and dichromate in dilute sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored photometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of safranine at the maximum wavelength of 530 nm. Under the optimum conditions, a calibration graph from 0.10 to 10.00 microg ml(-1) of oxalic acid with a detection limit of 0.08 microg ml(-1) was obtained. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for ten replicate measurements of 1.0 and 5.0 microg ml(-1) oxalic acid was 2.7 and 2.5%, respectively. The purposed method is simple, sensitive, selective and inexpensive. The applicability of the proposed method was determined by the determination of oxalic acid in spinach and wastewater samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Conceptual design and practical implementation of dichromated gelatin films as an optimal holographic recording material for large-format holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanoff, Christo G.; Brasseur, Olivier; Tropartz, Stephan; Schuette, Hartmut

    1994-01-01

    The commercial manufacturing of large format holographic optical elements (HOE) -- these are used in the fabrication of holographic solar concentrators or for daylighting applications in buildings -- requires inexpensive materials exhibiting high diffraction efficiency, bandwidth and controlled shift of the operating wavelength. Hence, the ideal recording material must possess adequate spectral sensitivity at the wavelengths of present day high power lasers and permit the desired shift of the operating wavelength by means of process control. The material should manifest a predictable diffraction efficiency as a function of the layer fabrication technique, of the exposure, and of the development process and display high spatial resolution and low noise. The properties of dichromated gelatin (DCG) as a recording material for volume holograms are close to ideal. It provides a large refractive index modulation, high resolution, negligible absorption, and low scattering. The holographic film is prepared in the laboratory and extensively tested. The processing of the film after exposure is a sequence of chemical reactions and physical treatments. We report in this paper our experience with large format DCG films on glass substrates and present the dependence of the holographic properties upon the layer preparation procedures and upon the exposure energy. The results for the film development and after-treatment are presented in a forthcoming paper.

  12. Evaluation of effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester on acute potassium dichromate toxicity and genotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Mujgan; Alansal, Nurnisa Oya; Tuncdemir, Matem; Tanriverdi, Gamze; Bayoglu, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the possible protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on potassium dichromate (K2 Cr2O7)-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity. Methods: A total of 40 Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: control, K2Cr2O7(K2Cr2O715 mg/kg, one dose, i.p.), K2Cr2O7 + melatonin, K2Cr2O7 + CAPE, and K2Cr2O7 + melatonin + CAPE. Urine and blood samples were collected from rats before scarification. One kidney was collected for histopathological studies, and the other was stored at −80°C for further determination of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) levels with spectrophotometric method. Comet assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity. Results: We observed a significant amelioration in genotoxicity by melatonin and simultaneous melatonin + CAPE treatment compared to K2Cr2O7 group (p1, p2< 0.05). SOD, CAT, GSH, GST, and MDA levels did not change when compared with controls. When K2Cr2O7 applied group was treated with melatonin and CAPE, neither melatonin nor CAPE made any changes in kidney GSH, GST, SOD, and MDA levels (P > 0.05). We noted that treatment with CAPE and melatonin + CAPE together caused a significant decrease in renal tissue damage, an upregulation in the kidney CAT levels (P < 0.05) and a slight healing at GR levels when compared with the K2Cr2O7 group. Conclusion: Our results revealed, CAPE and melatonin may have protective effects on K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity and cellular damage in rats. PMID:27756952

  13. Accidental potassium dichromate poisoning. Toxicokinetics of chromium by ICP-MS-CRC in biological fluids and in hair.

    PubMed

    Goullé, J P; Saussereau, E; Grosjean, J; Doche, C; Mahieu, L; Thouret, J M; Guerbet, M; Lacroix, C

    2012-04-10

    Intoxications by chromium (Cr) compounds are very life threatening and often lethal. After oral ingestion of 2 or 3g of hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)), gastrointestinal injury, but also hepatic and renal failure, often occurs which each leads to a fatal outcome in most patients. Cellular toxicity is associated with mitochondrial and lysosomal injury by biologically Cr(VI) reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. After Cr(VI) has been absorbed, there is not much that can be done except to control the main complications as the treatment is only symptomatic. The biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduces the toxicity because the trivalent form does not cross cellular membranes as rapidly. In fact, more than 80% of Cr(VI) is cleared in urine as Cr(III). We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who was admitted to hospital after accidental oral ingestion of a 30 g/L potassium dichromate (the estimated amount of ingested Cr is about 3g). ICP-MS equipped with a collision/reaction cell (CRC) and validated methods were used to monitor plasma (P), red blood cells (RBCs), urine (U) and hair chromium. For urine the results were expressed per gram of creatinine. After 7 days in the intensive care unit, the patient was discharged without renal or liver failure. P, RBC and U were monitored during 49 days. During this period Cr decreased respectively from 2088 μg/L to 5 μg/L, 631 μg/L to 129 μg/L and 3512 μg/g to 10 μg/g. The half-life was much shorter in P than in RBC as the poison was more quickly cleared from the P than from the RBC, suggesting a cellular trapping of the metal. Hair was collected 2 months after the intoxication. We report a very rare case of survival after accidental Cr poisoning which has an extremely poor prognosis and usually leads to rapid death. For the first time, this toxicokinetic study highlights a sequestration of chromium in the RBC and probably in all the cells.

  14. Pycnogenol prevents potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7-induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Kehkashan; Khan, Mohd Rashid; Siddiqui, Waseem A

    2009-10-30

    Environmental and occupational exposure to chromium compounds, especially hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], is widely recognized as a potential nephrotoxic in humans and animals. Its toxicity is associated with overproduction of free radicals, which induces oxidative damage. Recent evidence indicates that Pycnogenol (PYC), French maritime pine bark extract, exhibits antioxidant potential and protects against various oxidative stressors. The aim of the present study was to examine the modulating impacts of PYC on potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7-induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group was control, the second group was control plus pre-treated with PYC (10 mg/kg, body weight; in saline; intraperitoneally; once daily for 3 weeks) as drug control and the third group was saline pre-treated plus treated with a single injection of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg, body weight; in saline; intraperitoneally) as toxicant group. The fourth group was PYC pre-treated plus K2Cr2O7 injected. Forty-eight hours after K2Cr2O7-treatment, blood was drawn for estimation of renal injury markers in serum. Rats were then sacrificed, and their kidneys were dissected for biochemical and histopathological assays. K2Cr2O7-treated rats showed significant increases in markers of renal injury in serum, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by PYC pre-treatment. Moreover, prophylactic pre-treatment of rats with PYC significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated increased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), malonaldehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC), and decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the kidney homogenate of K2Cr2O7-treated rats. These results were also supported and confirmed with histopathological findings. The study suggests that PYC is effective in preventing K2Cr2O7-induced oxidative mediated nephrotoxicity

  15. Down-regulation of the DNA-repair endonuclease 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) by sodium dichromate in cultured human A549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hodges, N J; Chipman, J K

    2002-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a genotoxic human pulmonary carcinogen that elevates DNA oxidation, apparently through the generation of reactive DNA-damaging intermediates including Cr(V), Cr(IV) and reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that elevation of DNA oxidation may also be through inhibition of the expression of the repair glycosylase for 8-oxo deoxyguanine (hOGG1) in cultured A549 human lung epithelial cells. Treatment with sodium dichromate (0-100 microM, 16 h) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the levels of OGG1 mRNA as measured by both RT-PCR and RNase protection assay. Sodium dichromate at 25 microM and above gave a marked reduction of OGG1 mRNA expression which was not seen at 1 microM and below. No effect on the expression of the apurinic endonuclease hAPE or the house-keeping gene GAPDH was observed at any of the concentrations of sodium dichromate investigated. Treatment of cells with the pro-oxidant H(2)O(2) (0-200 microM) for 16 h had no detectable effect on the levels of OGG1 mRNA or protein expression suggesting that the effect of sodium dichromate is not mediated by H(2)O(2). Western blotting demonstrated that sodium dichromate (100 microM; 16 h and >25 microM; 28 h) markedly reduced levels of OGG1 protein in nuclear cell extracts. Additionally, treatment of cells with sodium dichromate (>25 microM, 28 h) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the ability of nuclear extracts to nick a synthetic oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo deoxyguanine (8-oxo dG). We conclude that the elevation of 8-oxo dG levels observed in A549 cells treated with sodium dichromate may be, at least in part, due to a reduced capacity to repair endogenous and hexavalent chromium-induced 8-oxo dG.

  16. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis-(3-ammonio-prop-yl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis-[dichromate(VI)].

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, S; Vinoth, E; Mullai, R U; Aruljothi, R; NizamMohideen, M

    2016-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the organic-inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4)[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis-(3-ammonio-prop-yl)piperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry) and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetra-hedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001). N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C-H⋯O inter-actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure.

  17. Catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry for the determination of trace amount of oxalic acid in biological samples with oxalic acid-rhodamine B-potassium dichromate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qing-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Qing-Zhou

    2006-09-01

    A new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method was proposed for determining trace oxalic acid based on the catalytic effect of oxalate on the oxidation of potassium dichromate with rhodamin B in 0.10 M of sulfuric acid. Good linearity is obtained over the concentration range 0.40-6.0 μg/mL of oxalic acid. After the reactions of the catalytic and non-catalytic systems were terminated by using 2.00 mL of 4 M sodium hydroxide solution, they can be stable for 3 h at room temperature. The apparent activation energy of the catalytic reaction is 12.44 kJ/mol. The effect of 50 coexisting substances was observed. The method was used to determine trace oxalic acid in tea, spinach and urine samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry for the determination of trace amount of oxalic acid in biological samples with oxalic acid-rhodamine B-potassium dichromate system.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qing-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Qing-Zhou

    2006-09-01

    A new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method was proposed for determining trace oxalic acid based on the catalytic effect of oxalate on the oxidation of potassium dichromate with rhodamin B in 0.10 M of sulfuric acid. Good linearity is obtained over the concentration range 0.40-6.0 microg/mL of oxalic acid. After the reactions of the catalytic and non-catalytic systems were terminated by using 2.00 mL of 4 M sodium hydroxide solution, they can be stable for 3 h at room temperature. The apparent activation energy of the catalytic reaction is 12.44 kJ/mol. The effect of 50 coexisting substances was observed. The method was used to determine trace oxalic acid in tea, spinach and urine samples with satisfactory results.

  19. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis­(3-ammonio­prop­yl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis­[dichromate(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Vetrivel, S.; Vinoth, E.; Mullai, R. U.; Aruljothi, R.; NizamMohideen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4)[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis­(3-ammonio­prop­yl)piperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry) and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetra­hedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001). N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H⋯O inter­actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308002

  20. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    PubMed Central

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Tapia, Edilia; Zazueta, Cecilia; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Vega-García, Claudia Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w.) before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.). Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23956771

  1. Dissolution kinetics of granular calcium carbonate in concentrated aqueous sodium dichromate solution at pH 6.0-7.0 and 110-130 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiangui; Li, Zuohu

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of the factors controlling calcite dissolution is important for modeling geochemical cycles and impacts of greenhouse gases on climate, diagenesis of sediments, and sedimentary rocks. It also has practical significance in the investigation of behavior of carbonates in petroleum and natural gas reservoirs and in the preservation of buildings and monuments constructed from limestone and marble. A large number of papers have been published on dissolution kinetics of calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions. But few involved the near-equilibrium region, especially at elevated temperatures and in concentrated solutions. In this paper, the dissolution kinetics of calcium carbonate in concentrated aqueous sodium dichromate solutions at pH 6.0-7.0 and 110-130 degrees C were studied in a 2-L autoclave. The results indicate that the dissolution reaction is mix-controlled, with surface reaction as the prevailing factor. The concentration of calcium ions in solution hardly affects the dissolution rate, but carbon dioxide in the vapor phase inhibits the dissolution reaction. The dissolution rate can be expressed by R = k(1)a(2)(H+) + k(2), and the apparent activation energy is 55-84 kJ mol(-1).

  2. Cell reproductive patterns in the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (=Selenastrum capricornutum) and their variations under exposure to the typical toxicants potassium dichromate and 3,5-DCP

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Horie, Yoshifumi; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2017-01-01

    Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata is a sickle-shaped freshwater green microalga that is normally found in unicellular form. Currently, it is the best known and most frequently used species of ecotoxicological bioindicator because of its high growth rate and sensitivity to toxicants. However, despite this organism’s, our knowledge of its cell biology—for example, the patterns of nuclear and cytoplasmic division in the mitotic stage—is limited. Although it has been reported that P. subcapitata proliferates by popularity forming four daughter cells (autospores) through multiple fission after two nuclear divisions, here, we report two additional reproductive patterns by which two autospores are formed by binary fission (“two-autospore type”) and eight autospores are formed by multiple fission (“eight-autospore type”). Moreover, we found that cell reproductive patterns differed markedly with the culture conditions or with exposure to either of two typical toxicants, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP). The eight-autospore type occurred at the highest frequency in the early phase of culture, but it disappeared under 3,5-DCP at 2.0 mg/L. Under 0.3 mg/L K2CrO7 (Cr(VI)) the eight-autospore type took substantially longer to appear than in control culture. The two-autospore type occurred only in the late phase of culture. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed evaluation of the reproductive patterns of P. subcapitata, which changed dramatically in the presence of toxicants. These findings suggest that observation of the reproductive patterns of P. subcapitata will help to elucidate different cell reactions to toxicants. PMID:28152022

  3. Cell reproductive patterns in the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (=Selenastrum capricornutum) and their variations under exposure to the typical toxicants potassium dichromate and 3,5-DCP.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Horie, Yoshifumi; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2017-01-01

    Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata is a sickle-shaped freshwater green microalga that is normally found in unicellular form. Currently, it is the best known and most frequently used species of ecotoxicological bioindicator because of its high growth rate and sensitivity to toxicants. However, despite this organism's, our knowledge of its cell biology-for example, the patterns of nuclear and cytoplasmic division in the mitotic stage-is limited. Although it has been reported that P. subcapitata proliferates by popularity forming four daughter cells (autospores) through multiple fission after two nuclear divisions, here, we report two additional reproductive patterns by which two autospores are formed by binary fission ("two-autospore type") and eight autospores are formed by multiple fission ("eight-autospore type"). Moreover, we found that cell reproductive patterns differed markedly with the culture conditions or with exposure to either of two typical toxicants, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP). The eight-autospore type occurred at the highest frequency in the early phase of culture, but it disappeared under 3,5-DCP at 2.0 mg/L. Under 0.3 mg/L K2CrO7 (Cr(VI)) the eight-autospore type took substantially longer to appear than in control culture. The two-autospore type occurred only in the late phase of culture. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed evaluation of the reproductive patterns of P. subcapitata, which changed dramatically in the presence of toxicants. These findings suggest that observation of the reproductive patterns of P. subcapitata will help to elucidate different cell reactions to toxicants.

  4. Elevated tissue Cr levels, increased plasma oxidative markers, and global hypomethylation of blood DNA in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to potassium dichromate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Wei; Yao, Chunji; Lou, Jianlin; Chen, Riping; Jin, Lingzhi; Wu, Nanxiang; Gao, Ming; Song, Peng; Tan, Yufeng; Liu, Kecheng

    2016-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is prevalent in ground water in some areas, but evidence on the toxic effects of Cr (VI) via ingestion through drinking water remains insufficient. The aims of our study were to investigate the toxic effects of Cr (VI) through oral water ingestion on oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, and exposed to porassium dichromate (K2 Cr2 O7 ; 0, 30, 100, and 300 mg/L) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Mean body weight gain, mean water consumption, clinical chemistry determinations, and oxidative stress levels in plasma were measured. Global DNA methylation changes and DNA methylation status at the promoter of p16 gene were also detected. After 4 weeks, mild anemic effects and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels occurred in rats exposed to 100 mg/L or 300 mg/L of Cr (VI). Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity decreased in all exposed groups. Global DNA methylation levels were reduced in 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L exposure groups. However, DNA methylation status at the promoter of P16 gene remained unchanged in all K2 Cr2 O7- treated groups. The correlation analysis indicated that increased MDA levels were closely correlated to global DNA hypomethylation. Our results indicated that oral ingestion of Cr (VI) through drinking water caused not only oxidative stress in plasma, but also global DNA hypomethylation in blood cells from male rats, and a good correlation was found between increased MDA levels and reduced global DNA methylation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1080-1090, 2016.

  5. S-allylcysteine scavenges singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid and protects LLC-PK(1) cells of potassium dichromate-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Barrera, Diana; Segoviano-Murillo, Sabina; Rocha, Diana; Maldonado, Perla D; Mendoza-Patiño, Nicandro; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2007-10-01

    It has been found that S-allylcysteine (SAC), a garlic-derived compound, has in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties. In addition, it is known that SAC is able to scavenge different reactive oxygen or nitrogen species including superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (OH()), and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) although the IC(5O) values for each reactive species has not been calculated and the potential ability of SAC to scavenge singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has not been explored. The purposes of this work was (a) to explore the potential ability of SAC to scavenge (1)O(2) and HOCl, (b) to further characterize the O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), OH(), and ONOO(-) scavenging ability of SAC by measuring the IC(50) values using in vitro assays, and (c) to explore the potential ability of SAC to ameliorate the potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7))-induced cytotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells in which oxidative stress is involved. The scavenging activity was compared against the following reference compounds: N-acetylcysteine for O(2)(-), sodium pyruvate for H(2)O(2), dimethylthiourea for OH(), lipoic acid and glutathione for (1)O(2), lipoic acid for HOCl, and penicillamine for ONOO(-). It was found that SAC was able to scavenge concentration-dependently all the species assayed with the following IC(5O) (mean+/-SEM, mM): O(2)(-) (14.49+/-1.67), H(2)O(2) (68+/-1.92), OH() (0.68+/-0.06), (1)O(2) (1.93+/-0.27), HOCl (2.86+/-0.15), and ONOO(-) (0.80+/-0.05). When the ability of SAC to scavenge these species was compared to those of the reference compounds it was found that the efficacy of SAC (a) to scavenge O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), OH(), and ONOO(-) was lower, (b) to scavenge HOCl was similar, and (c) to scavenge (1)O(2) was higher. In addition, it was found that SAC was able to prevent K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells in culture. It was showed for the first time that SAC is able to scavenge (1)O(2) and HOCl and to

  6. Crystal structure of bis­[trans-di­chlorido­bis(propane-1,3-di­amine-κ2 N,N′)chromium(III)] dichromate from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Ryoo, Keon Sang; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [CrCl2(tn)2]2[Cr2O7] (tn = propane-1,3-di­amine; C3H10N2), has been determined from synchrotron data. The asymmetric unit contains one CrIII complex cation and half a [Cr2O7]2− anion. In the complex cation, the CrIII ion is coordinated by the four N atoms of two propane-1,3-di­amine (tn) ligands in the equatorial plane and by two Cl atoms in a trans configuration, displaying a distorted octa­hedral coordination sphere. The two six-membered rings in the complex cation have an anti chair–chair conformation with respect to each other. The mean Cr—N(tn) and Cr—Cl bond lengths are 2.09 (1) and 2.320 (2) Å, respectively. The slightly bent dichromate anion is disordered over two sets of sites (occupancy ratio = 0.7:0.3) and has a staggered conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular hydrogen bonds involving the NH2 groups of the tn ligands as donors and the O atoms of the [Cr2O7]2− anion and chlorido ligands as acceptors. PMID:27920920

  7. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium--VII. Photometric titration of vanadium(IV) and of cerium(III) alone and in mixtures with iroN(II).

    PubMed

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K

    1967-01-01

    Vanadium(IV) can be accurately titrated with potassium dichromate in media containing phosphoric acid of 3-12M concentration: the change in absorption of vanadium(IV) is followed in the region 660 mmicro using a red filter. It is more convenient to carry out the titration in 3M phosphoric acid because at higher concentrations chloride, nitrate, cerium(III) and manganese(II) may interfere. Photoelcetric titration is more convenient than potentiometric because the former can be made in a 3M phosphoric acid medium, whereas the latter is possible only in 12M phosphoric acid. The simultaneous differential photometric titration of iron(II) and vanadium(IV) is also possible. Conditions have been found for the photometric titration of cerium(III) and of cerium(III) plus iron(II). The titration is carried out (at 450 mmicro or with a blue filter) in about 10.5M phosphoric acid. Application of the method to a cerium mineral is considered.

  8. Inferences on the Nature of a Cr(V) or Cr(IV) Species Formed by Reduction of Dichromate by a Bovine Liver Homogenate: NMR and Mass-Spectrometric Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaggelli, Elena; D'Amelio, Nicola; Gaggelli, Nicola; Bovalini, Lucia; Paffetti, Alessandro; Trabalzini, Lorenza

    2003-01-01

    A low-molecular weight chromium-containing fraction of the material resulting from dichromate reduction by bovine liver homogenate was investigated by NMR and ES-MS. The ES-MS spectrum showed a readily detectable peak at m/z = 786.1. The same molecular weight reasonably agreed with the relatively low diffusion coefficient measured by NMR-DOSY experiments on the main species observed in the 1H NMR spectrum. At least two downfield shifted and broad paramagnetic signals were apparent in the 1H NMR spectrum. Temperature dependence of chemical shift was exploited in order to estimate the diamagnetic shift of the signals in the diamagnetic region of the spectrum. 2D TOCSY, NOESY, COSY and 1H-3C HMQC spectra revealed the presence of aromatic protons (which were assigned as His residues), Gly and some other short chain amino-acids. Combinations of the molecular masses of such components together with acetate (which is present in the solution) and chromium atoms allowed a tentative proposal of a model for the compound. PMID:18365060

  9. Crystal structure of bis-[cis-(1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne-κ(4)N)bis(thio-cyanato-κN)chrom-ium(III)] dichromate monohydrate from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dohyun; Takase, Masahiro; Akitsu, Takashiro; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the complex salt, cis-[Cr(NCS)2(cyclam)]2[Cr2O7]·H2O (cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane, C10H24N4), has been determined from synchrotron data. The asymmetric unit comprises of one [Cr(NCS)2(cyclam)](+) cation, one half of a Cr2O7(2-) anion (completed by inversion symmetry) and one half of a water mol-ecule (completed by twofold rotation symmetry). The Cr(III) ion is coordinated by the four cyclam N atoms and by two N atoms of cis-arranged thio-cyanate anions, displaying a distorted octa-hedral coordination sphere. The Cr-N(cyclam) bond lengths are in the range 2.080 (2) to 2.097 (2) Å while the average Cr-N(NCS) bond length is 1.985 (4) Å. The macrocyclic cyclam moiety adopts the cis-V conformation. The bridging O atom of the dichromate anion is disordered around an inversion centre, leading to a bending of the Cr-O-Cr bridging angle [157.7 (3)°]; the anion has a staggered conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular hydrogen bonds involving the cyclam N-H groups and water O-H groups as donor groups, and the O atoms of the Cr2O7(2-) anion and water mol-ecules as acceptor groups, giving rise to a three-dimensional network.

  10. Crystal structure of bis­[(oxalato-κ2 O 1,O 2)(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane-κ4 N)chromium(III)] dichromate octa­hydrate from synchrotron X-ray data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Cr(C2O4)(C10H24N4)]2[Cr2O7]·8H2O (C10H24N4 = 1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane, cyclam; C2O4 = oxalate, ox) contains one [Cr(ox)(cyclam)]+ cation, one half of a dichromate anion that lies about an inversion centre so that the bridging O atom is equally disordered over two positions, and four water mol­ecules. The terminal O atoms of the dichromate anion are also disordered over two positions with a refined occupancy ratio 0.586 (6):0.414 (6). The CrIII ion is coordinated by the four N atoms of the cyclam ligand and one bidentate oxalato ligand in a cis arrangement, resulting in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The Cr—N(cyclam) bond lengths are in the range 2.069 (2)–2.086 (2) Å, while the average Cr—O(ox) bond length is 1.936 Å. The macrocyclic cyclam moiety adopts the cis-V conformation. The dichromate anion has a staggered conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular hydrogen bonds involving the cyclam N—H groups and water O—H groups as donors, and the O atoms of oxalate ligand, water mol­ecules and the Cr2O7 2− anion as acceptors, giving rise to a three-dimensional network. PMID:28316819

  11. NTP toxicity studies of sodium dichromate dihydrate (CAS No. 7789-12-0) administered in drinking water to male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and male BALB/c and am3-C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bucher, John R

    2007-01-01

    Sodium dichromate dihydrate is one of a number of inorganic compounds containing hexavalent chromium (CR VI) found in drinking water supplies as a contaminant resulting from various industrial processes including electroplating operations, leather tanning, and textile manufacturing. Because of the lack of adequate experimental data on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium ingested orally, and because hexavalent chromium has been found in human drinking water supplies, the California Congressional delegation and the California Environmental Protection Agency nominated hexavalent chromium to the NTP for study. In study 1, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to sodium dichromate dihydrate (greater than 99% pure) in drinking water for 3 months. In study 2, sodium dichromate dihydrate was administered in drinking water to male B6C3F1, BALB/c, and am3-C57BL/6 mice for 3 months. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. In study 1, groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg sodium dichromate dihydrate/L for 3 months (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 5, 10, 17, 32, or 60 mg sodium dichromate dihydrate/kg body weight to rats and 9, 15, 26, 45, or 80 mg/kg to mice). On a molecular weight basis, these doses are equivalent to approximately 1.7, 3.5, 5.9, 11.2, and 20.9 mg hexavalent chromium/kg body weight per day to rats and 3.1, 5.2, 9.1, 15.7, and 27.9 mg/kg per day to mice. Additional groups of 10 rats per sex were exposed to the same concentrations of sodium dichromate dihydrate for 4 weeks. All rats and mice survived to the end of the study. Reduced body weights occurred in 500 and 1,000 mg/L male rats, 1,000 mg/L female rats, and in male and female mice exposed to 125 mg/L or greater. Water consumption by male and female rats exposed to 250

  12. Crystal structure of bis­[cis-(1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­deca­ne-κ4 N)bis(thio­cyanato-κN)chrom­ium(III)] dichromate monohydrate from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Takase, Masahiro; Akitsu, Takashiro; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the complex salt, cis-[Cr(NCS)2(cyclam)]2[Cr2O7]·H2O (cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetra­aza­cyclo­tetra­decane, C10H24N4), has been determined from synchrotron data. The asymmetric unit comprises of one [Cr(NCS)2(cyclam)]+ cation, one half of a Cr2O7 2− anion (completed by inversion symmetry) and one half of a water mol­ecule (completed by twofold rotation symmetry). The CrIII ion is coordinated by the four cyclam N atoms and by two N atoms of cis-arranged thio­cyanate anions, displaying a distorted octa­hedral coordination sphere. The Cr—N(cyclam) bond lengths are in the range 2.080 (2) to 2.097 (2) Å while the average Cr—N(NCS) bond length is 1.985 (4) Å. The macrocyclic cyclam moiety adopts the cis-V conformation. The bridging O atom of the dichromate anion is disordered around an inversion centre, leading to a bending of the Cr—O—Cr bridging angle [157.7 (3)°]; the anion has a staggered conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular hydrogen bonds involving the cyclam N—H groups and water O—H groups as donor groups, and the O atoms of the Cr2O7 2− anion and water mol­ecules as acceptor groups, giving rise to a three-dimensional network. PMID:28083140

  13. ALCHEMI of niobium dichrome/vanadium C15 Laves phase

    SciTech Connect

    Kotula, P.G.; Chu, Fuming; Mitchell, T.E.; Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1996-05-01

    33Nb42Cr25V was prepared by arc melting and annealing at 1400 C for 120 hr. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectra were collected over a range of {l_brace}400{l_brace} excitations between symmetry and beyond {l_brace}12 0 0{l_brace}. Results show that at least qualitatively V substitutes for Cr. Therefore, electronic effects must be more important than size effects in this case.

  14. Dichromated-gelatin hologram process for improved optical quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Optical distortions are eliminated by use of wetting agency followed by sequential immersion in several alcohol-water baths of increasing alcohol concentration. Dehydration proceeds uniformly over surface of gelatin. Dried plate is free of optically-distorting thickness variations.

  15. Replacing dichromate with hydrogen peroxide in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Palacios, Patricia; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Ibanez, Jorge G; Roa-Morales, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The widely used standard method for chemical oxygen demand (COD) involves hazardous chromium species, and its two-hour heating protocol entails a substantial amount of energy expenditure. In the present work we report a proof of concept for a major modification of this method in the range 10-800 mgCOD/L, whereby H2O2 is proposed as a replacement oxidizer. This modification not only reduces the use of unsafe chromium species but also allows for the use of milder conditions that decrease the total energy outlay. The results are comparable with those obtained either with the standard method or with a commercial Hach® kit.

  16. Influence of sulfate, Ca, and Mg on the acute toxicity of potassium dichromate to Daphnia similis

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Mamoru; Kuroda, Koichi ); Endo, Ginji; Horiguchi, Shunichi )

    1991-03-01

    In the Daphnia test which is commonly employed for assessing effects of chemicals to aquatic environments, it is well known that the toxicity of chemicals is variable with test animals and also with the chemistry of test waters. However, it is not clear what constituents in water affect toxicity of chemicals. The authors report here experimental results which show that sulfate, calcium and magnesium, commonly contained in aquatic environments, decrease the toxicity of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is recommended as a reference toxicant in the acute toxicity test.

  17. Silver chromate and silver dichromate nanostructures: Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Soofivand, Faezeh; Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures have been sonochemically prepared using silver salicylate. The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of the products was investigated by SEM images. Highlights: ► Herein, Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures have been sonochemically prepared. ► The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of the products was investigated. ► The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} nanoparticles was tested. ► XPS spectra indicated the high purity of Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures obtained. - Abstract: In this work, Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures have been produced via a sonochemical method using silver salicylate as precursor. Besides silver salicylate, Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} as starting reagents were applied. To investigate the effect of preparation parameters on the morphology and particle size of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, sonication time, type of surfactant and its concentration were changed. The as-produced nanostructures were characterized by techniques like powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron micrographs showed that particle-like and rod-like nanostructures of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} were produced using different surfactants. To investigate the catalytic properties of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} nanoparticles, photooxidation of methyl orange (MO) was performed. According to the obtained results, it was found that the methyl orange degradation was about 87.3% after 280 min irradiation of visible light.

  18. Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol (DC-PVA) wet processed for high index modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallison, Richard D.

    1997-04-01

    PVA films have been used as mold releases, strippable coatings, binders for photopolymers and when sensitized with metals and/or dyes they have been used as photoresists, volume HOEs, multiplexed holographic optical memory and real time non destructive holographic testing. The list goes on and includes Slime and birth control. In holography, DC-PVA is a real time photoanisotropic recording material useful for phase conjugation experiments and also a stable long term storage medium needing no processing other than heat. Now we add the capability of greatly increasing the versatility of PVA by boosting the index modulation by almost two orders of magnitude. We can add broadband display and HOE applications that were not possible before. Simple two or three step liquid processing is all that is required to make the index modulation grow.

  19. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of nifedipine with 4-(methylamino)phenol and potassium dichromate.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nafisur; Hoda, Md Nasrul

    2002-06-01

    A new simple, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method for the determination of nifedipine in pure and dosage forms has been proposed. It is based on the reduction of nifedipine with Zn/NNH4Cl, followed by coupling with N-methyl-1,4-benzoquinoneimine--the oxidation product of 4-(methylamino)phenol, to give a chromophore which absorbed maximally at 525 nm. The experimental conditions were optimised and Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range of 5-175 microg ml(-1). The molar absorptivity, detection limit, recovery and RSD were found to be 1.9 x 10(3) l mol(-1) cm(-1), 1.1 microg ml(-1), 99.7-100.5% and 0.3-0.8%, respectively. The proposed method was compared favourably with the official B.P. method.

  20. 40 CFR 415.124 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.124 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES... following pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES): Subpart L—Potassium Dichromate Pollutant...

  1. 40 CFR 415.124 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.124 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES... following pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES): Subpart L—Potassium Dichromate Pollutant...

  2. 40 CFR 415.124 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.124 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES... following pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES): Subpart L—Potassium Dichromate Pollutant...

  3. 40 CFR 415.124 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.124 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES... following pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES): Subpart L—Potassium Dichromate Pollutant...

  4. 40 CFR 415.124 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Potassium Dichromate Production Subcategory § 415.124 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES... following pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES): Subpart L—Potassium Dichromate Pollutant...

  5. Exposure to Sodium Dichromate at Qarmat Ali Iraq in 2003: Part 2 -- Evaluation of Army and Contractor Actions Related to Hazardous Industrial Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-28

    the day. In early June 2003, KBR returned the plant to partial operating capacity, with subcontracted Halliburton employees operating pumps on...dated August 8, 2003, that stated, “ Halliburton hands will wear a paper mask and goggles…” However, we observed the material safety data sheet for

  6. Crystal structure of hexa­kis­(urea-κO)chromium(III) dichromate bromide monohydrate from synchrotron X-ray data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Tanaka, Shinnosuke; Akitsu, Takashiro; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The title bromide salt, [Cr{CO(NH2)2}6](Cr2O7)Br·H2O, is isotypic to the corresponding chloride salt. Within the complex cation, the CrIII atom is coordinated by six O atoms of six urea ligands, displaying a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The Cr—O bond lengths involving the urea ligands are in the range 1.9534 (13)–1.9776 (12) Å. The Cr2O7 2− anion has a nearly staggered conformation, with a bridging angle of 130.26 (10)°. The individual components are arranged in rows extending parallel to [100]. The Br− anion links the complex cation, as well as the solvent water mol­ecule, through N—H⋯Br and O—H⋯Br hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. The supra­molecular architecture also includes N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding between urea N—H and water O—H donor groups and the O atoms of the Cr2O7 2− anion as acceptor atoms, leading to a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:26594505

  7. Study of the behavior of the diffraction efficiency of a function of thickness using holographic gratings as material registration with gum Arabic ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Iguanero, B.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Toxqui-López, S.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2012-03-01

    This work presents a study of gum Arabic as holographic recording material, and to quantify the parameter of the diffraction efficiency through holographic diffraction gratings. This material exhibits excellent properties such as transparency, consistency, easy to handle, non toxic, non degradable. It also shows a low moisture absorption environment, hydro-phobic behavior. It is easy to produce a homogeneous thin film layer with a smooth texture on a glass substrate with gravity techniques. It also has adhesive properties. Also shown is a study of the pH behavior of this matrix, related to its viscosity.

  8. Synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity, DNA binding and computational studies of bis(2-methyl-1H-imidazole κN3)silver(I)dichromate(VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Azizolla; Hashemi, Faezeh; Monavvar, Mohamad Fattahi; Khorrmdin, Rahman; Abrahams, Carmel T.; Motamedi, Hossein; Shakerzadeh, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    A new silver complex [Ag(C4H6N2)2]2Cr2O7 (1) derived from Ag2[CrO4] and 2-methylimidazole has been synthesized and fully characterized by Single crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, FT-IR, elemental analysis, DFT and AIM calculations. The crystal structure of 1 shows that the discrete, ionic compound of [Ag(C4H6N2)2]2Cr2O7 consists of two [Ag(C4H6N2)2]+ cations bridged by a [Cr2O7]2- counter anion. In each of the [Ag(C4H6N2)2]+ complexes, the Ag center is coordinated by two N atoms from two distinct neutral monodentate 2-methylimidazole ligands in an almost linear geometry with Agsbnd N distances between 2.068(4) Å and 2.076(4) Å and Nsbnd Agsbnd N bond angles of 179.4(2)° and 173.8(2)°. The Nsbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H ⋯ O hydrogen bonds, π⋯π stacking, Csbnd H⋯π and Ag⋯O interactions play an important role in the structural stabilization of the complex to generate a three-dimensional framework. The antibacterial activity and molecular docking studies of the free 2-methylimidazole ligand and the title complex show that these compounds have ability to inhibit the growth of the tested bacteria. A scanning probe microscopy (SPM) study of the treated bacteria was carried out to investigate the structural changes caused by the interactions between the complex and target bacteria. The interaction of the complex 1 with the E.coli DNA (E-DNA) has been studied by UV-Vis absorption, competitive DNA-binding studies with ethidium bromide by fluorescence and gel electrophoresis techniques. These experiments indicate that the complex interacts with DNA by intercalative binding.

  9. Broadband Near IR Laser Hazard Filters. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-02

    material that is sensitive to the red part of the spectrum by choosing a methylene blue and ammonium dichromate as a dye and a sensitizer, respectively...Excellent Thermal Stability Gelatin Potassium Chromate Methylene TMG High Diffraction Efficiency Blue Moderate Stability GPG Ammonium Dichromate Methylene...TMG High Diffraction Efficiency Blue Moderate Stability Gelatin Ammonium Dichromate High Diffraction EfficiencyGelatin Ammonium__DichromateModerate

  10. A Volumetric Method for Titrimetric Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-06

    side it necessary and iden~tify by block nambet) *Hydrogen Peroxide Quantitative Analysis *Potassium Dichromate * Volumetrie Analysis,~ Ferrous Ammonium ...report describes a titrimetric method (using ferrous- dichromate oxidation reduction) of analysis for hydrogen peroxide. The concept is theoretically...2 COMPARISON OF FERROUS SOLUTION TO DICHROMATE SOLUTION . . . . . . . . .. 3 PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CALCULATIONS

  11. The Chemistry and Applications for the Solubilization of Chromate Salts in Nonpolar Organic Media. Part III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-23

    pound , an epoxy/ polyamide coating, MIL-E-5557 alkyd enamel, and MIL-C- 81309 ultra thin film corrosion preventive compound. 3. Because chromium VI...E S Figure No. 1. Soluble Dichromate Modified MIL-C-85054 . . . 11 2. Soluble Dichromate Modified Epoxy/ Polyamide Coating 12 3. Soluble Dichromate...improvement in their ability to protect aircraft metals in long term salt spray tests: epoxy/ polyamide V.oatings (Figure 2), MIL-E-5557 alkyd enamels

  12. Development of Corrosion Resistant Surface Treatments for Aluminum Alloys for Spot-Weld Bonding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    success- fully. Both surface treatments, ammonium tartrate anodize and FPL etch/ dichromate seal, were carried forward in the program until an...Phosphoric Acid Anodize 3. Sulfuric Acid Anodize 4. Chromic Acid Anodize 5. Ammonium Tartrate Anodize 6. FPL Etch plus Dichromate Seal 7. A.R. Aluminum...Etch Plus Dichromate Seal Low Voltage Ammonium Tartrate Anodize Low Voltage Sulfuric Acid Anodize Low Voltage Phos- phoric Acid Anodize 30-280

  13. Broadband Near IR Laser Hazard Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-10

    the first quarter of this program, we procured high quality gelatin and ammonium dichromate . It is well known that there are several kinds of...composition of gelatin, ammonium dichromate and water. We attempted to find the optimum coating thickness for 50 nm and 90 nm bandwidth range filters. Annual...fabrication is based on volume Bragg holography using photopolymers and dichromated gelatins. The successful performance of broad- band IR filters

  14. Space-Variant Processing Using Phase Codes and Fourier-Plane Sampling Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    also established. A technique for fabricating a two dimensional phase mask using Dichromated gelatin is described in Appendix G. In the following two...fabricating phase masks using dichromated gelatin is discussed in Appen- dix G. Additional work needs to be done in this area to perfect this fabrication...89-97. [22] L. H. Lin, "Hologram formation in hardened dichromated gelatin films," Applied Optics, 8, 963 (1969). (23] C. D. Leonard, and B. D

  15. Silver-Halide Gelatin Holograms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    PREPARATION OF R-10 TYPE BLEACHES Stock Solution A: Distilled water - 500 ml Ammonium dichromate - 20g Concentrated sulfuric acid - 14 ml Distilled water to...for the preparation of a bleach solution 5 Rinse in running water for 15 seconds Red Light 6 Soak in 0.5% ammonium dichromate for 5 minutes Red Light...those of con- ventional dichromated gelatin holograms, can be formed employing commercial silver-halide films. Major advantages of silver-halide

  16. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS CONTAINING INHIBITED LITHIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION FOR POLAR USE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Previous experiments under this task using small metal test panels resulted in the selection of a sodium dichromate- oxalic acid inhibitor for use in...of drawn brass or silicon bronze and lined with a lead alloys, were tested with the lithium chloride solution using either sodium dichromate- oxalic ... acid or sodium dichromate alone as an inhibitor. It was determined that 0.5 percent sodium dichromate satisfactorily inhibits corrosion by the water solution of lithium chloride when contained in an extinguisher of drawn brass.

  17. Exploratory Development of Corrosion Inhibiting Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    melamine , were selected for further evaluation in primer systems as examples of soluble and insoluble corrosion inhibitors. Other routes to potential...guanidine dichromate gave relatively poor performance. Melamine dich- romate pigment was more generally effective in preventing corrosion than the common...dihpneyl- guanidine ....... ..................... ... 66 9.2.1.3) Preparation Of Melamine Dichromate (Compound #25). 66 vii TABLE OF CONTENTS

  18. Study of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) as semiconductor/insulator for application in low voltage organic field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenho, Adriano R. V.; Machado, Wagner S.; Cruz-Cruz, Isidro; Hümmelgen, Ivo A.

    2013-06-01

    In this work we study the cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfacial properties of an organic field effect transistor. We use cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) prepared with different ammonium dichromate:poly(vinyl alcohol) proportions, ranging from 0% to 35%, as insulator. Using admittance spectroscopy, we show that the interfacial properties change when the ammonium dichromate concentration is altered. The interfacial properties and the better insulation are responsible for the improvement of the device performance in these organic field effect transistors, achieving best performance in the blend with ammonium dichromate:poly(vinyl alcohol) proportion of 0.25:1.

  19. Malachite green photosensitive plates.

    PubMed

    Solano, C

    1989-08-15

    An experimental study of the behavior of malachite green sensitized plates was carried out. The transmittance variation of the irradiated plates was taken as a parameter. It has been observed that photoreduction in the malachite green plates is present only when ammonium dichromate is added to the plates. The introduction of external electron donors does not improve the photochemical reaction. It has been determined that malachite green molecules form a weak complex with the dichromate molecules and this complex can only be destroyed photochemically. This effect can explain the limited response of the malachite green dichromated plates.

  20. AC Impedance Analysis of Corrosion Fatigue in Naval Aircraft Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    bridge. 2.3 Inhibitor Systems A saturated xylene solution of tri-alkyl (C8-CI0) ammonium complexes of the inhibiting anions borate, molybdate, dichromate ...dedThs the electrochemical rate of oxidation in hite crack tip by a factor of 100. The role of aqueous and organic phase dichrom &’e, nitrite, borate and...UNCLASSIFIED NADC 87183-60 SI 4NITY CLASSIFICATI ON 0 THIS PACE 𔃺.01 M borate reduces the cathodically aerated CF. The molybdate and dichromate inhibitors at

  1. Beware of the Permanganate Volcano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Ellie

    1980-01-01

    Discusses hazards associated with the permanganate demonstration of volcanic eruptions. Alternate demonstrations are described, including the ammonium dichromate reaction, lava flow demonstration with baking soda and vinegar, and punk to illustrate air pollution from volcanic ash and cinders. (CS)

  2. Color Perception and Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Hugh

    1986-01-01

    Provides background theory and an experiment relating to chemometrics. Describes the phenomenon where solutions are dichromatic or dichromic. Discusses the difficulty students have in describing such solutions that appear to be several different colors at the same time. (TW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  4. Insights: Tools of the Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a demonstration showing the chemical reversibility between the chromate and dichromate ions. Includes reaction equations and listing of equipment needed. Recommends a demonstration for illustrating Le Chatelier's principle and stoichiometric relationships. (ML)

  5. A color-reaction-based rapid screening for null activity of butyrylcholinesterase: a step toward point-of-care screening for succinylcholine apnea.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Nitish; Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Succinylcholine apnea happens in cases of null butyrylcholinesterase activity after administration of preintubation succinylcholine. So far, there is no such popular test that can rapidly screen null butyrylcholinesterase activity from plasma. Development of a novel method for rapid screening of null butyrylcholinesterase activity of plasma samples was the objective of the current work. Dichromate reagent was added to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, phenol, and para-nitrophenol in separate aliquots and watched for the color formation. Plasma samples preincubated with and without selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor were mixed with 1-naphthylacetate and watched for color development after addition of dichromate reagent. Fitting of 1-naphthylacetate at the active site of butyrylcholinesterase was analyzed by using tools of computational biology. It was seen that 1-naphthol formed color with dichromate reagent in a concentration-dependent manner. Other phenols did not form color with dichromate reagent even at 500-µm concentrations. Plasma sample with and without selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor (tetra isopropyl pyrophosphoramide) was distinguishable by color formation when incubated with 1-naphthylacetate, followed by the addition of dichromate reagent. In silico analysis also showed that 1-naphthylacetate fitted well at the active site of butyrylcholinesterase. The developed method may be used for rapid screening for null butyrylcholinesterase activity at point of care.

  6. Enhanced removal of soluble Cr(VI) by using zero-valent iron composite supported by surfactant-modified zeolites.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyu; Zhang, Yongxiang; Du, Peiwen

    2014-01-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was immobilized onto surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZ) using calcium alginate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that ZVI powder was uniformly immobilized on the surface of the SMZ. The added ZVI powder resulted in enhanced dichromate removal efficiency and the heterogeneous surface of the composite. The adsorption of dichromate onto the ZVI-SMZ composites fitted well to a pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum dichromate adsorption capacity of the composite was 2.49 mg/g at the temperature of 293 K. Higher removal efficiency was obtained at pH lower than 7. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry revealed that the composites combined the strong reductive quality of ZVI and superior adsorption of SMZ.

  7. A Novel Thermal Sensor for the Sensitive Measurement of Chemical Oxygen Demand.

    PubMed

    Yao, Na; Liu, Zhuan; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Yikai; Xie, Bin

    2015-08-19

    A novel rapid methodology for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD) based on a thermal sensor with a flow injection analysis system was proposed and experimentally validated. The ability of this sensor to detect and monitor COD was based on the degree of enthalpy increase when sodium hypochlorite reacted with the organic content in water samples. The measurement results were correlated with COD and were compared against the conventional method using potassium dichromate. The assay required only 5-7 min rather than the 2 h required for evaluation by potassium dichromate. The linear range was 5-1000 mg/L COD, and the limit of detection was very low, 0.74 mg/L COD. Moreover, this method exhibited high tolerance to chloride ions; 0.015 mol/L chloride ions had no influence on the response. Finally, the sensor was used to detect the COD of different water samples; the results were verified by the standard dichromate method.

  8. Electrodeposited Zinc-Nickel as an Alternative to Cadmium Plating for Aerospace Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion evaluation studies were conducted on 4130 alloy steel samples coated with electrodeposited zinc-nickel and samples coated with electrodeposited cadmium. The zinc nickel was deposited by the selection electrochemical metallizing process. These coated samples were exposed to a 5-percent salt fog environment at 35 plus or minus 2 C for a period ranging from 96 to 240 hours. An evaluation of the effect of dichromate coatings on the performance of each plating was conducted. The protection afforded by platings with a dichromate seal was compared to platings without the seal. During the later stages of testing, deposit adhesion and the potential for hydrogen entrapment were also evaluated.

  9. Exterior Weathering Durability of Some Leach-Resistant Fire-Retardant Treatments for Wood Shingles: A Five-Year Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    sulfate 1.92%., boric acid 5.66%, sodium dichromate 1.13%, water 77.36%i. Pyreaote-2 Pressure Treating solution: Zinc chlorids 5.05%. ammonrum Code...24 impregnation sulfate 5.95%. boric acid 4.25%. sodium dichromate 0.06%, water 63.0%. Pyresote-3 Pressure Treating solution: Same as pyresotel Code 24...Monoammonium phosphate 15%, water 8 5%. 4 Brush coating Four undercoats: (AWPA Type 0) Zinc chlor- ide 5.25%. ammonium sulfate 5.25 %, boric acid

  10. Preparation and characterization hexoses for holographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.

    2016-03-01

    Experimental technique is described for holographic record in two different hexoses, with a new photosensitizer, the ferric ammonium citrate, and compared to the hexoses-dichromated films. The ferric ammonium citrate is an optimal salt for photosensitization of hexoses because we obtained a diffraction efficiency to first order acceptable for saccharides materials (two and three percent), has ability for to storage information, holographic images are quite stable over time, it is hydrophobic and is cheap. The experiments showed that the films called hexose 1-citrate and hexose 1-dichromate, present the maximum diffraction efficiency at first diffraction order.

  11. Environmental Crack Arrestment Composition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-04

    but not limit it in any way. EXAMPLE I To a 20 ml 0.1M solution of methyl trialkyl ammonium chloride in xylene, 0.5 gram each of sodium dichromate ...trialkyl ammonium chloride in mineral spirits, and the formulation vigorously agitated for 10 minutes. Thereafter, 0.5 gram of sodium dichromate was added...solution of an alkyl or alkyl-aryl group, organo-substituted 25 quaternary ammonium salt and an organic solvent, the approximate 4m ratio of the

  12. Photosensitive holographic material with a medium of fluorescent ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, A.; Toxqui-López, S.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Mellado-Villaseñor, G.

    2012-03-01

    Recent researches have been reported that is possible increase the diffraction efficiency parameter from holographic gratings when photosensitive material (PVA with ammonium dichromate) it is painted after register the hologram with commercial fluorescent ink. In this research we shown that PVA as a binder, with the fluorescent ink and ammonium dichromate, this mixed can be used as recording medium. We characterize this material by implementing holographic films in which holographic gratings are recorded with a He- Cd laser at 442nm, and measuring holographic parameters such as diffraction efficiency. We get increased the diffraction efficiency and also the lifetime of the film.

  13. Holographic Twyman-Green interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, C W; Breckinridge, J B

    1982-07-15

    A dichromated gelatin off-axis Fresnel zone plate (OFZP) was designed, fabricated, and used in a new type of interferometer for optical metrology. This single hologram optical element combines the functions of a beam splitter, beam diverger, and aberrated null lens. Data presented show the successful application for an interferometric test of an f/6, 200-mm diam parabolic mirror.

  14. Treatment of AM 355 Steel for Adhesive Bonding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Surface treatments for AM355 prior to adhesive bonding have been developed. A sulfuric acid-dichromate immersion treatment and nitric acid...chromium content of the surface oxide layer produced using these and other treatments. Experiments indicate that AM355 is essentially impermeable to

  15. A Practical and Convenient Diffusion Apparatus: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Ben; Ochiai, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a diffusion apparatus to be used in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment to determine the diffusion coefficients of aqueous solutions of sucrose and potassium dichromate. Included is the principle of the method, apparatus design and description, and experimental procedure. (Author/DS)

  16. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE STABILITY OF FLUOROCARBON IOLS

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Z.D.; Haendler, H.M.

    1959-07-21

    A method of determining the stability of a fluorocarbon oil to uranium hexafluoride is presented. The method comprises reacting a weighed sample of the oil with condensed uranium hexafluoride in a reaction zone and titrating the amount of uranium tetrafluoride produced with potassium dichromate.

  17. 40 CFR 415.121 - Specialized definitions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 415.121 Section 415.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate...

  18. 40 CFR 415.121 - Specialized definitions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 415.121 Section 415.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate...

  19. 40 CFR 415.121 - Specialized definitions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 415.121 Section 415.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate...

  20. 40 CFR 415.121 - Specialized definitions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 415.121 Section 415.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate...

  1. 40 CFR 415.121 - Specialized definitions. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 415.121 Section 415.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Dichromate...

  2. Proceedings of the Tri-Service Conference on Corrosion (1987)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    TOPICS - NAVY ....................... 109 -..,Development of Microencapsulated DNBM Quaternary Ammonium Inhibitors for Paints ............... 111...Chairman Vinod Agarwala Naval Air Development Center 109 DEVELOPMENT OF MICROENCAPSULATED DNBM QUATERNARY AMMONIUM INHIBITORS FOR PAINTS L.J. Bailin(l...and V.S. Agarwala( 2 ) Abstract The microencapsulation of DNBM quaternary ammonium corrosion inhibitors (dichromate, nitrite, borate, and molybdate

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  4. Unnecessary Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sievers, Dennis

    1984-01-01

    Provides safety considerations related to chemistry experiments and demonstrations. Includes procedures for a volcano demonstration (which does not use ammonium dichromate) and three clock reactions, a list of hazardous chemicals, and a list of questions to help decide whether the risk of an experiment is acceptable for a class. (JN)

  5. 40 CFR 63.11412 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Chromium Compounds Other Requirements and Information § 63.11412 What definitions apply to this subpart... matter loadings. Chromic acid means chromium trioxide (CrO3). It is produced by the electrolytic reaction or acidification of sodium dichromate. Chromium compounds manufacturing means any process that...

  6. A Commercial Device Involving the Breathalyzer Test Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrink, Kathleen J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the working of Final Call, a commercially available breath analyzing device, which uses the chemical reaction involving the reduction of chromium (VI) in the orange dichromate ion to the green chromium (III) ion to detect ethyl alcohol. Presents a demonstration that simulates the use of a Final Call device. (JRH)

  7. 40 CFR 63.11412 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Chromium Compounds Other Requirements and Information § 63.11412 What definitions apply to this subpart... matter loadings. Chromic acid means chromium trioxide (CrO3). It is produced by the electrolytic reaction or acidification of sodium dichromate. Chromium compounds manufacturing means any process that...

  8. 40 CFR 63.11412 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Chromium Compounds Other Requirements and Information § 63.11412 What definitions apply to this subpart... matter loadings. Chromic acid means chromium trioxide (CrO3). It is produced by the electrolytic reaction or acidification of sodium dichromate. Chromium compounds manufacturing means any process that...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11412 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Chromium Compounds Other Requirements and Information § 63.11412 What definitions apply to this subpart... matter loadings. Chromic acid means chromium trioxide (CrO3). It is produced by the electrolytic reaction or acidification of sodium dichromate. Chromium compounds manufacturing means any process that...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11412 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Chromium Compounds Other Requirements and Information § 63.11412 What definitions apply to this subpart... matter loadings. Chromic acid means chromium trioxide (CrO3). It is produced by the electrolytic reaction or acidification of sodium dichromate. Chromium compounds manufacturing means any process that...

  11. Spectroscopy on the Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Any overhead projector easily can be converted into a simple spectrometer by placing a piece of diffraction grating over the projecting lens. A detailed description of the apparatus and suggested spectroscopy experiments are included. Demonstrations can utilize solutions of cobalt chloride, potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, or…

  12. Studies in the carbothermic reduction of phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Bharat B.; Pande, Anita R.; Gokarn, Ashok N.

    1992-10-01

    Phosphogypsum has been reduced in the solid state by active charcoal both in the presence and absence of catalysts. Kinetic data could be fitted to the modified volume reaction model. Mixed catalysts like potassium dichromate were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily. This result could be fruitfully employed during reduction with industrial coke also.

  13. Computerized design and generation of space-variant holographic filters. II - Applications of space-variant filters to optical computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambs, P.; Fainman, Y.; Esener, S.; Lee, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) of space-variant impulse response have been designed and generated using a computerized optical system. HOEs made of dichromated gelatin have been produced and used for spatial light modulator defect removal and optical interconnects. Experimental performance and characteristics are presented.

  14. Holographic Twyman-Green interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. W.; Breckinridge, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A dichromated gelatin off-axis Fresnel zone plate was designed, fabricated, and used in a new type of interferometer for optical metrology. This single hologram optical element combines the functions of a beam splitter, beam diverger, and aberrated null lens. Data presented show the successful application for an interferometric test of an f/6, 200-mm diam parabolic mirror.

  15. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating; electroforming; electropolishing; electroless plating or other non-electrolytic metal coating operations, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and..., lead, or nickel in amounts of 0.1 percent or more by weight, or that contains manganese in amounts of...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; electropolishing; electroless plating or other non-electrolytic metal coating operations, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating. (2... any material that contains cadmium, chromium, lead, or nickel in amounts of 0.1 percent or more...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11504 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... electroplating). (ii) Electroless or non-eletrolytic plating. (iii) Other non-electrolytic metal coating processes, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and..., lead, manganese, and nickel, as defined in § 63.11511, “What definitions apply to this subpart?”...

  18. Troubleshooting 101: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitt, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment is described where students troubleshoot a published procedure for the analysis of ethanol. UV-vis spectroscopy is used to measure the change in absorbance upon reaction of dichromate with ethanol. The experiment requires the students to critically evaluate their experimental results to correct a fundamental flaw in the original…

  19. TOWARDS A STANDARD METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF ORGANIC CARBON IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The precisions achieved by two different methods for analysis of organic carbon in soils and sediments were determined and compared. The first method is a rapid dichromate oxidation technique (Walkley-Black) that has long been a standard in soil chemistry. The second is an automa...

  20. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  1. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  2. Occupational dermatitis in the manufacture of color television tubes.

    PubMed

    Ali, S A

    1997-12-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis occurred in the Flow Coat sector of a large and modern color television factory. After investigating the working procedures in this area, a risk of contamination of the skin and clothing with ammonium dichromate was found when ammonium dichromate was weighed and mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). All of the workers involved in this process were clinically examined; 9 of 18 showed dermatitis to the back of the hands and forearms. Three of these workers were transferred from the sector and were cured of their dermatitis. Patch tests were carried out using 40 allergens, including those used in the Flow Coat process. The tests for PVA and for the phosphorescent blue, green, and red pigments gave negative results at the three concentrations tested. A high incidence of sensitization was found; 9 of 18 (50%) of the workers were found to be sensitized to ammonium dichromate, which is used as a fixer. The preventive measures adopted consisted of improving the quality of the personal protective equipment (PPE) and transferring the weighing and mixing of dichromate to the company laboratory. During the next 18 months, there were no new cases of dermatitis in the Flow Coat sector.

  3. Determination of metallic iron in a mixture of lime, calcium sulphide and pyrrhotite.

    PubMed

    Sastri, V S

    A method is described for the determination of metallic iron in a complex matrix consisting of calcium oxide, calcium sulphide, carbon and pyrrhotite. The procedure consists of leaching the sample with 5% ammonium chloride solution (10% sucrose solution in some cases) followed by treatment with mercury(II) chloride solution and titration with dichromate solution.

  4. Direct Manufacture of Components with Local Control of Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    sources onto photosensitive materials such as dichromated gelatin and iron-doped lithium niobate. The size and depth of the grating are generally limited...with silica and the availability of the aqueous salt solution of the dopant. Titania and alumina with their salt solutions of titanium(IV) bis( ammonium

  5. Aqueous-electrolyte resistors for pulsed power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverly, R. E., III; Campbell, R. N.

    1995-12-01

    Aqueous-electrolyte resistors were developed for use as dummy loads in pulsed power systems. These resistors are simple, robust, low-inductance devices capable of operation at high voltage and high current, and may be used to dissipate large pulse energies without catastrophic failure. The resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistivity were measured for several candidate electrolytes, including aqueous solutions of copper sulfate, potassium and aluminum sulfate, potassium dichromate, silver nitrate, sodium dichromate, and sodium thiosulfate. The resistivity of potassium dichromate solution is expressed by the power law ρ(Ω cm)=1640 C-1.0942 for electrolyte concentrations in the range C=0.025-25 g/l. The temperature coefficient of resistivity is in the range (1/ρ)(∂ρ/∂Ts)=-(0.01-0.03)/°C for typical aqueous metal-salt electrolytes and is dependent on the solution temperature Ts and, to a lesser extent, on the electrolyte concentration. Aqueous solutions of potassium dichromate are compatible with brass, copper, and stainless-steel electrodes and polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate insulators, even at high concentration and elevated temperature. Such resistors give long shelf and operational lifetimes. If the maximum allowable resistance change (decrease) during the pulse is 10%, then the energy deposition per unit volume of electrolyte solution is limited to approximately 20 J/cm3 for resistors initially at room temperature.

  6. Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

  7. 40 CFR 63.11504 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than chromium electroplating (i.e., non-chromium electroplating). (ii) Electroless or non-eletrolytic plating. (iii) Other non-electrolytic metal coating processes, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating; and thermal spraying....

  8. 40 CFR 63.11504 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than chromium electroplating (i.e., non-chromium electroplating). (ii) Electroless or non-eletrolytic plating. (iii) Other non-electrolytic metal coating processes, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating; and thermal spraying....

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  10. Interactivity holography/photochemistry: how the combined approach helps understand and optimise the holographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolte, Michèle; Lessard, Roger A.; Israeli, Yaël; Rivaton, Agnès

    2006-05-01

    A comparative investigation of the photochemical behavior of dichromated gelatin (DCG), dichromated polyacrylic acid (DCPAA) and dichromated polyvinylalcohol (DCPVA) gave evidence for the similarity of the photochemical behaviour involved when recording holograms in DCG and DCPVA. Chromium (V), the chromium species resulting from the photoredox process between the starting chromium (VI) (dichromate) and the polymeric chain, was stable likely strongly complexed in gelatine and polyvinylalcohol. The quantum yields of the reaction are high and similar for both reactions. On the contrary, even though chromium (V) was also formed during the primary process in DCPAA, this species was quite unstable and disappeared as soon as the irradiation was stopped. The behavior observed in DCG can be assigned to the presence of OH groups on the polymeric chain, these groups being the only groups present in polyvinylalcohol. Actually, the stability and the state of complexation of the different chromium species was completely opposite in the two matrices: the stabilization of chromium (V) resulting from the photochemical charge transfer in DCPVA, by complexation with PVA is in contrast to what was observed in DCPAA where chromium (V) was highly instable. Regarding chromium (III), the final reduction chromium species, it was complexed in PAA and not in PVA. The experiments performed on films of DC (PVA+PAA) with only a few percents of PAA gave evidence for the strong influence of the presence of the carboxylic groups on the photochemical behavior: the rate of the formation and the stability of chromium species that reflects the chelating properties of the polymeric matrix. The photochemical results were correlated to the results obtained when recording holograms in the corresponding material: a very nice agreement appeared between the two sets of results. An innovative approach combining the monitoring of the structural modification of the polymeric matrix and the fate of the various

  11. Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: Inorganic chromium compounds. Draft report (Second)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Information profiles are presented for the following inorganic chromium compounds: chromic(VI) acid, chromic(III) hydroxide, chromic(III) oxide, chromic(III) sulfate, chromic(III) sulfate (basic), chromium dioxide, potassium dichromate(VI), lead chromate, sodium-chromate(VI), sodium-dichromate(VI), and zinc-yellow-chromate(VI). Biological effects of hexavalent chromium in humans included skin ulceration, dermatitis, nasal membrane irritation and ulceration, nasal septal perforation, rhinitis, nosebleed, nephritis, liver damage, epigastric pain, pulmonary congestion and edema, and erosion and discoloration of teeth. Chromium(VI) compounds caused mutations in a variety of systems. Exposure to trivalent chromium in the work place has caused contact dermatitis and chrome ulcers. Epidemiological studies indicated respiratory carcinogenicity among workers occupationally exposed during chromate production.

  12. Chemical oxygen demand analysis of wastewater using trivalent manganese oxidant with chloride removal by sodium bismuthate pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, D G; Brayton, S V; Boyles, W T

    2001-01-01

    Current chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses generate wastes containing hexavalent and trivalent chromium, mercury, and silver. Waste disposal is difficult, expensive, and poses environmental hazards. A new COD test is proposed that eliminates these metals and shortens analysis time, where trivalent manganese oxidant replaces hexavalent chromium (dichromate). A silver catalyst is not required. Optional pretreatment removes chloride via oxidation to chlorine using sodium bismuthate, eliminating the need for mercury. Sample aqueous and solid components are separated for chloride removal, then recombined for total COD measurement. Soluble and nonsoluble COD can be determined separately. Digestion at 150 degrees C is complete in 1 hour. Results are determined by titration or by spectrophotometric reading. Test wastes contain none of the metals regulated for disposal under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Results are shown for selected organic compounds and various wastewaters. Statistical comparisons are made with dichromate COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) test values.

  13. Gas Phase Spectroscopic Investigation of Chromate-Esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Sydney H.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2012-06-01

    Chromate and dichromate ions are frequently used in the oxidation of alcohols. Chromate esters containing a Cr--O--C bridge are thought to be important intermediates in such reactions. We report the photofragment action spectra of two chromate ester complexes in the UV and visible regions, both of which primarily undergo cleavage of the chromate ester bond resulting in reduction of the chromate from Cr(VI) to Cr(V). Comparison to the UV/Vis absorption spectrum of a methanolic dichromate solution suggests the electronic transitions are the same ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions in both environments. Comparing the spectral features for different fragment channels leads to insight into the energetics and fragmentation mechanism of these species.

  14. Effect of a catalyst on the kinetics of reduction of celestite (SrSO{sub 4}) by active charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Sonawane, R.S.; Kale, B.B.; Apte, S.K.; Dongare, M.K.

    2000-02-01

    Reduction of celestite (SrSO{sub 4}) powder with particles of active charcoal has been studied extensively in the absence and presence of catalysts. The optimum temperature at the charging zone has been optimized to get a maximum water-soluble strontium sulfide value. The strontium value has been analyzed using a chemical method, which was verified by the instrumental method using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The conversion-time data have been analyzed by using a modified volume-reaction (MVR) model, and the effect of the catalyst on kinetic parameters has been elucidated. It was found that potassium carbonate, potassium dichromate, sodium carbonate, and sodium dichromate catalysts were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily in the reduction of the celestite (SrSO{sub 4}).

  15. [Determination of Total Iron and Fe2+ in Basalt].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-xun; Chen, Mei-rong; Jian, Zheng-guo; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhi-shen

    2015-08-01

    Basalt is the raw material of basalt fiber. The content of FeO and Fe2O3 has a great impact on the properties of basalt fibers. ICP-OES and dichromate method were used to test total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. Suitable instrument parameters and analysis lines of Fe were chosen for ICP-OES. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ICP-OES is 2.2%, and the recovery is in the range of 98%~101%. The method shows simple, rapid and highly accurate for determination of total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. The RSD of ICP-OES and dichromate method is 0.42% and 1.4%, respectively.

  16. The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 aluminum by a polyurethane-sealed anodized coat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 anodized aluminum afforded by a newly patented polyurethane seal was studied using the ac impedance technique. Values of the average corrosion rates over a 27-day exposure period in 3.5 percent NaCl solutions at pH 5.2 and pH 9.5 compared very favorably for Lockheed-prepared polyurethane-sealed and dichromate-sealed coats of the same thickness. Average corrosion rates for both specimens over the first 7 days of exposure compared well with those for a hard anodized, dichromate-sealed coat, but rose well above those for the hard anodized coat over the entire 27-day period. This is attributed both to the greater thickness of the hard anodized coat, and possibly to its inherently better corrosion protective capability.

  17. Acute toxicity by water containing hexavalent or trivalent chromium in native Brazilian fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus: anatomopathological alterations and mortality.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcello Pardi; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; da Cruz, Claudinei; Belo, Marco Antonio de Andrade; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engrácia

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of hexavalent and trivalent compounds of chromium to the pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, in acute exposures of 96 h through mortality and histopathological responses. Hexavalent potassium dichromate was more toxic than trivalent compounds of chromium chloride, chromium oxide and chromium carbochelate. Sufficient mortalities occurred only with potassium dichromate to yield an LC50 value at 124.2 mg L(-1). Hexavalent chromium caused reversible and irreversible lesions, which may affect organ functionality. Histopathological evaluation showed that trivalent chromium caused lesions of lower severity. Pacu subjected to different concentrations of chromium carbochelate showed no histopathological changes in the kidneys, liver, skin and gills, being similar to those of the control fish. Among the three sources of Cr(3+), only chromium chloride at 200 mg L(-1) resulted in mortality, which reached 100 % within the first 18 h. These findings confirm that trivalent chromium, when administered within recommended levels, may be used safely in aquaculture.

  18. [Occupational asthma caused by chromium and nickel].

    PubMed

    Cruz, María Jesus; Costa, Roser; Marquilles, Eduard; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2006-06-01

    We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed occupational asthma following exposure to chromium and nickel in the nickel-plating section of a metalworks company. Skin prick tests for specific antibodies proved positive for nickel chloride at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and negative for potassium dichromate. The specific bronchial provocation test confirmed the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to exposure to chromium and nickel. The patient presented a late positive reaction to nickel chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and an immediate positive reaction to a 10 mg/mL solution of potassium dichromate. These results indicate a dual response to nickel and chromium in this patient.

  19. Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: II. Complete drilling fluid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.; Pesaran, P.

    1980-01-01

    Six typical drilling fluids (muds) and a drilling fluid base were mixed with six soils at ratios of 1:1 and 1:4 volumes of liquid mud/soil; these mixtures were tested for their effects on plant growth. Green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and sweet corn (Zea mays var. succharata (Sturtev.) Bailey) in pots in the greenhouse grew normally in a few mixtures, but in most instances plants had reduced growth when compared to those growing in soil alone (controls). It was concluded that high levels of soluble salts or the high exchangeable sodium percentages were the primary causes of reduced plant growth. The high salt content in some fluids was mostly from added potassium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and sodium dichromate. Dispersion of mud-treated soils caused by high exchangeable sodium percentages occurred in these samples because of the sodium hydroxide and sodium dichromate added to typical muds.

  20. PVA glue as a recording holographic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Pinto-Iguanero, B.; Aguilar-Mora, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2012-03-01

    PVA (Polyvinyl acetate ) glue is one of the most common forms of adhesive on the market, which is popular because it has an ability to adhere to many different surface, but besides in this research we shown that can be employed as polymeric matrix and is employed for holographic recording when this is doped with ammonium dichromate. Thin, uniform coating of this photopolymer is generated by gravity settling method. The drying time for the photosensitive layers is approximately 24 h. Therefore, we present the experimental results obtained through diffraction gratings were recorded using a laser of He-Cd (442 nm).Furthermore the average results of the diffraction efficiency parameter which is quantified by their two first orders of diffraction. The PVA glue with ammonium dichromate can be considered as versatile holographic recording media due to their good sensitivity low cost and self -developing.

  1. Holograms preparation using commercial fluorescent benzyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorantes-García, V.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ordoñez-Padilla, M. J.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have been able to make holograms with substances such as fluorescence thought of light blue laser to make transmissions holograms, using ammonium dichromate as photo-sensitizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix. Ammonium dichromate inhibit the fluorescence properties of inks, both mixed in a (PVA) matrix, but we avoid this chemical reaction and we show the results to use the method of painting hologram with fluorescents ink and we describe how the diffraction efficiency parameter changes as a function of the ink absorbed by the emulsion recorded with the gratings, we got good results, making holographic gratings with a blue light from laser diode 470 nm. And we later were painting with fluorescent ink, integrating fluorescence characteristics to the hologram.

  2. Holograms with fluorescent benzyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, A.; Toxqui-López, S.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Dorantes-Garcia, V.

    2011-02-01

    Behavior study of the diffraction efficiency parameter from holographic gratings, with fluorescents inks such as benzyls. We have been able to make holograms with substances such as fluorescence to blue laser to make transmissions holograms using ammonium dichromate as photo-sensibilizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix. Ammonium dichromate inhibit the fluorescence propertied of inks, mixed in a (PVA) matrix, but we show the results of painting hologram method with fluorescents inks and describe how the diffraction efficiency parameter changes as a function of ink absorbed by the emulsion recorded with gratings with a He-Cd laser at 442nm and we later were painting with fluorescent ink, interesting fluorescence characteristic to the hologram.

  3. Spatial frequency behavior of holograms made with pectin and oxidizing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Grijalva-Ortiz, N.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2013-03-01

    Preparation of holographic gratings using photosensitive films pectin-H2O-oxidizing agent exposed to a He-Cd laser, wavelength of 442nm. For the photo-oxidation, we used two agents: ammonium dichromate and iron ammonium citrate. Parallel studies performed experimental variation of angles between overlapping beams that generate the interference pattern, generating different spatial frequencies in the holographic gratings. Were prepared from pectin-water-ammonium dichromate and pectin-water-ammoniacal iron citrate. Results module of the transfer function (MTF) of the materials used, to determine the diffraction efficiencies as a function of the spatial frequency (line/mm) of each holographic gratings, which were prepared with different pectin and oxidizing agents. We made an experimental analysis of the MTF, comparing each of the films with different photosensitizers applied.

  4. Two novel calixarene functionalized iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles as a platform for magnetic separation in the liquid-liquid/solid-liquid extraction of oxyanions.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Serkan; Ozcan, Fatih; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2013-05-01

    This article focuses on the syntheses of 25,27-bis[3-(N-ethylsulfonic acid)aminopropxy]-26,28-dihydroxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene (3) and 25,27-bis[3-(N-ethyl-dihydrogen phosphate)aminopropxy]-26,28-dihydroxy-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene (4) as well as their immobilization onto [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-propyl]-trimethoxysilane-modified Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles, and the extraction abilities of four new extractants which were characterized by a combination of FTIR, (1)H NMR, elemental analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) involving electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions between the calixarene and oxide anions such as arsenate and dichromate anions. The extraction results indicate that these new calixarene derivatives having high extraction capabilities would be used as effective extractants for the removal of the dichromate/arsenate ions from water.

  5. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  6. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The…

  7. The role of preparation technique, culture media and incubation time for embryonation of Heterakis gallinarum eggs.

    PubMed

    Püllen, U; Cheat, Sophal; Moors, E; Gauly, M

    2008-01-01

    The importance of preparation technique, culture media and incubation time in the embryonation of the infective egg stages of the intestinal nematode parasite Heterakis gallinarum was studied. Mature H. gallinarum worms were isolated from the caeca of infected chickens and separated by sex. In a first experiment intact female worms were kept for the development of their eggs in four different media (0.5% formalin, 2% formalin, 0.1 N sulphuric acid, 0.1% potassium dichromate) and incubated under constant temperature (20-22 degrees C) for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks. Afterwards the body of the worms were ruptured and the numbers of unembryonated and embryonated eggs were determined using a McMaster egg counting chamber, and the percentage of embryonated eggs was calculated. After 8 weeks of incubation in 0.5% formalin, 0.1 N sulphuric acid or 0.1% potassium dichromate 27.6%, 26.7% and 29.4% of the eggs, respectively, embryonated into third stage larvae (p > 0.05). In contrast, incubation in 2% formalin resulted in an embryonation of 18.6% only (p < 0.05). In a second experiment H. gallinarum eggs were directly harvested from worm uteri and cultivated afterwards in different media (2% formalin, 0.1 N sulphuric acid, 0.1% potassium dichromate) at 20 to 22 degrees C for 6 weeks. An incubation of isolated eggs in 2.0% formalin or 0.1% potassium dichromate during 6 weeks resulted in a significantly higher percentage of embryonation in comparison to the incubation of intact worms (first experiment). The results suggest that preparation technique, media and time of incubation has an essential influence on the development rate of H. gallinarum eggs.

  8. Investigation of Super Tube Structure and Performance (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    spectra analysis showed the dried liquid residue was composed primarily of potassium , chromium, and oxygen with smaller amounts of calcium, sodium...and chlorine. Flame photometry analysis found a concentration of potassium and FIA found a concentration of hexavalent chromium. Ratio of... potassium to chromium is close to that given by the formula weight of potassium dichromate. Desiccant test showed presence of water and DSC test showed a

  9. Cr(VI) and Fe(III) doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, Gurusamy; Changkakoti, Rupak; Lessard, Roger A.

    1992-12-01

    IL EXPERIMENTAL Cr(VI) [as (4)2271 and Fe(ffl) [as FeC1] doped Polyvinyl alcohol and Polyacrylic acid systems have been employed'' as real-time holographic recording materials. Holograms have been recorded in Dicbmmated Polyvinyl alcohol (DCPVA) Dichromated Polyacrylic acid (DCPAA) and Ferric chloride Polyvinyl alcohol (FePVA) films. Various chemical and physical parameters influencing the holographic performance have been optimized. L

  10. Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y Z; Liu, H K

    1984-08-01

    A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4%, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy.

  11. Holographic recording materials - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.; Owen, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic recording materials in current use are examined along with a few of their applications. Some experimental media are also studied. No effort is made to rank the commercial materials, since satisfactory results can be obtained with any of them. The discussion covers silver halide plates and films, photoresists, thermoplastics, photopolymers, dichromated gelatin, photochromic materials, electrooptical crystals, styryl free radical film, and TEP film. A convenient summation of some material properties is presented in tabular form.

  12. Optical matrix-matrix multiplication method demonstrated by the use of a multifocus hololens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.; Liang, Y.-Z.

    1984-01-01

    A method of optical matrix-matrix multiplication is presented. The feasibility of the method is also experimentally demonstrated by the use of a dichromated-gelatin multifocus holographic lens (hololens). With the specific values of matrices chosen, the average percentage error between the theoretical and experimental data of the elements of the output matrix of the multiplication of some specific pairs of 3 x 3 matrices is 0.4 percent, which corresponds to an 8-bit accuracy.

  13. Multipurpose Corrosion Inhibitors for Aerospace Materials in Naval Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-04

    environment becomes acidic, as is the case at the crack-tip. Molybdates. tungstates , vanadates, bismuthates, antimonates, peroxycarbonates are the compounds...inhibitors, the results of Parrish et al (17) have been used. A one percent solution of sodium chloride at pH 2, suggested as an extreme possible condition...used to study the effect of inhibitors. Among the inhibitors investigated, sodium dichromate and sodium molybdate were found to significantly inhibit

  14. METHOD OF MAINTAINING PLUTONIUM IN A HIGHER STATE OF OXIDATION DURING PROCESSING

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.; Miller, D.R.

    1959-06-30

    This patent deals with the oxidation of tetravalent plutonium contained in an aqueous acid solution together with fission products to the hexavalent state, prior to selective fission product precipitation, by adding to the solution bismuthate or ceric ions as the oxidant and a water-soluble dichromate as a holding oxidant. Both oxidant and holding oxidant are preferably added in greater than stoichiometric quantities with regard to the plutonium present.

  15. Metal Residue Deposition from Military Pyrotechnic Devices and Field Sampling Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    include boron, carbon, silicon, sulfur, or phosphorous. The oxidizers are salts of chlorates , chromates, dichromates, halocarbons, iodates, nitrates...potassium chlorate , zirconium, carbon black, sodium nitrate, and magnesium carbonate in addition to the dyes and Hexachloroethane (HC). Kitchens...sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) (Hardt 2001). Strontium nitrate (Sr(NO3)2), potassium nitrate, and potassium chlorate were also sometimes used with these

  16. Metal Residue Deposition from Military Pyrotechnic Devices and Field Sampling Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    sulfur, or phosphorous. The oxidizers are salts of chlorates , chromates, dichromates, halocarbons, iodates, nitrates, oxides, and perchlorates...Colored smoke munitions from the Vietnam War era, however, contained barium ni- trate(Ba(NO3)2), antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3), potassium chlorate , zirconium...2001). Strontium nitrate (Sr(NO3)2), potassium nitrate, and potassium chlorate were also sometimes used with these older mixtures (US Army 1974

  17. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Presidio of San Francisco Military Reservation, San Francisco, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    HAZARD --------------------- ----------- -------- ------ -X-RAY (217) RD XRY ACETIC ACID VET LAB RV BID BORIC ACID VET LAB RV BID SODIUM DICHROMATE...GHC HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (90%) 202 HL PAT NITROGEN OXIDES 212 HL PAT BORIC ACID 202 HL PAT ETHYLENE GLYCOL, VAPOR 202 HL PAT XYLENE(O-,M-,P-ISOMERS) 202...10. Ammonium Oxalate 11. Ammonium Sulfate 12. Alphanaphthol 13. L-Ascorbic Acid 14. Barbital - toxic 15. Barium Chloride - flammable 16. Boric Acid 17

  18. Low temperature synthesis of transition metal oxides containing surfactant ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janauer, Gerald Gilbert

    1998-11-01

    Recently there has been much interest in reacting vanadium oxides hydrothermally with cationic surfactants to form novel layered compounds. A series of new transition metal oxides, however, has also been formed at or near room temperature in open containers. Synthesis, characterization, and proposed mechanisms of formation are the focus of this work. Low temperature reactions of vanadium pentoxide and ammonium transition metallates with long chain amine surfactants, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide yielded interesting new products many of which are layered phases. DTAsb4\\ Hsb2Vsb{10}Osb{28}. 8Hsb2O, a layered highly crystalline phase, is the first such phase for which a single crystal X-ray structure has been determined. The unit cell for this material was found to be triclinic with space group P1-, cell parameters a=9.8945(3)A, b=11.5962(1)A, c=21.9238(2)A, alpha=95.153(2)sp°,\\ beta=93.778(1)sp°, and gamma=101.360(1)sp°. Additionally, a novel tungsten, a molybdenum and a dichromate phase will be discussed. Both the tungsten and the dichromate materials were indexed from their powder diffraction patterns yielding monoclinic unit cells. The tungsten material was found to have a=50.56(4)A, b=54.41(4)A, c=13.12(1)A, and beta=99.21sp°. The dichromate compound was determined to have a=26.757(5)A, b=10.458(2)A, c=14.829(3)A and beta=98.01(1)sp°. Interlayer spacings for the lamellar dichromate and molybdenum phases were d001 = 28.7 A, and d001 = 22.9 A. The synthesis, characterization, composition, and structure of these transition metal oxide-surfactant materials will be discussed.

  19. Relief hologram replication using a dental composite as an embossing tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić Šević, Svetlana; Pantelić, Dejan

    2005-04-01

    A simplified method for holographic embossing tool production is presented. Surface relief diffraction gratings are holographically recorded in pullulan sensitized with ammonium dichromate (DCP). The surface structure is copied into dental photopolymer composite by direct contact and subsequent photo-polymerization. It was found that arbitrary surface micropattern can be replicated. Due to its excellent mechanical and thermal properties, micro-patterned dental composite can be further used as an embossing tool for mass production of holograms.

  20. Investigation of Tin as a Constituent of Inorganic Coatings for Magnesium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    anodize MIL-M-3171 type IV. The solution was made up as follows: 120 grams ammonium sulfate 120 grams sodium dichromate 15 mls ammonium hydroxide water to...quaternary ammonium silicate and chromate/phosphate binders. Tests were run evaluating zinc immersion, stannate, pyrophosphate, and galvanic anodize...for magnesium alloys. Coatingswere made based on tin powder incorporated in alkali silicate, quaternary ammonium silicate and chromate/phosphate binders

  1. Relief hologram replication using a dental composite as an embossing tool.

    PubMed

    Savić Sević, Svetlana; Pantelić, Dejan

    2005-04-04

    A simplified method for holographic embossing tool production is presented. Surface relief diffraction gratings are holographically recorded in pullulan sensitized with ammonium dichromate (DCP). The surface structure is copied into dental photopolymer composite by direct contact and subsequent photo-polymerization. It was found that arbitrary surface micropattern can be replicated. Due to its excellent mechanical and thermal properties, micro-patterned dental composite can be further used as an embossing tool for mass production of holograms.

  2. Volumetric determination of the U/O ratio in uranium oxides.

    PubMed

    Engelsman, J J; Knaape, J; Visser, J

    1968-02-01

    A method is given for determining the general formula UO(2+x), of sintered uranium dioxide pellets and uranium dioxide powders. Uranium(VI) is reduced by titration with iron(II) ammonium sulphate, after which the total amount of uranium is oxidized by titration with potassium dichromate. The end-points of both titrations are detected electrometrically. Determination of x in the range 0.0001-1.00 is possible.

  3. Albumin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Vega-Criollo, R.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.

    2011-02-01

    A Characterization is made with performance analysis of new photosensitive films of albumin to certain conditions for holographic recording based on interferometric array. We carried out the photo-oxidation of gallus gallus albumin albumin chemically combining powdered sugar (Glass ®) to an aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate. It was the analysis of the behavior of diffraction efficiency parameter through the intensity diffraction pattern produced by the gratings made with albumin.

  4. Linearity and accuracy of ultraviolet and visible wavelength photometer: an interlaboratory survey.

    PubMed

    Vanderlinde, R E; Richards, A H; Kowalski, P

    1975-05-15

    A survey was made to determine the linearity and accuracy of ultraviolet and visible wavelength photometers used by laboratories in New York State. Two solutions each of high-purity potassium dichromate and cobalt ammonium sulfate were submitted for photometric performance studies. The majority of the participant spectrophotometer results showed good correlation with reference data. Broad half-band width (greater than 10 nm) photometers showed little deviation from linearity. Coefficients of variation for the models surveyed were 5-10%.

  5. The Determination of Dinitrotoluene in Single Base Propellants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    titration with ferric ammonium sulphate solution. The British method . generally used at the Materials Research Laboratories IMRL) and its u,,- his...ferric ammonium sulphate solution using ammonium thiocyanate as indicator. The ferric ammonium sulphate solution was standardised by reduction with zinc...amalgam, followed by titration with potassium dichromate . All the results obtained for propellant samples (listed in Table 1) have been corrected for

  6. Superconducting Wire Fabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    dichrom ate ................................................. 12 12. Copper container, prereacted 1-2-3 powder core, 1 hour at 910 0 C, as p o lish ed...hour at 910 0 C, etched with ammonium hydrogen peroxide solution ................................ 15 18. Silver container, prereacted 1-2-3 powder core...this effort. First, it was necessary to gain experience in the fabrication and characterization of bulk superconductors. Also, experiments were done

  7. U.S. Army Toxic Metal Reduction Program: Demonstrating Alternatives to Hexavalent Chromium and Cadmium in Surface Finishing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-18

    used in pretreatments 75% reduction in Cd associated with Cr(VI) finishes Reduction in toxic materials/waste (e.g., cyanide , phosphate sludge) 7...II Cadmium Oxide, Sodium Cyanide , Cadmium, Nickel Chloride, Iridite Hard Chrome Plate SAE AMS-QQ-C-320 Chromic Acid Copper Plating ASTM 2418F...Copper Cyanide , Sodium Cyanide , Sodium Dichromate Electroless Nickel AMS2404F Nickel Chloride Magnesium Anodize - Conversion Coating AMS-M-3171 Type

  8. Radiocarbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and ocean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Druffel, E. R. M.; Currie, L. A.

    2002-03-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the combustion-altered, solid residue remaining after biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. Radiocarbon measurements of BC provide information on the residence time of BC in organic carbon pools like soils and sediments, and also provide information on the source of BC by distinguishing between fossil fuel and biomass combustion byproducts. We have optimized dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation for the measurement of radiocarbon in BC. We also present comparisons of BC 14C measurements on NIST aerosol SRM 1649a with previously published bulk aromatic 14C measurements and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 14C measurements on the same NIST standard. Dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation belongs to the chemical class of BC measurement methods, which rely on the resistance of some forms of BC to strong chemical oxidants. Dilute solutions of dichromate-sulfuric acid degrade BC and marine-derived carbon at characteristic rates from which a simple kinetic formula can be used to calculate concentrations of individual components (Wolbach and Anders, 1989). We show that: (1) dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation allows precise, reproducible 14C BC measurements; (2) kinetics calculations give more precise BC yield information when performed on a % OC basis (vs. a % mass basis); (3) kinetically calculated BC concentrations are similar regardless of whether the oxidation is performed at 23°C or 50°C; and (4) this method yields 14C BC results consistent with previously published aromatic 14C data for an NIST standard. For the purposes of intercomparison, we report % mass and carbon results for two commercially available BC standards. We also report comparative data from a new thermal method applied to SRM 1649a, showing that thermal oxidation of this material also follows the simple kinetic sum of exponentials model, although with different time constants.

  9. Protective effect of ginger against toxicity induced by chromate in rats.

    PubMed

    Krim, Meriem; Messaadia, Amira; Maidi, Imen; Aouacheri, Ouassila; Saka, Saad

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the effect of ginger on the modulation of toxic effects induced by chromate is the objective of our study. 50 male rats Albinos Wistar were divided to five groups as follow: group I (T) is served as control, received a mineral water by gavage (per os); group II (G) received an experimental diet with 2% of ginger; group III (Cr) received an oral dose of potassium dichromate (15 mg/kg) and normal diet; group IV (CrG): received an oral dose of potassium dichromate (15 mg/kg) and an experimental diet containing 2% ginger; and group V (Cr(+)G) received an oral dose of potassium dichromate (25 mg/kg) and an experimental diet with 2% of ginger. The results of this study indicate that the chromate provoked a haematoxic effect (anemia), nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and also a perturbation in lipids profile. In addition, chromate has a pro-oxidant effect, which was indicated by decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in different tissues. However, the administration of ginger revealed a reduction of the intensity of oxidative stress induced by the chromate resulting in the decrease of the majority of the previous parameters concentrations. In conclusion we demonstrated that ginger has potent antioxidants activity, revealed by the amelioration of chromate's toxic effects. We can say that ginger has a protective effect towards damages induced by the chromate.

  10. Introduction of double amidoxime group by double post surface modification on poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) beads for higher amounts of organic dyes, As (V) and Cr (VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Demirci, Sahin; Uzun, Yusuf; Siddiq, Mohammad; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the synthesis of micron-sized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (p(VBC)) beads and subsequent conversion of the reactive chloromethyl groups to double amidoxime group containing moieties by post modification is reported. The prepared beads were characterized by SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The amidoximated p(VBC) beads were used as adsorbent for the removal of organic dyes, such as eosin y (EY) and methyl orange (MO), and heavy metals containing complex ions such as dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) and arsenate (HAsO4(2)(-)) from aqueous media. The effect of the adsorbent dose on the percent removal, the effect of initial concentration of adsorbates on the adsorption rate and their amounts were also investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption processes. The results indicated that the adsorption of both dichromate and arsenate ions obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model. Interestingly, it was found that the prepared beads were capable of removing significant amounts of arsenate and dichromate ions from tap and river (Sarıcay, Canakkale-Turkey) water.

  11. High throughput cell-based assay for identification of glycolate oxidase inhibitors as a potential treatment for Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengqiao; Xu, Miao; Long, Yan; Fargue, Sonia; Southall, Noel; Hu, Xin; McKew, John C.; Danpure, Christopher J.; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GO) and alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) are both involved in the peroxisomal glyoxylate pathway. Deficiency in AGT function causes the accumulation of intracellular oxalate and the primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). AGT enhancers or GO inhibitors may restore the abnormal peroxisomal glyoxylate pathway in PH1 patients. With stably transformed cells which mimic the glyoxylate metabolic pathway, we developed an indirect glycolate cytotoxicity assay in a 1,536-well plate format for high throughput screening. This assay can be used to identify compounds that reduce indirect glycolate-induced cytotoxicity by either enhancing AGT activity or inhibiting GO. A pilot screen of 4,096 known compounds identified two membrane permeable GO inhibitors: dichromate salt and colistimethate. We also developed a GO enzyme assay using the hydrogen peroxide-Amplex red reporter system. The IC50 values of potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, and colistimethate sodium were 0.096, 0.108, and 2.3 μM in the GO enzyme assay, respectively. Further enzyme kinetic study revealed that both types of compounds inhibit GO activity by the mixed linear inhibition. Our results demonstrate that the cell-based assay and GO enzyme assay developed in this study are useful for further screening of large compound libraries for drug development to treat PH1. PMID:27670739

  12. Incomplete oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in chemical oxygen demand analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James E; Mueller, Sherry A; Kim, Byung R

    2007-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was found to incompletely oxidize in chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis, leading to incorrect COD values for water samples containing relatively large amounts of EDTA. The degree of oxidation depended on the oxidant used, its concentration, and the length of digestion. The COD concentrations measured using COD vials with a potassium dichromate concentration of 0.10 N (after dilution by sample and sulfuric acid) were near theoretical oxygen demand values. However, COD measured with dichromate concentrations of 0.010 N and 0.0022 N were 30 to 40% lower than theoretical oxygen demand values. Similarly, lower COD values were observed with manganic sulfate as oxidant at 0.011 N. Extended digestion yielded somewhat higher COD values, suggesting incomplete and slower oxidation of EDTA, as a result of lower oxidant concentrations. For wastewater in which EDTA is a large fraction of COD, accurate COD measurement may not be achieved with methods using dichromate concentrations less than 0.1 N.

  13. Cr (VI) induced oxidative stress and toxicity in cultured cerebellar granule neurons at different stages of development and protective effect of Rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Abolfazl; Soodi, Maliheh; Amani, Nahid

    2016-03-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a widespread metal ion in the workplace, industrial effluent, and water. The toxicity of chromium (VI) on various organs including the liver, kidneys, and lung were studied, but little is known about neurotoxicity. In this study, neurotoxic effects of Cr (VI) have been investigated by cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Immature and mature neurons were exposed to different concentrations of potassium dichromate for 24 h and cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. In addition, immature neurons were exposed for 5 days as regards cytotoxic effect in development stages. The reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the protective effect of Rosmarinic acid on mature and immature neurons exposed to potassium dichromate, were measured. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and acetylcholinesterase activity in mature neurons were assessed following exposure to potassium dichromate. The results indicate that toxicity of Cr (VI) dependent on maturation steps. Cr (VI) was less toxic for immature neurons. Also, Cr (VI) induced MMP reduction and ROS production in both immature and mature neurons. In Cr (VI) treated neurons, increased lipid peroxidation and GPx activity but not acetylcholinesterase activity was observed. Interestingly, Rosmarinic acid, as a natural antioxidant, could protect mature but not immature neurons against Cr (VI) induced toxicity. Our findings revealed vulnerability of mature neurons to Cr (VI) induced toxicity and oxidative stress.

  14. Study of melanin bleaching after immunohistochemistry of melanin-containing tissues.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongwu; Wu, Wenqiao

    2015-04-01

    Melanin may interfere with immunohistochemical staining. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) bleaching, potassium permanganate bleaching, and potassium dichromate bleaching on melanin, tissue antigen, and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) using melanin-containing and melanin-free tissue samples. Our results demonstrated that all 3 bleaching methods efficiently bleached melanin and partially destroyed tissue antigen. In addition, potassium permanganate bleaching and potassium dichromate bleaching clearly destroyed DAB, whereas TCCA bleaching had no significant effect on DAB. Therefore, neither potassium permanganate nor potassium dichromate is an ideal solution, whereas TCCA might be an ideal solution for melanin bleaching after the immunohistochemical staining of melanin-containing tissues. After immunostaining followed by TCCA bleaching, the melanin could be completely removed in all 120 malignant melanoma tissue sections. Compared with the control, the DAB intensity was clear, and the tissue structure and cellular nuclei were well maintained. It is worth noting that TCCA should be freshly prepared before each experiment, and used within 2 hours of its preparation. In addition, sections should not be incubated with TCCA for over 30 minutes.

  15. MBG holograms under the optimum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-ming; Li, Min-qian; Pan, Jin-fang; Wang, Junmin; Sun, Meng-jia

    1996-12-01

    A systematic investigation is carried out on the optimization of diffraction efficiency (DE) of only methylene blue sensitized gelatin (MBG) holograms. The influence of the following factors on DE are studied: the concentration of methylene blue (Cm), the concentration of ammonium dichromate solution (Ca), swelling temperature (Ts), exposure (E) and the relative humidity of air (RH). This study shows that under the condition of Cm-0.009%; Ca- 5%; Ts within 35 - 45 degree(s)C; E-150 mJ/cm2; RH within 45 - 65%, an optimum DE of over 80%, even 90% can be achieved in MBG holograms. In our experiments we find that a moderate DE(35%) is obtained without dichromate solution in post- processing. In order to know the role which the condition of bathing the plate in a dichromate solution plays and the photo-chemical mechanism of forming the interference pattern in the films, the X-ray spectra are made, the Cr3+ ligands are not found; this means that the quantity of Cr3+ ligands is too small to measure, even if its is existing in the processed film. These results can not be interpreted with the normal photo-chemical mechanism of forming the holograms.

  16. Development of a technique to prevent radiation damage of chromate conversion coatings during X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, Devicharan; Halada, Gary P.; Clayton, Clive R.

    2001-09-01

    Photoreduction of hydrated sodium dichromate in the presence of carbon compounds has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results show that sodium dichromate also undergoes thermal breakdown during analysis. The photochemical and thermal reduction appears to be prevented by cooling with liquid nitrogen and using hydrocarbon-free vacuum pumping conditions. A model for the photoreduction of dichromate has been put forward based on an earlier photoreduction model developed by this group. Using the insight gained from this work, chromium spectra obtained from XPS of chromate conversion coatings (CCCs) on AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy have for the first time been fitted with six species of chromium compounds. The Cr 2p spectra have been critically examined for photoreduction of the hexavalent species: tetravalent and trivalent decomposition products have been identified. To explain the observed photochemical breakdown in CCCs even when performed under clean pumping conditions and liquid nitrogen cooling, its has been verified that the reduction is partly due to the cyanide species present in the CCCs. Cooling with liquid nitrogen prevents the adsorbed water on the coating from reacting with Cr(IV) to form trivalent species as the water molecules are immobilized and kinetics are slowed. As the Cr(VI)/Cr(III) ratio is critical to the performance of the CCC, and its accurate determination by XPS has not formerly been possible due to the photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), we present a reliable method by which XPS can be used in characterization of chromate conversion coatings.

  17. Artificial infection of chickens with Capillaria obsignata eggs embryonated in different media.

    PubMed

    Tiersch, K M; Daş, G; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Gauly, M

    2014-02-24

    The present study investigated whether incubation media have an impact on infectivity of Capillaria obsignata eggs in chickens infected with gradually increasing doses. C. obsignata eggs collected from female worms were incubated either in formalin (0.5% or 2%) or in potassium dichromate 0.1% or in sulfuric acid 0.1N for three weeks (wk). One-day-old male chicks (N=92) were reared in a parasite-free environment, and infected with 0, 500, 1000 or 2000 eggs at an age of 3 wk. Post-mortem parasitological examinations were performed on day 28 p.i. Although all the infected birds harboured adult worms, their growth performance was not affected. Furthermore there was no significant interaction effect between incubation media and infection dose on worm establishment rates (P=0.080), while main effects of these two factors were significant (P<0.05). The average number of adult worms found in birds infected with the eggs incubated in potassium dichromate were significantly lower (P<0.001) than in formalin 0.5%, formalin 2% and sulfuric acid 0.1N. A higher (P<0.05) percentage of larvae could establish themselves in the intestines when the birds were infected with 500 eggs (40.5%) instead of 2000 eggs (26.2%), indicating density dependent effects. It is concluded that formalin (particularly 0.5%), and sulfuric acid can successfully be used as incubation media for C. obsignata eggs, whereas potassium dichromate impairs subsequent infectivity of the eggs. Although effects of media on the infectivity of the eggs were confirmed to be fairly repeatable, no harmful effect of infection was quantified on the host animal performance with the infection doses up to 2000 eggs.

  18. OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

    1958-06-10

    A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

  19. Spatial frequency study of holograms with albumins material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.

    2013-03-01

    We present the analysis of holographic recording in photosensitive films using albumin matrixs: gallus gallus and Callipepla cali, exposed to a λ=442nm, with ammonium dichromate, (NH4)2Cr2O7, as a photo-oxidant agent. These simultaneously were performed holographic diffraction gratings with different spatial frequencies. Getting high diffraction efficiencies of holographic gratings as a function of spatial frequency (lines/mm), known as modulo of the transfer function (MTF). We made a comparison of the experimental results between the different bird albumins.

  20. Spectral interference in multiplexed volume Bragg gratings: theoretical calculations and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, G B; Leger, J R

    2014-08-20

    Multiplexed volume Bragg gratings can be applied to many types of broad- and narrowband spectral systems. However, there are often deleterious side effects to combining several gratings into a single holographic optical element, including loss of efficiency in diffracted waves of interest and the introduction of spurious waves. Design of these spectral systems requires analysis methods that are flexible and efficient and that take these side effects into account. We present a matrix-based algorithm for determining diffraction efficiencies of significant coupled waves in these multiplexed grating Holographic optical elements (HOEs). Several carefully constructed experiments with spectrally multiplexed gratings in dichromated gelatin verify our conclusions.

  1. The Use of Erythrosin B in Undergraduate Spectrophotometry Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, L. James, III

    1995-10-01

    The CMU chemistry department has met regulatory and waste disposal concerns by using a non-toxic food color in a general chemistry experiment. Erythrosin B was found to be a suitable alternative to Sodium Dichromate when teaching solution preparation and the principles of spectrophotometry. Students weigh a small mass of Erythrosin B and prepare several solutions that are measured in a spectrophotometer. From these a Beer's Law plot is constructed. Finally, concentrations of unknown solutions are determined using the spectrophotometer and the Beer's Law plot.

  2. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal.

    PubMed

    Joselice e Silva, M; Alves, A J; Do Nascimento, S C

    1998-03-01

    Five new N-substituted thiosemicarbazones of 3-(3,4-methylenedioxy)phenylpropanal were synthesized. Safrole, a natural product obtained from sassafras oil (Ocotea pretiosa), was oxidized to alcohol using BH3-THF and H2O2, followed by oxidation to aldehyde using pyridinium dichromate (PDC) and condensation with five N-substituted derivatives of thiosemicarbazide. Tests were performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity with continuous chain KB cells (epidermoide carcinoma of the floor of the mouth). Compounds 5 and 6 showed IC50 values of 1.5 and 4.6 micrograms/ml, respectively.

  3. Potentiometric determination of plutonium by sodium bismuthate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Charyulu, M M; Rao, V K; Natarajan, P R

    1984-12-01

    A potentiometric method for the determination of plutonium is described, in which the plutonium is quantitatively oxidized to plutonium(VI) with sodium bismuthate in nitric acid medium, the excess of oxidant is destroyed chemically and plutonium(VI) is reduced to plutonium(IV) with a measured excess of iron(II), the surplus of which is back-titrated with dichromate. For 3-5 mg of plutonium the error is less than 0.2%. For submilligram quantities of plutonium in presence of macro-amounts of uranium the error is below 2.0%.

  4. The Preparation and Physical Properties of Several Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and Intermediates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    8217•500 1.5 grams’ ^8-percent hydro- bromic - acid 5.0 grams ß -naphthalene sul- • fonic . acid 5.0-grams p-toluene:sulfonic ’ acid ...3-pentanone) with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid , "by method of Faworsky. (See reference l8.) From 32 moles of carMnol, there was o"btainod...compounds in a pure state "by this method . Secondary and tertiary butyl alcohols were co-polymerized in the presence of sulfuric acid in the manner

  5. Distribution of hexavalent Cr species across the clay mineral surface-water interface.

    PubMed

    Fritzen, Mauricia B; Souza, Aloisio J; Silva, Tiago A G; Souza, Luciana; Nome, Rene A; Fiedler, Haidi D; Nome, Faruk

    2006-04-15

    The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) on kaolinite, montmorillonite, and alumina were adequately treated with Langmuir model showing behavior characteristic of single-layer adsorption. The efficiency of the adsorbents in removing Cr(VI) from water follows the order alumina > kaolinite > montmorillonite > silica. Speciation studies indicate that hydrogen chromate ions were the major adsorbed species and simultaneous adsorption of dichromate ion occurred at concentrations greater than approximately 10(-3) mol L(-1). It is most probable that the mechanism of adsorption of the hydrogen chromate ion at the surface of alumina is predominantly electrostatic adsorption, with outer sphere complex formation.

  6. Effect of Drag Reducing Polymer and Suspended Solid on the Rate of Diffusion Controlled Corrosion in 90° Copper Elbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, Mohamed Ahmed; Zewail, Taghreed Mohamed; Amine, Nieven Kamal Abbes

    2016-06-01

    Rate of diffusion controlled corrosion in 90° Copper Elbow acidified dichromate has been investigated in relation to the following parameters: effect of solution velocity in the absence and presence of drag- reducing polymer on the rate of diffusion controlled corrosion, and effect of the presence of suspended solids on the rate of diffusion controlled corrosion. It was found that the presence of drag reducing polymer inhibited the rate of mass transfer, while the presence of suspended solid increased significantly the rate of mass transfer.

  7. Real-time optical holographic tracking of multiple objects.

    PubMed

    Chao, T H; Liu, H K

    1989-01-15

    A coherent optical correlation technique for real-time simultaneous tracking of several different objects making independent movements is described, and experimental results are presented. An evaluation of this system compared with digital computing systems is made. The real-time processing capability is obtained through the use of a liquid crystal television spatial light modulator and a dichromated gelatin multifocus hololens. A coded reference beam is utilized in the separation of the output correlation plane associated with each input target so that independent tracking can be achieved.

  8. Silver-halide gelatin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, B. J.; Winick, K.

    1980-05-01

    The use of a silver-halide gelatin for volume phase holograms having a wide spectral response and lower exposure requirements than alternatives and using commercially available silver salts, is proposed. The main difference between the dichromated gelatin and silver-halide processes is the creation of a hologram latent image, which is given in the form of a hardness differential between exposed and unexposed regions in the silver halide hologram; the differential is in turn created by the reaction products of either tanning development or tanning bleach, which harden the gelatin with link-bonds between molecules.

  9. Fully defined saltwater medium for cultivation of and toxicity testing with marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Kusk, K.O.; Wollenberger, L.

    1999-07-01

    The marine copepod Acartia tonsa and the food organism Rhodomonas salina were cultured in fully defined medium for 8 months without problems. Both organisms were also cultured in natural seawater and in a commercial salt mixture for at least two generations before the sensitivities of A. tonsa to bisphenol A, potassium dichromate, and 3,5-dichlorophenol in the three different media were compared and found to be at the same level. The defined medium may be used for cultivation and testing, thus avoiding unknown background contaminants.

  10. METHOD OF CONTROLLING CORROSION IN A NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kidder, C.P.; Sloan, C.K.

    1959-10-01

    A method is described for reducing or removing corrosion and iron deposits on aluminum surfaces from coolant water comprising adding to the coolant alkali metal dichromate in a concentration of between 1.8 and 2.2 ppm, adjusting the pH to between 7.3 and 7.8 by adding CaCO/sub 3/ or other similar material, and adding a silicious material such as diatomaceous earth of a particle size of 5 to 15 microns to effect a suspension of between 2 and 300 ppm and circulating it through the reactor.

  11. Progress in holographic applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, December 5, 6, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebbeni, Jean (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on a holographic recording material containing poly-n-vinylcarbozole, photoelectrochemical etching of holographic gratings in semiconductors, the analysis and construction of powered reflection holographic optical elements, achromatic display holograms in dichromated gelatin, and image blurring in display holograms and in holographic optical elements. Topics discussed include two-dimensional optical beam switching techniques using dynamnic holography, a new holographic interferometer with monomode fibers for integrated optics applications, computer controlled holography, and the copying of holograms using incoherent light. Consideration is given to holography of very far objects, rainbow holography with a multimode laser source, and the use of an endoscope for optical fiber holography.

  12. Development of an efficient large-aperture high damage-threshold sol-gel diffraction grating.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Carol S.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Branson, Eric D.; Smith, Ian Craig; Johnson, William Arthur; Reed, Scott T.; Cook, Adam W.

    2005-03-01

    In order to develop the next generation of high peak intensity lasers, new grating technology providing higher damage thresholds and large apertures is required. The current assumption is that this technical innovation will be multilayer dielectric gratings, wherein the uppermost layer of a thin film mirror is etched to create the desired binary phase grating. A variant of this is explored with the upper grating layer being a lower density gelatin-based volume phase grating in either sol-gel or dichromated gelatin. One key benefit is the elimination of the etching step.

  13. Real-time optical holographic tracking of multiple objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1989-01-01

    A coherent optical correlation technique for real-time simultaneous tracking of several different objects making independent movements is described, and experimental results are presented. An evaluation of this system compared with digital computing systems is made. The real-time processing capability is obtained through the use of a liquid crystal television spatial light modulator and a dichromated gelatin multifocus hololens. A coded reference beam is utilized in the separation of the output correlation plane associated with each input target so that independent tracking can be achieved.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of some carbohydrates, thiocarbonyls and hydrazines

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of microgram amounts of some carbohydrates, thiocarbonyls and hydrazines was developed. It is based on the reaction of these compounds with either cerium (IV) or dichromate. The excess oxidant is allowed to react with iron (II) as a reductant and hexacyanoferrate (III) to develop Prussian blue color with maximum absorption at 700 nm. The optimum procedural conditions and stoichiometry are investigated. Analysis of sample sizes down to 50 {mu}g shows an average recovery of 97% and a relative standard deviation of 1%.

  15. Superconductivity of Bi 2-xPb xSr 2-xLn xCuO y(Ln=La,Nd) and valence analysis of Bi and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Nameki, H.; Syono, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Nagoshi, M.; Awaji, S.; Kobayashi, N.

    1991-12-01

    Bi 2-ZPb zSr 2-x(La/Nd) xCuO y (z=0 and 0.4, x=0.2-1.0) was synthesized in air and nitrogen atmosphere. Valence analyses by dichromate titration and iodometry showed Bi valence larger than 3.0 and Cu valence close to 2+ over the wide range of x, being difficult to explain superconductivity. The Tc depends on substituent lanthanoid, La or Nd. The maximum Tc was achieved at x=0.4-0.5 in all these series.

  16. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  17. [Evidence-based evaluation of the effect of Type IV Allergies on the reduction of fitness for work. Survey of occupational skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Dickel, H; Becker, D; Geier, J; Mahler, V; Schmidt, A; Schwanitz, H-J; Skudlik, C; Wagner, E; Wehrmann, W; Weisshaar, E; Werfel, T; Blome, O

    2005-03-01

    Evidence-based guidelines about the distribution of type IV allergens of the European standard series in different professions and its occupational relevance are missing. Based on published data, epidemiological investigations, work related knowledge about industrial processes, and allergen specific properties, recommendations are given about the clinical impact in the working environment for the following allergens: acrylates/methacrylates, epoxy resins, dichromate, cobalt, nickel, formaldehyde, (chlor-)methylisothiazolone, p-phenylendiamine, colophony, thiurame, mercaptobenzothiazole, dithiocarbamate, n-isopropyl-n'-phenyl-p-phenylendiamine, fragrance mix, composite mix, and neomycinsulfate. These recommendations might improve the clearance rate and allergological evaluation of the occupational relevance of different delayed type sensitizations or allergens.

  18. Experimental cryptosporidiosis in laboratory mice.

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, D; Angus, K W; Snodgrass, D R; Tzipori, S

    1982-01-01

    Eight strains of laboratory mice were susceptible to subclinical infections with Cryptosporidium sp. at 1 to 4 days of age, but only a transient infection could be established at 21 days of age or older. Immunosuppression of 21-day-old mice failed to render them more susceptible to infection. Laboratory storage conditions for Cryptosporidium sp. were investigated by titration in 1- to 4-day-old mice. Storage by freezing with a variety of cryoprotectants was unsuccessful, but storage at 4 degrees C in phosphate-buffered saline or 2.5% potassium dichromate was possible for 4 to 6 months. PMID:7141705

  19. Radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto cotton fabric waste and its modification for anchoring hazardous wastes from their solutions.

    PubMed

    Sokker, Hesham H; Badawy, Sayed M; Zayed, Ehab M; Nour Eldien, Faten A; Farag, Ahmad M

    2009-08-30

    Ion exchange adsorbents based on cellulosic fabric wastes carrying sulfonic acid and amine functional groups were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) with subsequent chemical modification of the epoxy groups of poly-GMA graft chains with sodium sulfite/H(2)SO(4) and triethylamine, respectively. The conversion of epoxy groups into the functional groups was investigated. Factors affecting on grafting process such as radiation dose, monomer concentration and solvent were studied. The synthesized adsorbent and its applications in the removal of different types of hazardous pollutants e.g. acidic dye, cobalt, dichromate and phenols from aqueous solution were also studied.

  20. NMR study of the motion of oxygens in some oxysalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, K.

    1984-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the proton spin-lattice relaxation times T1 and T1ϱ were measured in some partially deuterated ammonium compounds; ammonium perchlorate and ammonium dichromate. The extremely large minimum values of T1ϱ (2 ˜ 3 sec) were found to be independent of the concentration of deuterons. These minima of T1ϱ were attributed to the random modulation of the dipolar interaction between the protons and 17O (0.037%) of low abundance. The activation energy Ea of the reorientation of ClO 4 and CrO 3 were determined to be 6.2 and 10.7 kcal mol -1, respectively.

  1. Hazardous Waste Staff Assistance Survey, Patrick AFB and Cape Canaveral AFS, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Ammonium hydroxide is used as an etcher in an etching machine. The etching machine holds about 70 gallons of ammonium hydroxide and...room. Personnel in the acid stripping room use a variety of acids (nitric, Nitric Nitradd, nitric sodium 14 dichromate , Nitric Amchem 17, and Isoprep...34 " " "’""""" ’" """ " -" ..’ -" ."."-.’ .’-. °-" " - ’- """’.’""."".’.".""."""".’".’". ".. TABLE 3

  2. Biopolymer holographic diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić Šević, Svetlana; Pantelić, Dejan

    2008-03-01

    Surface-relief diffraction gratings are holographically recorded in dextran sensitized with ammonium dichromate (DCD). DCD was exposed with single-frequency 200 mW diode pumped ND-YAG laser, at 532 nm. The diffraction grating profiles were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that different surface profiles could be obtained. Gratings with 330 lines/mm spatial frequencies were made. Existence of higher harmonics in Fourier Transform of non-sinusoidal profiles shows that DCD is capable of recording spatial frequencies up to 1320 lines/mm (four times fundamental frequency). The measured maximum relief depth of the DCD grating is 402 nm.

  3. Fabrication of reflection gratings by contact copying of amplitude holographic gratings on a metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjidi-Zolbanine, Habib; Hodjat-Zadeh, A.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the contact copying of amplitude transmission holographic gratings. Master gratings (MG) are written in silver halide sensitized gelatine. A smooth and flat sheet is coated with a layer of negative photoresist constituted from a combination of polyvinyl alcohol, ammonium dichromate and Arabic gum, then the MG is put in contact with the metal surface and exposed by a mercury lamp. After processing with deionized water at (35 degree(s)C), a reflection grating is obtained. For a MG with 117 l/mm of spatial frequency and 10% of diffraction efficiency (DE), we have obtained a DE of 12%.

  4. [Quantitative determination of the protein content of milk by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. 3. Determination of proteins in preserved milk samples].

    PubMed

    Reichardt, W; Schüler, E; Sieber, L; Schüler, E

    1987-01-01

    It is reported upon the results of the quantitative estimation of protein content from preserved milk by means of ultraviolet spectrophotometry. In addition to the preservation by boric acid, bronopol, copper sulphate, potassium dichromate and ammonium peroxodisulphate storage at temperatures below 0 degrees C and freeze drying were tested. Besides bronopol and copper sulphate especially physical preservation methods proves fit for the protein estimation by measurements of absorbance at 210 nm, 235 and 280 nm or 210 and 220 nm. It is recommended to use solutions and filters of quartz with evaluated absorbance in daily calibrating of the spectrophotometer.

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol doped with nickel chloride hexahydrate as conductor polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Limon, B.; Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Silva-Andrade, F.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2004-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol is a viscous solution, with blue clear appearance, not has odor, when is deposited, as a film dry the appearance is clear transparent and has high flexibility. This polymer no has double link and don not has p orbital that permit the conductivity. However, can be doped with salts as ammonium dichromate and nickel chloride hexahydrate NiCl26H2O constructing a good conductor polymer with a resistivity around 300 ohms cm. Conserving the high flexibility opened new possibilities and applications.

  6. METHOD OF RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-11-01

    A process is presented for pretreating aqueous nitric acid- plutonium solutions containing a small quantity of hydrazine that has formed as a decomposition product during the dissolution of neutron-bombarded uranium in nitric acid and that impairs the precipitation of plutonium on bismuth phosphate. The solution is digested with alkali metal dichromate or potassium permanganate at between 75 and 100 deg C; sulfuric acid at approximately 75 deg C and sodium nitrate, oxaiic acid plus manganous nitrate, or hydroxylamine are added to the solution to secure the plutonium in the tetravalent state and make it suitable for precipitation on BiPO/sub 4/.

  7. Wide-range adjustment technique of playback wavelength of MBDCG Lippmann hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Dong, Guangxing; Li, Jiangfeng; Du, Jinglei

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, a new technique is presented for adjusting the playback wavelength of Lippmann holograms recorded in methylene-blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG). The main feature of this technique is introducing a water-soluble organic reagent into MBDCG photosensitive layer as preswelling reagent and wavelength adjuster. This method has wide wavelength adjustment range and high signal-to-noise ratio, can be applied to adjust the playback wavelength of reflection hologram quantitatively by changing the concentration of preswelling reagent. Its possible applications include color image display, holographic optical elements, and optical anti-counterfeiting.

  8. Production of basic chromium sulfate by using recovered chromium from ashes of thermally treated leather.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Aline; Nunes, Keila Guerra Pacheco; Gutterres, Mariliz; Marcílio, Nilson Romeu

    2010-04-15

    Leather wastes tanned with chromium are generated during the production process of leather, hence the wastes from hand crafted goods and footwear industries are a serious environmental problem. The thermal treatment of leather wastes can be one of the treatment options because the wastes are rich in chromium and can be used as a raw material for sodium chromate production and further to obtain several chromium compounds. The objective of this study was to utilize the chromium from leather wastes via basic chromium sulfate production to be subsequently applied in a hide tanning. The obtained results have shown that this is the first successful attempt to achieve desired base properties of the product. The result was achieved when the following conditions were applied: a molar ratio between sodium sulfite and sodium dichromate equal to 6; reaction time equal to 5 min before addition of sulfuric acid; pH of sodium dichromate solution equal to 2. Summarizing, there is an opportunity to utilize the dangerous wastes and reused them in the production scheme by minimizing or annulling the environmental impact and to attend a sustainable process development concept.

  9. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen.

  10. Thin-film sulfuric acid anodizing as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallenborn, K. J.; Emmons, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Chromic acid has long been used to produce a thin, corrosion resistant (Type I) coating on aluminum. Following anodizing, the hardware was sealed using a sodium dichromate solution. Sealing closes up pores inherent in the anodized coating, thus improving corrosion resistance. The thinness of the brittle coating is desirable from a fatigue standpoint, and chromium was absorbed by the coating during the sealing process, further improving corrosion resistance. Unfortunately, both chromic acid and sodium dichromate contain carcinogenic hexavalent chromium. Sulfuric acid is being considered as a replacement for chromic acid. Sulfuric acid of 10-20 percent concentration has traditionally been used to produce relatively thick (Types II and III) or abrasion resistant (Type III) coatings. A more dilute, that is five weight percent, sulfuric acid anodizing process, which produces a thinner coating than Type II or III, with nickel acetate as the sealant has been developed. The process was evaluated in regard to corrosion resistance, throwing power, fatigue life, and processing variable sensitivity, and shows promise as a replacement for the chromic acid process.

  11. Risk assessment for selected xenobiotics by bioassay methods with higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Petra; Pestemer, Wilfried

    1990-05-01

    Different bioassays with higher plants were approved for use in a bioassay procedure for testing of xenobiotics according to the German Chemicals Act. Selected environmental pollutants (atrazine, cadmium chloride, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, thiourea), all from a list of reference chemicals, were tested with these methods. Dose-response curves for growth of oats and turnips were evaluated in soil and vermiculite (nonsorptive substrate), and availability to plants was calculated by comparing the EC50 values for one chemical in both substrates. The most active chemical was atrazine, followed by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride, and thiourea. The least available compound to plants was pentachlorophenol, tested with turnips ( Brassica rapa var. rapa). The strongest inhibition of germination, demonstrated in an in vitro assay with garden cress ( Lepidium sativum), was found with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, the lowest with atrazine. The effect of an extended exposure of the plants to the chemicals was evaluated in a long-term bioassay with oats ( Avena sativa) in hydroponic culture. Several dose-response curves during the growing period were derived. It was found that the EC50 values for atrazine and thiourea decreased markedly during the first four weeks; thereafter the changes were much smaller. As an overall conclusion, a bioassay procedure is proposed that can be included in the graduated plan recommended by the German Chemicals Act.

  12. Cyto-histological and morpho-physiological responses of common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to chromium.

    PubMed

    Reale, L; Ferranti, F; Mantilacci, S; Corboli, M; Aversa, S; Landucci, F; Baldisserotto, C; Ferroni, L; Pancaldi, S; Venanzoni, R

    2016-02-01

    Along with cadmium, lead, mercury and other heavy metals, chromium is an important environmental pollutant, mainly concentrated in areas of intense anthropogenic pressure. The effect of potassium dichromate on Lemna minor populations was tested using the growth inhibition test. Cyto-histological and physiological analyses were also conducted to aid in understanding the strategies used by plants during exposure to chromium. Treatment with potassium dichromate caused a reduction in growth rate and frond size in all treated plants and especially at the highest concentrations. At these concentrations the photosynthetic pathway was also altered as shown by the decrease of maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and the chlorophyll b content and by the chloroplast ultrastructural modifications. Starch storage was also investigated by microscopic observations. It was the highest at the high concentrations of the pollutant. The data suggested a correlation between starch storage and reduced growth; there was greater inhibition of plant growth than inhibition of photosynthesis, resulting in a surplus of carbohydrates that may be stored as starch. The investigation helps to understand the mechanism related to heavy metal tolerance of Lemna minor and supplies information about the behavior of this species widely used as a biomarker.

  13. Electrochemical nanocomposite-derived sensor for the analysis of chemical oxygen demand in urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Baldi, Antoni; Gómez, Raquel; García, Virginia; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2015-02-17

    This work reports on the fabrication and comparative analytical assessment of electrochemical sensors applied to the rapid analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in urban waste waters. These devices incorporate a carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite, containing different inorganic electrocatalysts, namely, Ni, NiCu alloy, CoO, and CuO/AgO nanoparticles. The sensor responses were initially evaluated using glucose as standard analyte and then by analyzing a set of real samples from urban wastewater treatment plants. The estimated COD values in the samples were compared with those provided by an accredited laboratory using the standard dichromate method. The sensor prepared with the CuO/AgO-based nanocomposite showed the best analytical performance. The recorded COD values of both the sensor and the standard method were overlapped, considering the 95% confidence intervals. In order to show the feasible application of this approach for the detection of COD online and in continuous mode, the CuO/AgO-based nanocomposite sensor was integrated in a compact flow system and applied to the detection of wastewater samples, showing again a good agreement with the values provided by the dichromate method.

  14. Effects of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) on genome-wide DNA methylation in human B lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jianlin; Wang, Yu; Chen, Junqiang; Ju, Li; Yu, Min; Jiang, Zhaoqiang; Feng, Lingfang; Jin, Lingzhi; Zhang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Several previous studies highlighted the potential epigenetic effects of Cr(VI), especially DNA methylation. However, few studies have compared the effects of Cr(VI) on DNA methylation profiles between soluble and particulate chromate in vitro. Accordingly, Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip array was used to analyze DNA methylation profiles of human B lymphoblastoid cells exposed to potassium dichromate or lead chromate, and the cell viability was also studied. Array based DNA methylation analysis showed that the impacts of Cr(VI) on DNA methylation were limited, only about 40 differentially methylated CpG sites, with an overlap of 15CpG sites, were induced by both potassium dichromate and lead chromate. The results of mRNA expression showed that after Cr(VI) treatment, mRNA expression changes of four genes (TBL1Y, FZD5, IKZF2, and KIAA1949) were consistent with their DNA methylation alteration, but DNA methylation changes of other six genes did not correlate with mRNA expression. In conclusion, both of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) could induce a small amount of differentially methylated sites in human B lymphoblastoid cells, and the correlations between DNA methylation changes and mRNA expression varied between different genes.

  15. Impairment of Bony Crypt Development Associated With Hexavalent Chromium Exposure During Tooth Eruption.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Luciana M; Lewicki, Marianela; De Lucca, Romina C; Ubios, Ángela M

    2015-12-01

    Improperly treated hexavalent chromium-containing industrial wastes contaminate drinking water, potentially affecting children taking breast milk or baby bottles prepared with infant formula. Thus, the aim of the present work was to determine the effect of this toxic on bone activity in the developing alveolus during tooth eruption of suckling Wistar rats intoxicated with potassium dichromate. Experimental animals received a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight of potassium dichromate by gavage for 10 days; controls received an equivalent volume of saline solution. Histologic and histomorphometric studies of the mandible were performed. The data were statistically analyzed using Student's t test; statistical significance was set at a value of p <0.05. Experimental animals exhibited delayed tooth eruption, decreased periodontal width and bone volume, a lower percentage of bone formation surfaces, and higher percentage of quiescent surfaces (p<0.05) compared to controls. The delay in tooth eruption observed after exposure to hexavalent chromium is the result of a lower rate of bone remodeling in the developing alveolus. The obtained results show the importance of controlling toxic substances in drinking water, since their effects may alter the growth and development of subjects who were exposed during early infancy.

  16. Determination of Mercury in Aqueous and Geologic Materials by Continuous Flow-Cold Vapor-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CVAFS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    New methods for the determination of total mercury in geologic materials and dissolved mercury in aqueous samples have been developed that will replace the methods currently (2006) in use. The new methods eliminate the use of sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7 ?2H2O) as an oxidizer and preservative and significantly lower the detection limit for geologic and aqueous samples. The new methods also update instrumentation from the traditional use of cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry to cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. At the same time, the new digestion procedures for geologic materials use the same size test tubes, and the same aluminum heating block and hot plate as required by the current methods. New procedures for collecting and processing of aqueous samples use the same procedures that are currently (2006) in use except that the samples are now preserved with concentrated hydrochloric acid/bromine monochloride instead of sodium dichromate/nitric acid. Both the 'old' and new methods have the same analyst productivity rates. These similarities should permit easy migration to the new methods. Analysis of geologic and aqueous reference standards using the new methods show that these procedures provide mercury recoveries that are as good as or better than the previously used methods.

  17. Determination of the Mutagenicity Potential of Supermint Herbal Medicine by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis in Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mahdavinia, Masoud; Kalantar, Mojtaba; Amanpour, Zivar; varnaseri, golnaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing use of herbal drugs and their easy availability have necessitated the use of mutagenicity test to analyze their toxicity and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of Supermint herbal medicine in DNA breakage of rat hepatocytes in comparison with sodium dichromate by single cell gel electrophoresis technique or comet assay. Methods: Hepatocytes were prepared from male wistar rats and were counted and kept in a bioreactor for 30 minutes. Then cells were exposed to the Supermint herbal medicine at doses of 125, 250 and 500 µl/ml. Buffer 4 (incubation buffer) and sodium dichromate were used as negative and positive control for one hour respectively. Then cell suspension with low melting point agarose were put on precoated slides and covered with agarose gel. Then lysing, electrophoresis, neutralization and staining were carried out. Finally the slides were analyzed with fluorescence microscope. The parameter under this analysis was the type of migration which was determined according to Kobayashi pattern. Results: With increased dose of Supermint herbal medicine the DNA damage was slightly increased (P<0001). Conlusion: In overall compared to the positive control significant differences is observed which convinced that the crude extract of Supermint in vitro did not have mutagenic effect. Conlusion: In overall compared to the positive control significant differences is observed which convinced that the crude extract of Supermint in vitro did not have mutagenic effect. PMID:24312800

  18. [16S rDNA diversity analysis of 30 Streptomycetes isolates displaying significant cytotoxic activity against B16 cell from near-shore sediments of Hainan Island].

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Ping; Hong, Kui; Hu, Shen-cai; Liu, Li-hua

    2005-04-01

    A total of 354 isolates of actinomycetes, of which 76 were detected cytotoxic activity was isolated from near-shore marine samples collected at Wenchang mangrove, DanZhou harbor and YanPu harbor. Four isolation methods were employed, which are SDS pretreatment, phenol pretreatment, heating pretreatment and potassium dichromate selection culture, and media such as'Yeast extract-Malt extract (YE), Glucose-Asprine (GA), Starch-Casin (SC), Starch-KNO3 (Gause) were used. It was showed that heating pretreatment and potassium dichromate selection culture were more considerable methods for extensive isolation of actinomycetes. Medium YE and Gause showed best results in both the total number of actinomycetes and the number of active isolates against tumor cell B16. The genotypic diversity of 30 strains of Streptomycetes possessing strong cytotoxic activity against B16 cell (ID50 > or =200) was analyzed by 16S ARDRA, which resulted in 17 RFLP types, and indicated relatively rich genotypic diversity among these Streptomycetes. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of three strains, 050642, 060386 and 060524 (ID50 > or = 1200) further confirmed that they all belong to Streptomyces genus and strain 050642 was suggested a novel Streptomyces. Spp with the highest similarity of 95% to Streptomyces cattleya.

  19. Difference in the sensitivity to chemical compounds between female and male neonates of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ikuno, Erika; Matsumoto, Takeru; Okubo, Tomohiro; Itoi, Shiro; Sugita, Haruo

    2008-10-01

    Daphnia magna usually produce female offspring by parthenogenesis, and thus only female neonates are used to evaluate the environmental toxicity to chemicals. Additionally, it is known that male daphnids are induced by exposure to a juvenile hormone, methyl farnesoate, during late ovarian development. In this study, we investigated the concentration of methyl farnesoate in a 24-h exposure producing 100% males, and the difference in sensitivity to chemical compounds, potassium dichromate, pentachlorophenol, and paraquat, between females and males, referring to OECD Test Guideline 202. The results show that the minimum concentration for 100%-male induction of methyl farnesoate in adult females was 50 microg/L. In addition, acute toxicity tests (immobility test) with the other chemicals showed that male neonates have higher tolerance to potassium dichromate and pentachlorophenol than females for at least 24 h after birth, while no sex difference was observed in the sensitivity to paraquat. The differences in the median effective concentrations in these compounds between female and male neonates suggest two different overall modes of action. Using female daphnids for environmentally toxicity testing seems reasonable, since the females are more sensitive to chemicals than males. Furthermore, the method of male induction established in this study could be used for screening of endocrine disruptors.

  20. Review of the design and manufacturing procedures for large-format holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanoff, Christo G.; Schuette, Hartmut; Schulat, Jochen; Froning, Philipp

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this research program was the development of the technology for the industrial manufacturing of HOEs for technical applications such as: holographic solar concentrators for utilization in photovoltaic energy conversion and solar photochemistry, and integrated holographic stacks for daylighting, glazing and shading in buildings. Some of the fabricated HOEs exhibit apertures in the order of 8 square meters. The accomplished technology facilitates the continuous fabrication of the holographic films on glass or plastic substrata. The standard holographic material we use for the fabrication of HOEs is dichromated gelatin (DCG) on glass or plastic film (PET) substrata. The dichromated gelatin layer could be prepared with different compositions to accommodate the desired exposures and chemical processing procedures. At present we manufacture holographic plates on glass substrata in sizes of up to 1 meter square. The holographic film on plastic substratum is 20 cm wide and could be made in lengths of hundredths of meters. The inexpensive fabrication of such large formats is attained by automation of the entire process: film manufacturing, hologram copying, development and test. We present in this paper the design considerations and the developed manufacturing procedures. These comprise the fabrication of large format reflective holograms for concentrating mirrors and the copying of transmissive holograms, such as gratings and lenses, using in-plane contact copying in checkerboard arrangement or rotating drum continuous copying onto an endless plastic film.

  1. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on nickel II or chromium VI induced alterations of glucose homeostasis and hepatic antioxidant status under sub-chronic exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Amrita; Dhara, Prakash C; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has a profound effect in reducing plasma glucose and increasing serum insulin in diabetic rats. We studied the effect of a garlic extract on nickel- or chromium-induced alteration of plasma glucose and hepatic glycogen levels and anti-oxidant status in rats. Adult male albino rats (n=36) divided into six groups of six animals each were treated as follows: Group I, untreated controls; Group II, fresh aqueous homogenate of garlic; Group III, nickel sulfate; Group IV, nickel sulfate + garlic; Group V, potassium dichromate; Group VI, potassium dichromate + garlic. In Groups IV and VI, the simultaneous administration of garlic abrogated a significant nickel- or chromium-induced increase in plasma glucose and decrease in liver glycogen. Nickel and chromium alone also increased lipid peroxide (LPO) and decreased glutathione levels, as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Simultaneous garlic administration significantly reduced the LPO level and remarkably improved SOD activity. Hence, we postulate that the administration of garlic can prevent nickel II- or chromium VI-induced alterations in blood glucose homeostasis while exerting a hepatoprotective effect on glycogen levels and antioxidant status in male albino rats.

  2. Evaluation of oxidant media for the determination of lead in food slurries by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Y; Bonilla, M; Cámara, C

    1990-05-01

    Several oxidant media were evaluated for the generation of lead hydride from slurry samples and their application to the determination of lead in vegetables and fish by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Three oxidant - acid media were compared: hydrogen peroxide - nitric acid, ammonium persulphate - nitric acid and potassium dichromate - lactic acid. The powdered samples were suspended in Triton X-100 and shaken with 10.0 g of blown zirconia spheres until a slurry was formed. The potassium dichromate - lactic acid medium was the most satisfactory for the determination of lead in fish and vegetables, providing the lowest detection limits as a result of its high sensitivity and low blank values. The ammonium persulphate - nitric acid medium gave good accuracy, precision and selectivity for vegetables (1-2 p.p.m. of lead); however, with fish (0.1-1 p.p.m. of lead) it was only a semi-quantitative medium for the determination of lead owing to its lack of sensitivity and selectivity. The hydrogen peroxide - nitric acid medium was unsatisfactory for the generation of lead hydride from slurry samples because of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the organic matter in the sample.

  3. Reflection silver-halide gelatin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, Yuri E.; Vavilova, Ye. A.; Kosobokova, N. L.; Shevtsov, Michail K.

    1991-02-01

    A new principle of reflection silverhalide gelatin (SHG) holograms generation is presented. The formation mechanism of the micro-cavity structure of holographic gratings is investigated. Based on the principle discussed here three methods of processing are suggested for making highly efficient SHG reflection holograms in the blue the green and the red regions of spectra with properties similar to those of conventional dichromated gelatin (DCG) holograms. 2. SHG HOLOGRAMS AND ANALYSIS OF THE PRINCIPAL OF THEIR FABRICATION Optical properties of DCG holograms and high light sensitivity of silver halide materials in the whole visible spectrum range can be combined in SHG holograms in which light field interference pattern recording is realized on silver halide grains while the light diffraction during the reconstruction takes place on a gelatin layer similar to DCG layer having a refractive index modulation. There exist a number of methods for transforming a ''silver'' structure into refracted index modulation structure. They are based on selective hardening of silver-halide layer gelatin. According to Pennington et. al. [1] selective hardening takes place as a result of the effect of laser or UV light on a silver halide developed fixed bleached and ammonium dichromate sensitized. A gelatin in isophase grating planes is hardened to a less degree that between planes due to high adsorption of a halide silver. After the removal of halide silver from the layer during the next fixing process

  4. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Sphaerotilus natans a filamentous micro-organism present in activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, Alejandro H; Giannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2008-08-15

    Wastewaters produced by various industries may contain undesirable amounts of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), as chromate and dichromate, a hazardous metal affecting flora and animals of aquatic ecosystems as well as human health. One removal strategy comprises the microbial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), a less soluble chemical species that is less toxic than Cr(VI). In this work, the ability to reduce Cr(VI) of Sphaerotilus natans, a filamentous bacterium usually found in activated sludge systems, was evaluated. In aerobic conditions, S. natans was able to efficiently reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) from dichromate solutions ranging between 4.5 and 80 mg Cr(VI)l(-1) in the presence of a carbonaceous source. A simultaneous evaluation of the microbial respiratory activity inhibition was also carried out to analyze the toxic effect of Cr(VI). Cr(VI) reduction by S. natans was mathematically modeled; chromium(VI) reduction rate depended on both Cr(VI) concentration and active biomass concentration. Although it is known that S. natans removes heavy metal cations such as Cr(III) by biosorption, the ability of this micro-organism to reduce Cr(VI), which behaves as an oxyanion in aqueous solutions, is a novel finding. The distinctive capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) than remain soluble or precipitated becomes S. natans a potential micro-organism to decontaminate wastewaters.

  5. A novel method developed for estimating mineralization efficiencies and its application in PC and PEC degradations of large molecule biological compounds with unknown chemical formula.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; Liu, Xiaolu; An, Taicheng; Wong, Po Keung; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-05-15

    A new method to estimate the photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) mineralization efficiencies of large molecule biological compounds with unknown chemical formula in water was firstly developed and experimentally validated. The method employed chemical oxidation under the standard dichromate chemical oxygen demand (COD) conditions to obtain QCOD values of model compounds with unknown chemical formula. The measured QCOD values were used as the reference to replace QCOD values of model compounds for calculation of the mineralization efficiencies (in %) by assuming the obtained QCOD values are the measure of the theoretical charge required for the complete mineralization of organic pollutants. Total organic carbon (TOC) was also employed as a reference to confirm the mineralization capacity of dichromate chemical oxidation. The developed method was applied to determine the degradation extent of model compounds, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), lecithin and bacterial DNA, by PC and PEC. Incomplete PC mineralization of all large molecule biological compounds was observed, especially for BSA. But the introduction of electrochemical technique into a PC oxidation process could profoundly improve the mineralization efficiencies of model compounds. PEC mineralization efficiencies of bacterial DNA was the highest, while that of lecithin was the lowest. Overall, PEC degradation method was found to be much effective than PC method for all large molecule biological compounds investigated, with PEC/PC mineralization ratios followed an order of BSA > lecithin > DNA.

  6. Patch Test as a Diagnostic Tool in Hand Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Vigneshkarthik, Natarajan; Kuruvila, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of hand eczema. Patch testing is the only investigation available to prove the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Exposures to allergens differ according to geographical, occupational, economic and social factors. Accordingly, patterns of allergic contact dermatitis differ in different parts of the world and different regions of the same country. Aim To study the causes of allergic contact dermatitis in adult patients with hand eczema with the help of patch testing. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 54 hand eczema patients conducted between October 2013 and June 2015, at a tertiary care centre in Southern India. After a detailed history including history of occupational exposure and detailed examination, patch test was done on these patients with Indian standard series. The patches were removed after 48 hours. Another reading was taken after 72 hours. The readings were interpreted according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group criteria and noted down. The data were summarized using mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and percentages for categorical and dichotomous variables. The test of association was done with Fisher’s-exact test. Results Hyperkeratotic hand eczema was the commonest morphological type (29%), followed by discoid eczema. Pompholyx was significantly more common among patients with history of atopy. A total of 20 patients (37%) showed patch test positivity to a total of 25 allergens. Nickel was the most common allergen (11.11%) followed by para-phenylenediamine (PPD) (7.4%). Nickel (6 patients) and cobalt (3 patients) were the common allergens among women, while potassium dichromate (3 patients) and parthenium (2 patients) were the common allergens among men. Potassium dichromate allergy was significantly more common among masons and PPD allergy was significantly more common among hair dye users. Discoid pattern of

  7. Occupational asthma due to chrome and nickel electroplating

    PubMed Central

    Bright, P.; Burge, P. S.; O'Hickey, S. P.; Gannon, P. F.; Robertson, A. S.; Boran, A.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to chromium during electroplating is a recognised though poorly characterised cause of occupational asthma. The first series of such patients referred to a specialist occupational lung disease clinic is reported. METHODS: The diagnosis of occupational asthma was made from a history of asthma with rest day improvement and confirmed by specific bronchial provocation testing with potassium dichromate and nickel chloride. RESULTS: Seven workers had been exposed to chrome and nickel fumes from electroplating for eight months to six years before asthma developed. One subject, although exposed for 11 years without symptoms, developed asthma after a single severe exposure during a ventilation failure. This was the only subject who had never smoked. The diagnosis was confirmed by specific bronchial challenges. Two workers had isolated immediate reactions, one a late asthmatic reaction, and four a dual response following exposure to nebulised potassium dichromate at 1-10 mg/ml. Two of the four subjects were also challenged with nebulised nickel chloride at 0.1-10 mg/ml. Two showed isolated late asthmatic reactions, in one at 0.1 mg/ml, where nickel was probably the primary sensitising agent. Four workers carried out two hourly measurements of peak expiratory flow over days at and away from work. All were scored as having occupational asthma using OASYS-2. Breathing zone air monitoring was carried out in 60 workers from four decorative and two hard chrome plating shops from workers with similar jobs to those sensitised. No measurement exceeded the current occupational exposure standard for chromate or nickel, the mean levels of chromate exposure for jobs similar to those of the affected workers were 9-15 micrograms/m3. CONCLUSION: Chrome used in electroplating is a potential cause of occupational asthma. Sensitivity to chrome in electroplaters may occur in situations where exposure levels are likely to be within the current exposure standards. There may

  8. Analysis of albumin hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Villa-Manríquez, J. F.

    2012-03-01

    We present the characterizations of the photosensitive film made with albumins gallus gallus and callipepla cali, with the purpose to make holographic recording. Albumin was combined with propylene glycol, to build colloidal systems by adding the ammonium dichromate solution as photosensitive salt at certain concentrations. Hence, we conducted the photo-oxidation process with laser, λ=442nm. Obtaining holograms that allowed the analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter. One of the objectives of this work was to obtain some mechanical and chemical stability of films made with albumin when prepared with propylene glycol. At once, experimental studies were performed to compare the results of the holographic recording films between chicken albumin and quail albumin film to prove the recording capabilities and to quantify the diffraction efficiency in holographic grating made with each kind of albumin.

  9. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with allergy to intraoral metals.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Brambilla, Lucia; Ferrucci, Silvia; Zerboni, Roberto; Somalvico, Francesco; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2014-10-15

    Contact (allergic) dermatitis is a skin disorder related to natural exposure to various allergens. Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) describes a cutaneous eruption in response to systemic exposure to an allergen. The exact pathologic mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we describe a 36-year-old woman with symmetric systemic allergic contact dermatitis, unresponsive to conventional treatment, associated with dental alloy-contact hypersensitivity. We did skin patch testing and the blood lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) from the dental allergen series to assess contact allergy to restorative dental materials. On patch testing, positive allergic contact dermatitis reactions to metals occurred (nickel, potassium dichromate, and gold). Nickel hypersensitivity was confirmed by LTT, which also revealed silver-amalgam sensitization. Our case report highlights the need to consider adverse reactions to base-metal dental alloys in the differential diagnosis of cases of systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

  10. [Metallic elements in 31st updating of 67/548/EEC directive].

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Catalani, S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the update of directive 67/548/EEC published in Official Journal of the European Union on 16 January 2009 proposes about carcinogenicity of metallic elements is reported and discussed. The main change is represented by the classification R49 and R40 of many species of nickel, organic and inorganic, respectively for their water solubility and particles size. Titanium oxide and 3 tin species are in addition classified as R40. Sodium dichromate moved from R49 (in the 22nd update) to R45 (classified as carcinogen, without restriction on the route of exposure). The list of the 31st updates, if combined with previous list, provides detailed and more precise information on the carcinogenicity of metallic elements in relation to different species, suggesting once again the importance of metallic element speciation.

  11. Fuchsine or magenta: the second most famous aniline dye. A short memoir on the 150th anniversary of the first commercial production of this well known dye.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C; Dronsfield, A

    2009-08-01

    During the mid-nineteenth century, it was learned that the distillation of coal tar yielded a mixture of benzene and toluene that could be used for the manufacture of "anilines." Oxidation with dichromate led to the first synthetic aniline dye, mauveine. The second aniline dye, a crimson red color, now is named fuchsine or magenta. This dye was prepared using the same starting material, but different oxidants, e.g., tin chloride, mercury nitrate, arsenic acid, and nitrobenzene. Unlike mauveine, which is now a chemical curiosity, fuchsine is still in use as a biological stain, especially in Schiff's reagent for detecting aldehydes, industrially as a dye in coloring various materials from textile fibers to ball point pen inks, analytically as a visualization agent for thin layer chromatography, and as an antifungal agent.

  12. Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Uterus: Involvement of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Marouani, Neila; Tebourbi, Olfa; Mokni, Moncef; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Sakly, Mohsen; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2015-01-01

    The present study is designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates hexavalent chromium (VI)-induced apoptosis in uterus. Female Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of potassium dichromate at doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg. Superoxide anion production was assessed by determination of the reduction of cytochrome c and iodonitrotetrazolium (INT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), metallothioneins (MTs), and catalase (CAT) activity. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins was investigated. After 15 days of treatment, an increase of LPO and MT levels occurred, whereas CAT activity decreased. Intense apoptosis was observed in endometriotic stromal cells of Cr-exposed rats. Bax protein expression was induced in endometriotic stromal cells with 1 mg of Cr(VI)/kg, and in stromal and epithelial cells at the higher dose. These results clearly suggest that Cr(VI) subacute treatment causes oxidative stress in rat uterus, leading to endometriotic stromal cells apoptosis.

  13. Dual-functional polymeric waveguide with optical amplification and electro-optic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Dechang; Yue, ZuZhou; Chen, Ray T.

    1997-12-01

    Optical amplification and electro-optic modulation have been observed simultaneously in one polymeric material photo-lime gel which has been used as a volume holographic material to produce dichromated gelatin (DCG) films. In this paper, the dual functions were achieved by doping neodymium chloride hexahydrate (NdCl3(DOT)6H2O) and chlorophenol red (C19H12Cl2O5S). The optimized doping concentrations of Nd+3 and chlorophenol red were 6.7 X 1019/cm3 and 23% respectively. We observed a gain of 3.8 dB at 1.04 micrometers and an electro-optic coefficient of 30 pm/V at 633 nm. The experimental results confirms that the co-doping process does not degrade the respective functions of Nd+3 for optical amplification and chlorophenol red for electro-optic modulation.

  14. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Bedwal, S; Prasad, S; Nair, N; Saini, M R; Bedwal, R S

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H(2) O(2) with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H(2) O(2) produced in two organs whereas significant (P<0.01/0.001) increase in catalase activity in 4-weeks experiments indicate for increased oxidative stress due to phagocytotic activity of Sertoli cells in testes and damaged spermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  15. Recent advances on determination of milk adulterants.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carina F; Santos, Poliana M; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2017-04-15

    Milk adulteration is a current fraudulent practice to mask the quality parameters (e.g. protein and fat content) and increase the product shelf life. Milk adulteration includes addition of toxic substances, such as formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite, dichromate, salicylic acid, melamine, and urea. In order to assure the food safety and avoid health risks to consumers, novel analytical procedures have been proposed for detection of these adulterants. The innovations encompass sample pretreatment and improved detection and data processing, including chemometric tools. This review focuses on critical evaluation of analytical approaches for assay of milk adulteration, with emphasis on applications published after 2010. Alternatives for fast, environmentally friendly and in-situ detection of milk adulterants are highlighted.

  16. [New biosensors for assessment of environmental toxicity based on marine luminescent bacteria].

    PubMed

    Tsybul'skiĭ, I E; Sazykina, M A

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen strains of luminescent bacteria of Vibrio and Photobacterium genera were isolated from water of the Azov and Black seas. Two strains prospective for biotesting were genetically identified as Vibrio fisher Ve-9579 and Vibrio fisheri Ve-9580 according to Russian Industrial Microorganism Collection (VKMP) classification and accepted for depositing. The isolated luminescent strains exhibited high individual sensitivity to oil derived products, heavy metal salts, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and phenol (up to the maximum concentration limit for fishery impoundments). According to EC50, they are ten times more sensitive to heavy metal salts and potassium dichromate and 2-6 times more sensitive to SDSand phenol compared to P. phosphoreum (Cohn) Ford and Escherichia coli C600 (pPLS-5) strains. Using Vibrio fisheri VKMP Ve-9579 and Vibrio fisheri VKMP Ve-9580 as biosensors, we have shown their high sensitivity and efficacy to marine ecosystem toxicity assessment.

  17. A Cause of Chromate Dermatitis among Assemblers in an Automobile Factory

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Muriel L.

    1963-01-01

    A series of 230 patients with skin disease and 66 men with no skin disease were tested with a battery of nine common sensitizing substances. Among the patients the incidence of positive reactions was 36%, whereas in the control series it was 7·6%. The most common sensitizing agent was potassium dichromate. The incidence of chromate sensitivity was four times greater among assemblers than among men in other jobs. Hexavalent chromate was found on the surface of the nuts, bolts, screws, and washers used by the assemblers. The source of the chromate was a chromate dip which is used as a passivator in chromium plating and zinc coating. The process was modified in one department and the chromate dip omitted. Patch testing of 12 men who had developed dermatitis since the modification of the process revealed no further cases of chromate sensitivity. This cause of allergic dermatitis appears to have been eliminated from this department. PMID:14046156

  18. Chemical reduction of europium(III) in hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasyants, A.G.; Gurinov, Yu.S.; Sofenina, E.V.

    1988-07-10

    The authors have devised a method for use at set pH and temperature, in which the volume of hydrogen produced is recorded and samples are taken for europium(II) analysis. The solution is poured into a glass cell with a thermostatic jacket; argon is passed through a capillary tube 2 for 0.5 h before the reduction is started, with the bubbling rate determined from the change in level in a burette. This burette is also used to record the hydrogen volume. The europium(II) concentration is determined by titration with potassium dichromate by a standard method. Europium is reduced by zinc in acid solution. The zinc consumption in hydrogen production can be reduced by operating at pH 2-3, with the precipitant introduced after the reaction starts.

  19. Effects of metal ions and CCl/sub 4/ on sea urchin embryo (Paracentrotus lividus)

    SciTech Connect

    Congiu, A.M.; Calendi, E.; Ugazio, G.

    1984-02-01

    The determination of embryotoxicity is an experimental tool for detecting the risks of environmental pollutants. In this study, fertilized eggs of sea urchin have been observed morphologically during exposure to heavy metal salts or carbon tetrachloride, with the purpose of testing possible differences in toxicity of various classes of poisons. Mercuric chloride is the most active salt, still harmful at 0.25 x 10(-6) M, while potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride and lead nitrate block embryo development at concentrations ranging between 0.25 x 10(-4) and 0.25 x 10(-5) M. Carbon tetrachloride per se does not affect the gastrulation at concentrations up to 3,520 ppm, and fails in potentiating the toxicity of the studied metal salts. The selective susceptibility of the development phases of sea urchin embryos to different compounds renders this simple morphological study a sensitive and reliable model for predicting the toxicity of environmental pollutants.

  20. Fertilizers and Mixed Crop Cultivation of Chromium Tolerant and Sensitive Plants under Chromium Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dheeba, B.; Sampathkumar, P.; Kannan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Zea mays (maize) and Vigna radiata (green gram) are found to be the chromium (Cr) tolerant and sensitive plants, respectively. In the present paper, we investigate the reduction of the toxicity of Cr in the sensitive plants by the mixed crop cultivation in the field using various amendments. Further, the potassium dichromate was used as the source of hexavalent Cr. The results indicated that Cr adversely affects both the growth and yield of plants. The soil properties vary with Cr and different fertilizer amendments and the yield of both plants were affected by Cr. We conclude that metal accumulation of seeds of green gram was higher than corn and the application of single fertilizer either farm yard manure (FYM) or nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) enhances the growth and yield of both the tolerant and sensitive plants in the mixed crop cultivations. PMID:25709647

  1. Bioelectrochemical system stabilizes methane fermentation from garbage slurry.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Methanogenic bioreactors, which are packed with supporting material, have attracted attention as an efficient means of degrading garbage. We aimed to increase bioreactor performance by using an electrochemical system to regulate the electrical potential on supporting material. At an organic loading rate of 26.9g dichromate chemical oxygen demand (CODcr)/L/day, reactors with a potential of -0.6 or -0.8V, generated by a cathodic electrochemical reaction, showed greater removal of CODcr and methanogenesis than reactors with a potential of 0.0 or -0.3V, generated by anodic reaction, or control reactors without electrochemical regulation. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the same methanogens were present in all our reactors, but quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that higher prokaryotic and methanogenic copy numbers were present on cathodic electrodes than on anodic or control electrodes. These results indicate that cathodic electrochemical regulation can support methane fermentation from garbage.

  2. Applicability study on existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Kojima, Takuji; Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-12-01

    Applicability of the existing dosimetry systems to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation was investigated through a dose intercomparison study, where several dosimeters were irradiated in the dose range 4-12 kGy in identical polyethylene phantoms in a Bremsstrahlung beam obtained from a 5-MeV electron accelerator. Included in the study were alanine dosimeters molded by three different binders, three types of liquid dosimeters—ceric-cerous, dichromate and ethanol-chlorobenzen (ECB), and glutamine powder. The dosimeter responses for Bremsstrahlung radiation were analyzed at the issuing laboratories, and the dose values determined using calibration based on cobalt-60 gamma-ray irradiation. Dose values for all the three dose levels for all dosimetry systems were in good agreement—better than 3%. The results of the study demonstrate that these existing dosimetry systems have a potential for application to high-power Bremsstrahlung irradiation.

  3. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of Euphorbia hirta in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Kwan Yuet; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity activity of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay. Methods The cytotoxicity of E. hirta extract was investigated by employing brine shrimp lethality assay and the genotoxicity of E. hirta was assessed by using Comet assay. Results Both toxicity tests exhibited significant toxicity result. In the comet assay, the E. hirta extract exhibited genotoxicity effects against MCF-7 DNA in a time-dependent manner by increasing mean percentage of DNA damage. The extract of E. hirta showed significant toxicity against brine shrimp with an LC50 value of 620.382 µg/mL (24 h). Comparison with positive control potassium dichromate signifies that cytotoxicity exhibited by the methanol extract might have moderate activity. Conclusion The present work confirmed the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of E. hirta. However, the observed toxicity of E. hirta extracts needs to be confirmed in additional studies. PMID:23998008

  4. Large-memory real-time multichannel multiplexed pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, D. A.; Liu, H. K.

    1984-12-01

    The principle and experimental design of a real-time multichannel multiplexed optical pattern recognition system via use of a 25-focus dichromated gelatin holographic lens (hololens) are described. Each of the 25 foci of the hololens may have a storage and matched filtering capability approaching that of a single-lens correlator. If the space-bandwidth product of an input image is limited, as is true in most practical cases, the 25-focus hololens system has 25 times the capability of a single lens. Experimental results have shown that the interfilter noise is not serious. The system has already demonstrated the storage and recognition of over 70 matched filters - which is a larger capacity than any optical pattern recognition system reported to date.

  5. Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Duanwen; Bai, Mingfeng; Tang, Rui; Xu, Baogang; Ju, Xiaoming; Pestell, Richard G.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) dye that fluoresces at two different wavelengths (dichromic fluorescence, DCF), we discovered a new fluorescent substrate for Akt, also known as protein kinase B, and a method to quantitatively report this enzyme's activity in real time. Upon insulin activation of cellular Akt, the enzyme multi-phosphorylated a single serine residue of a diserine DCF substrate in a time-dependent manner, culminating in monophospho- to triphospho-serine products. The NIR DCF probe was highly selective for the Akt1 isoform, which was demonstrated using Akt1 knockout cells derived from MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice. The DCF mechanism provides unparalleled potential to assess the stimulation, sustainability, and reversibility of Akt activation longitudinally. Importantly, NIR fluorescence provides a pathway to translate findings from cells to living organisms, a condition that could eventually facilitate the use of these probes in humans.

  6. SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Callis, C.F.; Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    >The separation of ruthenium from aqueous solutions containing uranium plutonium, ruthenium, and fission products is described. The separation is accomplished by providing a nitric acid solution of plutonium, uranium, ruthenium, and fission products, oxidizing plutonium to the hexavalent state with sodium dichromate, contacting the solution with a water-immiscible organic solvent, such as hexone, to extract plutonyl, uranyl, ruthenium, and fission products, reducing with sodium ferrite the plutonyl in the solvent phase to trivalent plutonium, reextracting from the solvent phase the trivalent plutonium, ruthenium, and some fission products with an aqueous solution containing a salting out agent, introducing ozone into the aqueous acid solution to oxidize plutonium to the hexavalent state and ruthenium to ruthenium tetraoxide, and volatizing off the ruthenium tetraoxide.

  7. Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

  8. Determination of average refractive index of spin coated DCG films for HOE fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, T. J.; Campbell, Eugene W.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    1993-01-01

    The refractive index of holographic emulsions is an important parameter needed for designing holographic optical elements (HOE's). Theoretical calculations of the accuracy required for the refractive index and thickness of emulsions needed to meet predetermined Bragg angle conditions are presented. A modified interferometric method is used to find average refractive index of the unexposed and the developed dichromated gelatin holographic films. Slanted transmission HOE's are designed considering the index and thickness variations, and used to verify the index measurement results. The Brewster angle method is used to measure surface index of the unexposed and the developed films. The differences between average index and surface index are discussed. Theoretical calculation of the effects of index variation on diffraction efficiency, and experimental results for index modulation variation caused by process changes are also presented.

  9. High-sensitivity optical sensing of temperature based on side-polished fiber with polymer nanoporous cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yongchun; Li, Shan; Tang, Li; Chen, Zhe; Yu, Jianhui; Guan, Heyuan; Lu, Huihui; Zhang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrated temperature sensing of a side-polished fiber with polymer nanoporous film cladding, which was constructed by dehydrating dichromate gelatin film on the polished surface. Due to intermodal interference of core mode and cladding mode, two main transmission valleys were observed at 1219.2 and 1373.2 nm. The modulation amplitudes are ˜8 and 12 dB, respectively. These two transmission valleys show significant sensitivity to the temperature. At the wavelength of 1373.2 nm, the position of transmission valley blueshifted 114 nm while the temperature changes from 30°C to 90°C, and the sensitivity of temperature was up to 1.92 nm/°C. The linear correlation coefficient was 98.67%. The temperature sensing characteristics of nanoporous cladding fiber was successfully demonstrated, and it shows a high potential in photonics applications.

  10. Large-memory real-time multichannel multiplexed pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, D. A.; Liu, H. K.

    1984-01-01

    The principle and experimental design of a real-time multichannel multiplexed optical pattern recognition system via use of a 25-focus dichromated gelatin holographic lens (hololens) are described. Each of the 25 foci of the hololens may have a storage and matched filtering capability approaching that of a single-lens correlator. If the space-bandwidth product of an input image is limited, as is true in most practical cases, the 25-focus hololens system has 25 times the capability of a single lens. Experimental results have shown that the interfilter noise is not serious. The system has already demonstrated the storage and recognition of over 70 matched filters - which is a larger capacity than any optical pattern recognition system reported to date.

  11. Photopolymer based VPHGs: from materials to sky results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanutta, A.; Orselli, E.; Fäcke, T.; Bianco, A.

    2016-07-01

    Volume Phase Holographic Gratings cover a relevant position as transmission dispersing elements in astronomical spectrographs and each astronomical observation could take advantage of specific dispersive elements with features tailored for achieving the best performances. The design and manufacturing of high efficiency and reliable VPHGs require photosensitive materials where it is possible to control both the refractive index modulation and the film thickness. By means of Bayfol® HX photopolymers, we designed and manufactured six VPHGs for astronomical instrumentation in a GRISM configuration. We demonstrated how photopolymers are reliable holographic materials for making astronomical VPHGs with performances comparable to those provided by VPHGs based on Dichromated Gelatins (DCGs), but with a much simpler production process.

  12. Observation of weak ferromagnetism and the sizable magnetocaloric effect in Co2V2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannigrahi, J.; Giri, S.; Majumdar, S.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic behavior of cobalt pyrovanadate compound Co2V2O7 with dichromate structure is reported. The compound undergoes long range magnetic ordering below TC=8 K and our study identifies the ground state to be a canted antiferromagnetic type with a weak ferromagnetic component. The transition at TC is found to be first-order in nature as evident from the presence of distinct thermal hysteresis in the temperature dependent magnetization data. Below TC, a significantly large value of magnetic relaxation is observed which is possibly due to the metastability associated with the first order phase transition. Interestingly, the sample exhibits a sizable magneto-caloric effect around TC (∼4.1 J kg-1. K-1 for 50 kOe of field change) which is reasonably high among antiferromagnetic transition metal oxides with weak ferromagnetism.

  13. Silver-halide sensitized gelatin derived from Agfa-Gevaert holographic plates.

    PubMed

    Simova, E S; Kavehrad, M

    1994-04-01

    To our knowledge only one processing formula for silver-halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) derived from Agfa-Gevaert holographic plates has been published in the current literature, which is apparently a result of the extremely high degree of hardening of the gelatin emulsion. We propose a modified processing formula for SHSG derived from Agfa-Gevaert plates. The holographic characteristics of the processed SHSG plates were measured and high diffraction efficiency, as high as 80%, and an almost flat spatial-frequency response within the region of interest were achieved. Some of our observations during the experiments are discussed. The behavior of the gelatin emulsion was consistent with the models for processing dichromated gelatin. We observed swelling rather than the shrinkage expected from the removal of the silver-halide grains. This swelling can be controlled by postbaking.

  14. Recording materials for holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichine, Mikhail V.; Skokov, Gleb R.; Ratcliffe, David B.; Kumonko, Petr I.; Sazonov, Yury A.

    1999-08-01

    We present a general review of our current recording materials suitable for laser interferometry applications. The review will cover fine-grain Silver-Halide materials sensitive to the red (PFG-01) and green (VRP-M) spectral ranges. These products have characteristics very similar to the old Agfa products 8E75 and 8E56. Additionally ultra-fine grain red-sensitive and panchromatic Silver-Halide materials will be covered as well as products based on dichromated gelatin. In each case detailed characteristics of each emulsion type will be presented and recommended processing schemes will be discussed in the context of both Pulsed and CW radiation sources. The choice of commercially available substrate and material dimensions will be mentioned.

  15. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of ultra trace amounts of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, A A; Kazemzadeh, A

    2000-07-01

    A new simple, sensitive and rapid catalytic-spectrophotometric method for the determination of oxalic acid has been described based on its catalytic effect on the redox reaction between dichromate and Brilliant cresyl blue in acidic media by means of a flow injection analysis method. The color change of Brilliant cresyl blue due to its oxidation was monitored spectrophotometrically at 625 nm. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.020-4.70 microg/mL oxalic acid with a limit of detection 0.005 microg/mL of oxalic acid. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate measurements of 0.020 microg/mL and 0.900 microg/mL was 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively. No serious interference was identified. Oxalic acid was determined in wastewater and in spinach by the proposed method with satisfactory results.

  16. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION

    DOEpatents

    Buckingham, J.S.; Carroll, J.L.

    1959-12-22

    A process is described for reducing the extractability of ruthenium, zirconium, and niobium values into hexone contained in an aqueous nitric acid uranium-containing solution. The solution is made acid-deficient, heated to between 55 and 70 deg C, and at that temperature a water-soluble inorganic thiosulfate is added. By this, a precipitate is formed which carries the bulk of the ruthenium, and the remainder of the ruthenium as well as the zirconium and niobium are converted to a hexone-nonextractable form. The rutheniumcontaining precipitate can either be removed from the solu tion or it can be dissolved as a hexone-non-extractable compound by the addition of sodium dichromate prior to hexone extraction.

  17. Quantification of activated carbon contents in soils and sediments using chemothermal and wet oxidation methods.

    PubMed

    Brändli, Rahel C; Bergsli, Anders; Ghosh, Upal; Hartnik, Thomas; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2009-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) strongly sorbs organic pollutants and can be used for remediation of soils and sediments. A method for AC quantification is essential to monitor AC (re)distribution. Since AC is black carbon (BC), two methods for BC quantification were tested for AC mixed in different soils and sediments: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet-chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. For three soils, the amount of AC was accurately determined by CTO at 375 degrees C. For two sediments, however, much of the AC disappeared during combustion at 375 degrees C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects by sediment constituents. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350 degrees C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation effectively functioned for AC quantification in sediments, with almost complete AC recovery (81-92%) and low remaining amounts of native organic carbon (5-16%).

  18. Determination of total mercury in biological and geological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, James G.

    2005-01-01

    The analytical chemist is faced with several challenges when determining mercury in biological and geological materials. These challenges include widespread mercury contamination, both in the laboratory and the environment, possible losses of mercury during sample preparation and digestion, the wide range of mercury values commonly observed, ranging from the low nanogram per gram or per liter for background areas to hundreds of milligrams per kilogram in contaminated or ore-bearing areas, great matrix diversity, and sample heterogeneity1. These factors can be naturally occurring or anthropogenic, but must be addressed to provide a precise and accurate analysis. Although there are many instrumental methods available for the successful determination of mercury, no one technique will address all problems or all samples all of the time. The approach for the determination of mercury used at the U.S. Geological Survey, Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team, Denver Laboratories, utilizes a suite of complementary instrumental methods when approaching a study requiring mercury analyses. Typically, a study could require the analysis of waters, leachates or selective digestions of solids, vegetation, and biological materials such as tissue, bone, or shell, soils, rocks, sediments, coals, sludges, and(or) ashes. No one digestion or sample preparation method will be suitable for all of these matrices. The digestions typically employed at our laboratories include: (i) a closed-vessel microwave method using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by digestion/dilution with a nitric acid/sodium dichromate solution, (ii) a robotic open test-tube digestion with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, (iii) a sealed Teflon? vessel with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, (iv) a sealed glass bottle with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, or (v) open test tube digestion with nitric and sulfuric acids and vanadium pentoxide. The common factor in all these digestions is that they are

  19. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Peerless Plating, Muskegon Township, MI. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-21

    The 1-acre Peerless Plating site is a former electroplating facility in Muskegon Township, Michigan, and is located northwest of Little Black Creek and 1 mile north of Mona Lake. Lake Michigan supplies drinking water for residential and commercial businesses within a 3-mile radius of the site. From 1937 to 1983, onsite electroplating operations and processes included copper, nickel, chromium, cadmium, and zinc plating, in addition to burnishing, polishing, pickling, oiling, passivating, stress relieving, and dichromate dipping. In the 1970s, the state directed Peerless Plating to monitor waste discharge daily and to install a treatment system to meet reduced effluent limitations. The site violated the requirements and was charged by the state. The ROD addresses the onsite contaminated soil and ground water as a final remedy. The primary contaminants of concern are VOCs, including benzene, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead; and inorganics, including cyanide. The selected remedial action for the site are included.

  20. Synthesis of 19-oxygenated 4beta,5beta-epoxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione as mechanistic and catalytic probes for aromatase reaction.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, M; Yoshimura, A

    2000-09-01

    4Beta,5beta-epoxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione (2), one of the natural substrates for aromatase, and its 19-oxygenated compounds 4 and 5 were synthesized as mechanistic and catalytic probes for the enzyme reaction. Treatment of 16alpha-bromoandrostenedione (13) or its 19-hydroxy analog 19 which was prepared from 3beta-hydroxy-19-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)androst-5-en-17-one (16) in three steps, with H2O2 and NaOH followed by controlled alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH in aqueous pyridine stereospecifically yielded 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-ol 15 or 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha,19-diol 22, respectively. Oxidation of 16beta-bromo-4beta,5beta-epoxy-19-ol 21 with pyridinium dichromate followed by controlled alkaline hydrolysis produced 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-hydroxy-19-al 24.

  1. Biological and chemical reactivity and phosphorus forms of buffalo manure compost, vermicompost and their mixture with biochar.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Phuong-Thi; Rumpel, Cornelia; Ngo, Quoc-Anh; Alexis, Marie; Velásquez Vargas, Gabriela; Mora Gil, Maria de la Luz; Dang, Dinh-Kim; Jouquet, Pascal

    2013-11-01

    This study characterized the carbon and phosphorus composition of buffalo manure, its compost and vermicompost and investigated if presence of bamboo biochar has an effect on their chemical and biological reactivity. The four substrates were characterized for chemical and biochemical composition and P forms. The biological stability of the four substrates and their mixtures were determined during an incubation experiment. Their chemical reactivity was analyzed after acid dichromate oxidation. Biological reactivity of these substrates was related to their soluble organic matter content, which decreased in the order buffalo manure>compost>vermicompost. Phosphorus was labile in all organic substrates and composting transformed organic P into plant available P. The presence of biochar led to a protection of organic matter against chemical oxidation and changed their susceptibility to biological degradation, suggesting that biochar could increase the carbon sequestration potential of compost, vermicompost and manure, when applied in mixture.

  2. Grisms Developed for FOCAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Oka, Keiko; Yamada, Akiko; Kashiwagi, Masako; Kodate, Kashiko; Hattori, Takashi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori

    2011-03-01

    Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph (FOCAS) is a versatile common-use optical instrument for the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope, offering imaging and spectroscopic observations. FOCAS employs grisms with resolving powers ranging from 280 to 8200 as dispersive optical elements. A grism is a direct-vision grating composed of a transmission grating and prism(s). FOCAS has five grisms with replica surface-relief gratings including an echelle-type grism, and eight grisms with volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings. The size of these grisms is 110 mm × 106 mm in aperture with a maximum thickness of 110 mm. We employ not only the dichromated gelatin, but also the hologram resin as a recording material for VPH gratings. We discuss the performance of these FOCAS grisms measured in the laboratory, and verify it by test observations, and show examples of astronomical spectroscopic observations.

  3. Performance of volume phase holographic transmission grating recorded in DCG for PGP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Tang, Minxue; Xia, Haohan; Fang, Chunhuan; Wu, Jianhong; Zhao, Xunjie

    2010-11-01

    The volume phase holographic (VPH) transmission grating recorded in dichromate gelatin (DCG) with a specific spectral coverage from 420 nm to 760 nm is designed for a novel prism-grating-prism imaging spectrometer. Based on the Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis, its performances are predicted and analyzed. The grating is manufactured and its properties are measured experimentally. The diffraction efficiency over the spectral range, the bandwidth, and the angular selectivity of the grating is measured, analyzed and compared with that of the theoretical ones. The results show that by adjusting and controlling the preparation conditions of DCG plates, the exposure time and the post-processing technique of the grating, the VPH transmission grating with high diffraction efficiency approximate to the design requirement can be obtained. The measured peak diffraction efficiency reaches nearly 85% at central wavelength of 590 nm while the average diffraction efficiency is larger than 75% over the required spectral range from 420 nm to 760 nm.

  4. Novel cone lasing emission in a non-uniform one-dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Ying, Cui-Feng; Yang, Na; Chen, Shao-Jie; Ye, Qing; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    Novel cone lasing emission is observed from a photonic crystal (PC) with graded layers, which is fabricated by two-beam holographic interference in dichromated gelatin. The cone lasing is composed of one lasing spot and one concentric lasing ring. The good agreement between the experimental results and a numerical simulation performed using the transfer matrix method demonstrates that this lasing ring is induced by the coupling between the band edge and minigap, which is represented as some oscillations near the band edge in the passband of the reflection spectrum. The cone lasing may be useful for multi-wavelength fluorescence detection since the dual-colour directional enhanced fluorescence can be achieved without the mutual interference of lasing modes. Moreover, this readily observable cone lasing provides a direct visualization of the dispersion relation of non-uniform PCs.

  5. PROCESS USING BISMUTH PHOSPHATE AS A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AND PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-03-10

    A process is described for separating plutonium from fission products carried therewith when plutonium in the reduced oxidation state is removed from a nitric acid solution of irradiated uranium by means of bismuth phosphate as a carrier precipitate. The bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate is dissolved by treatment with nitric acid and the plutonium therein is oxidized to the hexavalent oxidation state by means of potassium dichromate. Separation of the plutonium from the fission products is accomplished by again precipitating bismuth phosphate and removing the precipitate which now carries the fission products and a small percentage of the plutonium present. The amount of plutonium carried in this last step may be minimized by addition of sodium fluoride, so as to make the solution 0.03N in NaF, prior to the oxidation and prccipitation step.

  6. Process for producing gallium-containing solution from the aluminum smelting dust

    SciTech Connect

    Era, A.; Matsui, S.; Ikeda, H.

    1988-03-01

    A process is described for producing a gallium-containing solution from aluminum smelting dust comprising leaching aluminum smelting dust with a mineral acid selected from the group consisting of sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, and adding an oxidizing agent to the aluminum smelting dust at the time of leaching to preferentially leach and extract gallium from the aluminum smelting dust without extracting aluminum from the aluminum smelting dust. The oxidizing agent is selected from the group consisting of potassium permanganate, manganese dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, potassium chromate, potassium dichromate, ammonium persulfate, sodium hydrochlorite, sodium chlorite and sodium chlorate. The leached aluminum smelting dust is filtered to obtain a gallium-containing solution of dissolved gallium.

  7. Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. fruit peel oil on mutagenicity of two alkylating agents and two metals in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    PubMed

    Demir, Eşref; Kocaoğlu, Serap; Cetin, Huseyin; Kaya, Bülent

    2009-07-01

    Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. (Rutaceae) fruit peel oil (CPO) in combination with mutagenic metals and alkylating agents were studied using the wing spot test of D. melanogaster. The four reference mutagens, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were clearly genotoxic. CPO alone at doses from 0.1 to 0.5% in Tween 80 was not mutagenic and did not enhance the mutagenic effect of the reference mutagens. However, antigenotoxic effects of CPO were clearly demonstrated in chronic cotreatments with mutagens and oil, by a significant decrease in wing spots induced by all four mutagens. The D. melanogaster wing spot test was found to be a suitable assay for detecting antigenotoxic effects in vivo.

  8. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  9. Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Neipp, C; Pascual, I; Beléndez, A

    1999-03-10

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) is one of the most interesting techniques for the production of holographic optical elements, achieving relatively high sensitivity of photographic material with a low scattering of dichromated gelatin. Here we present experimental results for SHSG derived from the novel BB-640, a red-sensitive ultra-fine-grain emulsion from Holographic Recording Technologies (Steinau, Germany). The material is characterized before recording and after processing, and information about the thickness, absorption, and refractive-index modulation of the final holograms is obtained. The influence of the developer is analyzed, and diffraction efficiencies as great as 96.2% (after allowing for reflections) with a transmission of 1% and absorption and scatter losses of 2.8% are obtained with AAC developer. Our investigations reveal that high-quality SHSG transmission holograms may be obtained with the new BB-640 plates.

  10. Blue CrO5 assay: a novel spectrophotometric method for the evaluation of the antioxidant and oxidant capacity of various biological substances.

    PubMed

    Charalampidis, Pavlos S; Veltsistas, Panos; Karkabounas, Spyros; Evangelou, Angelos

    2009-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the ageing process and in the pathogenesis of numerable diseases. The quantification of the phenomenon is of paramount importance. In the present study, we introduce a novel and simple assay, the Blue CrO(5) assay, for the evaluation of the oxidant and antioxidant capacity of various biological samples and known antioxidants. Chromium peroxide (CrO(5)) is produced by ammonium dichromate in an acidic environment in the presence of H(2)O(2). It is a deep blue potent oxidant compound, miscible and relatively stable in polar organic solvents, that can be easily measured by spectrophotometry. Its reduction by known antioxidants, both water- and lipid-soluble (ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol, respectively, in this study), detected spectrophotometrically as a decrease in the absorption and depicted in EPR spectra, can act as a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a certain compound. The assay displays significant sensitivity, stability, linearity, specificity and repeatability.

  11. GFAAS determination of ultratrace quantities of organotins in sea-water by using enhancement methods.

    PubMed

    Parks, E J; Blair, W R; Brinckman, F E

    1985-08-01

    Tributyltin in sea-water is preconcentrated by extraction into toluene and determined by enhanced graphite-furnace atomic-absorption (GFAAS) at ultratrace concentrations (as low as 1.0 mug l .) equal to or lower than the toxic limits for aquatic organotins. Toluene is preferred to MIBK, chloroform or hexane as the solvent. Sea salts, in concentrations as low as 0.1%, critically interfere with GFAAS tin determinations, and must be removed by washing the extract with demineralized water. Signal enhancement effected by inserting L'vov platforms in the graphite furnace tubes or by adding ammonium dichromate to the analyte solution is nearly additive when both methods of enhancement are combined.

  12. Low Frequency NQR using Double Contact Cross-relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Smith, John A. S.

    2000-02-01

    A cross-relaxation technique is described which involves two spin contacts per double reso-nance cycle. The result is an improvement in signal to noise ratio particularly at low frequencies. Experimental spectra and analyses are presented: 14N in ammonium sulphate showing that the tech-nique gives essentially the same information as previous studies; 14N in ammonium dichromate determining e2Qq/h as (76±3) kHz and η = 0.84±.04; 7Li in lithium acetylacetonate for which the spectrum (corrected for Zeeman distortion) yields e2Qq/h = (152 ±5) kHz and η=.5 ±.2. Calculated spectra are presented to demonstrate the η dependence of the line shapes for 7Li.

  13. Polymer Gelatin Waveguide In Conjuction With Integrated Holographic Optical Elements On GaAs, LiNb03, Glass, And Aluminum Substrates For Optical Interconnects, Signal Processing, And Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ray T.

    1990-02-01

    We have observed waveguiding in thin films of polymer gelatin on GaAs, LiNb03, glass and aluminum substrates. A graded index profile can be induced in the gelatin layer and tuned by wet processing. This makes it possible to form waveguides on any smooth surface. Locally sensitizing the gelatin waveguide with ammonium dichromate allows us to integrate single and multiplexed gratings on the same substrate to perform various functions for optical interconnects and signal processing. A waveguide grating coupler that converts free space TEM00 laser light to a two dimensional spherical guided wave with 50° angle of divergence has also demonstrated. A passive broadcasting network can be formed using this new technology. Further plausible applications such as WD(D)M local area network, optical interconnection, and optical computing are also presented.

  14. Holograms of fluorescent albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2011-09-01

    We report the characterization and analysis of photochromic films gallus gallus albumin as a matrix modified for holographic recording. Photo-oxidation of homogeneous mixtures prepared with albumin-propylene glycol, to combine chemically with aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate at certain concentrations. We analyzed the diffraction gratings, through the diffraction efficiency of the proposed material. Also, eosin was used as a fluorescent agent, so it is found that produces an inhibitory effect, thus decreasing the diffraction efficiency of the matrices prepared in near-identical circumstances. The work was to achieve stability of albumin films, were prepared with propylene glycol. Finally, experimental studies were performed with films when subjected to aqueous solution of eosin (fluorescent agent) to verify the ability to increase or decrease in diffraction efficiency.

  15. 'Catalysts' for polyacrylamide gel polymerization and detection of proteins by silver staining.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, D F; Merril, C R

    1988-01-01

    The crosslinker diacrylyl-piperazine produces polyacrylamide gels which display improved electrophoretic separation of proteins and better physical strength. It also produces gels with improved detection of proteins by ammoniacal silver staining by reducing the background. This reduced background provided us with an opportunity to investigate residual background staining caused by the catalytic reagents utilized in the polymerization of acrylamide gels. The commonly used catalyst system, tetramethyl-ethylenediamine and ammonium persulfate was shown to be responsible for the yellow staining background found after a prolonged development time with silver staining. An alternate catalyst system has been designed to decrease further the formation of this background staining. Dimethyl-piperazine or tetramethylethylenediamine, potassium or ammonium persulfate, and sodium thiosulfate are shown to provide for gels which have excellent mechanical and staining characteristics. These catalytic systems produce little background staining despite prolonged development time with the ammoniacal silver stain, and they reduce background staining with the dichromate silver stain.

  16. Integration of holographic optical elements with polymer gelatin waveguides on GaAs, LiNbO(3), glass, and aluminum.

    PubMed

    Chen, R T; Phillips, W; Jannson, T; Pelka, D

    1989-08-15

    We have observed waveguiding in thin films of polymer gelatin on GaAs, LiNbO(3), glass, and aluminum substrates. A graded-index profile can be induced in the gelatin layer and tuned by wet processing. This makes it possible to form waveguides on any smooth surface. Locally sensitizing the gelatin waveguide with ammonium dichromate allows us to integrate single and multiplexed gratings on the same substrate to perform various functions for optical interconnects and signal processing. A waveguide grating coupler that converts free-space TEM(00) laser light to a two-dimensional spherical guided wave with 50 degrees angle of divergence has also been demonstrated. An optical clock distribution network on wafer-scale integrated circuits is feasible with this new technology.

  17. Modified Sol-Gel Processing of NiCr2O4 Nanoparticles; Structural Analysis and Optical Band Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enhessari, Morteza; Salehabadi, Ali; Khanahmadzadeh, Salah; Arkat, Kamal; Nouri, Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Nickel Chromite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a modified sol-gel method using nickel acetate and ammonium dichromate in melted stearic acid as a complexing agent. The diffractograms of the nanoparticles confirmed a pure formation of NiCr2O4 spinel without any minor phase. The coordination structure of as prepared nanoparticles shows a series of absorption bands below 1,000 cm-1 were evidenced the M-O (Cr-O, Ni-O) bond in the sample. Optical band gap, magnetic properties and color parameters (L*.a*.b*) indicates that the final nanoparticles are optically and magnetically active. The particle size of NiCr2O4 was calculated using Scherrer equation at about 24 nm. Optical band gap obtained at 1.7 eV indicating that NiCr2O4 nanoparticles are semiconductor material and can be used in electrical devices.

  18. Shape-controlled synthesis of PbCrO4 micro/nanostructures and their luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chang-Jie; Wu, Xing-Cai; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2010-08-01

    PbCrO4 with different morphologies have been synthesized via a facile sonochemical route from an aqueous solution of lead acetate and potassium dichromate in the presence of nitrilotriacetate acid (H3NTA). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The pH and the concentration of complexing reagent were found to have close relation with morphology of the final product. The possible growth mechanism of PbCrO4 microcube has been proposed. UV-Vis spectra and room-temperature photoluminescence of the PbCrO4 micro/nanostructures have also been investigated. Results showed that all the samples possessed strong photoluminescence (PL) properties, suggesting that the micro/nanostructures could be used in novel optoelectronic devices.

  19. The involvement of ATP sulfurylase in Se(VI) and Cr(VI) reduction processes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Raspor, P; Fujs, S; Banszky, L; Maraz, A; Batic, M

    2003-11-01

    The response of Schizosaccharomyces pombe towards the oxyanions selenate [Se(VI)] and dichromate [Cr(VI)] was investigated in order to establish the involvement of the yeast ATP sulfurylase in their reduction. An ATP sulfurylase-defective/selenate-resistant mutant of S. pombe (B-579 Se(R) -2) and an ATP sulfurylase-active/selenate-sensitive strain of S. pombe (B-579 Se(S)) were included in this study. The inhibitory effect of Se(VI) and Cr(VI) oxyanions on growth and bioaccumulation was measured. The sensitive strain showed natural sensitivity to selenate while the resistant mutant tolerated a 100-fold higher concentration of selenate. These results indicate that selenate toxicity to microorganisms is connected with the reduction of selenate to selenite. Both strains showed similar sensitivity to Cr(VI) and in this study there was no evidence that ATP sulfurylase participates in the reduction process of Cr(VI).

  20. Preliminary results from the investigation of thermal effects in electrokinetics soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T.R.; Tarman, B.

    1993-10-01

    Electrokinetics is an emerging soil remediation technology. Contaminants are extracted from the soil as a result of a complex set of phenomena that occur when an electric gradient is imposed across a soil-water system. The primary phenomena include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. Secondary phenomena, such as changes in solubility or speciation of various chemical components, may occur as a result of electrically induced changes in the chemical environment of the system. Numerous factors, such as temperature, may affect each of these phenomena and, consequently, the overall process efficiency. We have begun an investigation of thermal effects in the extraction of potassium dichromate from kaolinite soils under conditions of constant saturation and dewatering. Preliminary results suggest that increasing the soil temperature from 21 to 55{degrees}C may decrease the processing time under saturated conditions. However, increasing the soil temperature under dewatering, conditions causes soil cracking, which reduces the overall process efficiency.

  1. Holographic perfect shuffle permutation element for a miniaturized switching network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobolla, H.; Schmidt, J.; Gluch, E.; Schwider, J.

    1995-06-01

    A holographic perfect shuffle element with 80 channels for a miniaturized switching network is reported. An array of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers is used as a transmitter. The whole permutation is carried out totally in glass. The 80 channels are permuted within a rectangle with a volume of 3 mm \\times 4 mm \\times 2 mm. Four planes of stacked volume holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin form this perfect shuffle element with an angular spectrum between 7 deg and 35 deg. Changes in the wavelength of the diode lasers to Delta lambda = +/-10 nm can be compensated with this setup. The overall efficiency per channel lies between 40% and 60%. When Fresnel reflections and absorption are taken into account, a transmission per hologram between 78% and 90% is achieved.

  2. Hexavalent chromium adsorption on impregnated palm shell activated carbon with polyethyleneimine.

    PubMed

    Owlad, Mojdeh; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2010-07-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution was investigated using modified palm shell activated carbon. Low Molecular Weight Polyethyleneimine (LMW PEI) was used for impregnation purpose. The maximum amount of LMW PEI adsorbed on activated carbon was determined to be approximately 228.2mg/g carbon. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system using potassium dichromate K(2)Cr(2)O(7) as the source of Cr(VI) in the synthetic waste water and modified palm shell activated carbon as the adsorbent. The effects of pH, concentration of Cr(VI) and PEI loaded on activated carbon were studied. The adsorption data were found to fit well with the Freundlich isotherm model. This modified Palm shell activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for chromium ions.

  3. A Commercial Device Involving the Breathalyzer Test Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrink, Kathleen J.

    1996-02-01

    The breathalyzer test, formerly used by law-enforcement agencies to determine the percentage blood alcohol in suspected DUI cases, is still used in the device FINAL CALL, which is available commercially. The reaction involves the reduction of chromuim(VI) in the orange dichromate ion, Cr2O72- to the green chromium(III) ion, Cr3+ by ethyl alcohol. 8H+ + Cr2O72- (orange) + 3C2H5OH ----> 2Cr3+ (green) + 3C2H4O + 7H2O FINAL CALL consists of a 10-cm glass tube packed with three bands of silica gel crystals coated with a dilute acidic solution of potassium dichromate to produce a yellow color. A test subject fills a balloon (included with the device) with breath; the filled balloon is attached to the end of the glass tube to allow the sampled breath to flow through the tube for 60 seconds. When ethyl alcohol vapor makes contact with the yellow-coated crystals, the color changes from yellow to green. The number of bands which change color and the intensity of the color indicate the relative amount of alcohol in the breath. To simulate the use of a FINAL CALL device, a few drops of ethyl alcohol are carefully placed in the end of the tube, followed by blowing through the tube. FINAL CALL is commonly used to monitor patients at alcohol-rehabilitation centers and in other situations where zero tolerance conditions exist (e.g., legal confinement and probation status).

  4. Precise coulometric titration of sodium thiosulfate and development of potassium iodate as a redox standard.

    PubMed

    Asakai, Toshiaki; Murayama, Mariko; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko

    2007-09-15

    In this paper, we determine the effective purity of potassium iodate as a redox standard with a certified value linked to the international system of units (SI units). Concentration measurement of sodium thiosulfate solution was performed by precise coulometric titration with electrogenerated iodine, and an assay of potassium iodate was carried out by gravimetric titration based on the reductometric factor of sodium thiosulfate assigned by coulometry. The accuracy of the coulometric titration method was evaluated by examining the current efficiency of iodine electrogeneration, stability of sodium thiosulfate solutions and dependence on the amount of sodium thiosulfate solution used. The measurement procedure for gravimetric titration of potassium iodate with sodium thiosulfate was validated based on determination of a reference material of known purity (potassium dichromate determined by coulometry with electrogenerated ferrous ions) using the same gravimetric method. Solutions of 0.2 and 0.5mol/L sodium thiosulfate were stable over 17 days without stabilizer. Investigation of the dependency of titration results on the amount of sodium thiosulfate solution used showed no significant effects, no evidence of diffusion of the sample, and no effect of contamination appearing during the experiment. Precise coulometric titration of sodium thiosulfate achieved a relative standard deviation of less than 0.005% under repeating conditions (six measurements). For gravimetric titration, the results obtained for the effective purity of potassium dichromate were sufficiently close to its certified value to allow confirmation of the validity of the gravimetric titration was confirmed. The relative standard deviation of gravimetric titration for potassium iodate was less than 0.011% (nine measurements), and a redox standard with a certified value linked to SI units was developed.

  5. Hexavalent chromium compounds in the workplace: assessing the extent and magnitude of occupational exposure in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Binazzi, Alessandra; Marzio, Davide Di; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study evaluates the extent and magnitude of occupational exposures to Cr(VI) in Italy. Data were collected from exposure registries of companies compulsorily notified by the National Workers' Compensation Authority. Each measurement was characterized by economic activity sector, work force size, worker personal data, job description, year of measurement, and level of exposure. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out on the retrieved information. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some industrial sectors. A mixed-effects model was adopted to evaluate the association between exposure variables and exposure concentrations. Over 8400 measurements of Cr(VI) exposures were selected from the database of registries for 1996-2009. Most exposures occurred in the manufacture of fabricated metal products (>50%), and the occupational group most frequently measured was metal finishing-, plating- and coating-machine operators (>52%). Measurements were associated with various Cr(VI) compounds, including chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, strontium chromate, and zinc chromate. Cr(VI) exposure has decreased in more recent years, and the fixed-effects (Cr(VI) compound, activity sector, size and location of the facility, job category, and year of measurement of the final statistical model explained more than 70% of the variance in the observed exposure data. This study summarized data recorded in the Italian occupational exposure database and identified specific exposure patterns to Cr(VI). The mean level of exposure to Cr(VI) was 30.41 μg/m³, and 50,118 workers were estimated at exposure risk in the selected industrial sectors. Systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that allows recognition of high risk situations and improvements in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies.

  6. Analysis of organic sulfur and nitrogen in coal via tandem degradation methods. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March--31 May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kruge, M.A.; Palmer, S.R.; Baudet, N.

    1992-10-01

    Sporinite, vitrinite and semi-fusinite single macerals were separated from the IBC 101 coal by the density gradient technique. In addition, a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) system was assembled and the GPC column calibrated with four polystyrene molecular weight standards. A variety of sulfur compounds were identified in the dichromate oxidation products of the IBC 101 coal, including a thiazole and isomers of C2-, C3- and C4-alkyl thiophene carboxylic acids. Precise agreement between GC-MS and FPD chromatograms were obtained for these compounds. These compounds probably originated as short alkyl chains on exterior portions of the original peat macromolecular structures and were sulfurized by H{sub 2}S shortly after burial. Thus the dichromate oxidation appears useful for the characterization of sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, this treatment yields only small amounts of products, but the reaction is relatively mild. On the other hand the peroxyacetic acid gives a very good yield in only a single step, but seems to be very degradative. It was difficult to isolate the products after lithium aluminum hydride reduction of oxidation products. It is believed that this is due to the formation of polyalcohols from polycarboxyl compounds. However polyalcohols were successfully converted to their parent hydrocarbons by the LAH reduction of tosylate intermediates. This allows for much easier separation and characterization and leads to enhanced elucidation of coal structures. To test the hypothesis that asphaltenes are similar in structure to their parent coal, IBC101 asphaltenes and the extracted coal were subjected to PAA oxidation and analytical pyrolysis. The PAA products as well as the pyrolysates show very good correlation. This indicates a very strong relationship between the organic structure of the coal and that of the asphaltenes derived from them.

  7. Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples for dissolved mercury requires special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a

  8. Embryotoxic effects of environmental chemicals: tests with the South African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis)

    SciTech Connect

    Dumpert, K.

    1987-06-01

    In the course of the investigations reported below, it was shown that p-chloroaniline has a lethal effect on the embryos of Xenopus laevis at a concentration of 100 ppm and is development inhibiting (teratogenic) at concentrations of 1 and 10 ppm, respectively. In the case of aniline, a significant development-inhibiting effect was observed at a concentration as low as 1 ppm. A toxic effect was caused by concentrations between 30 and 40 ppm during embryogenesis and by concentrations above 40 ppm during larval development. A very conspicuous finding was an inhibiting effect of 20 to 40 ppm aniline on pigmentation during embryogenesis and of a concentration as low as 1 ppm on the body size of the young toads. In the case of potassium dichromate, it was possible to barely detect a weak development-inhibiting effect during embryogenesis but no development-retarding effect during larval development. Toxic effects of potassium dichromate occurred during embryogenesis at concentrations of 5 and 7.5 ppm and during the larval development at concentrations above 10 ppm. Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid at a concentration of 50 ppm was found to have such a strong embryolethal effect that 80% of the eggs showed no cell division at all and the remaining 20% developed to only the bicellular stage. A teratogenic effect of this substance was not observed. Phenol, too, was found to be toxic at a concentration of 50 ppm; in contrast to sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, however, it did not show any lethal effect on the embryos but it did on the tadpoles, mainly in the first stages of larval development. Lower concentrations of phenol (5 and 10 ppm) had a nonsignificant inhibiting effect on the growth of the larvae. A teratogenic effect of phenol was not detected.

  9. Assessment of Exposure to Alcohol Vapor from Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20–30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  10. Inhibition of corrosion of Al 6061, aluminum, and an aluminum-copper alloy in chloride-free aqueous media. Part 2: Behavior in basic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kharafi, F.M.; Badawy, W.A.

    1998-05-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of Al 6061 (UNS A96061), Al and an Al-Cu alloy were investigated in aqueous solutions. Inhibition of the corrosion processes in basic solutions was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization techniques. Among a series of inhibitors, molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) and dichromates (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}}) were found effective in passivating the metal or alloy surface. The high inhibition action of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}} was traced and discussed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the different electrode materials revealed the presence of Cu peaks on the Al-Cu alloy surface. Immersion of the different electrodes in basic solutions containing the same concentration of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}}, MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) anions did not show characteristic peaks of Cr, Mo, or S, which meant the surface layer consisted mainly of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Depth profiling experiments up to 6.0-nm thickness showed the Cu peaks of the Al-Cu alloy appeared after etching and that Mo was incorporated in the surface film. The presence of Cu on the Al-Cu surface initiated flawed regions, identified by scanning electron microscopy, which were responsible for increased corrosion rates of this alloy. Effectiveness of the dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor for these materials resulted from its powerful oxidizing properties, which led to formation of a stable passive film.

  11. Land use, genetic diversity and toxicant tolerance in natural populations of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Coors, Anja; Vanoverbeke, Joost; De Bie, Tom; De Meester, Luc

    2009-10-19

    Provided that gene flow is not too high, selection by local environmental conditions in heterogeneous landscapes can lead to genetic adaptation of natural populations to their local habitat. Pollution with anthropogenic toxicants may create pronounced environmental gradients that impose strong local selection pressures. Toxic contaminants may also directly impact genetic structure in natural populations by exhibiting genotoxicity or by causing population declines resulting in genetic bottlenecks. Using populations of Daphnia magna established from the dormant egg banks of ponds located in a landscape dominated by anthropogenic impact, we aimed at detecting evidence for local adaptation to environmental contamination. We explored the relationship between land use around the 10 investigated ponds, population genetic diversity as measured by neutral genetic markers (polymorphic allozymes) and the tolerance of the populations originating from these ponds to acute lethal effects of two model toxicants, the pesticide carbaryl and the metal potassium dichromate. Genetic diversity of the populations as observed by neutral markers tended to be negatively impacted by agricultural land use intensity (Spearman rank correlation, R=-0.614, P=0.059), indicating that genetic bottlenecks may have resulted from anthropogenic impact. We experimentally observed differences in susceptibility to both carbaryl and potassium dichromate among the studied pond populations of D. magna (analysis of deviance, P<0.001). Because the experimental design excluded the possibility of physiological adaptation of the test animals to the toxicants, we conclude that the differences in susceptibility must have a genetic basis. Moreover, carbaryl tolerance levels of the populations tended to increase with increasing agricultural land use intensity as described by ranked percentage of land coverage with cereal and corn crop in the proximity of the ponds (Spearman rank correlation, R=0.602, P=0

  12. Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steroidogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Banu, Sakhila K. Samuel, Jawahar B.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Aruldhas, Michael M.

    2008-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) is used in a wide range of industries. Cr-VI from chromate industries and atmospheric emissions contribute to the Cr contamination in the environment. Cr is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects including ovotoxicity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the basic mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity, and the protective role of vitamin C on ovarian follicular development and function in Cr(VI)-induced reproductive toxicity using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Lactating rats received potassium dichromate (200 mg/L) with or without vitamin C (500 mg/L), through drinking water from postpartum days 1-21. During postnatal days (PND) 1-21 the pups received Cr(VI) via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards, and euthanized on PND-21, -45 and -65. Cr(VI) decreased steroidogenesis, GH and PRL, increased FSH and did not alter LH. Cr(VI) delayed puberty, decreased follicle number, and extended estrous cycle. Spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells were treated with 12.5 {mu}M (IC{sub 50}) potassium dichromate for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment. Cr(VI) decreased the mRNA expressions of StAR, SF-1, 17{beta}-HSD-1, 17{beta}-HSD-2, FSHR, LHR, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. Vitamin C pre-treatment protected ovary and granulosa cells from the deleterious effects of Cr(VI) toxicity, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Cr(VI) toxicity could be a potential risk to the reproductive system in developing females, and vitamin C plays a protective role against Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity.

  13. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry.

  14. Application of inorganic oxidants to the spectrophotometric determination of ribavirin in bulk and capsules.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Khedr, Alaa S; Askal, Hassan F; Mohamed, Ramadan M

    2006-01-01

    Eight spectrophotometric methods for determination of ribavirin have been developed and validated. These methods were based on the oxidation of the drug by different inorganic oxidants: ceric ammonium sulfate, potassium permanganate, ammonium molybdate, ammonium metavanidate, chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, potassium iodate, and potassium periodate. The oxidation reactions were performed in perchloric acid medium for ceric ammonium sulfate and in sulfuric acid medium for the other reagents. With ceric ammonium sulfate and potassium permanganate, the concentration of ribavirin in its samples was determined by measuring the decrease in the absorption intensity of the colored reagents at 315 and 525 nm, respectively. With the other reagents, the concentration of ribavirin was determined by measuring the intensity of the developed colored reaction products at the wavelengths of maximum absorbance: 675, 780, 595, 595, 475, and 475 nm for reactions with ammonium molybdate, ammonium metavanidate, chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, potassium iodate, and potassium periodate, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction conditions were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9984-0.9998) were found between the absorbance readings and the concentrations of ribavirin in the range of 4-1400 microg/mL. The molar absorptivities were correlated with the oxidation potential of the oxidants used. The precision of the methods were satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.64%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of ribavirin in pure drug material and capsules with good accuracy and precision; the recovery values were 99.2-101.2 +/- 0.48-1.30%. The results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric methods were comparable with those obtained with the official method stated in the United States Pharmacopeia.

  15. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  16. Assessment of exposure to alcohol vapor from alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and H(2)SO(4). The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20-30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects.

  17. CONCENTRATION AND DECONTAMINATION OF SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHODS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for isolating plutonium present in the tetravalent state in an aqueous solution together with fission products. First, the plutonium and fission products are coprecipitated on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The precipitate obtained is dissolved, and the plutonium in the solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state (with ceric nitrate, potassium dichromate, Pb/ sub 3/O/sub 4/, sodium bismuthate and/or potassium dichromate). Thereafter a carrier for fission products is added (bismuth phosphate, lanthanum fluoride, ceric phosphate, bismuth oxalate, thorium iodate, or thorium oxalate), and the fission-product precipitation can be repeated with one other of these carriers. After removal of the fission-product-containing precipitate or precipitates. the plutonium in the supernatant is reduced to the tetravalent state (with sulfur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide. or sodium nitrate), and a carrier for tetravalent plutonium is added (lanthanum fluoride, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum phosphate, ceric phosphate, thorium iodate, thorium oxalate, bismuth oxalate, or niobium pentoxide). The plutonium-containing precipitate is then dissolved in a relatively small volume of liquid so as to obtain a concentrated solution. Prior to dissolution, the bismuth phosphate precipitates first formed can be metathesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate and plutonium-containing lanthanum fluorides with alkali-metal hydroxide. In the solutions formed from a plutonium-containing lanthanum fluoride carrier the plutonium can be selectively precipitated with a peroxide after the pH was adjusted preferably to a value of between 1 and 2. Various combinations of second, third, and fourth carriers are discussed.

  18. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  19. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-02-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex™ 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly

  20. Effect of storage media, temperature, and time on preservation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, L F; Gajadhar, A A

    2009-03-23

    The effect of storage media, temperature, and time on suitability of oocysts for use in subsequent molecular studies was examined. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were stored for 3, 6, 9, or 12 months in sterile dH(2)O, 70 or 95% ethanol, (room temperature [RT], 4, -20, and -70 degrees C), 10% formalin (RT and 4 degrees C), PBS, TE buffer, antibiotic-antimycotic (A-A) solution (4, -20 and -70 degrees C), 2% sulphuric acid, 2.5% potassium dichromate (4 degrees C), and gDNA from 10(4) oocysts was extracted in triplicate and subjected to PCR. To determine the effect of storage media on PCR sensitivity, gDNA from 10(4), 10(2), and 10(0) oocysts stored for 15 months in the media listed above at RT or 4 degrees C was also extracted in triplicate and subjected to PCR. At RT, ethanol was suitable for up to 15 months, while gDNA from oocysts stored in dH(2)O amplified inconsistently after 3 months. At 4 degrees C, all tested media except dH(2)O and formalin were suitable for storage of 10(4) oocysts up to 15 months, but only 70% ethanol, A-A solution, 2% sulphuric acid and 2.5% potassium dichromate supported amplification of gDNA from fewer than 100 oocysts. At -20 degrees C, 95% ethanol, PBS, or TE were suitable for up to 9 months, while 70% ethanol and A-A solution were effective up to 12 months, and gDNA from oocysts stored in dH(2)O was inconsistently amplified after 6 months. Storage at -70 degrees C for up to 12 months was effective regardless of media type. Oocysts stored in formalin at RT or 4 degrees C could not be amplified by PCR despite washing prior to gDNA extraction. To maintain gDNA quality suitable for PCR, it is recommended that coccidian oocysts be stored at -70 degrees C in dH(2)O, ethanol, PBS, TE or A-A solution, at 4 degrees C in A-A or ethanol, or at RT in ethanol where refrigerated storage is unavailable.

  1. Black Carbon in Sedimentary Organic Carbon in the Northeast Pacific using the Benzene Polycarboxylic Acid Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, A. I.; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Druffel, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) in the Northeast Pacific ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (UDOM) was found to be surprisingly old with a 14C age of 18,000 +/-3,000 14C years (Ziolkowski and Druffel, 2010) using the Benzene Polycarboxylic Acid (BPCA) method, while BC in sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) was found to be 2,400-12,900 14C years older than non-BC SOC (Masiello and Druffel, 1998) with a different method. Using the dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation method (Wolbach and Anders, 1989), Masiello and Druffel (1998) estimated that 12-31% of SOC in the Northeast Pacific and the Southern Ocean surface sediments was black carbon (BC). However, the dichromate-sulfuric acid oxidation may over-estimate the concentration of BC, because this method is more biased toward modern (char) material (Currie et al., 2002). Alternatively, the BPCA method isolates aromatic components of BC as benzene rings substituted with carboxylic acid groups, and provides structural information about the BC. Recent modifications to the BPCA method by Ziolkowski and Druffel (2009) involve few biases in quantifying BC in the continuum between char and soot in UDOM. Here we use the BPCA method to determine the concentrations and 14C values of BC in sediments from three sites in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Constraining the difference between non-BC SOC and BC-SOC using the BPCA method allows for a more precise estimate of how much BC is present in the sediments and its 14C age. Presumably, the intermediate reservoir of BC is oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and is, in part, responsible for DOC’s great 14C age. These results can be utilized to better constrain the oceanic carbon budget as a possible sink of BC. References: Currie, L. A., Benner Jr., B. A., Kessler, J.D., et al (2002), A critical evaluation of interlaboratory data on total, elemental, and isotopic carbon in the carbonaceous particle reference material, nist srm 1649a, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 107, 279-298. Masiello, C

  2. Comparison of holographic lens and filter systems for lateral spectrum splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorndran, Shelby; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    Spectrum splitting is an approach to increasing the conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Several methods can be used to perform this function which requires efficient spatial separation of different spectral bands of the incident solar radiation. In this paper several of holographic methods for implementing spectrum splitting are reviewed along with the benefits and disadvantages associated with each approach. The review indicates that a volume holographic lens has many advantages for spectrum splitting in terms of both power conversion efficiency and energy yield. A specific design for a volume holographic spectrum splitting lens is discussed for use with high bandgap InGaP and low bandgap silicon PV cells. The holographic lenses are modeled using rigorous coupled wave analysis, and the optical efficiency is evaluated using non-sequential raytracing. A proof-of-concept off-axis holographic lens is also recorded in dichromated gelatin film and the spectral diffraction efficiency of the hologram is measured with multiple laser sources across the diffracted spectral band. The experimental volume holographic lens (VHL) characteristics are compared to an ideal spectrum splitting filter in terms of power conversion efficiency and energy yield in environments with high direct normal incidence (DNI) illumination and high levels of diffuse illumination. The results show that the experimental VHL can achieve 62.5% of the ideal filter power conversion efficiency, 64.8% of the ideal filter DNI environment energy yield, and 57.7% of the ideal diffuse environment energy yield performance.

  3. Efficient adsorption of both methyl orange and chromium from their aqueous mixtures using a quaternary ammonium salt modified chitosan magnetic composite adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Li, Pei; Cai, Jun; Xiao, Shoujun; Yang, Hu; Li, Aimin

    2016-07-01

    A quaternary ammonium salt modified chitosan magnetic composite adsorbent (CS-CTA-MCM) was prepared by combination of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Various techniques were used to characterize the molecular structure, surface morphology, and magnetic feature of this composite adsorbent. CS-CTA-MCM was employed for the removal of Cr(VI) and methyl orange (MO), an anionic dye, from water in respective single and binary systems. Compared with chitosan magnetic adsorbent (CS-MCM) without modification, CS-CTA-MCM shows evidently improved adsorption capacities for both pollutants ascribed to the additional quaternary ammonium salt groups. Based on the adsorption equilibrium study, MO bears more affinity to CS-CTA-MCM than Cr(VI) causing a considerable extent of preferential adsorption of dye over metal ions in their aqueous mixture. However, at weak acidic solutions, Cr(VI) adsorption is evidently improved due to more efficient Cr(VI) forms, i.e. dichromate and monovalent chromate, binding to this chitosan-based adsorbent. Thus chromium could be efficient removal together with MO at suitable pH conditions. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics indicate that adsorptions of Cr(VI) and MO by CS-CTA-MCM both follow a homogeneous monolayer chemisorption process. This magnetic adsorbent after saturated adsorption could be rapidly separated from water and easily regenerated using dilute NaOH aqueous solutions then virtually reused with little adsorption capacity loss.

  4. METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Blaedel, W.J.; Walling, M.T. Jr.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for separating from each other uranium, plutonium, and fission products in an aqueous nitric acid solution by the so-called Redox process. The plutonium is first oxidized to the hexavalent state, e.g., with a water-soluble dichromate or sodium bismuthate, preferably together with a holding oxidant such as potassium bromate. potassium permanganate, or an excess of the oxidizing agent. The solution is then contacted with a water-immiscible organic solvent, preferably hexone. whereby uranium and plutonium are extracted while the fission products remain in the aqueous solution. The separated organic phase is then contacted with an aqueous solution of a reducing agent, with or without a holding reductant (e.g., with a ferrous salt plus hydrazine or with ferrous sulfamate), whereby plutonium is reduced to the trivalent state and back- extracted into the aqueous solution. The uranium may finally be back-extracted from the organic solvent (e.g., with a 0.1 N nitric acid).

  5. Alternative non-chromatographic method for alcohols determination in Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentations.

    PubMed

    Noriega-Medrano, Laura J; Vega-Estrada, Jesús; Ortega-López, Jaime; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Montes-Horcasitas, Maria Del Carmen

    2016-07-01

    An economic, simple, quantitative, and non-chromatographic method for the determination of alcohols using microdiffusion principle has been adapted and validated for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation samples. This method, based on alcohols oxidation using potassium dichromate in acid medium, and detection by spectrophotometry, was evaluated varying, both, temperature (35°C, 45°C, and 55°C) and reaction time (0 to 125min). With a sample analysis time of 90min at 45°C, a limit of detection (LOD), and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.10, and 0.40g/L, respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine butanol and ethanol concentrations in ABE fermentation samples with the advantage that multiple samples can be analyzed simultaneously. The measurements obtained with the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained with the Gas Chromatography Method (GCM). This proposed method is useful for routine analysis of alcohols and screening samples in laboratories and industries.

  6. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  7. Solvothermal-assisted synthesis of self-assembling TiO2 nanorods on large graphitic carbon nitride sheets with their anti-recombination in the photocatalytic removal of Cr(vi) and rhodamine B under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dingze; Fang, Pengfei; Wu, Wenhui; Ding, Junqian; Jiang, Lulu; Zhao, Xiaona; Li, Chunhe; Yang, Minchen; Li, Yuanzhi; Wang, Dahai

    2017-03-02

    TiO2-based nanorods (TNRs) were self-assembled on large graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) sheets via the solvothermal-assisted route. The results demonstrated that the effective anchoring of TNRs (a side length of ca. 200-300 nm) was highly dispersed on the surface of whole g-C3N4 sheets. The shift in the Ti 2p XPS core level spectrum indicated an increase in the net positive charge of the Ti ions, ensuring the formation of an interface between TNRs and g-C3N4. The charge transferred from g-C3N4 sheets to TNRs effectively prevented the recombination of excited charges, which is consistent with the significant quenching of PL. The extent of visible-light-sensitive photocatalytic (PC) activity was evaluated by the removal of potassium dichromate (Cr(vi)) or the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). The photocatalytic removal of Cr(vi) using RhB was effectively improved. The synergistic effect between the removal of Cr(vi) and degradation of RhB was revealed by multiple utilization of TNRs/g-C3N4 for PC activity. The effective suppression of the recombination of photo-induced charges and the absorption of RhB was responsible for the enhancement in the PC activity. An alternate mechanism for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity was also considered.

  8. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  9. Validation test with embryonic and larval stages of Chordodes nobilii (Gordiida, Nematomorpha): sensitivity to three reference toxicants.

    PubMed

    Achiorno, Cecilia L; de Villalobos, Cristina; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2010-09-01

    Chordodes nobilii is a parasite whose pre- and postparasitic stages are found in different types of freshwater bodies. Due to the peculiarities of its life cycle, it acts as a link between freshwater bodies and terrestrial ecosystems. There is little toxicological information on the group Gordiida. It is only known that embryos and larvae of C. nobilii are sensitive to glyphosate and malathion at relevant concentrations in the environment. On this basis, the aims of this study were to characterize the sensitivity of the pre-parasitic stages of C. nobilii to three reference toxicants: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate (Cr(6+)), and to validate a previous experimental protocol for ecotoxicological risk assessment. The protocol involved acute exposure of early embryonic stages and larvae to the three toxicants for 96 h and 48 h, respectively. Embryo development was inhibited only by Cr(6+) which presented a IC(50) of 0.71 mg Cr(6+)L(-1). The development of the eggs exposed to SDS and those exposed to cadmium chloride showed no differences as compared to that of controls. However, the infective capacity of larvae derived from the eggs exposed to the three toxicants was lower than that of controls. Larval survival was affected even at the lowest concentration of the three toxicants assayed. In relation to other freshwater organisms, C. nobilii can be characterized as an organism medium to highly sensitive to the toxicants tested.

  10. Investigation on the high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loicq, Jérôme; Gaspar Venancio, Luis Miguel; Georges, Marc

    2012-09-01

    The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the Hα, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

  11. The corrosion protection of aluminum by various anodizing treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion protection to 6061-T6 aluminum, afforded by both teflon-impregnated anodized coats (Polylube and Tufram) and hard-anodized coats (water sealed and dichromate sealed), was studied at both pH 5.5 and pH 9.5, with an exposure period of 28 days in 3.5 percent NaCl solution (25 C) for each specimen. In general, corrosion protection for all specimens was better at pH 9.5 than at pH 5.5. Protection by a Tufram coat proved superior to that afforded by Polylube at each pH, with corrosion protection by the hard-anodized, water-sealed coat at pH 9.5 providing the best protection. Electrochemical work in each case was corroborated by microscopic examination of the coats after exposure. Corrosion protection by Tufram at pH 9.5 was most comparable to that of the hard-anodized samples, although pitting and some cracking of the coat did occur.

  12. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  13. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0<9T) and temperatures (T>90K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼ 100K and ∼ 30K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented.

  14. Effects of temperature and different food matrices on Cyclospora cayetanensis oocyst sporulation.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayanan, Lakshmi; Ortega, Ynes

    2006-04-01

    Effects of temperature on the sporulation of the parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis were studied in 2 food substrates, dairy and basil. Unsporulated Cyclospora oocysts were subjected to freezing and heating conditions for time periods ranging from 15 min to 1 wk. Oocysts were then removed from the food substrates and placed in 2.5% potassium dichromate for 2 wk to allow viable unsporulated oocysts to differentiate and fully sporulate, and to determine the percentage sporulation as an indicator of viability. Sporulation occurred when oocysts resuspended in dairy substrates were stored within 24 hr at -15 C. When oocysts were placed in water or basil, sporulation occurred after incubation for up to 2 days at -20 C, and up to 4 days at 37 C. Few oocysts sporulated when incubated for 1 hr at 50 C. Sporulation was not observed in basil leaves or water at -70 C, 70 C, and 100 C. Sporulation was not affected when incubated at 4 C and 23 C for up to 1 wk, which was the duration of the experiment in both of the tested substrates.

  15. Probing the mystery of Liesegang band formation: revealing the origin of self-organized dual-frequency micro and nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Rita; Walliser, Roché M; Lagzi, István; Boudoire, Florent; Düggelin, Marcel; Braun, Artur; Housecroft, Catherine E; Constable, Edwin C

    2016-10-12

    Periodic precipitation processes in gels can result in impressive micro- and nanostructured patterns known as periodic precipitation (or Liesegang bands). Under certain conditions, the silver nitrate-chromium(vi) system exhibits the coexistence of two kinds of Liesegang bands with different frequencies. We now present that the two kinds of bands form independently on different time scales and the pH-dependent chromate(vi)-dichromate(vi) equilibrium controls the formation of the precipitates. We determined the spatial distribution and constitution of the particles in the bands using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) measurements. This provided the necessary empirical input data to formulate a model for the pattern formation; a model that quantitatively reproduces the experimental observations. Understanding the pattern-forming process at the molecular level enables us to tailor the size and the shape of the bands, which, in turn, can lead to new functional architectures for a range of applications.

  16. Critical assessment of the formation of hydrogen peroxide in dough by fermenting yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of bread dough leads to strengthening of the dough matrix. This effect has previously been ascribed to the action of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by yeast in dough. In this study, we re-evaluate the production of H2O2 by yeast in dough and aqueous fermentation broth. Results show that the previously reported high levels of H2O2 in fermenting dough were most probably due to the lack of specificity of the potassium dichromate/acetic acid-based method used. Using the chemiluminescent HyPerBlu assay, no yeast H2O2 production could be detected in fermented dough or broth. Even though the formation of low levels of H2O2 cannot be ruled out due to the presence of catalase in flour and the fast reaction of H2O2 with gluten proteins, our results suggest that the changes in dough matrix rheological properties upon fermentation are not due to production of H2O2 by yeast.

  17. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  18. Ultrastructural cytochemistry of platelets and megakaryocytes in the carcinoid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J C; Maldonado, J E; Mann, K G; Moertel, C G

    1976-09-01

    Platelets and megakaryocytes from 11 patients with the carcinoid syndrome have been studied by transmission electron microscopy. Cells fixed in phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde are oval to discoid, with pseudopods, a dilated open-channel system, and a prominent dense tubular system as defined by peroxidase activity and alkaline bismuth stain. Atypical with hexagonal lattices and treaded substructures and large (diameter greater than 0.5 mum), phosphatase-positive, debris-containing vacuoles are four times more numerous than in normal platelets. Incubation of platelets in a 0.05% suspension of latex results in particle incorporation into phagosomes and the debris-containing vacuoles. Molybdate-dichromate stain reveals two classes of dense bodies, one of which (with a reticular core) is 20 times more numerous than in normal platelets. Bone marrow megakaryocytes lack both dense bodies and debris vacuoles analogous to those found in circulating platelets. These results suggest autophagy or endocytosis abnormalities and provide evidence for multiple types of dense bodies in carcinoid platelets.

  19. A miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on organic electrochemical transistor for sensitive determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianjun; Lin, Shiwei; Zeng, Min; Yang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    A three-electrode configuration is often required in the conventional photoelectrochemical measurements. Nevertheless, one common drawback is the reference electrode and the counter electrode used in the measurements, which has been proved to be an impediment for the miniaturization. In this study, a simple, cost-effective and miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on high sensitive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) is developed and used for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewaters. The devices show detection limit down to 0.01 mg/L COD, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the conventional photoelectrochemical method. The excellent sensing performance can be contributed to the novel sensing mechanism of OECT devices. That is, the devices are sensitive to the potential changes induced by the photoelectrochemical reaction on TiO2 nanotube arrays gate electrodes. Real sample analyses are also carried out. The results demonstrate that the measured COD values using the OECT devices and the standard dichromate methods are in a good agreement. Since the proposed sensor is constructed on a miniature transistor, it is expected that the device shows a promising application on the integrated COD monitoring platform.

  20. Impact of Fe(III) as an effective electron-shuttle mediator for enhanced Cr(VI) reduction in microbial fuel cells: Reduction of diffusional resistances and cathode overpotentials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Liping; Pan, Yuzhen; Quan, Xie; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2017-01-05

    The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO4(-)) and dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65.6% and 81.7%, respectively, 1.6 times and 1.4 folds as those recorded in the absence of Fe(III). Multiple analytical approaches, including linear sweep voltammetry, Tafel plot, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and kinetic calculations demonstrated that the complete reduction of Cr(VI) occurred through an indirect mechanism mediated by Fe(III). The direct reduction of Cr(VI) with cathode electrons in the presence of Fe(III) was insignificant. Fe(III) played a critical role in decreasing both the diffusional resistance of Cr(VI) species and the overpotential for Cr(VI) reduction. This study demonstrated that the reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs was effective in the presence of Fe(III), providing an alternative and environmentally benign approach for efficient remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sites with simultaneous production of renewable energy.

  1. A bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles enables efficient methane fermentation from garbage slurry.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    A packed-bed system includes supporting materials to retain microorganisms and a bioelectrochemical system influences the microbial metabolism. In our study, carbon fiber textiles (CFT) as a supporting material was attached onto a carbon working electrode in a bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) that degrades garbage slurry to methane, in order to investigate the effect of combining electrochemical regulation and packing CFT. The potential on the working electrode in the BER containing CFT was set to -1.0 V or -0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). BERs containing CFT exhibited higher methane production, elimination of dichromate chemical oxygen demand, and the ratio of methanogens in the suspended fraction than reactors containing CFT without electrochemical regulation at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 27.8 gCODcr/L/day. In addition, BERs containing CFT exhibited higher reactor performances than BERs without CFT at this OLR. Our results revealed that the new design that combined electrochemical regulation and packing CFT was effective.

  2. Healthy response from chromium survived pteridophytic plant-Ampelopteris prolifera with the interaction of mycorrhizal fungus-Glomus deserticola.

    PubMed

    Singh, Joginder; Kumar, Manoj; Vyas, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola and pteridophytic member Ampelopteris prolifera was found abundant on entire growth level based on elemental composition and gaseous exchange as a potential remediation system for phytoextraction of chromium. Inoculated A. prolifera (AM) and non-inoculated A. prolifera (Non-AM) were supplied with two Cr species: 12 mmol of trivalent cation (Cr(+3)) [Cr(III)] and 0.1 mmol of divalent dichromate anion (Cr2O7(-2)) [Cr(VI)]. Both Cr species were found to be depressed in overall growth and inefficient stomatal conductance (g(s)) and net photosynthesis (NP). Mycorrhizal association was found to be natural scavenger of Cr toxicity as indicated by greater growth in plants exposed to Cr species, and increased gas exchange of Cr(III) treated plants. Though, chromium reduction resulted lower level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) but interestingly elevated the level of aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) uptake in many folds which is the significance of sustainable growth of plant.

  3. Influence of variables on centrifuge-flotation technique for recovery of Toxocara canis eggs from soil.

    PubMed

    Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Magoti, Luciana Puga; Sichieri, Tathiana Dias

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables in a flotation technique for the recovery of Toxocara canis eggs from soil. The trials were done under standardized conditions on one gram of previously sterilized soil samples contaminated with 200 eggs of T. canis. The following variables were evaluated in serial steps: sieving; type of wash; time of stirring; resuspension of sediment; solution flotation. Centrifuge-flotation in sodium nitrate (d = 1.20 g/cm(3)) was adopted as an initial technique, using Tween 80 (0.2%) and decinormal sodium hydroxide as solutions for washing the samples. Ten tests were done to compare the variables, using counting in triplicate. The sieving of the material reduced significantly the recovery of eggs (p < 0.001) and the number of eggs recovered was higher when the sediment was resuspended (p < 0.05). After standardization, flotation solutions sodium chloride, zinc sulfate, sodium dichromate, magnesium sulfate, and sodium nitrate (d = 1.20g/cm(3)) were compared. The best results were obtained by using zinc sulfate solution. In conclusion, the chances of recovering T. canis eggs from samples using flotation solutions can be increased by washing of soil twice using distilled water, and resuspension of sediment. On the other hand, the sieving procedure can drastically reduce the number of eggs.

  4. Corrosion protection of aluminum metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.J.; Mansfeld, F.

    1997-12-01

    Corrosion protection of aluminum metal-matrix composites (MMC) by anodizing treatments was investigated. Electrochemical behavior of MMC without protection also was investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements were used to characterize the properties of protective surface layers. Materials studied were Al 6061/SiC, alloy A356/SiC, Al 2009/SiC, Al 2014/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al 6061/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with various reinforcement concentrations. The MMC had similar corrosion (E{sub corr}) and pitting (E{sub pit}) potentials as the matrix alloy. The cathodic current density for oxygen reduction in 0.5% N sodium chloride increased for Al 6061/SiC MMC with reinforcement concentration, which was attributed to electrochemically active interfaces between the matrix and the reinforcement particles. Anodizing and hot-water sealing were less effective for MMC than for the matrix aluminum alloys. The reinforcement particles produced a more porous structure of the anodized layer for MMC. Improved results were noted for dichromate sealing, where chromium (Cr{sup 6+}) in the pores of the outer oxide acted as an inhibitor. The effectiveness of corrosion protection methods decreased with increasing reinforcement concentration and was a function of the matrix alloy but not of the reinforcement material. The observed reduction in corrosion protection was believed to result from corrosion-susceptible interfaces formed between the reinforcement particles and the matrix.

  5. Evaluation of Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) for phytoremediation of landfill leachate containing chromium and lead.

    PubMed

    Jerez Ch, José A; Romero, Rosaura M

    2016-11-01

    Landfill leachates containing heavy metals are important contaminants and a matter of great concern due to the effect that they might have on ecosystems. We evaluated the use of Cajanus cajan to remove chromium and lead from landfill leachates. Eight-week-old plants were submitted to varied tests to select the experimental conditions. Water assays with a solution (pH 6) containing leachate (25% v/v) were selected; the metals were added as potassium dichromate and lead (II) nitrate salts. Soil matrices that contained leachate (30% v/v) up to field capacity were used. For both water and soil assays, the metal concentrations were 10 mg kg(-1). C. cajan proved able to remove 49% of chromium and 36% of lead, both from dilute leachate. The plants also removed 34.7% of chromium from irrigated soil, but were unable to decrease the lead content. Removal of nitrogen from landfill leachate was also tested, resulting in elimination of 85% of ammonia and 70% of combined nitrite/nitrate species. The results indicate that C. cajan might be an effective candidate for the rhizofiltration of leachates containing chromium and lead, and nitrogen in large concentrations.

  6. Determination of chemical oxygen demand of nitrogenous organic compounds in wastewater using synergetic photoelectrocatalytic oxidation effect at TiO2 nanostructured electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihong; Zhang, Shanqing; Li, Guiying; Zhao, Huijun

    2012-11-19

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is one of the most important parameters in water quality assessment and monitoring. The natural degradation of nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in water requires significant amounts of oxygen. In the determination of standard COD however, NOCs are persistent compounds that cannot be completely oxidized even in the most oxidative chemical environments, i.e. the reaction media that contain high concentrations of dichromate in strong acid at high temperature. Consequently, the measured COD values of wastewater samples containing NOCs are commonly lower than theoretical COD values and do not reflect the actual oxygen demand of the water body. This problem is partially alleviated when the photoelectrochemical method for COD determination (PeCOD) based on nanostructured TiO(2) photoanode is utilized. To completely overcome this problem, a synergetic photoelectrochemical oxidation effect in thin layer cells is used to achieve complete oxidation of NOCs. This is done by the simple addition of a hydroxyl organic compound (i.e. glucose) into the test sample before the PeCOD measurement. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the synergetic PeCOD method provides an effective and reliable means to measure COD values of NOC-containing pollutants without the need for toxic or expensive reagents.

  7. Investigation on the application of titania nanorod arrays to the determination of chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Jiancheng; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2013-03-12

    In the present paper, the TiO2 nanorod arrays electrode was developed as a sensor for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) based on a photoelectrochemical degradation principle. Effects of common parameters, such as applied potential, light intensity and pH on its analytical performance were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the nanorod arrays electrode was successfully applied in the COD determination for both synthetic and real samples. In the COD determination, the proposed method can achieve a practical detection limit of 18.3mgL(-1) and a linear range of 20-280mgL(-1). Furthermore, the results obtained by the proposed method were well correlated with those obtained using the conventional (i.e., dichromate) COD determination method. The main advantages of this COD determination method were its simplicity, long term stability and environmental friendly (corrosive and toxic reagents not consumed). This work would open a new application area (COD determination) of the TiO2 nanorod arrays.

  8. Validation and application of a thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) method for measuring black carbon in loess sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changlin; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Wei, Chong; Zhang, Jiaquan; An, Zhisheng

    2013-06-01

    Three techniques were used to measure black carbon (BC) in samples from Chinese loess-paleosol sequences. The results obtained by (1) chemo-thermal oxidation (CTO, performed two ways), (2) acid dichromate oxidation (Cr2O7), and (3) thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) were intercompared because prior studies have shown that the methods can yield disparate results. BC concentrations did vary among the methods, most likely because they measured different components of the BC continuum, but the high-temperature BC (soot) determined by CTO was correlated with the BC and soot obtained by TOR. The CTO and TOR methods both yielded statistically significant linear relationships for loess and lake sediments that had incremental additions of a standard (SRM-1649a). The results also showed that charred material was more abundant in these test sediments than soot carbon. Data for BC in Luochuan loess generated using TOR showed a trend similar to that of magnetic susceptibility, that is, high BC and large susceptibilities during the last interglacial and low values for both variables in the last glacial. The results thus indicate that the TOR method is well suited for studies of sedimentary materials and that more biomass burned during the last interglacial than in the last glacial.

  9. The mitigative effect of Raphanus sativus oil on chromium-induced geno- and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, M O; Morgan, Ashraf M; Ali, Merhan E; Abdel-Mawla, Essam; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S

    2016-05-01

    To study the impact of radish oil on the possible genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium, male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received radish oil at the recommended human therapeutic dose (0.07 mL/kg) by gavage, group 3 received sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) 520 mg/L in drinking water, and group 4 received both SDD and radish oil as previously mentioned in groups 2 and 3. All treatments were continued for six months. The results revealed that chromium exposure promoted oxidative stress with a consequently marked hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, alfa fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) % in peripheral blood. Moreover, COMET assay of hepatic DNA revealed that SDD exposure significantly decreased the intact cells %, head diameter, and head DNA % compared to control, indicating DNA damage. However, radish oil co-administration with SDD resulted in marked amendment in the altered parameters as detected by improved liver function markers (ALT and ALP) and AFP level, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant markers, inhibited hepatic DNA damage and restored the hepatic histology by preventing the appearance of the altered hepatocytes' foci and decreasing chromium induced histopathological lesions. It could be concluded that radish oil was able to provide a convergent complete protection against the geno- and hepatotoxicity of chromium by its potent antioxidant effect.

  10. PROCESSES FOR SEPARATING AND RECOVERING CONSTITUENTS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Connick, R.E.; Gofman, J.W.; Pimentel, G.C.

    1959-11-10

    Processes are described for preparing plutonium, particularly processes of separating plutonium from uranium and fission products in neutron-irradiated uraniumcontaining matter. Specifically, plutonium solutions containing uranium, fission products and other impurities are contacted with reducing agents such as sulfur dioxide, uranous ion, hydroxyl ammonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrous ion whereby the plutoninm is reduced to its fluoride-insoluble state. The reduced plutonium is then carried out of solution by precipitating niobic oxide therein. Uranium and certain fission products remain behind in the solution. Certain other fission products precipitate along with the plutonium. Subsequently, the plutonium and fission product precipitates are redissolved, and the solution is oxidized with oxidizing agents such as chlorine, peroxydisulfate ion in the presence of silver ion, permanganate ion, dichromate ion, ceric ion, and a bromate ion, whereby plutonium is oxidized to the fluoride-soluble state. The oxidized solution is once again treated with niobic oxide, thus precipitating the contamirant fission products along with the niobic oxide while the oxidized plutonium remains in solution. Plutonium is then recovered from the decontaminated solution.

  11. Biotransformation of phosphogypsum in wastewaters from the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Wolicka, Dorota

    2008-09-01

    The biotransformation of phosphogypsum by stationary cultures of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in dairy wastewaters (sterile and non-sterile) enriched in phosphogypsum, was studied SRB were isolated from soil contaminated with petroleum-derived products and from wastewaters from the petroleum-refining industry, taking into account that these environments are characteristic for the bacteria of the studied group. The biotransformation products formed were investigated using biological and mineralogical methods. Sulphides in the cultures were determined using the iodometric method, sulphates with the hot barium method, COD by the dichromate method. Determinations involving post-culture sediments and fluids, Ca, S, Sr and P were made using the following analytical procedures: IPC emission spectrometry with induced excitation in the medium and X-ray. Analysis of post-culture sediments was made using a DRON-2 X-ray diffractometer. Eleven communities of microorganisms with varying degrees of effectiveness were obtained, biodegrading 58% to 98% of the organic contaminants in non-sterile wastewater, with simultaneous biotransformation of about 2.5 g phosphogypsum/L.

  12. EPR and DFT analysis of biologically relevant chromium(V) complexes with d-glucitol and d-glucose.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Beirinckx, Quinten; Nys, Kevin; Mangiameli, María Florencia; Cuypers, Bert; Callens, Freddy; Vrielinck, Henk; González, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    1,2-diolato ligands, such as carbohydrates and glycoproteins, tend to stabilize chromium(V), thus forming important intermediates that have been implicated in the genotoxicity of Cr(VI). Since many years, room-temperature continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band microwave frequencies has been used as a standard characterization tool to study chromium(V) intermediates formed during the reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of biomolecules. In this work, the added value is tested of using a combination of pulsed and high-field EPR techniques with density functional theory computations to unravel the nature of Cr(V) complexes with biologically relevant chelators, such as carbohydrates. The study focuses on the oxidochromium(V) complexes formed during reduction of potassium dichromate with glutathione in the presence of the monosaccharide d-glucose or the polyalcohol d-glucitol. It is shown that although the presence of a multitude of Cr(V) intermediates may hamper a complete structural determination, the combined EPR and DFT approach reveals unambiguously the effect of freezing on the location of the counterions, the gradual replacement of water ligands by the diols, and the preference of Cr(V) to bind certain conformers.

  13. Optical evidence for chemical interaction of the polyaniline/fullerene composites with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibarac, M.; Baltog, I.; Daescu, M.; Lefrant, S.; Chirita, P.

    2016-12-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopic studies reveal a particular chemical interaction of the polyaniline/fullerene (PANI/C60) composite with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). The chemical polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfuric acid, potassium dichromate and fullerene has been used for the preparation of the PANI/C60 composite. The polymerization reaction involves a doping of PANI with C60 anion radicals. The interaction of the composite with NMP leads to a de-doping of PANI that involves a transformation of leucoemeraldine salt (LS) repeating units into leucoemeraldine base (LB). Additionally, a gradual increasing in the intensity of the Raman line at 1452 cm-1 associated to the Ag(2) pentagonal pinch mode of fullerene and a decrease in the intensity of the Raman lines of PANI are reported. This change arises from the formation of a charge-transfer complex C60-NMP. The subsequent chemical treatment of PANI-LB with FeCl3 leads to the formation PANI-emeraldine salt. An inhibition of the transformation of PANI doped with C60 anion radicals into a PANI-LB and the C60-NMP charge transfer complex in the presence of CdS particles dispersed in NMP is demonstrated by SERS spectroscopy.

  14. The Remedial Efficacy of Spirulina platensis versus Chromium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshazly, M. O.; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S.; Morgan, Ashraf M.; Ali, Merhan E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Spirulina platensis against chromium-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gps). Gp1 served as control, rats of Gps 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to Spirulina platensis (300 mg/kg b.wt per os) and sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) via drinking water at concentration of 520 mg /l respectively. Chromium administration caused alterations in the renal function markers as evidenced by significant increase of blood urea and creatinine levels accompanied with significant increase in kidney’s chromium residues and MDA level as well as decreased catalase activity and glutathion content in kidney tissue. Histologically, Cr provoked deleterious changes including: vascular congestion, wide spread tubular epithelium necrobiotic changes, atrophy of glomerular tuft and proliferative hyperplasia. The latter was accompanied with positive PCNA expression in kidney tissues as well as DNA ploidy interpretation of major cellular population of degenerated cells, appearance of tetraploid cells, high proliferation index and high DNA index. Morphometrical measurements revealed marked glomerular and tubular lumen alterations. On contrary, spirulina co-treatment with Cr significantly restored the histopathological changes, antioxidants and renal function markers and all the previously mentioned changes as well. PMID:26029926

  15. Fabrication of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip for chromium removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sureshkumar, Vaishnavi; Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G.; Ruckmani, K.; Sivakumar, M.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals is a serious threat. In the present work, removal of chromium was carried out using chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method at 80 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, atomic force microscope, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer, which confirm the size, shape, crystalline nature and magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscope revealed that the particle size was 15-30 nm and spherical in shape. The magnetite nanoparticles were mixed with chitosan solution to form hybrid nanocomposite. Chitosan strip was casted with and without nanoparticle. The affinity of hybrid nanocomposite for chromium was studied using K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate) solution as the heavy metal solution containing Cr(VI) ions. Adsorption tests were carried out using chitosan strip and hybrid nanocomposite strip at different time intervals. Amount of chromium adsorbed by chitosan strip and chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip from aqueous solution was evaluated using UV-visible spectroscopy. The results confirm that the heavy metal removal efficiency of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip is 92.33 %, which is higher when compared to chitosan strip, which is 29.39 %.

  16. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of CeO2 NPs and cerium sulphate: Studies with Drosophila melanogaster as a promising in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Hernández, Alba; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Demir, Esref; Bach, Jordi; Rubio, Laura; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Although in vitro approaches are the most used for testing the potential harmful effects of nanomaterials, in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data. In this context, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to nanomaterials exposure. The main aim of this study was to evaluate different biological effects associated to cerium oxide nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) and cerium (IV) sulphate exposure. The end-points evaluated were egg-to-adult viability, particles uptake through the intestinal barrier, gene expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by haemocytes, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity. Transmission electron microscopy images showed internalisation of Ce-NPs by the intestinal barrier and haemocytes, and significant expression of Hsp genes was detected. In spite of these findings, neither toxicity nor genotoxicity related to both forms of cerium were observed. Interestingly, Ce-NPs significantly reduced the genotoxic effect of potassium dichromate and the intracellular ROS production. No morphological malformations were detected after larvae treatment. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as animal model in the study of the different biological effects caused by nanoparticulated materials, at the time that shows its usefulness to study the role of the intestinal barrier in the transposition of nanomaterials entering via ingestion.

  17. Optimization of a histopathological biomarker for sphingomyelin accumulation in acid sphingomyelinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Taksir, Tatyana V; Johnson, Jennifer; Maloney, Colleen L; Yandl, Emily; Griffiths, Denise; Thurberg, Beth L; Ryan, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (types A and B), or acid sphingomyelinase deficiency, is an inherited deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase, resulting in intralysosomal accumulation of sphingomyelin in cells throughout the body, particularly within those of the reticuloendothelial system. These cellular changes result in hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary infiltrates in humans. A knockout mouse model mimics many elements of human ASMD and is useful for studying disease histopathology. However, traditional formalin-fixation and paraffin embedding of ASMD tissues dissolves sphingomyelin, resulting in tissues with a foamy cell appearance, making quantitative analysis of the substrate difficult. To optimize substrate fixation and staining, a modified osmium tetroxide and potassium dichromate postfixation method was developed to preserve sphingomyelin in epon-araldite embedded tissue and pulmonary cytology specimens. After processing, semi-thin sections were incubated with tannic acid solution followed by staining with toluidine blue/borax. This modified method provides excellent preservation and staining contrast of sphingomyelin with other cell structures. The resulting high-resolution light microscopy sections permit digital quantification of sphingomyelin in light microscopic fields. A lysenin affinity stain for sphingomyelin was also developed for use on these semi-thin epon sections. Finally, ultrathin serial sections can be cut from these same tissue blocks and stained for ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy.

  18. First description of an in vitro culture system for Eimeria ovinoidalis macromeront formation in primary host endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Carrau, Tessa; Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro; Pérez, David; Ruiz de Ybáñez, Rocio; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Eimeria ovinoidalis is distributed worldwide and causes clinical ovine coccidiosis. As one of the most pathogenic species in sheep, the principal clinical sign is profuse diarrhoea in young animals, which leads to important economic losses in the ovine industry. We here aimed to establish an in vitro culture system for the development of E. ovinoidalis macromeronts, as no suitable systems are currently available for any ovine Eimeria species. Faecal samples containing more than 90% of E. ovinoidalis oocysts were collected from naturally infected lambs and ewes in Murcia Region (Spain). E. ovinoidalis oocysts were collected, left to sporulate in potassium dichromate and stored at 4°C until further studies were conducted. Moreover, a suitable excystation protocol was effectively established, resulting in the release of viable sporozoites, which were allowed to infect primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) and permanent bovine colonic epithelial cells (BCEC). In vitro first merogony was successfully accomplished exclusively in BUVEC leading to macromeront formation (up to 100μm) and the release of fully developed and viable merozoites I stages. Given that we were able to establish a suitable in vitro system for the first merogony of such pathogenic Eimeria species in sheep, advances might be further made not only on studies regarding the control of ovine coccidiosis, such as drug screenings, but also on the better understanding of molecular parasite-host cell interactions as already demonstrated for other ruminant Eimeria species.

  19. Improving alachlor biodegradability by ferrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Hang; Yan, Xi-Luan; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Bao

    2006-07-31

    Alachlor can be recalcitrant when present at high concentrations in wastewater. Ferrate oxidation was used as a pretreatment to improve its biodegradability and was evaluated by monitoring alachlor elimination and removal of COD(Cr) (chemical oxygen demand determined by potassium dichromate) during the oxidation process up to a value compatible with biological treatment. Ferrate oxidation resulted in elimination of alachlor followed by degradation of its intermediates. High pH suppressed alachlor removal and COD(Cr) removal due to the low redox potential of ferrate ions. Although alachlor can be totally eliminated within 10 min under optimized conditions (alachlor, 40 mg l(-1); ferrate:alachlor molar ratio, 2; and pH 7.0), its complete mineralization cannot be achieved by ferrate oxidation alone. Alachlor solution treated by ferrate for 10 min inhibited an up-flow biotreatment with activated sludge. The biodegradability of ferrate-pretreated solution improved when the treatment was increased to 20 min, at the point of which BOD(5)/COD(Cr) ratio of the treated solution was increased to 0.87 from 0.35 after 10 min treatment. Under optimized conditions, ferrate oxidation for 20 min resulted in total elimination of alachlor, partial removal of COD(Cr) and the ferrate-treated solution could be effectively treated by the up-flow activated sludge process.

  20. A microfluidic device for continuous sensing of systemic acute toxicants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-12-03

    A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU) obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  1. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

    PubMed Central

    Rajeh, Mohammad Abu Basma; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Zakaria, Zuraini; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L.; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae), which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots) methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control) had LC50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (%) and absolute (g) organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05). Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions: E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice. PMID:22923956

  2. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  3. Determination of the abundance and carbon isotope composition of elemental carbon in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Michael I.; Gröcke, Darren R.

    1997-08-01

    We report measurements of the susceptibility of a variety of elemental and organic carbon samples to oxidative degradation using both acid dichromate and basic peroxide reagents. Organic carbon is rapidly oxidized using either reagent, or both reagents sequentially. Elemental carbon exhibits a wide range of susceptibilities to oxidation related both to the degree to which the precursor plant material was carbonized during pyrolysis and to the surface area available for oxidation. Despite a range of susceptibilities, a component of oxidation-resistant elemental carbon has been identified which can be reproducibly separated from organic contaminants. The carbon isotope composition (δ 13C value) of the precursor plant materials underwent a 0-1.6‰ decrease during the production of the elemental carbon by pyrolysis, while the subsequent oxidative degradation of the samples resulted in only small (generally < 0.5%o) changes in the δ 13C value of the remaining elemental carbon. The results suggest that the technique can be used to obtain records of elemental carbon abundance in marine sediment cores, and thus a record of the intensity of biomass burning on adjacent continental land masses in the geologic past. In addition, the δ 13C value of the elemental carbon can provide an indication of the type of vegetation being burnt.

  4. Comparison of European Standard Patch Test Results of 330 Patients from an Occupational Diseases Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Aytekin, Aslı; Tutkun, Engin; Yılmaz, Hınç

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Contact dermatitis (CD) is the most prevalent occupational skin disease with a significant impact on quality of life. Patch testing is used for the identification of responsible allergens which may improve protective and preventive measures in the workplace. Herein, we aim to identify the demographic characteristics and occupation of patients with early diagnosis of occupational CD and compare patch test results. Materials and Methods. The study included 330 patients referred to our clinic between April 2009 and April 2011 and who were patch-tested with 28-allergen European Standard Test. Results. 126 (38%) patients were female and 204 (62%) were male with a mean age of 36.12 (±13.13) years. Positive allergic reactions were observed in 182 (55%) patients. Nickel sulphate (41/126) and potassium dichromate (39/204) were significantly the most common allergens in women and men, respectively (P < 0.005). Additionally, the most common occupation in women was household activities (83/126) and in men was manufacturing (80/204). Conclusion. The allergens to which people become sensitized differ according to their working environment and occupation. Classification of occupations is important for identification of sensitization risks and monitoring of changes in allergen distribution of different occupations. PMID:27807445

  5. Structural and spectroscopic characterization of the macrocyclic complex: [Tb(CrO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O)(C{sub 22}H{sub 26}N{sub 6})] {center_dot}0.5(Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}){center_dot}(H{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, J.D.; Bombieri, G.; Benetollo, F.

    1995-06-01

    The title complex was obtained by anion metathesis form [Tb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 22}H{sub 26}N{sub 6})] (CH{sub 3}COO){center_dot}4H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} in aqueous solution. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 8.384(2), b = 10.425(2) c = 15.752(2){angstrom}, {alpha} = 98.82(2), {beta} = 93.52(2), {gamma} = 97.22(2){degrees}, and Z = 2. The structure is ionic and consists of a (+1) complex cation balanced in a 2:1 ratio by a disordered dichromate ion. The 9-coordinate Tb(III) is linked to the six nitrogen atoms of the macrocyclic ligand L = C{sub 22}H{sub 26}N{sub 6}, as well as to a water molecule and a bidentate chelating chromate situated on opposite sides of the macrocycle. The infrared spectrum shows, in addition to the pattern of the macrocyclic ligand, the absorptions arising form the stretching modes of the bidentate chelating CrO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ligand and of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2{minus}} counterion.

  6. [Six cases of occupational skin diseases caused by cement: considerations from the aspect of occupational dermatology].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, O; Nishio, D; Tokui, N

    2001-06-01

    Cement, in particular Portland cement, is now widely used in the field of civil engineering and the construction industry. High alkalinity of wet cement and its tiny content of water-soluble chromate can cause occupational skin diseases. In this paper, we report four cases of contact dermatitis by cement and two cases of cement burn. The occupation of the patients included two plasterers, a truck driver, a manufacturer of cement ware and two construction workers. Skin of the hands and fingers of the cement dermatitis cases was dry and fissured, and had hyperkeratotic papules and erythemas or acute exudative eczematous lesions. In one of these cases, the eczematous lesions spread to the face, extremities and trunk. All cases resulted in a positive patch testing for sodium dichromate. The cement burn cases developed severe necrotic ulcers on the leg and/or foot following prolonged contact with wet cement inside their boots. Patch testing was negative for chromate. A field trip to a construction worksite showed that method of working as well as worker's clothing at present could not thoroughly protect the skin. Therefore we concluded that better protective clothing and gloves should be used and that working conditions be improved. Most skin diseases caused by cement occur among workers at small-scale enterprises. Therefore it is desirable that regional occupational health centers, which were established to promote the health care system for workers at small-scale enterprises, take prompt measures to avoid the skin diseases.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Antitumor Activity of cis-bis(acylthioureato) platinum(II) Complexes, cis-[PtL2] [HL1=N,N-Diphenyl-N'-Benzoylthiourea or HL2=N,N-diphenyl-N'-(p-nitrobenzoyl)thiourea

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Wilfredo; Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Beyer, Lothar; Schröder, Uwe; Ferreira, Jorge; Pavani, Mario

    2003-01-01

    A low-molecular weight chromium-containing fraction of the material resulting from dichromate reduction by bovine liver homogenate was investigated by NMR and ES-MS. The ES-MS spectrum showed a readily detectable peak at m/z 786.1. The same molecular weight reasonably agreed with the relatively low diffusion coefficient measured by NMR-DOSY experiments on the main species observed in the 1H NMR spectrum. At least two downfield shifted and broad paramagnetic signals were apparent in the 1H NMR spectrum. Temperature dependence of chemical shift was exploited in order to estimate the diamagnetic shift of the signals in the diamagnetic region of the spectrum. 2D TOCSY, NOESY, COSY and 1H-13C HMQC spectra revealed the presence of aromatic protons (which were assigned as His residues), Gly and some other short chain amino-acids. Combinations of the molecular masses of such components together with acetate (which is present in the solution) and chromium atoms allowed a tentative proposal of a model for the compound. PMID:18365059

  8. Effect of Chromium(VI) Toxicity on Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sangwan, Punesh; Joshi, U. N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and nonessential types. Their excessive levels pose a threat to plant growth and yield. Also, some heavy metals are toxic to plants even at very low concentrations. The present investigation (a pot experiment) was conducted to determine the affects of varying chromium(VI) levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil in the form of potassium dichromate) on the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in clusterbean. Chromium treatment adversely affect nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate dehydrogenase in various plant organs at different growth stages as specific enzyme activity of these enzymes decreased with an increase in chromium(VI) levels from 0 to 2.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil and 4.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil was found to be lethal to clusterbean plants. In general, the enzyme activity increased with advancement of growth to reach maximum at flowering stage and thereafter decreased at grain filling stage. PMID:24744916

  9. Contamination of public parks and squares from Guarulhos (São Paulo State, Brazil ) by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp.

    PubMed

    Marques, Jacó Pereira; Guimarães, Catarina de Rezende; Boas, Ailton Vilas; Carnaúba, Paulo Usignolo; Moraes, Josué de

    2012-01-01

    The contaminated soil with mammal feces is an important factor of risk to infection with zoonotic diseases. Amongst these zoonoses are visceral larva migrans and cutaneous larva migrans caused by Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp., respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs and hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) in public parks and squares in the city of Guarulhos, a metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected, between September and December 2010, and examined using the centrifugal flotation technique with sodium dichromate and zinc sulphate as well as the modified Baermann method. Notably, 35 (74.5%) of the 47 districts surveyed in Guarulhos possessed samples contaminated with Toxocara spp. and/or eggs or larvae of Ancylostoma spp. The frequency of Toxocara spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in the samples from public areas was 68.1% and 46.8%, respectively. Overall, the eastern side of Guarulhos is the region with the highest occurrence of causative agents of larva migrans. In all collection sites, the presence of feces from dogs and cats accompanied by their owners and stray animals were observed. Notably, it is important to adopt measures to control dog and cat breeding, to treat infected animals, and provide health education to the population.

  10. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Semra; Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes.

  11. Planar holographic spectrum-splitting PV module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan M.; Luscombe, Christine K.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2012-10-01

    A design is presented for a planar spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (PV) module using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs). A repeating array of HOEs diffracts portions of the solar spectrum onto different PV materials arranged in alternating strips. Several combinations of candidate PV materials are explored, and theoretical power conversion efficiency is quantified and compared for each case. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) film, an inexpensive material which is easily encapsulated directly into the panel. If desired, the holograms can focus the light to achieve concentration. The side-by-side split spectrum layout has advantages compared to a stacked tandem cell approach: since the cells are electrically isolated, current matching constraints are eliminated. Combinations of dissimilar types of cells are also possible: including crystalline, thin film, and organic PV cells. Configurations which yield significant efficiency gain using relatively inexpensive PV materials are of particular interest. A method used to optimize HOE design to work with a different candidate cells and different package aspect ratios is developed and presented. (Aspect ratio is width of the cell strips vs. the thickness of the panel) The relationship between aspect ratio and HOE performance properties is demonstrated. These properties include diffraction efficiency, spectral selectivity, tracking alignment sensitivity, and uniformity of cell illumination.

  12. A simplified method for generating periodic nanostructures by interference lithography without the use of an anti-reflection coating

    SciTech Connect

    Kapon, Omree; Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Aviv, Hagit; Tischler, Yaakov R.

    2015-11-16

    Interference lithography has proven to be a useful technique for generating periodic sub-diffraction limited nanostructures. Interference lithography can be implemented by exposing a photoresist polymer to laser light using a two-beam arrangement or more simply a one beam configuration based on a Lloyd's Mirror Interferometer. For typical photoresist layers, an anti-reflection coating must be deposited on the substrate to prevent adverse reflections from cancelling the holographic pattern of the interfering beams. For silicon substrates, such coatings are typically multilayered and complex in composition. By thinning the photoresist layer to a thickness well below the quarter wavelength of the exposing beam, we demonstrate that interference gratings can be generated without an anti-reflection coating on the substrate. We used ammonium dichromate doped polyvinyl alcohol as the positive photoresist because it provides excellent pinhole free layers down to thicknesses of 40 nm, and can be cross-linked by a low-cost single mode 457 nm laser, and can be etched in water. Gratings with a period of 320 nm and depth of 4 nm were realized, as well as a variety of morphologies depending on the photoresist thickness. This simplified interference lithography technique promises to be useful for generating periodic nanostructures with high fidelity and minimal substrate treatments.

  13. Animal models of acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Junemann, Anselm; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal; Grover, Kuldeep; Dhawan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    The animal models are pivotal for understanding the characteristics of acute renal failure (ARF) and development of effective therapy for its optimal management. Since the etiology for induction of renal failure is multifold, therefore, a large number of animal models have been developed to mimic the clinical conditions of renal failure. Glycerol-induced renal failure closely mimics the rhabdomyolysis; ischemia-reperfusion-induced ARF simulate the hemodynamic changes-induced changes in renal functioning; drug-induced such as gentamicin, cisplatin, NSAID, ifosfamide-induced ARF mimics the renal failure due to clinical administration of respective drugs; uranium, potassium dichromate-induced ARF mimics the occupational hazard; S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine-induced ARF simulate contaminated water-induced renal dysfunction; sepsis-induced ARF mimics the infection-induced renal failure and radiocontrast-induced ARF mimics renal failure in patients during use of radiocontrast media at the time of cardiac catheterization. Since each animal model has been created with specific methodology, therefore, it is essential to describe the model in detail and consequently interpret the results in the context of a specific model.

  14. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness.

  15. Chromium recovery from exhausted baths generated in plating processes and its reuse in the tanning industry.

    PubMed

    Torras, Josep; Buj, Irene; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan

    2012-03-30

    Chromium plating used for functional purposes provides an extremely hard, wear and corrosion resistant layer by means of electrolytic deposition. Typical layer thicknesses range between 2.5 and 500 μm. Chromium electroplating baths contain high concentrations of Cr(VI) with chromium trioxide (CrO(3)) as the chromium source. When because of technical or economic reasons a bath gets exhausted, a waste containing mainly chromium as dichromate as well as other heavy metals is generated. Chromium may then be purified for use in other industrial processes with different requirements. In this work, a sustainable system for using galvanic wastes as reagents in the leather tanning industry, thus reducing quantity of wastes to be treated, is presented. Metal cations present in the chromium exhausted bath were precipitated with NaOH. Then, the solution containing mainly soluble Cr(VI) was separated. By means of sodium sulphite in acidic conditions, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) as chromium (III) sulphate. From chromium (III) sulphate a basic Cr(III) sulphate may be obtained, which is one of most used compounds in the tanning industry. Cr(III) concentration in the final solution allows its reuse without concentration, but with a slight dilution.

  16. Ultra light-trapping filters with broadband reflection holograms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan M; Gordon, Michael; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2012-06-18

    Significant optical absorption enhancement can be achieved by incorporating optical diffusers in the thin-film silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells. Absorption can be increased further by angular and spectral selective filters. In this work the properties of volume reflection holograms are examined for realizing ultra light-trapping filters for thin film silicon photovoltaic cell applications. The filter properties of reflection volume hologram are evaluated for this application. It is found that variation in the refractive index profile as a function of depth is an important factor. The optimized design is implemented in dichromated gelatin holograms and found to be in good agreement with predicted performance. The enhancement to the conversion efficiency of silicon PV cells are predicted with the PC-1D simulation tool and is found to be similar to that with an optimized Rugate filter. The simulated short circuit current density enhancement was found to be 8.2% for a 50 µm thick silicon PV cell and 15.8% for a 10 µm thick silicon PV cell.

  17. Gold(III) chloride catalyzed synthesis of chiral substituted 3-formyl furans from carbohydrates: application in the synthesis of 1,5-dicarbonyl derivatives and furo[3,2-c]pyridine.

    PubMed

    Mal, Kanchan; Sharma, Abhinandan; Das, Indrajit

    2014-09-08

    This report describes a gold(III)-catalyzed efficient general route to densely substituted chiral 3-formyl furans under extremely mild conditions from suitably protected 5-(1-alkynyl)-2,3-dihydropyran-4-one using H2 O as a nucleophile. The reaction proceeds through the initial formation of an activated alkyne-gold(III) complex intermediate, followed by either a domino nucleophilic attack/anti-endo-dig cyclization, or the formation of a cyclic oxonium ion with subsequent attack by H2 O. To confirm the proposed mechanistic pathway, we employed MeOH as a nucleophile instead of H2 O to result in a substituted furo[3,2-c]pyran derivative, as anticipated. The similar furo[3,2-c]pyran skeleton with a hybrid carbohydrate-furan derivative has also been achieved through pyridinium dichromate (PDC) oxidation of a substituted chiral 3-formyl furan. The corresponding protected 5-(1-alkynyl)-2,3-dihydropyran-4-one can be synthesized from the monosaccharides (both hexoses and pentose) following oxidation, iodination, and Sonogashira coupling sequences. Furthermore, to demonstrate the potentiality of chiral 3-formyl furan derivatives, a TiBr4 -catalyzed reaction of these derivatives has been shown to offer efficient access to 1,5-dicarbonyl compounds, which on treatment with NH4 OAc in slightly acidic conditions afforded substituted furo[3,2-c]pyridine.

  18. Tropical ecotoxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia cornuta.

    PubMed

    Do Hong, Lan Chi; Becker-Van Slooten, Kristin; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    The Sai Gon-Dong Nai river system in southern Vietnam is of great social and economic importance yet receives a large amount of industrial, domestic, and agricultural discharges. Toxicity assessment has started to become an issue in Vietnam, and it is important to employ a test system that is appropriate for typical Vietnamese conditions with a species that is representative of the invertebrates living in its aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to develop and to validate an ecotoxicity test with an autochthonous organism. The microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta (Cladocera) was isolated from the Sai Gon River. A protocol was developed for the culturing of the organisms, and satisfactory results were obtained for long-term reproduction of C. cornuta. Quality control criteria were established. The toxicity of two relevant pesticides (diazinon and methyl parathion) and two metals (chromium and mercury) to C. cornuta was evaluated and compared to the standard organisms for ecotoxicological testing: Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. Nonlinear regression models were applied to estimate such parameters as EC(50). The results of acute toxicity tests showed that C. cornuta was less tolerant than D. magna and V. fischeri to salinity and that C. cornuta was more sensitive than D. magna and V. fischeri to potassium dichromate, diazinon, methyl parathion, and mercury.

  19. Precision of the EPA seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction test

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraeve, G.M.; Cooney, J.D.; Marsh, B.H.; Pollock, T.L.; Reichenbach, N.G. )

    1989-11-01

    This study evaluated the intra- and interlaboratory variability of the seven-day Ceriodaphnia test using two reference toxicants (sodium chloride and potassium dichromate), two paper-and-pulp effluents, and two utility effluents. Eleven different laboratories, representing academia, private industry, contractors, and state and federal EPAs participated in the study. The reference toxicants were tested twice during two separate test periods and each industrial effluent was tested once. Using EPA's criteria for a successful test, 56 percent of the 116 planned tests were completed as valid tests. Most invalid tests were unacceptable either because they were not initiated or because control survival was <80 percent. Seventy-eight percent of the tests that were initiated were successfully completed. Reproduction NOEC values were generally somewhat lower than those for survival, but had greater variability than survival NOEC values. The interlaboratory variability of the survival (LC{sub 50} values) and reproduction (IC{sub 50} values) results, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) ranged between 29.8 percent and 30.8 percent and between 28.9 percent and 39.0 percent, respectively. The study demonstrated that about half (56 percent) of the laboratories participating in the study were able to routinely complete the test successfully. Overall, the variability of the seven-day Ceriodaphnia test was similar to the variability observed with other toxicity tests and analytical measurements. 52 refs., 41 tabs.

  20. Hexavalent chromium damages chamomile plants by alteration of antioxidants and its uptake is prevented by calcium.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef; Klejdus, Bořivoj

    2014-05-30

    Toxicity of low (3μM) and high (60 and 120μM) concentrations of hexavalent chromium/Cr(VI) in chamomile plants was studied. Fluorescence staining confirmed reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Cr was mainly accumulated in the roots with translocation factor <0.007. Notwithstanding this, both shoots and roots revealed increase in oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione, total thiols, ascorbic acid and activities of glutathione reductase and partially ascorbate peroxidase mainly at 120μM Cr. Though some protective mechanisms were detected (elevation of nitric oxide, enhancement of GPX activity and increase in phenols and lignin), this was not sufficient to counteract the oxidative damage. Consequently, soluble proteins, tissue water content and biomass production were considerably depleted. Surprising increase in some mineral nutrients in roots (Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu) was also detected. Subsequent experiment confirmed that exogenous calcium suppressed oxidative symptoms and Cr uptake but growth of chamomile seedlings was not improved. Alteration of naturally present reductants could be a reason for Cr(III) signal detected using specific fluorescence reagent: in vitro assay confirmed disappearance of ascorbic acid in equimolar mixture with dichromate (>96% at pH 4 and 7) while such response of glutathione was substantially less visible.

  1. Environmental stability study of holographic solar spectrum splitting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysler, Benjamin D.; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this study the impact of outdoor temperature variations and solar illumination exposure on spectral filter material and holographic optical elements is examined. Although holographic components have been shown to be useful for solar spectrum splitting designs, relatively little quantitative data exist to demonstrate the extent to which these materials can withstand outdoor conditions. As researchers seek to investigate practical spectrum splitting designs, the environmental stability of holographic materials should be considered as an important factor. In the experiment presented, two holographic materials, Covestro Bayfol HX photopolymer and dichromated gelatin, and 3M reflective polymer filter materials are exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of several months. The environmental effect on absorption, spectral and angular bandwidth, peak efficiency, and Bragg matching conditions for the holograms are examined. Spectral bandwidth and transmittance of the 3M reflective filter material are also monitored. Holographic gratings are recorded, measured, and mounted on glass substrates and then sealed with a glass cover plate. The test samples are then mounted on a photovoltaic panel to simulate realistic temperature conditions and placed at an outdoor test facility in Tucson, Arizona. A duplicate set of holograms and 3M filter material is stored as a control group and periodically compared over the test period.

  2. Segmented holographic spectrum splitting concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Silvana P.; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a segmented parabolic concentrator employing holographic spectral filters that provide focusing and spectral bandwidth separation capability to the system. Strips of low band gap silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are formed into a parabolic surface as shown by Holman et. al. [1]. The surface of the PV segments is covered with holographic elements formed in dichromated gelatin. The holographic elements are designed to transmit longer wavelengths to silicon cells, and to reflect short wavelength light towards a secondary collector where high-bandgap PV cells are mounted. The system can be optimized for different combinations of diffuse and direct solar illumination conditions for particular geographical locations by controlling the concentration ratio and filtering properties of the holographic elements. In addition, the reflectivity of the back contact of the silicon cells is used to increase the optical path length and light trapping. This potentially allows the use of thin film silicon for the low bandgap PV cell material. The optical design combines the focusing properties of the parabolic concentrator and the holographic element to control the concentration ratio and uniformity of the spectral distribution at the high bandgap cell location. The presentation concludes with a comparison of different spectrum splitting holographic filter materials for this application.

  3. Black carbon and kerogen in soils and sediments. 1. Quantification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin

    2002-09-15

    A comprehensive wet chemical procedure was developed by combining acid demineralization, base extraction, and dichromate oxidation for fractionation and quantitative isolation of soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) into four fractions: (1) humic acids + kerogen + BC (HKB); (2) kerogen + BC (KB); (3) humic acid (HA); and (4) BC. The soil/sediment samples tested were collected from the suburban areas of Guangzhou, a rapidly developing city of China. The results show that BC and kerogen constitute 57.8-80.6% of the total organic carbon (TOC) and that the relative content of BC ranges from 18.3% to 41.0% of the TOC, indicating that both BC and kerogen are major organic components in soils and sediments from this industrialized region. Systematic characterization of the isolated SOMs shows that both BC and kerogen have sizes ranging from a few microns to above 100 microm, relatively low O/C and H/C atomic ratios, and low contents of oxygen-containing functional groups. The isolated BC has unique fusinite and semifusinite macerals, highly porous nature, and structures indicative of its possible origins. The study indicates that SOM is highly heterogeneous and that humin, the nonextractable humus fraction, consists mainly of kerogen and BC materials in the tested soil/sediment samples. The presence of these materials in soils and sediments may have significant impacts on pollutant mass transfer and transformation processes such as desorption and bioavailability of less polar organic chemicals in surface aquatic and groundwater environments.

  4. An experimental distribution of analog and digital information in a hybrid wireless visible light communication system based on acousto-optic modulation and sinusoidal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Colín, R.; García Juárez, A.; Zaldívar Huerta, I. E.; Marquina, A. Vera; García Delgado, L. A.; Leal Cruz, A. L.; Gómez Fuentes, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a photonic architecture as an alternative tool to distribute point to multipoint analog and digital information over a hybrid wireless visible optical communication system. The experimental set-up is composed of a red laser pointer, an acousto-optic modulator, a sinusoidal grating and a photo-detector array. By using a simple and variable interferometric system, diffraction gratings with different spatial frequencies are generated and recorded on a photoemulsion which is composed of vanilla with dichromate gelatin. Analog video and digital information are first transmitted and recovered over a wireless communication system using a microwave carrier at 4.52 GHz which is generated by distributed feedback lasers operating in the low laser threshold current region. Separately, the recovered video information and digital data are combined with a radio frequency signal of 80 MHz, obtaining a subcarrier of information that is imposed on the optical carrier of the pointer laser using an acousto-optic modulator which is operated with an angle of incident light that satisfies the Bragg condition. The modulated optical carrier is sent to a sinusoidal grating, the diffraction pattern is photo-detected using an array of PIN photo-detectors. The use of sinusoidal gratings with acousto-optic modulators allows that number of channels to be increased when both components are placed in cascade.

  5. A facile synthesis-fabrication strategy for integration of catalytically active viral-palladium nanostructures into polymeric hydrogel microparticles via replica molding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuixian; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lee, Chang-Soo; Yi, Hyunmin

    2013-06-25

    The synthesis of small, uniform, well-dispersed and active Pd nanocatalysts under mild conditions in a predictable and controlled manner is an unmet challenge. Viral nanomaterials are attractive biotemplates for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles due to their well-defined and monodisperse structure along with abundant surface functionalities. Here, we demonstrate spontaneous formation of small (1-2 nm), uniform and highly crystalline palladium (Pd) nanoparticles along genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys) biotemplates without external reducing agents. The ratio between TMV and Pd precursor plays an important role in the exclusive formation of well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles along TMV biotemplates. The as-prepared Pd-TMV complexes are then integrated into the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based microparticles via replica molding (RM) technique in a simple, robust and highly reproducible manner. High catalytic activity, recyclability and stability of the hybrid Pd-TMV-PEG microparticles are further demonstrated through dichromate reduction as a model reaction. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a significant step toward simple, robust, and scalable synthesis and fabrication of efficient biotemplate-supported Pd nanocatalysts in readily deployable polymeric scaffolds with high capacity in a controlled manner.

  6. Remediation of chromium-slag leakage with electricity cogeneration via a urea-Cr(VI) cell

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Binbin; Zhang, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Li, Gang; Wu, Zucheng

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution has been historically widespread throughout the world. Most available remediation technologies often require energy consumption. This study is aimed to develop electrochemical remediation for Cr(VI) in chromium-slag leakage with self-generated electricity. Dynamic leaching experiments of chromium-slag samples were conducted to survey the release and leaching behavior of Cr(VI). Based on previous work, a unique urea-Cr(VI) was designed, in which urea was employed as the fuel and Cr(VI) from the leakage of the dichromate slag served as the oxidant. Furthermore, the electrochemical results showed that the removal percent of Cr(VI) was more than 96% after 18 h with the leakage Cr(VI) concentration of 2.69 mM. The open circuit potential (OCP) varied in the range of 1.56 ~ 1.59 V under different initial Cr(VI) leakage concentrations. The approach explores the feasibility of the promising technique without the need of energy input for simultaneous chromium-slag remediation and generation of electricity. PMID:25168513

  7. A portable photoelectrochemical probe for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanqing; Li, Lihong; Zhao, Huijun

    2009-10-15

    A photoelectrochemical probe for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is developed using a nanostructured mixed-phase TiO2 photoanode, namely PeCOD probe. A UV-LED light source and a USB mircroelectrochemical station are powered and controlled by a laptop computer, which makes the probe portable for onsite COD analyses. The photoelectrochemical measurement of COD was optimized in terms of light intensity, applied bias, and pH. Under the optimized conditions, the net steady state currents originated from the oxidation of organic compounds were found to be directly proportional to COD concentrations. A practical detection limit of 0.2 ppm COD and a linear range of 0-120 ppm COD were achieved. The analytical method using the portable PeCOD probe has the advantages of being rapid, low cost, robust, user-friendly, and environmental friendly. It has been successfully applied to determine the COD values of the synthetic samples consisting of potassium hydrogen phthalate, D-glucose, glutamic acid, glutaric acid, succinic acid, and malonic acid, and real samples from various industries, such as bakery, oil and grease manufacturer, poultry, hotel, fine food factory, and fresh food producer, commercial bread manufacturer. Excellent agreement between the proposed method and the conventional COD method (dichromate) was achieved.

  8. The influence of the development in silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms derived from PFG-01 plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neipp, C.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2000-01-01

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) is an interesting technique for the production of holographic optical elements. It combines the high sensitivity of photographic emulsions with the well-known low scattering and high diffraction efficiency corresponding to dichromated gelatin. Owing to the fact that Agfa has ceased production of holographic material it is necessary to find and study new silver halide materials for applications in holography. The differences between these new materials and Agfa material makes it necessary to introduce some modifications to the procedures optimized for Agfa. The influence of the different experimental parameters on the final quality of the hologram is also different when using these new materials. In this work we study the influence of the development step on some holographic characteristics as the diffraction efficiency, the absorption and scattering and the scattered light intensity, for SHSG phase transmission holograms recorded on the Slavich PFG-01 red-sensitive emulsion. We will show that real high diffraction efficiencies can be obtained when using Slavich material for recording SHSG transmission holograms for different developers included in the SHSG procedure. The peak diffraction efficiency reaches a very high level (96% after allowing for reflections) when using the AGFA 80 developer.

  9. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, M.; Deka, D. K.; Sarmah, P. C.; Islam, S.; Sarma, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535), heifer (641) and adult (1163) cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (<1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (>3 years) cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%), followed by monsoon (15%), winter (9.44%), and pre-monsoon (7.49%) season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season. PMID:27047181

  10. Remediation of chromium-slag leakage with electricity cogeneration via a urea-Cr(VI) cell.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbin; Zhang, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Li, Gang; Wu, Zucheng

    2014-08-29

    Chromium pollution has been historically widespread throughout the world. Most available remediation technologies often require energy consumption. This study is aimed to develop electrochemical remediation for Cr(VI) in chromium-slag leakage with self-generated electricity. Dynamic leaching experiments of chromium-slag samples were conducted to survey the release and leaching behavior of Cr(VI). Based on previous work, a unique urea-Cr(VI) was designed, in which urea was employed as the fuel and Cr(VI) from the leakage of the dichromate slag served as the oxidant. Furthermore, the electrochemical results showed that the removal percent of Cr(VI) was more than 96% after 18 h with the leakage Cr(VI) concentration of 2.69 mM. The open circuit potential (OCP) varied in the range of 1.56 ~ 1.59 V under different initial Cr(VI) leakage concentrations. The approach explores the feasibility of the promising technique without the need of energy input for simultaneous chromium-slag remediation and generation of electricity.

  11. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  12. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) using silicon nanowire arrays under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Ouarda; Barras, Alexandre; Pan, Guo-Hui; Coffinier, Yannick; Hadjersi, Toufik; Maamache, Mustapha; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-05

    We report an efficient visible light-induced reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) to trivalent Cr(III) by direct illumination of an aqueous solution of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in the presence of hydrogenated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) or silicon nanowires decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs-SiNWs) as photocatalyst. The SiNW arrays investigated in this study were prepared by chemical etching of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO3 aqueous solution. The Cu NPs were deposited on SiNW arrays via electroless deposition technique. Visible light irradiation of an aqueous solution of K2Cr2O7 (10(-4)M) in presence of H-SiNWs showed that these substrates were not efficient for Cr(VI) reduction. The reduction efficiency achieved was less than 10% after 120 min irradiation at λ>420 nm. Addition of organic acids such as citric or adipic acid in the solution accelerated Cr(VI) reduction in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, Cu NPs-SiNWs was found to be a very efficient interface for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in absence of organic acids. Almost a full reduction of Cr(VI) was achieved by direct visible light irradiation for 140 min using this photocatalyst.

  13. Synthetic adhesive oligopeptides with rigid polyhydroxylated amino acids.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Manjeet; Singh, Shashi; Geyer, Armin

    2013-05-01

    Synthetic oligopeptides containing polyhydroxylated bicyclic dipeptide (Glc=Tap) are investigated for their adhesion properties. The non-natural amino acid building block composed of Glc=Tap is derived from glucuronic acid and mimics the hydroxyl-amino acids of the natural proteins. Peptide oligomers of Glc=Tap flanked by the amino acids Tyr and Lys were synthesized and characterized. Solution structural studies performed by circular dichromism spectroscopy suggests that poly(Lys-Glc=Tap-Tyr) and poly(Glc=Tap-Tyr) adopts extended helical structures. Adhesion of these oligomers to the mica surface is shown by atomic force microscopy spectroscopy. Studies indicate that extended polyproline II polyhydroxylated peptide chains, which bear additional phenolic as well as cationic side chains, can mimic some of the adhesion properties of the natural protein models. Furthermore, obtained data suggest that poly(Glc=Tap-Tyr) and poly(Lys-Glc=Tap-Tyr) as outstanding adhesive compounds, which combine efficient synthetic accessibility with promising adhesive properties.

  14. Prenatal exposure to chromium induces early reproductive senescence by increasing germ cell apoptosis and advancing germ cell cyst breakdown in the F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Stanley, Jone A; Arosh, Joe A; Pepling, Melissa E; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2014-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries such as chrome plating, welding, wood processing and tanneries. As one of the world's leading producers of chromium compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against multiple adverse effects of CrVI. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and can induce apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous studies demonstrated postnatal exposure to CrVI results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and puberty. Pregnant rats were treated with 25 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from gestational day (GD) 9.5 to 14.5 through drinking water, placentae were removed on GD 20, and total Cr was estimated in the placentae; ovaries were removed from the F1 offspring on postnatal day (PND)-1 and various analyses were performed. Our results show that gestational exposure to CrVI resulted in (i) increased Cr concentration in the placenta, (ii) increased germ cell apoptosis by up-regulating p53/p27-Bax-caspase-3 proteins and by increasing p53-SOD-2 co-localization; (iii) accelerated germ cell cyst (GCC) breakdown; (iv) advanced primordial follicle assembly and primary follicle transition and (v) down regulation of p-AKT, p-ERK and XIAP. As a result of the above events, CrVI induced early reproductive senescence and decrease in litter size in F1 female progeny.

  15. Phase-diffractive coating for daylight control on smart window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perennes, Frederic; Twardowski, Patrice J.; Gesbert, D.; Meyrueis, Patrick

    1992-11-01

    Daylight can be processed by a smart window in a transmission, reflective, refractive, and diffractive mode. In the future an optimization will be realized by a mixing of these approaches depending on the applied cases. Non-imaging diffractive optics has its roots in the work done in holographic diffractive coating for head up displays (HUD) and helmet mounted displays. For having globally good results on smart window with diffractive coating, a very high diffraction efficiency must be reached close to 100% without having a too important lowering of the control of other parameters of the light processed by a smart window (direction and frequency control essentially). We propose a method for designing, realizing, and using diffractive coating for a smart window that is based on a new organic material and diffractive model that were already validated in HUD. Potential low cost is possible for mass production on a large surface with an adapted investment. We describe the present technology and its limits and the ones that can be reached in the future. In this work, we present a holographic way to modify the slant of sun rays through a window, and to filter infrared radiations by using dichromated gelatin material. In this way it would be able to ensure a more uniform lighting and a more pleasant temperature inside buildings or vehicles, without using dye or photochromics glasses.

  16. The Remedial Efficacy of Spirulina platensis versus Chromium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, M O; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S; Morgan, Ashraf M; Ali, Merhan E

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Spirulina platensis against chromium-induced nephrotoxicity. A total of 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gps). Gp1 served as control, rats of Gps 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to Spirulina platensis (300 mg/kg b.wt per os) and sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) via drinking water at concentration of 520 mg /l respectively. Chromium administration caused alterations in the renal function markers as evidenced by significant increase of blood urea and creatinine levels accompanied with significant increase in kidney's chromium residues and MDA level as well as decreased catalase activity and glutathion content in kidney tissue. Histologically, Cr provoked deleterious changes including: vascular congestion, wide spread tubular epithelium necrobiotic changes, atrophy of glomerular tuft and proliferative hyperplasia. The latter was accompanied with positive PCNA expression in kidney tissues as well as DNA ploidy interpretation of major cellular population of degenerated cells, appearance of tetraploid cells, high proliferation index and high DNA index. Morphometrical measurements revealed marked glomerular and tubular lumen alterations. On contrary, spirulina co-treatment with Cr significantly restored the histopathological changes, antioxidants and renal function markers and all the previously mentioned changes as well.

  17. Evaluation of the Allium anaphase-telophase test in relation to genotoxicity screening of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1994-02-01

    The Allium anaphase-telophase test was evaluated to find out if it could be recommended in the screening of wastewater for genotoxicity. Five mutagenic or carcinogenic chemicals usually found in wastewater were tested in the Allium anaphase-telophase test. Sodium dichromate (25 microM), benzene (100 microM), dichloromethane (175 microM) and 1,1,1-trichloromethane (175 microM) increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the root cells, whereas formaldehyde (1 mM) was found to be non-mutagenic in this test system. Other studies where chemicals were tested in the Allium test were reviewed. For 15 chemicals the results were compared with results from the Ames test, the Microscreen assay, and carcinogenicity tests in rodents. The sensitivity of the Allium test was calculated to be 82%. In conclusion the Allium test is recommended for the screening of wastewater because it has a high sensitivity, is cheap, rapid, easy to handle, and because it can be used on wastewater without pretreatment of the sample.

  18. Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on soil CO2 emissions and in different physicochemical properties. For this purpose, a sandy-loam soil was amended with the three biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt % and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving's from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results shown a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related with different biochar properties such as ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, organic carbon oxidised with dichromate, soluble carbon and metal and phenolic substances content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  19. Holographic Recordings in Dye/Polymer Systems For Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, Roger A.; Couture, Jean J.

    1990-04-01

    Since Gabor's first demonstration of reconstructed wavefronts, many holographic techniques provided interesting tools and applications. Presently the future of holography is strongly dependent upon new holographic recording thin films. Because of their excellent responses to high spatial frequency grating recordings (up to 6800 cycles/mm), photopolymers and photocrosslinking materials seem to be good candidates to overcome some limitations. Dichromated gelatin films demons-trated excellent properties for permanent recording grating applications like HOE construction but they are humidity sensitive and they need a chemical development. Today's holographic works need real-time like recording material and law cost organic materials as DYE/POLYMER systems offer some possibilities. We present a review of research works done in our holography laboratories of COPL at Universite Laval. Using an automated spatial frequency analyzer designed at COPL, DYE/POLYMER systems are characterized for transmission holography and also for applications involving real-time holography and four-wave mixing techniques. Also, most of our characterization studies consider volume polarization holograms. The second subject is devoted to polarization hologram recordings in thin colored polyvinyl alcohol films. Those AZO/WA solid films are erasable and can be used for many thousands duty cycles for polarization volume holograms. Holographic characterization studies are conducted in order to know best experimental conditions and applications that allow to use those films. Finally, sensitized PVA films will be discussed.

  20. Journey through Bui-Bui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacArthur, Ana C.

    2000-10-01

    In a continuation of my search for an understanding of sunlight's relationship to the health of the human organism, I created the installation A Journey Through Bui-Bui; Lifting the Purdah of Mal-Illumination. It was exhibited in 1999 at The Museum of Fine Arts, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The entire work pivots around the image of the veil worn by Muslim women, as both content and metaphor related to the issue of the absence or presence of light in the physical body. The following paper will discuss the development of concepts and the technical progression of this recently completed large-scale mixed media work. This three-roomed installation integrated life casts of the human figure covered in veils, various sculptural elements, fiber optics, and dichromated gelatin (DCG) holograms. The DCG holographic glass objects were produced with an array of glass sculpting tools. I will also briefly discuss current work evolving out of this installation, which further explored the sculptural possibilities of glass and the coating and recording of DCG on curved surfaces.

  1. Occupational asthma induced by chromium salts.

    PubMed

    Olaguibel, J M; Basomba, A

    1989-01-01

    Five patients with asthma related to exposure to chromium salts, in their work area, are presented. All of them were non atopics and presented a history of contact dermatitis, with positive patch tests to potassium dichromate, previous to the onset of bronchial asthma. Solutions of K2Cr2O5 were prepared in normal saline at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml for skin prick tests (SPT) and bronchial provocation tests (BPT). Immediate cutaneous reaction by SPT was negative for controls and patients. BPT were performed by the tidal breathing method, with positive results in all subjects. A negative response was recorded in 4 control unexposed asthmatics. An attempt to inhibit BPT with sodium cromoglycate was unsuccessful. The diversity of reactions (immediate, dual and late) registered in BPT, support that bronchial reactivity can be induced specifically by inhalation of chromium salts. The data of follow-up indicates a good prognosis, provided that patients remain out of exposure. The lack of facts suggesting an IgE-mediated reaction puts forward for consideration other pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  2. Decolorization of Distillery Spent Wash Using Biopolymer Synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Tannery Effluent.

    PubMed

    David, Charles; Arivazhagan, M; Balamurali, M N; Shanmugarajan, Dhivya

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial strain was isolated from tannery effluent which can tolerate high concentrations of potassium dichromate up to 1000 ppm. The isolated microorganism was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by performing biochemical tests and molecular characterization. In the presence of excess of carbohydrate source, which is a physiological stress, this strain produces Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). This intracellular polymer, which is synthesized, is primarily a product of carbon assimilation and is employed by microorganisms as an energy storage molecule to be metabolized when other common energy sources are limitedly available. Efforts were taken to check whether the PHB has any positive effect on spent wash decolorization. When a combination of PHB and the isolated bacterial culture was added to spent wash, a maximum color removal of 92.77% was found which was comparatively higher than the color removed when the spent wash was treated individually with the PHB and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PHB behaved as a support material for the bacteria to bind to it and thus develops biofilm, which is one of the natural physiological growth forms of microorganisms. The bacterial growth in the biofilm and the polymer together acted in synergy, adsorbing and coagulating the pollutants in the form of color pigments.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of aqueous phenol and Cr(VI) over visible-light-driven TbxOy loaded TiO2-oriented nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dingze; Yang, Minchen; Fang, Pengfei; Li, Chunhe; Jiang, Lulu

    2017-03-01

    A visible-light-driven TbxOy loaded TiO2-oriented nanosheets (Tb-TNSs) of 3.6 nm thick and specific surface area of 240-350 m2/g provided with highly dispersed TbxOy nanoparticles of 1-2 nm over the surfaces were synthesized using a one-pot hydrothermal route. Loaded TbxOy nanoparticles influenced morphology, structure, and optical properties of the TNSs. The XPS results showed that Tb3+ and Tb4+ co-exist in Tb-TNSs, and loaded TbxOy resulted in changes in binding energies of Ti and O. The amount of Ti3+ increased gradually with the amount of loaded TbxOy nanoparticles. FL and surface photocurrent spectra results indicated that an appropriate amount of TbxOy (≤1.0 at.%) loading can effectively improve the separation efficiency of charge carriers. The visible-light-driven photocatalysis could be measured by the removal of phenol or dichromate separately along with synergistic degradation in phenol-Cr(VI) coexistence system. The optimum photocatalytic activity was obtained at Tb/Ti = 1.0 at.% under degradation of aqueous phenol or Cr(VI) solution. Besides, the desorbed Tb-TNSs could be easily regenerated by remedying the damaged structure and reused with excellent performance. High regeneration and stability of photocatalysts were confirmed by seven cyclic tests. An alternant mechanism for the enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity was also considered.

  4. Rapid determination of the chemical oxygen demand of water using a thermal biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Na; Wang, Jinqi; Zhou, Yikai

    2014-06-06

    In this paper we describe a thermal biosensor with a flow injection analysis system for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water samples. Glucose solutions of different concentrations and actual water samples were tested, and their COD values were determined by measuring the heat generated when the samples passed through a column containing periodic acid. The biosensor exhibited a large linear range (5 to 3000 mg/L) and a low detection limit (1.84 mg/L). It could tolerate the presence of chloride ions in concentrations of 0.015 M without requiring a masking agent. The sensor was successfully used for detecting the COD values of actual samples. The COD values of water samples from various sources were correlated with those obtained by the standard dichromate method; the linear regression coefficient was found to be 0.996. The sensor is environmentally friendly, economical, and highly stable, and exhibits good reproducibility and accuracy. In addition, its response time is short, and there is no danger of hazardous emissions or external contamination. Finally, the samples to be tested do not have to be pretreated. These results suggest that the biosensor is suitable for the continuous monitoring of the COD values of actual wastewater samples.

  5. Development of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy method for soil and ecological analysis (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakov, V. S.; Raikov, S. N.; Tarasenko, N. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Kiris, V. V.

    2010-11-01

    The application of laser spectrochemical analysis to testing for basic compounds and nutritious/toxic elements in soil has been reviewed. A combined laser-spark approach has been applied for the rapid measurement of the carbon content in soil. Spectra have been excited both directly in a laser-ablation plume and by passing a pulsed electric discharge through the plume. The emission spectrum intensity in the combined plasma is considerably higher. The application of a complex of methods to carbon determination in soil has shown that in fact the data on the humus content usually obtained in agrochemical practice by a conventional method of carbon oxidation by potassium dichromate need to be corrected taking into account the possibility of incomplete oxidation of organic matter in soil. The efficiency of various double-pulse LIBS applications has been demonstrated in solving a number of environmental problems such as the determination of heavy and toxic metals in soil and the detection of sulfur in coal. The instrumentation and analytical procedures have been proposed and optimized for rapid control of the chlorine content in plant samples. The technique can be easily extended to ecological monitoring of toxic elements and heavy metals in any biogenic material.

  6. The protective effect of propylthiouracil against hepatotoxicity induced by chromium in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida, Fatma; Troudi, Afef; Sefi, Madiha; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-02-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to chromium compounds, especially hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), is widely recognized as potentially hepatotoxic in humans and animals. Its toxicity is associated with overproduction of free radicals, which induces oxidative damage. This study focused on the possible protective effect of propylthiouracil (PTU) against potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Female mice were divided into four groups (groups I-IV) with seven animals in each group. Group I served as a control, which received tap water; group II received K2Cr2O7 alone (75 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.)) via drinking water; group III received both K2Cr2O7 via drinking water and PTU by intramuscular injection at a dose 2.5 mg/100 g(-1) b.w. twice a week, and group IV received PTU alone twice a week for 30 days. Exposure of mice to Cr promoted oxidative stress with an increase in malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and advanced oxidation protein product levels. Nonenzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione, nonprotein thiol, vitamin C levels and enzymatic antioxidant activities such as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were decreased, while catalase activity was increased. Biomarkers of liver injury such as aspartate and alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activities, bilirubin, albumin, and glucose levels were increased, while triglyceride and cholesterol levels decreased. Coadministration of PTU restored the above-mentioned parameters to near-normal values. The histological findings confirmed the biochemical results.

  7. Efficient production of methane from artificial garbage waste by a cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kengo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Morita, Masahiko; Igarashi, Yasuo; Ohmura, Naoya

    2013-03-13

    A cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) containing carbon fiber textiles (CFT; BER + CFT) has characteristics of bioelectrochemical and packed-bed systems. In this study, utility of a cylindrical BER + CFT for degradation of a garbage slurry and recovery of biogas was investigated by applying 10% dog food slurry. The working electrode potential was electrochemically regulated at -0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Stable methane production of 9.37 L-CH4 · L-1 · day-1 and dichromate chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal of 62.5% were observed, even at a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 89.3 g-CODcr · L-1 · day-1. Given energy as methane (372.6 kJ · L-1 · day-1) was much higher than input electric energy to the working electrode (0.6 kJ · L-1 · day-1) at this OLR. Methanogens were highly retained in CFT by direct attachment to the cathodic working electrodes (52.3%; ratio of methanogens to prokaryotes), compared with the suspended fraction (31.2%), probably contributing to the acceleration of organic material degradation and removal of organic acids. These results provide insight into the application of cylindrical BER + CFT in efficient methane production from garbage waste including a high percentage of solid fraction.

  8. Efficient degradation of rice straw in the reactors packed by carbon fiber textiles.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sasaki, Daisuke; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-07-01

    We have reported for the first time that agricultural and cellulosic waste, i.e., rice straw was directly applied to methanogenic bioreactors containing carbon fiber textiles (CFT) as supporting material. Addition of CFT to the methanogenic bioreactors enhanced the conversion of dichromate chemical oxygen demand of the substrate to methane (41%) to a greater extent than bioreactors without CFT (9%). In addition, removal of rice straw as a suspended solid was increased from 31% (in bioreactors without CFT) to 57% (in those with CFT). Methanogenic 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that the abundance of acetoclastic methanogen, genus Methanosarcina, was about 11 times higher in bioreactors with CFT (suspended fraction plus retained fraction to CFT) than in bioreactors without CFT (suspended fraction), resulting in lower concentration of acetate in bioreactors with CFT (0.4 mM) than in those without CFT (29.7 mM). On the other hand, the abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogen, genus Methanobacterium, in bioreactors with CFT was similar to those without CFT. Bacterial communities in bioreactors with CFT were different from those in bioreactors without CFT. Our results indicated that specific microbial community and cooperative relationships between microorganisms in reactors containing CFT facilitated efficient decomposition of rice straw and its conversion to methane.

  9. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives.

    PubMed

    Comet, M; Siegert, B; Pichot, V; Gibot, P; Spitzer, D

    2008-07-16

    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr(2)O(3) matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr(2)O(3)/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr(2)O(3) matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr(2)O(3) matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr(2)O(3) matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode-i.e. combustion versus detonation.

  10. Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Yoo, J M; Cho, B K; Kim, H O

    2001-07-01

    The high risk of occupational contact dermatitis in dental personnel are well accepted throughout the world. There are few reports concerning occupational skin disease in dental personnel in Korea. The purposes of this study were to investigate the frequency, characteristics and causative factors of contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians. Recording of personal history, physical examination and patch tests with the Korean standard series and dental screening series were performed in 49 dental technicians. Most of the subjects were exposed to a variety of compounds, including acrylics, metals, plaster, alginate, etc. 22 (44.9%) subjects had contact dermatitis, present or past, and the site involved was the hand in all 22. The most common clinical feature of hand dermatitis was itching (77.3%); scaling, fissuring and erythema were other common clinical features. Metals, including potassium dichromate (24.5%), nickel sulfate (18.4%), mercury ammonium chloride (16.3%), cobalt chloride (12.2%) and palladium chloride (10.2%), showed high positive rates in patch test results of 49 dental technicians. 7 positive reactions to the various acrylics were found in 3 subjects. In our study, the frequency and clinical features of the contact dermatitis showed a similarity to other reports, though the patch test results were somewhat different; a higher patch-positive reaction to metals and a relatively lower patch-positive reaction to acrylics than the patch test results reported in Europe.

  11. Effect of oxidizing adulterants on human urinary steroid profiles.

    PubMed

    Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Fu, Shanlin

    2013-02-01

    Steroid profiling is the most versatile and informative technique adapted by doping control laboratories for detection of steroid abuse. The absolute concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids including testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol constitute the significant characteristics of a steroid profile. In the present study we report the influence of various oxidizing adulterants on the steroid profile of human urine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to develop the steroid profile of human male and female urine. Oxidants potassium nitrite, sodium hypochlorite, potassium permanganate, cerium ammonium nitrate, sodium metaperiodate, pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium dichromate and potassium perchlorate were reacted with urine at various concentrations and conditions and the effect of these oxidants on the steroid profile were analyzed. Most of the oxidizing chemicals led to significant changes in endogenous steroid profile parameters which were considered stable under normal conditions. These oxidizing chemicals can cause serious problems regarding the interpretation of steroid profiles and have the potential to act as masking agents that can complicate or prevent the detection of the steroid abuse.

  12. Microstructure and response studies of chromium titanium oxide gas-sensitive resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukri, Khalid

    The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of microstructure and composition on the response of gas sensitive resistors fabricated from chromium titanium oxide powders. The methods of preparation were varied in order to vary the microstructure in the resulting devices. The chromium oxide starting material was obtained both by decomposition of ammonium dichromate, and by colloidal precipitation. Titanium dioxide was obtained by colloidal precipitation. Mixing both with and without the addition of surfactants was explored. Several compositions were prepared in each method and sintered at various firing temperatures. Changing the composition by varying the titanium content had a small effect on the response, which increased slightly as the titanium content was increased. Changing the microstructure by altering the preparation method or increasing the sintering time had a more prominent effect on the response, the response decreasing as the structure became more agglomerated and increasing to some of the test gases when the small grains were grown through prolonged sintering times. Agglomeration and grain-growth in the printed layers dominated the behaviour of the devices prepared from the powders. It was discovered that certain bonding agents used in printing the gold electrodes migrated into the oxide layer during the process of firing the oxide onto the substrate. The concentration of these fluxes was dependent on the preparation temperature of the sensors, and as this increased both the response of the sensor and its variation with depth within the porous oxide layer were affected.

  13. Evolution of soil organic matter changes using pyrolysis and metabolic indices: a comparison between organic and mineral fertilization.

    PubMed

    Marinari, S; Masciandaro, G; Ceccanti, B; Grego, S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical and biochemical changes of organic matter in fertilized (ammonium nitrate) and amended (vermicompost and manure) soils using pyrolysis and metabolic indices. The metabolic potential [dehydrogenase (DH-ase)/water soluble organic carbon (WSOC)], the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and the microbial quotient (Cmic:Corg) were calculated as indices of soil organic matter evolution. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) was used to study structural changes in the organic matter. Carbon forms and microbial biomass have been measured by dichromate oxidation and fumigation-extraction methods, respectively. Dehydrogenase activity has been tested using INT (p-Iodonitrotetrazolium violet) as substrate. The results showed that organic amendment increased soil microbial biomass and its activity which were strictly related to pyrolytic mineralization and humification indices (N/O, B/E3). Mineral fertilization caused a greater alteration of native soil organic matter than the organic amendments, in that a high release of WSOC and relatively large amounts of aliphatic pyrolytic products, were observed. Therefore, the pyrolysis and metabolic indices provided similar and complementary information on soil organic matter changes after mineral and organic fertilization.

  14. [Determination of inorganic ions in explosive residues by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Feng, Junhe; Guo, Baoyuan; Lin, Jin-Ming; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hong; Sun, Yuyou; Liu, Yao; Quan, Yangke; Lu, Xiaoming

    2008-11-01

    Five anions (chlorate, perchlorate, nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate) and two cations (ammonium and potassium) in explosive residues have been separated and determined by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect ultraviolet detection. The electrolyte buffer for the cation separation was 10 mmol/L pyridine (pH 4.5) -3 mmol/L 18-crown-6-ether. Ammonium and potassium ions were baseline separated in less than 2.6 min with the detection limits of 0.10 mg/L and 0.25 mg/L (S/N = 3), respectively. The electrolyte buffer for the anion separation consisted of 40 mmol/L boric acid-1.8 mmol/L potassium dichromate-2 mmol/L sodium tetraborate (pH 8.6), and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier. All five anions were well separated in less than 4.6 min with the detection limit range of 0.10 - 1.85 mg/L (S/N = 3). The method was successfully used in real sample investigations to confirm the type of explosives.

  15. Development of a non-radioactive endpoint in a modified local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Hariya, T; Hatao, M; Ichikawa, H

    1999-01-01

    A murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been developed as an alternative to guinea pig models for contact sensitization testing. Although the LLNA appears to be a little less sensitive than the most stringent of guinea pig assays, it provides a rapid, objective, quantitative and cost-effective method for screening strong contact sensitizers and has advantages with respect to animal welfare. However, a potential disadvantage is the need for the use of radioactive material. We have reported previously that an ex vivo assay based on similar principles to the original in vivo LLNA, but using a non-radioactive endopoint, was valid for the prediction of strong sensitizers. This ex vivo assay was not sensitive enough to allow prediction of moderately potent ones. In this study, we propose a new parameter, Corrected IL-2 Index (CII), for the prediction of moderate sensitizers. To obtain CII the IL-2 release in the supernatant of the cell culture is corrected for lymph node weight ratio and ratio of CD4-positive subset. We found that CII predicted the allergenicity of moderate sensitizers, including the ones recommended by the OECD in guideline 406, such as mercaptobenzothiazole and hexyl cinnamic aldehyde. The allergenicity of metal salts, such as potassium dichromate, ammonium tetrachloroplatinate and cobalt chloride, was also predicted by the CII. We conclude that the use of CII as an index significantly increases the sensitivity of the ex vivo method so that moderate sensitizers may also be detected.

  16. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on cationic cross-linked starches of different botanic origins.

    PubMed

    Klimaviciute, Rima; Bendoraitiene, Joana; Rutkaite, Ramune; Zemaitaitis, Algirdas

    2010-09-15

    The influence of origin of native starch used to obtain cationic cross-linked starch (CCS) on the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto CCS has been investigated. CCS granule size is influenced by the botanic source of native starch. The equilibrium adsorption of Cr(VI) onto CCS was described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin models. The more equal the adsorption energy of the quaternary ammonium groups in CCS granule as indicated by low value of change of Temkin adsorption energy DeltaE(T) the greater amount of Cr(VI) was adsorbed onto CCS. The value of DeltaE(T) decreased and sorption capacity of CCS increased with the decrease of CCS granule size and with the increase of number of amorphous regions in CCS granules. The affinity of dichromate anions increases and adsorption proceeds more spontaneously when Cr(VI) is adsorbed onto more amorphous CCS. Adsorption process of Cr(VI) onto such CCS is more exothermic and order of system undergoes major changes during adsorption. After the adsorption on CCS Cr(VI) could be regenerated by incineration at temperature of 800 degrees C.

  17. A simplified method for generating periodic nanostructures by interference lithography without the use of an anti-reflection coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapon, Omree; Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Aviv, Hagit; Tischler, Yaakov. R.

    2015-11-01

    Interference lithography has proven to be a useful technique for generating periodic sub-diffraction limited nanostructures. Interference lithography can be implemented by exposing a photoresist polymer to laser light using a two-beam arrangement or more simply a one beam configuration based on a Lloyd's Mirror Interferometer. For typical photoresist layers, an anti-reflection coating must be deposited on the substrate to prevent adverse reflections from cancelling the holographic pattern of the interfering beams. For silicon substrates, such coatings are typically multilayered and complex in composition. By thinning the photoresist layer to a thickness well below the quarter wavelength of the exposing beam, we demonstrate that interference gratings can be generated without an anti-reflection coating on the substrate. We used ammonium dichromate doped polyvinyl alcohol as the positive photoresist because it provides excellent pinhole free layers down to thicknesses of 40 nm, and can be cross-linked by a low-cost single mode 457 nm laser, and can be etched in water. Gratings with a period of 320 nm and depth of 4 nm were realized, as well as a variety of morphologies depending on the photoresist thickness. This simplified interference lithography technique promises to be useful for generating periodic nanostructures with high fidelity and minimal substrate treatments.

  18. Photopatternable source/drain electrodes using multiwalled carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites for organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kipyo; Yang, Chanwoo; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Nam, Sooji; Park, Chan Eon

    2009-10-01

    We fabricated photopatternable and conductive polymer/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composites by dispersing MWNTs with poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in water. PAA enables photo-cross-linking in the composite by adding ammonium dichromate, and PSS assists the dispersion of MWNTs in the composites, leading to higher conductivity. Composite films of PAA/PSS-MWNTs were characterized by conductivities of 1.4-210 S/cm and a work function of 4.46 eV, which could be increased to 4.76 eV during UV photo-cross-linking. By using PAA/PSS-MWNT composites as source/drain electrodes, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene field-effect transistors (FET) exhibited a field-effect mobility of 0.101 +/- 0.034 cm(2)/(V s), which is 9 times higher than that of FETs fabricated with gold as source/drain electrodes (0.012 +/- 0.003 cm(2)/(V s)).

  19. 18-Substituted steroids: synthesis of 18-hydroxycortisol (11 beta,17 alpha,18,21-tetrahydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione) and 18-hydroxycortisone (17 alpha,18,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sanchez, C E; Kirk, D N; Farrant, R D; Milewich, L

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of 18-hydroxycortisol from the urine of patients with primary aldosteronism was recently described and no synthetic procedure was available for its preparation. The C-13 angular methyl group of prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide-11 beta-nitrite was functionalized by photolysis in the presence of oxygen to give the product 18-hydroxy-prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide-18-nitrate. The 18-nitrate was reduced with zinc and ammonium acetate to the corresponding 18-hydroxy compound, 18-hydroxy-prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide. Homogeneous hydrogenation with Tris(triphenyl-phosphine)rhodium (I) chloride as catalyst resulted in the formation of 18-hydroxy-cortisol-17 alpha,21-acetonide. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound gave 18-hydroxycortisol. Oxidation of 18-hydroxycortisol-17 alpha,21-acetonide with pyridinium dichromate followed by acid hydrolysis gave 18-hydroxycortisone. The 18-hydroxylated steroids exist as the 18,21-hemiacetals. Catalytic reduction with tritium gas with Tris(triphenyl-phosphine)rhodium (I) chloride of 18-hydroxyprednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide and acid hydrolysis gave [1,2(3)H]18-hydroxycortisol.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Intercalated Graphite Bisulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, Marcella; Carotenuto, Gianfranco; De Nicola, Sergio; Camerlingo, Carlo; Ambrogi, Veronica; Carfagna, Cosimo

    2017-03-01

    Different chemical formulations for the synthesis of highly intercalated graphite bisulfate have been tested. In particular, nitric acid, potassium nitrate, potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate, sodium periodate, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide have been used in this synthesis scheme as the auxiliary reagent (oxidizing agent). In order to evaluate the presence of delamination, and pre-expansion phenomena, and the achieved intercalation degree in the prepared samples, the obtained graphite intercalation compounds have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), micro-Raman spectroscopy ( μ-RS), and thermal analysis (TGA). Delamination and pre-expansion phenomena were observed only for nitric acid, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide, while the presence of strong oxidizers (KMnO4, K2Cr2O7) led to stable graphite intercalation compounds. The largest content of intercalated bisulfate is achieved in the intercalated compounds obtained from NaIO4 and NaClO3.

  1. Effect of chemical stress and ultraviolet radiation in the bacterial communities of zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jacinta M M; Almeida, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Tânia; Andrade, Thayres S; Henriques, Jorge F; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana; Gomes, Newton C M; Domingues, Inês

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and chemical stress (triclosan-TCS; potassium dichromate-PD; prochloraz-PCZ) on bacterial communities of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (ZEBC). Embryos were exposed to two UVR intensities and two chemical concentrations not causing mortality or any developmental effect (equivalent to the No-Observed-Effect Concentration-NOEC; NOEC diluted by 10-NOEC/10). Effects on ZEBC were evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and interpreted considering structure, richness and diversity. ZEBC were affected by both stressors even at concentrations/doses not affecting the host-organism (survival/development). Yet, some stress-tolerant bacterial groups were revealed. The structure of the ZEBC was always affected, mainly due to xenobiotic presence. Richness and diversity decreased after exposure to NOEC of PD. Interactive effects occurred for TCS and UVR. Aquatic microbiota imbalance might have repercussions for the host/aquatic system, particularly in a realistic scenario/climate change perspective therefore, future ecotoxicological models should consider xenobiotics interactions with UVR.

  2. Effect of Carbon and Energy Source on Bacterial Chromate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Petersen, J. N.; Peyton, Brent Michael

    2002-07-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate carbon and energy sources suitable to support hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction by a bacterial consortium enriched from dichromate-contaminated aquifer sediments. The consortium was cultured under denitrifying conditions in a minimal, synthetic groundwater medium that was amended with various individual potential carbon and energy sources. The effects of these individual carbon and energy sources on Cr(VI) reduction and growth were measured. The consortium was found to readily reduce Cr(VI) with sucrose, acetate, L-asparagine, hydrogen plus carbon dioxide, ethanol, glycerol, glycolate, propylene glycol, or D-xylose as a carbon and energy source. Minimal Cr(VI) reduction was observed when the consortium was cultured with citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, L-lactate, pyruvate, succinate, or thiosulfate plus carbon dioxide as a carbon and energy source when compared with abiotic controls. The consortium grew on all of the above carbon and energy sources, with the highest cell densities reached using D-xylose and sucrose, demonstrating that the consortium is metabolically diverse and can reduce Cr(VI) using a variety of different carbon and energy sources. The results suggest that the potential exists for the enrichment of Cr(VI)-reducing microbial populations in situ by the addition of a sucrose-containing feedstock such as molasses, which is an economical and readily available carbon and energy source.

  3. Photoelectrochemical cell for simultaneous electricity generation and heavy metals recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Li, Yi; Li Puma, Gianluca; Lianos, Panagiotis; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2017-02-05

    The feasibility of simultaneous recovery of heavy metals from wastewater (e.g., acid mining and electroplating) and production of electricity is demonstrated in a novel photoelectrochemical cell (PEC). The photoanode of the cell bears a nanoparticulate titania (TiO2) film capped with the block copolymer [poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)] hole scavenger, which consumed photogenerated holes, while the photogenerated electrons transferred to a copper cathode reducing dissolved metal ions and produced electricity. Dissolved silver Ag(+), copper Cu(2+), hexavalent chromium as dichromate Cr2O7(2-) and lead Pb(2+) ions in a mixture (0.2mM each) were removed at different rates, according to their reduction potentials. Reduced Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) ions produced metal deposits on the cathode electrode which were mechanically recovered, while Cr2O7(2-) reduced to the less toxic Cr(3+) in solution. The cell produced a current density Jsc of 0.23mA/cm(2), an open circuit voltage Voc of 0.63V and a maximum power density of 0.084mW/cm(2). A satisfactory performance of this PEC for the treatment of lead-acid battery wastewater was observed. The cathodic reduction of heavy metals was limited by the rate of electron-hole generation at the photoanode. The PEC performance decreased by 30% after 9 consecutive runs, caused by the photoanode progressive degradation.

  4. Contact Hypersensitivity to European Baseline Series and Corticosteroid Series Haptens in a Population of Adult Patients with Contact Eczema.

    PubMed

    Kot, Marek; Bogaczewicz, Jarosław; Kręcisz, Beata; Woźniacka, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Contact eczema (CE) is one of the most common skin diseases and is regarded as a reaction pattern. However, the skin can react in the same way to different stimuli, some of which may act together. The golden standard in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the patch test. Contact allergy to topical corticosteroids is known to be gradually rising, and this represents a significant problem in the treatment of contact eczema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to European Baseline Series and Corticosteroid Series haptens in a population of patients with CE. A group of 126 patients with the clinical diagnosis of contact eczema were patch tested with 28 European Baseline Series allergens and 8 corticosteroid allergens in different concentrations and in different media: 80 (64.5%) women and 46 (36.5%) men, mean age 50.4 years. The average duration of CE was 6.9 years. In total, 65 patients (51.6%) demonstrated an allergic reaction to at least one European Baseline Series allergen, and 22 patients (17.4%) to at least one corticosteroid. The most common allergens giving positive results were nickel sulfate (26.2%), cobalt chloride (15.1%), budesonide (14.3%), potassium dichromate (13.5%), and myroxylon pereirae resin (MPR) (11.9%). According our data, the European Baseline Series tests allow the cause of ACD to be identified in over 50% of cases.

  5. Effect of acute hexavalent chromium exposure on pituitary-thyroid axis of a freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2015-01-01

    Acute exposure to hexavalent chromium (10 mg L(-1) , 20 mg L(-1) , and 40 mg L(-1) potassium dichromate for 96 h) dose-dependently affected the pituitary-thyroid axis of teleost, Channa punctatus. Significant hypertrophy of the thyroid follicle was observed in 20 mg L(-1) and 40 mg L(-1) groups; the follicular epithelium was however hypertrophied only in 40 mg L(-1) group. The colloid depletion in the lumen of thyroid follicle was evident in 20 mg L(-1) and 40 mg L(-1) groups. Serum thyroid hormones (thyroxine/T4 and triiodothyronine/T3) level increased significantly at both the higher doses. Increased immunointensity and significant hypertrophy of the pituitary thyrotrophs (anti TSHβ-immunoreactive cells) was observed in both 20 mg L(-1) and 40 mg L(-1) chromium-exposed fish. The increased thyroid hormones secretion observed in this study might be an adaptive response of the pituitary-thyroid axis under acute chromium-induced stress condition to maintain homeostasis. The long-term Cr(VI) exposures, however, may lead to attenuation/exhaustion of the pituitary-thyroid axis and pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  6. Effect of chromium on vertebrae, femur and calvaria of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Sankaramanivel, S; Jeyapriya, R; Hemalatha, D; Djody, S; Arunakaran, J; Srinivasan, N

    2006-06-01

    Alloys of chromium have a long history of success in the surgical treatment of many orthopaedic defects. Nonetheless, prostheses loosening are commonly found around arthoplasties due to corrosion of metals. On this basis, it is hypothesized that chromium accumulation interferes with remodeling of bone. The present study aims to analyse the toxic effects of chromium on bone phosphatases in various regions of the bone in rats. Rats were treated with chromium intraperitoneally (0.5 mg/kg) in the form of potassium dichromate for 5 days. The accumulation of chromium is approximately 5.2-fold in the vertebrae, 8.9-fold in the femur and 8.7-fold in the calvaria, when compared to control. Chromium administration significantly reduced the activity of enzymes, eg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The study revealed a significant increase in the concentration of calcium, altered bone formation rate and bone morphology in the femur, vertebrae and calvaria. The interesting findings of the current study suggest altered bone turnover.

  7. Toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of Cr (VI) and Hg (II) on differential concentration by Eichhornia crassipes in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Giri, A K; Patel, R K

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the phytoremediation of Cr (VI) and Hg (II) ion from water by an aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes has been studied. Plants were cultured in a double distillated water with modified Hoagland's nutrient solution at pH 6.8 supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50, and 4 mg Cr/L as potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg Hg/L as mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)). They were separately harvested after 3, 6 and 9 days. Plants treated with 4 mg/L of Cr (VI) accumulated the highest concentration of metal in roots (1.22 mg/g, dry weight) and shoots (0.24 mg/g, dry weight) after 9 days; while those treated with 20 mg/L of Hg (II) accumulated the highest concentration of metal in roots (4.22 mg/g, dry weight) and shoots (2.43 mg/g, dry weight) after 9 days. Eichhornia crassipes biomass was characterised using AAS, SEM and FTIR. The accumulation and relative growth of metal ions at different concentrations of chromium and mercury solution significantly increased (P<0.05) with the passage of time. The maximum values of bio-concentration factor (BCF) for Cr (VI) and Hg (II) were found to be 413.33 and 502.40 L/kg respectively.

  8. Demonstration of multifunctional DNBM corrosion inhibitors in protective coatings for Naval Air/Weapon Systems. Final report, September 1989-July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bailin, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The corrosion protective properties of multifunctional DNBM salts (quaternary ammonium dichromate, nitrate, borate, and molybdate) have been demonstrated on high-strength steel and aluminum alloys found in prototype aerospace weapon systems. The 100% DNBM mixture added to MIL-P-23377 epoxy-polyamide, minus strontium chromate inhibitor, on bare 7075-T6 aluminum alloy resisted 1000 h ASTM B-117 salt spray. However, the coatings were not resistant to hydraulic fluid immersion at the higher concentrations required for the corrosion inhibition. Microencapsulation of the reactive DNBM mixture was adopted as a means to prevent this susceptibility, as well as the destructive oxidation of the hydroxyl groups in the epoxy resin during cure. In the scale-up operation, approximately 20 gallons of DNBM weighing 64 kg (141 lb) was prepared from the four starting quarternary salts synthesized in a chemical process pilot plant. The salts were mixed by dissolving in toluene. Following removal of solvent, the resultant dark-brown liquid, approximating molasses in viscosity, was microencapsulated by the following method: The DNBM was dispersed to form an oil-in-water emulsion in an aqueous colloidal solution of low-viscosity, high-purity methyl cellulose using a Gifford-Wood homogenizer, followed by spray drying in an Anhydro spray dryer. The maximum practicable payload was 75% DNBM. After spray drying, the capsules Corrosion inhibitors, DNBM, Microencapsulation, Epoxy primers, Protective coatings.

  9. Toward the complete utilization of rice straw: Methane fermentation and lignin recovery by a combinational process involving mechanical milling, supporting material and nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Yota; Fujino, Ayami; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Fumio; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw was mechanically milled using a process consuming 1.9MJ/kg-biomass, and 10g/L of unmilled or milled rice straw was used as the carbon source for methane fermentation in a digester containing carbon fiber textile as the supporting material. Milling increased methane production from 226 to 419mL/L/day at an organic loading rate of 2180mg-dichromate chemical oxygen demand/L/day, corresponding to 260mLCH4/gVS. Storage of the fermentation effluent at room temperature decreased the weight of the milled rice straw residue from 3.81 to 1.00g/L. The supernatant of the effluent was subjected to nanofiltration. The black concentrates deposited on the nanofiltration membranes contained 53.0-57.9% lignin. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance showed that lignin aromatic components such as p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) were retained primarily, and major lignin interunit structures such as the β-O-4-H/G unit were absent. This combinational process will aid the complete utilization of rice straw.

  10. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comet, M.; Siegert, B.; Pichot, V.; Gibot, P.; Spitzer, D.

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr2O3 matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr2O3/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr2O3 matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr2O3 matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr2O3 matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode—i.e. combustion versus detonation.

  11. Disruption of Putrescine Biosynthesis in Shewanella oneidensis Enhances Biofilm Cohesiveness and Performance in Cr(VI) Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuanzhao; Peng, Ni; Du, Yonghua; Ji, Lianghui

    2014-01-01

    Although biofilm-based bioprocesses have been increasingly used in various applications, the long-term robust and efficient biofilm performance remains one of the main bottlenecks. In this study, we demonstrated that biofilm cohesiveness and performance of Shewanella oneidensis can be enhanced through disrupting putrescine biosynthesis. Through random transposon mutagenesis library screening, one hyperadherent mutant strain, CP2-1-S1, exhibiting an enhanced capability in biofilm formation, was obtained. Comparative analysis of the performance of biofilms formed by S. oneidensis MR-1 wild type (WT) and CP2-1-S1 in removing dichromate (Cr2O72−), i.e., Cr(VI), from the aqueous phase showed that, compared with the WT biofilms, CP2-1-S1 biofilms displayed a substantially lower rate of cell detachment upon exposure to Cr(VI), suggesting a higher cohesiveness of the mutant biofilms. In addition, the amount of Cr(III) immobilized by CP2-1-S1 biofilms was much larger, indicating an enhanced performance in Cr(VI) bioremediation. We further showed that speF, a putrescine biosynthesis gene, was disrupted in CP2-1-S1 and that the biofilm phenotypes could be restored by both genetic and chemical complementations. Our results also demonstrated an important role of putrescine in mediating matrix disassembly in S. oneidensis biofilms. PMID:24362428

  12. Disruption of putrescine biosynthesis in Shewanella oneidensis enhances biofilm cohesiveness and performance in Cr(VI) immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuanzhao; Peng, Ni; Du, Yonghua; Ji, Lianghui; Cao, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Although biofilm-based bioprocesses have been increasingly used in various applications, the long-term robust and efficient biofilm performance remains one of the main bottlenecks. In this study, we demonstrated that biofilm cohesiveness and performance of Shewanella oneidensis can be enhanced through disrupting putrescine biosynthesis. Through random transposon mutagenesis library screening, one hyperadherent mutant strain, CP2-1-S1, exhibiting an enhanced capability in biofilm formation, was obtained. Comparative analysis of the performance of biofilms formed by S. oneidensis MR-1 wild type (WT) and CP2-1-S1 in removing dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)), i.e., Cr(VI), from the aqueous phase showed that, compared with the WT biofilms, CP2-1-S1 biofilms displayed a substantially lower rate of cell detachment upon exposure to Cr(VI), suggesting a higher cohesiveness of the mutant biofilms. In addition, the amount of Cr(III) immobilized by CP2-1-S1 biofilms was much larger, indicating an enhanced performance in Cr(VI) bioremediation. We further showed that speF, a putrescine biosynthesis gene, was disrupted in CP2-1-S1 and that the biofilm phenotypes could be restored by both genetic and chemical complementations. Our results also demonstrated an important role of putrescine in mediating matrix disassembly in S. oneidensis biofilms.

  13. Role of Carum copticum seeds in modulating chromium-induced toxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Deb, Dipanwita Dutta; Parimala, G; Devi, S Saravana; Chakrabarti, T

    2012-11-01

    Carum copticum seeds are well known for ailment of various diseases since ancient times. The present study pertains to investigate modulatory effects of methanolic extract of C. copticum seeds (MCE) against hexavalent chromium induced cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, apoptosis and oxidative stress on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and isolated human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) in vitro. Treatment of BEAS-2B and PBL with MCE prior to potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) treatment exhibited an increase in cell viability and decrease of DNA damage as compared to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treatment alone, as evaluated by WST-8 and Comet assay respectively. Further, MCE administration 1h prior to graded doses of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced apoptosis and caspase 3 activity. MCE also ameliorated K(2)Cr(2)O(7) induced decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) antioxidant enzyme levels in BEAS-2B and PBL cells accompanied by reduction in lipid peroxides with maximum effect at 50 μg/ml. Thus, this study provides strong evidence to support the beneficial effect of MCE in preventing Cr(VI) induced toxicity in BEAS-2B and PBL cells.

  14. The mitigative effect of Raphanus sativus oil on chromium-induced geno- and hepatotoxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshazly, M.O.; Morgan, Ashraf M.; Ali, Merhan E.; Abdel-mawla, Essam; Abd El-Rahman, Sahar S.

    2016-01-01

    To study the impact of radish oil on the possible genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium, male rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received radish oil at the recommended human therapeutic dose (0.07 mL/kg) by gavage, group 3 received sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) 520 mg/L in drinking water, and group 4 received both SDD and radish oil as previously mentioned in groups 2 and 3. All treatments were continued for six months. The results revealed that chromium exposure promoted oxidative stress with a consequently marked hepatic histopathological alterations, increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, alfa fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) % in peripheral blood. Moreover, COMET assay of hepatic DNA revealed that SDD exposure significantly decreased the intact cells %, head diameter, and head DNA % compared to control, indicating DNA damage. However, radish oil co-administration with SDD resulted in marked amendment in the altered parameters as detected by improved liver function markers (ALT and ALP) and AFP level, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant markers, inhibited hepatic DNA damage and restored the hepatic histology by preventing the appearance of the altered hepatocytes’ foci and decreasing chromium induced histopathological lesions. It could be concluded that radish oil was able to provide a convergent complete protection against the geno- and hepatotoxicity of chromium by its potent antioxidant effect. PMID:27222746

  15. Examination of a vehicle for use with water soluble materials in the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C A; Cruse, L W; Skinner, R A; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I; Gerberick, G F

    2002-11-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a validated method for identifying skin sensitization hazard. Vehicle choice can influence the sensitization potential of haptens in both the LLNA and in humans, therefore selection of an appropriate vehicle is important. Suggested vehicles for the LLNA include organic solvents and organic-aqueous mixtures. However, due to its high surface tension and poor wetting qualities, water is not recommended and therefore testing aqueous soluble materials can be problematic. The aims of this investigation were to identify a water-based vehicle that possesses better skin wetting properties than water alone, and to assess its performance relative to other solvents in the LLNA using aqueous soluble haptens. The selected wetting agent was the surfactant Pluronic(R) L92 (L92). Concentrations of L92 of up to 50% did not induce positive responses in the LLNA. 1% aqueous L92 was chosen for further examination. Dose-response analyses were performed with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) and formaldehyde formulated either in water, 1% L92, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or dimethyl formamide (DMF). Potassium dichromate (PDC) and nickel sulfate were tested in 1% L92, DMSO or DMF. The highest concentration of potassium dichromate was retested in each vehicle and in water to assess the effect of the wetting agent. Estimates of the relative sensitizing potency in each vehicle were determined by calculation of EC3 values (the estimated concentration required to induce a threshold positive response). While DNBS and formaldehyde produced positive responses in all four vehicles, their relative potency varied among the vehicles. The rank ordering of potencies for both materials was, from highest to lowest, DMF > or = DMSO > 1% L92 > water. Compared with water, use of 1% L92 resulted in >2-fold increase in potency for DNBS and >3-fold increase for formaldehyde. PDC was positive in DMF, DMSO and 1% L92. The potency ranking was DMF > or = DMSO > 1% L92

  16. RESULTS FROM RECENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS TARGETING CHROMIUM IN THE 100D AREA HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW; THOMPSON KM; TONKIN MJ

    2009-12-03

    Sodium dichromate was used in Hanford's 100D Area during the reactor operations period of 1950 to 1964 to retard corrosion in the reactor cooling systems. Some of the sodium dichromate was released to the environment by spills and/or leaks from pipelines used to deliver the chemical to water treatment plants in the area. As a result, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has migrated through the vadose zone to the groundwater and contaminated nearly 1 km{sup 2} of groundwater to above the drinking water standard of 48 {micro}g/L. Three technology tests have recently been completed in this area to characterize the source area of the plumes and evaluate alternative methods to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. These are (1) refine the source area of the southern plume; (2) test electrocoagulation as an alternative groundwater treatment technology; and (3) test the ability to repair a permeable reactive barrier by injecting micron or nanometer-size zero-valent iron (ZVI). The projects were funded by the US Department of Energy as part of a program to interject new technologies and accelerate active cleanup. Groundwater monitoring over the past 10 years has shown that Cr(VI) concentrations in the southern plume have not significantly diminished, strongly indicating a continuing source. Eleven groundwater wells were installed in 2007 and 2008 near a suspected source area and monitored for Cr(VI) and groundwater levels. Interpretation of these data has led to refinement of the source area location to an area of less than 1 hectare (ha, 2.5 acres). Vadose zone soil samples collected during drilling did not discover significant concentrations of Cr(VI), indicating the source is localized, with a narrow wetted path from the surface to the water table. Electrocoagulation was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. Over 8 million liters of groundwater were treated to Cr(VI) concentrations of {le}20 {micro}g/L. The test determined that this technology has the potential to treat

  17. NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial. Although several 'Black Carbon' (BC) models are reported, a commonly accepted view of the chemistry involved in its formation is still missing. Its biogeochemical recalcitrance is commonly associated with a highly condensed aromatic structure. However, recent studies indicated that this view may be oversimplified for PyOM derived from vegetation fire. In order to bring some more light on the structural properties of PyOM produced during vegetation fire, charred plant residues and model chars derived from typical plant macromolecules (casein, cellulose, lignin and condensed tannins) were subjected to controlled charring under oxic conditions (350°C and 450°C) and then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Subsequently, the chemical features of the PyOM were related to its chemical recalcitrance as determined by chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate. Charring cellulose (350°C, 8 min) yielded in a low C-recovery (11%). Treating casein in the same way resulted in a survival of 62% of its C and 46% of its N. Comparable high C-recoveries are reported for lignin. After charring Lolium perenne, 34% of its N and C were recovered. NMR-spectroscopic studies revealed that for this sample most of the charred N and C occurred in pyrrole-type structures. Our studies further indicate that the aromatic skeleton of char accumulating after a vegetation fire must contain remains of the lignin backbone and considerable contributions of furans and anhydrosugars from thermally altered cellulose. Enhancing the temperature during the

  18. Evaluation of Acinetobacter sp. B9 for Cr (VI) resistance and detoxification with potential application in bioremediation of heavy-metals-rich industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Amrik; Gupta, Anshu

    2013-09-01

    Present work demonstrates Cr (VI) detoxification and resistance mechanism of a newly isolated strain (B9) of Acinetobacter sp. Bioremediation potential of the strain B9 is shown by simultaneous removal of major heavy metals including chromium from heavy-metals-rich metal finishing industrial wastewater. Strain B9 tolerate up to 350 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) and also shows level of tolerance to Ni (II), Zn (II), Pb (II), and Cd (II). The strain was capable of reducing 67 % of initial 7.0 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) within 24 h of incubation, while in presence of Cu ions 100 % removal of initial 7.0 and 10 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) was observed with in 24 h. pH in the range of 6.0-8.0 and inoculum size of 2 % (v/v) were determined to be optimum for dichromate reduction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies suggested absorption or intracellular accumulation and that might be one of the major mechanisms behind the chromium resistance by strain B9. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in the strain due to chromium stress. Relevance of the strain for treatment of heavy-metals-rich industrial wastewater resulted in 93.7, 55.4, and 68.94 % removal of initial 30 mg L(-1) Cr (VI), 246 mg L(-1) total Cr, and 51 mg L(-1) Ni, respectively, after 144 h of treatment in a batch mode.

  19. [History of studies of alcohol toxicology].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The early history of forensic alcohology was presented, based on writings from the beginning of the 20th century and numerous forensic medical protocols from autopsies performed in Institute of Forensic Medicine in Cracow in the 19th and 20th century. Ethanol has not been considered a poison for a long time. Suspicion of its toxic effect resulted from cases of deaths as a results of people betting who can drink more alcohol. In case of alcohol poisoning, autopsy does not show any typical changes, so the poisonings have not been recognized for many years. At the beginning of the 20th century, the first chemical tests appeared. They were able to detect the presence of alcohol in tissues. A method for measuring the amount of alcohol in blood was also developed. The majority of methods were based on distillation of blood and inspection of the resultant distillate by physical methods (interferometry, colorimetry, refractometry, gravimetry, measuring thermal expansion and electrical conduction) or chemical methods using different reactions (oxidation of alcohol to acetic acid, reducing potassium dichromate by alcohol, alkylation of iodine by alcohol) and marking the amount of products of reaction by titration. Distillation of blood samples required complicated chemical devices and was very time consuming. Erik Widmark suggested a certain method in 1920, in which distillation of a blood sample took place in the same container, in which titration was performed earlier--the so-called Widmark's Flask. It allowed for distilling many samples in an incubator at the same time and dramatically shortened the time of research. Widmark's method was applied to testing drivers and people who committed crimes and was used in the whole world for many following years.

  20. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yaning; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Werth, Charles J.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr 2O 7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375 °C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr 2O 7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr 2O 7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr 2O 7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  1. The toxicity of carbofuran to the freshwater rotifer, Philodina roseola.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Raquel Aparecida; da Silva Mansano, Adrislaine; Rocha, Odete

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of exposing the rotifer Philodina roseola to the pesticide carbofuran were investigated. Its range of sensitivity to potassium dichromate, the acute toxicity of active ingredient carbofuran and of carbofuran dosed as its commercial form, Furadan(®) 350 SC were determined. Chronic toxicity of carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC on P. roseola survival and fecundity were also studied. The sensitivity of P. roseola to K2Cr2O7 ranged from 29.52 to 64.67 mg L(-1), averaging 47.10 mg L(-1). The 48-h EC50 were 13.36 ± 2.63 mg L(-1) for carbofuran and 89.32 ± 6.52 mg L(-1) for commercial form. Chronic toxicity tests showed that the survival of this rotifer was not affected by the carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC at the concentrations tested and that at 1.56 and 3.12 mg L(-1) their fecundity was higher than in the absence of this commercial product, characterizing the hormesis phenomenon. The sensitivity profile of several species to carbofuran indicated that P. roseola is more susceptible to this pesticide than the fish Clarias batrachus, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, although the acute toxicity of carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC to P. roseola is much lower than that of active ingredient carbofuran. The results also imply that the exacerbated use of pesticides and the constant, accelerated expansion of agricultural activity will make aquatic non-target species even more vulnerable. Furthermore, the relevant role of benthic organisms in aquatic environments justifies the inclusion of P. roseola and other benthic species in toxicity screening for risk assessment, regarding this environmental compartment.

  2. Dispersion modeling of particulate matter containing hexavalent chromium during high winds in southern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zannetti, Paolo; Daly, Aaron D; Freedman, Frank R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a scientific methodology (i.e., the combination of different well-established modeling techniques) and its application to a real case scenario of contaminated dust emissions in high winds. This scenario addresses potential air pollution problems at the water treatment plant (WTP) at Qarmat-Ali, Basra, Iraq, during 2003. Workplace practices at the WTP before 2003 resulted in sodium dichromate contamination in the area. Looting at the site in early 2003 also contributed to this contamination. Individuals who were assigned to provide security at the site in 2003 have claimed adverse health effects caused by exposure to dust containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. This report presents our modeling study with respect to these claims in relation to (1) amount of Cr(VI) present in the soil, (2) wind erosion episodes, and (3) possible long-term (e.g., annual average) Cr(VI) concentrations inhaled by different people while at the site. Our modeling approach included (1) the analysis of Cr(VI) soil measurements to assess the degree of contamination in different areas of the plant at different times; (2) the use of DUSTRAN model equations to calculate the emission rate of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) during high-wind episodes; (3) the use of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD modeling system to estimate Cr(VI) concentrations at the site; and (4) the calculation of modeling results in the form of both contour lines of average Cr(VI) concentrations at the site, and specific concentration values for selected individuals, based upon their recollection of their visits to the site.

  3. Application of the Stopped Flow Technique to the TiO₂-Heterogeneous Photocatalysis of Hexavalent Chromium in Aqueous Suspensions: Comparison with O₂ and H₂O₂ as Electron Acceptors.

    PubMed

    Meichtry, Jorge M; Dillert, Ralf; Bahnemann, Detlef W; Litter, Marta I

    2015-06-09

    The dynamics of the transfer of electrons stored in TiO2 nanoparticles to Cr(VI) in aqueous solution have been investigated using the stopped flow technique. TiO2 nanoparticles were previously irradiated under UV light in the presence of formic acid, and trapped electrons (e(trap)(-)) were made to react with Cr(VI) as acceptor species; other common acceptor species such as O2 and H2O2 were also tested. The temporal evolution of the number of trapped electrons was followed by the decrease in the absorbance at 600 nm, and the kinetics of the electron-transfer reaction was modeled. Additionally, the rate of formation of the surface complex between Cr(VI) and TiO2 was determined with the stopped flow technique by following the evolution of the absorbance at 400 nm of suspensions of nonirradiated TiO2 nanoparticles and Cr(VI) at different concentrations. An approximately quadratic relationship was observed between the maximum absorbance of the surface complex and the concentration of Cr(VI), suggesting that Cr(VI) adsorbs onto the TiO2 surface as dichromate. The kinetic analyses indicate that the electron transfer from TiO2 to Cr(VI) does not require the previous formation of the Cr(VI)-TiO2 surface complex, at least the complex detected here through the stopped flow experiments. When previously irradiated TiO2 was used to follow the evolution of the Cr(VI)-TiO2 complex, an inhibition of the formation of the complex was observed, which can be related to the TiO2 deactivation caused by Cr(III) deposition.

  4. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  5. Synthesis, interactions, molecular structure, biological properties and molecular docking studies on Mn, Co, Zn complexes containing acetylacetone and pyridine ligands with DNA duplex.

    PubMed

    Thamilarasan, V; Sengottuvelan, N; Stalin, N; Srinivasan, P; Chakkaravarthi, G

    2016-07-01

    Three metal complexes (1-3) of the type [Mn(acac)2(py)·H2O] (1), [Co(acac)2(py)·H2O] (2) and [Zn(acac)2(py)·H2O] (3), [Where acac=acetylacetone, py=pyridine] were synthesized and characterized by spectral (UV-vis, FT-IR, ESI-mass) analysis. The structure of complex 2 has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and the configuration of ligand-coordinated to metal(II) ion was well described as distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The interaction of the complexes with CT-DNA has been explored by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichromism spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and molecular docking studies. The intrinsic binding constant Kb of complexes 1-3 with CT-DNA obtained from UV-vis absorption spectral studies were 2.1×10(4), 2.1×10(5) and 1.98×10(4)M(-1), respectively, which revealed that the complexes could interact with CT-DNA through groove binding. The results indicated that the complexes (1-3) were able to bind to DNA with different binding affinity, in the order: 2>1>3. The interaction of the compounds with bovine serum albumins were also investigated using fluorescence methods and the gel electrophoresis assay demonstrates weak cleavage ability of the pBR322 plasmid DNA in the presence of the metal complexes (1-3) with various activators. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effect of the complexes were examined on cancerous cell line, with human breast cancer cells MCF-7.

  6. Comparative analysis of the photocatalytic reduction of drinking water oxoanions using titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Marks, Randal; Yang, Ting; Westerhoff, Paul; Doudrick, Kyle

    2016-11-01

    Regulated oxidized pollutants in drinking water can have significant health effects, resulting in the need for ancillary treatment processes. Oxoanions (e.g., nitrate) are one important class of oxidized inorganic ions. Ion exchange and reverse osmosis are often used treatment processes for oxoanions, but these separation processes leave behind a concentrated waste product that still requires treatment or disposal. Photocatalysis has emerged as a sustainable treatment technology capable of catalytically reducing oxoanions directly to innocuous byproducts. Compared with the large volume of knowledge available for photocatalytic oxidation, very little knowledge exists regarding photocatalytic reduction of oxoanion pollutants. This study investigates the reduction of various oxoanions of concern in drinking water (nitrate, nitrite, bromate, perchlorate, chlorate, chlorite, chromate) using a commercial titanium dioxide photocatalyst and a polychromatic light source. Results showed that oxoanions were readily reduced under acidic conditions in the presence of formate, which served as a hole scavenger, with the first-order rate decreasing as follows: bromate > nitrite > chlorate > nitrate > dichromate > perchlorate, corresponding to rate constants of 0.33, 0.080, 0.052, 0.0074, 0.0041, and 0 cm(2)/photons × 10(18), respectively. Only bromate and nitrite were reduced at neutral pH, with substantially lower rate constants of 0.034 and 0.0021 cm(2)/photons × 10(18), respectively. No direct relationship between oxoanion physicochemical properties, including electronegativity of central atom, internal bond strength, and polarizability was discovered. However, observations presented herein suggest the presence of kinetic barriers unique to each oxoanion and provides a framework for investigating photocatalytic reduction mechanisms of oxoanions in order to design better photocatalysts and optimize treatment.

  7. Civil construction work: The unseen contributor to the occupational and global disease burden

    PubMed Central

    Sitalakshmi, R.; Saikumar, P.; Jeyachandran, P.; Manoharan; Thangavel; Thomas, Jayakar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Construction industry is the second largest employment giving industry in India with many semi-skilled or unskilled workers taking up the occupation for livelihood without any training and proper guidance. Aim: To evaluate the pathogenic association of cement exposure to occupational contact dermatoses as evidenced by immune markers and to correlate their pulmonary functions with years of exposure to cement. Setting and Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among randomly selected cement workers. Methods and material: Evaluation of socioeconomic status (SES) and years of exposure of cement workers was done using a questionnaire. Clinical examination of skin lesions and strip patch test with application of potassium dichromate on unexposed skin was performed. Results were interpreted after 48 hours. Absolute eosinophil count (AEC) and IgE levels measured, and spirometric evaluation was performed. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation test were used for data analysis. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Clinically, skin lesions were noticed in 51%, elevated AEC in 47%, and raised Anti IgE in 73%. Two participants developed positive reactions to the skin strip patch test. Duration of exposure to cement and SES were compared with clinical skin lesions. Spirometry result was normal in 81%, obstruction in 8%, restriction in 10%, and mixed pattern in 1%. Forced expiratory volume at 1.0 second, forced expiratory flow (25–75%), and  (PEFR) Peak Expiratory Flow Rate were markedly reduced with years of exposure. Workers who had greater skin lesions and with increase in exposure had increased AEC and IgE levels, although statistically not significant. Conclusions: Exposure to cement and poor SES is strongly correlated to increased prevalence of skin lesions and reduced pulmonary functions. PMID:28194084

  8. Effects of drilling fluids on soils and plants: I. Individual fluid components

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.; Honarvar, S.; Hunsaker, B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of 31 drilling fluid (drilling mud) components on the growth of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Tendergreen) and sweet corn (Zea may var. saccharata (Sturtev.) Bailey, Northrup King 199) were evaluated in greenhouse studies. Plants grew well in fertile Dagor silt loam soil (Cumulic Haploxeroll) when the soil was mixed with most soil-component mixtures at disposal proportions normally expected. Vinyl acetate and maleic acid polymer (VAMA) addition caused significantly increased growth at the 95% confidence level. No statistically significant depression of plant growth occurred at normal rates with asbestos, asphalt, barite, bentonite, calcium lignosulfonate, sodium polyacrylate, a modified tannin, ethoxylated nonylphenol, a filming amine, gilsonite, a Xanthan gum, paraformaldehyde, a pipe dope, hydrolized polyacrylamide, sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium hydroxide added as pellets, and a sulfonated tall oil. Statistically significant reductions in plant yields (at the 95% confidence level) occurred at normal disposal rates with a long-chained aliphatic alcohol, sodium dichromate, diesel oil, guar gum, an iron chromelignosulfonate, lignite, a modified asphalt, a plant fibersynthetic fiber mixture, lignite, a nonfermenting starch, potassium chloride, pregelatinized starch, and sulfated triglyceride. Thirteen drilling fluid components added individually to a fluid base (water, bentonite, and barite) and then to soil were also tested for their effect on plant growth. Only the sulfated triglyceride (Torq-Trim) and the long-chain (high molecular weight) alcohol (Drillaid 405) caused no plant growth reductions at either rate added. The modified tannin (Desco) caused minimal reduction in bean growth only when added to soil in excess levels.

  9. Whole adult organism transcriptional profiling of acute metal exposures in male Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A convergence of technological breakthroughs in the past decade has facilitated the development of rapid screening tools for biomarkers of toxicant exposure and effect. Platforms using the whole adult organism to evaluate the genome-wide response to toxicants are especially attractive. Recent work demonstrates the feasibility of this approach in vertebrates using the experimentally robust zebrafish model. In the present study, we evaluated gene expression changes in whole adult male zebrafish following an acute 24 hr high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 hr LC20, LC40 and LC60. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal. Results Comparative analysis identified subsets of differentially expressed transcripts both overlapping and unique to each metal. Application of gene ontology (GO) and transcription factor (TF) enrichment algorithms revealed a number of key biological processes perturbed by metal poisonings and the master transcriptional regulators mediating gene expression changes. Metal poisoning differentially activated biological processes associated with ribosome biogenesis, proteosomal degradation, and p53 signaling cascades, while repressing oxygen-generating pathways associated with amino acid and lipid metabolism. Despite appreciable effects on gene regulation, nickel poisoning did not induce any morphological alterations in male zebrafish organs and tissues. Histopathological effects of cobalt remained confined to the olfactory system, while chromium targeted the gills, pharynx, and intestinal mucosa. A number of enriched transcription factors mediated the observed gene response to metal poisoning, including known targets such as p53, HIF1α, and the myc oncogene, and novel

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Li, Ye; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BCCr) and thermal oxidation (BCCTO). The concentrations of BCCr in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32mgg(-1), while BCCTO ranged between 0.57 and 4.76mgg(-1). Spatial variations of δ(13)C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from -21.13‰ to -24.87‰ and from -23.53‰ to -16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2ngg(-1) in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5ngg(-1) in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones.

  11. New light-trapping concept by means of several optical components applied to compact holographic 3D concentration solar module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamarín Villegas, Ayalid M.; Pérez López, Francisco J.; Calo López, Antonio; Rodríguez San Segundo, Hugo-José

    2014-05-01

    A new light-trapping concept is presented, which joins broad bandwidth volume phase reflection holograms (VPRH) working together with three other optical components: specifically designed three-dimensional (3D) cavities, Total Internal Reflection (TIR) within an optical medium, and specular reflection by means of a highly reflective surface. This concept is applied to the design and development of both low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) and solar thermal modules reaching a concentration factor of up to 3X. Higher concentrations are feasible for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) devices. The whole system is entirely made of polymeric materials (except for the solar cells or fluid carrying pipes), thus reducing cost by up to 40%. The module concentrates solar light onto solar cells - or fluid carrying pipes - with no need for active tracking of the sun, covering the whole seasonal and daily incident angle spectrum while it also minimizes optical losses. In this work we analyze the first experimentally measured optical characteristics and performance of VPRH in dichromated gelatin film (DCG) in our concept. The VPRH can reach high diffraction efficiencies (˜98%, ignoring Fresnel reflection losses). Thanks to specifically designed raw material, coating and developing process specifications, also very broad selective spectral (higher than 300 nm) and angular bandwidths (˜+20º) per grating are achieved. The VPRH was optimized to use silicon solar cells, but designs for other semiconductor devices or for fluid heating are feasible. The 3D shape, the hologram's and reflective surface's optical quality, the TIR effect and the correct coupling of all the components are key to high performance of the concentration solar module.

  12. New facility for large-scale DCG transmission holographic gratings: status and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habraken, Serge L.; Lemaire, Philippe C.; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Jamar, Claude A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The recent interest of the astronomer community for volume phase holographic gratings is directly related to the enhancement of spectrograph throughput since the grating can rise higher diffraction efficiency. Indeed, dichromated gelatin technology has demonstrated capability for 70-90% efficiency. From the heritage of several diffractive and holographic projects and applications, the Centre Spatial de Liege has recently decided to invest in the large-scale DCG grating technology. This paper will present the new facility presently under construction. The goal is to be ready to respond to the market demand in 2002 with a capacity for producing 30 cm dia. holographic gratings. The challenge is not the size itself but the quality control in each process step. Thanks to the heritage of space instrumentation, CSL is trained to fulfill requirements on product and quality control. Large clean rooms are equipped with DCG coating machine, optical bench, development lab, and conditioning processes. The grating period may range from 325 to 3000 lp/mm. Low frequencies are especially hard to holographically record because it induces a cumbersome set-up. The working wavelength of DCG gratings is limited by the gelatin transmissivity (from 350 nm to 2 micrometers ). But the actual limitation factor in the IR is the refractive index modulation, equivalent to etching depth on ruled gratings: working wavelength of 1.5 micrometers means a need for 3 times the modulation of a visible grating. Large efforts are needed to insure that IR volume-phase gratings can reach efficiency higher than alternative grating technologies. In that field, this paper presents experimental results on small grating samples. A realistic performance goal is discussed to advise the astronomer community of our near-future products.

  13. An interlaboratory study as useful tool for proficiency testing of chemical oxygen demand measurements using solid substrates and liquid samples with high suspended solid content.

    PubMed

    Raposo, F; de la Rubia, M A; Borja, R; Alaiz, M; Beltrán, J; Cavinato, C; Clinckspoor, M; Demirer, G; Diamadopoulos, E; Helmreich, B; Jenicek, P; Martí, N; Méndez, R; Noguerol, J; Pereira, F; Picard, S; Torrijos, M

    2009-11-15

    In 2008, the first Proficiency Testing Scheme of Chemical Oxygen Demand (1(st)COD-PT(ADG)) was conducted to assess the results obtained for different research groups whose field work is mainly anaerobic digestion. This study was performed using four samples, two solid samples as raw materials and two solid samples to prepare high concentration suspended solid solutions. Invitations were sent to a large number of laboratories, mainly to anaerobic digestion research groups. Finally, thirty labs from sixteen countries agreed to participate, but for different reasons four participants could not send any data. In total, twenty-six results were reported to the COD-PT coordinator. This study showed the importance of continuous participation in proficiency testing (PT) schemes in order to compare the results obtained. Taking into account the lack of a general standard method and high quality certified reference materials (CRMs), the traceability of COD determination is not currently easy to check. In addition, the spread of participants' results obtained was high and pointed to the advisability of using consensus values due to their unreliability. Therefore, the theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD) values were considered as assigned values for all the samples analysed. On the other hand, in this PT the established standard deviation (ESD) has been determined by the Horwitz modified function. Participants of this 1(st)COD-PT(ADG) were asked to give a short report on the analytical method used. Although all the participants used potassium dichromate as their oxidant reagent, their experimental procedures were very different. With the purpose of comparing the results obtained, the different experimental conditions used were classified into five methods, corresponding to two main categories, open and closed reflux. The performance of laboratories was expressed by the z-score, whose value is considered satisfactory when z-score

  14. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration in deaths due to roadside accidents.

    PubMed

    Arora, Puneet; Chanana, Ashok; Tejpal, Hakumat R

    2013-05-01

    Like any other disease, accidents too are caused by interaction between agent, host, and environment. Human factors include age, (accidents most common between 10 and 24 years), sex, education, medical conditions (heart attack, impaired vision), fatigue, influence of alcohol and other drugs, lack of bodily protection (like helmets, seat belts) and psychosocial factors like lack of experience, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, defective judgment and delay in decisions. Drunken driving is an important risk factor in causing accidents. This study was focused on the status of alcohol consumption in relation with roadside accidents in northern India in the region of Amritsar. The present study was carried out in 100 cases alleged to have died of roadside accident and brought to the mortuary attached to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Amritsar for autopsy examination. Blood samples were collected from the femoral vein and were tested for the presence of alcohol with steam distillation and titration method using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. In the present study, 23% of the fatal driver/pedestrian victims of roadside accidents were found to have consumed alcohol before accident. Most of the victims of road accident were from the age group 21-30 and 31-40 years. Most of the accidents occurred on straight roads instead of bends or intersections, more during daytime and weekends. 57% of the blood alcohol positives were between 100 mg% and 149 mg%. Majority of the victims of roadside accidents were motorcyclists and the striking vehicles were trucks and buses causing head & neck injuries in most of the victims. Death occurred within a few minutes in most of the cases.

  15. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-12-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of chromium species are highly dependable on the form or species, therefore determination of total chromium is insufficient for a complete toxicological evaluation and risk assessment. An analytical method for determination of soluble and insoluble Cr (III) and Cr (VI) compounds in welding fume at workplace air has been developed. The total chromium (Cr) was determined by using quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC(®)). Soluble trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A high-speed, reversed-phase CR C8 column (PerkinElmer, Inc., Shelton, CT, USA) was used for the speciation of soluble Cr (III) and soluble Cr (VI). The separation was accomplished by interaction of the chromium species with the different components of the mobile phase. Cr (III) formed a complex with EDTA, i.e. retained on the column, while Cr (VI) existed in the solutions as dichromate. Alkaline extraction (2% KOH and 3% Na2CO3) and anion exchange column (PRP-X100, PEEK, Hamilton) were used for the separation of the total Cr (VI). The results of the determination of Cr (VI) were confirmed by the analysis of the certified reference material BCR CRM 545 (Cr (VI) in welding dust). The results obtained for the certified material (40.2±0.6 g kg(-1)) and the values recorded in the examined samples (40.7±0.6 g kg(-1)) were highly consistent. This analytical method was applied for the determination of chromium in the samples in the workplace air collected onto glass (Whatman, Ø 37 mm) and membrane filters (Sartorius, 0.8 μm, Ø 37 mm). High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a remarkably powerful and versatile technique for determination of chromium species in welding fume at workplace air.

  16. In vivo effects of chromium.

    PubMed Central

    Witmer, C; Faria, E; Park, H S; Sadrieh, N; Yurkow, E; O'Connell, S; Sirak, A; Schleyer, H

    1994-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species on addition of hexavalent chromium (potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7) to lung cells in culture was studied using flow cytometer analysis. A Coulter Epics Profile II flow cytometer was used to detect the formation of reactive oxygen species after K2Cr2O7 was added to A549 cells grown to confluence. The cells were loaded with the dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, after which cellular esterases removed the acetate groups and the dye was trapped intracellularly. Reactive oxygen species oxidized the dye, with resultant fluorescence. Increased doses of Cr(VI) caused increasing fluorescence (10-fold higher than background at 200 microM). Addition of Cr(III) compounds, as the picolinate or chloride, caused no increased fluorescence. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies indicated that three (as yet unidentified) spectral "signals" of the free radical type were formed on addition of 20, 50, 100, and 200 microM Cr(VI) to the A549 cells in suspension. Two other EPR "signals" with the characteristics of Cr(V) entities were seen at field values lower than the standard free radical value. Liver microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rats treated intraperitoneally with K2Cr2O7 (130 mumole/kg every 48 hr for six treatments) had decreased activity of cytochromes P4503A1 and/or 3A2, and 2C11. Hepatic microsomes from treated female Sprague-Dawley rats, in contrast, had increased activities of these isozymes. Lung microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rats had increased activity of P4502C11. Images Figure 4. Figure 6. PMID:7843092

  17. A case study to optimise and validate the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana immobilisation assay with silver nanoparticles: The role of harmonisation.

    PubMed

    Kos, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Drobne, Damjana; Singh, Shashi; Kalčíková, Gabriela; Kühnel, Dana; Rohit, Rekulapelly; Gotvajn, Andreja Žgajnar; Jemec, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been recognised as an important ecotoxicity and nanotoxicity test model organism for salt-rich aquatic environments, but currently there is still no harmonised testing protocol which would ensure the comparable results for hazard identification. In this paper we aimed to design the harmonised protocol for nanomaterial toxicity testing using Artemia franciscana and present a case study to validate the protocol with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We (i) revised the existing nanotoxicity test protocols with Artemia sp. (ii) optimised certain methodological steps based on the experiments with AgNPs and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as a soluble reference chemical and (iii) tested the optimised protocol in an international inter-laboratory exercise conducted within the EU FP7 NanoValid project. The intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the proposed protocol with a soluble reference chemical K2Cr2O7 was good, which confirms the suitability of this assay for conventional chemicals. However, the variability of AgNPs toxicity results was very high showing again that nanomaterials are inherently challenging for toxicity studies, especially those which toxic effect is linked to shed metal ions. Among the identified sources for this variability were: the hatching conditions, the type of test plate incubation and the illumination regime. The latter induced variations assumingly due to the changes in bioavailable silver species concentrations. Up to our knowledge this is the first inter-laboratory comparison of the Artemia sp. toxicity study involving nanomaterials. Although the inter-laboratory exercise revealed poor repeatability of AgNPs toxicity results, this study provides valuable information regarding the importance of harmonisation of all steps in the test procedure. Also, the presented AgNPs toxicity case study may serve as a platform for further validation steps with other types of NMs.

  18. Observational Approach to Chromium Site Remediation - 13266

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Myers, R.

    2013-07-01

    Production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, required massive quantities of water for reactor cooling and material processing. To reduce corrosion and the build-up of scale in pipelines and cooling systems, sodium dichromate was added to the water feedstock. Spills and other releases at the makeup facilities, as well as leaks from miles of pipelines, have led to numerous areas with chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater, threatening fish populations in the nearby Columbia River. Pump-and-treat systems have been installed to remove chromium from the groundwater, but significant contamination remain in the soil column and poses a continuing threat to groundwater and the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford, DOE, and regulators are working on a team approach that implements the observational approach, a strategy for effectively dealing with the uncertainties inherent in subsurface conditions. Remediation of large, complex waste sites at a federal facility is a daunting effort. It is particularly difficult to perform the work in an environment of rapid response to changing field and contamination conditions. The observational approach, developed by geotechnical engineers to accommodate the inherent uncertainties in subsurface conditions, is a powerful and appropriate method for site remediation. It offers a structured means of quickly moving into full remediation and responding to the variations and changing conditions inherent in waste site cleanups. A number of significant factors, however, complicate the application of the observational approach for chromium site remediation. Conceptual models of contamination and site conditions are difficult to establish and get consensus on. Mid-stream revisions to the design of large excavations are time-consuming and costly. And regulatory constraints and contract performance incentives can be impediments to the flexible responses required under the observational

  19. Comparison of the Effects of Hexavalent Chromium in the Alimentary Canal of F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice Following Exposure in Drinking Water: Implications for Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Chad M.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Hébert, Charles D.; Mann, Jill F.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Hixon, J. Gregory; Harris, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1–182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3–520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well. PMID:22011396

  20. Efficient production of methane from artificial garbage waste by a cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) containing carbon fiber textiles (CFT; BER + CFT) has characteristics of bioelectrochemical and packed-bed systems. In this study, utility of a cylindrical BER + CFT for degradation of a garbage slurry and recovery of biogas was investigated by applying 10% dog food slurry. The working electrode potential was electrochemically regulated at −0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Stable methane production of 9.37 L-CH4 · L−1 · day−1 and dichromate chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal of 62.5% were observed, even at a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 89.3 g-CODcr · L−1 · day−1. Given energy as methane (372.6 kJ · L−1 · day−1) was much higher than input electric energy to the working electrode (0.6 kJ · L−1 · day−1) at this OLR. Methanogens were highly retained in CFT by direct attachment to the cathodic working electrodes (52.3%; ratio of methanogens to prokaryotes), compared with the suspended fraction (31.2%), probably contributing to the acceleration of organic material degradation and removal of organic acids. These results provide insight into the application of cylindrical BER + CFT in efficient methane production from garbage waste including a high percentage of solid fraction. PMID:23497472

  1. Electrochemically induced dual reactive barriers for transformation of TCE and mixture of contaminants in groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuhui; Yuan, Songhu; Fallahpour, Noushin; Ciblak, Ali; Howard, Joniqua; Padilla, Ingrid; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    A novel reactive electrochemical flow system consisting of iron anode and porous cathode is proposed for the remediation of mixture of contaminants in groundwater. The system consists of a series of sequentially arranged electrodes, a perforated iron anode, a porous copper cathode followed by a mesh-type mixed metal oxide anode. The iron anode generates ferrous species and a chemically reducing environment, the porous cathode provides a reactive electrochemically reducing barrier, and the inert anode provides proton and oxygen to neutralize the system. The redox conditions of the electrolyte flowing through this system can be regulated by controlling the distribution of the electric current. Column experiments are conducted to evaluate the process and study the variables. The electrochemical reduction on a copper foam cathode produced an electrode-based reductive potential capable of reducing TCE and nitrate. Rational electrodes arrangement, longer residence time of electrolytes and higher surface area of foam electrode improve the reductive transformation of TCE. More than 82.2% TCE removal efficiency is achieved for the case of low influent concentration (< 7.5 mg/L) and high current (> 45 mA). The ferrous species produced from the iron anode not only enhance the transformation of TCE on the cathode, but also facilitates transformation of other contaminants including dichromate, selenate and arsenite. Removal efficiencies greater than 80% are achieved for these contaminants from flowing contaminated water. The overall system, comprising the electrode-based and electrolyte-based barriers, can be engineered as a versatile and integrated remedial method for a relatively wide spectrum of contaminants and their mixtures. PMID:23067023

  2. Adsorption of ions onto high silica volcanic glass.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Bichler, Max

    2008-01-01

    Chemical fingerprint techniques are frequently applied to airborne volcanic eruption products, so-called tephra, such as ash and pumice for archeological and geoscientific purposes. However, in some cases, a meaningful interpretation of the results is complicated by superficial contaminations. Therefore, this situation was simulated by the use of powdered rhyolitic pumice to investigate its capability to adsorb several ions from aqueous solutions. Using neutron activation analysis, adsorption could be proven for Cr(3+), Cr(2)O(7)(2-) (dichromate), Fe(3+), Co(2+), HAsO(4)(2-) (hydrogen arsenate), Rb(+), Sr(2+), Cs(+), Ba(2+), La(3+), Ce(3+), Ce(4+), Sm(3+), Th(4+) and UO(2)(2+), which is a clear evidence for the interaction of those ions with the volcanic glass. In our experiments, pumice powder showed the ability to adsorb ions in the range from 1.8 mg kg(-1) (in case of HAsO(4)(2-)) to 5.8 wt% (in case of Fe(3+)). Adsorption is probably due to ion-exchange reactions. It could also be shown that a few ions are not adsorbed in detectable quantities: Na(+), K(+), Fe(2+), Zn(2+) and Nd(3+). The knowledge about adsorption of ions enables us not only to examine the possible influence of contaminations where chemical fingerprinting methods are applied to volcanic material for archaeometry, but it also suggests the technical application of pumiceous materials for technical purposes, like water purification or as an adsorbent in the final storage of nuclear waste. In another series of INAA supported experiments, the influence of chemicals like ascorbic acid, acetic acid, HCl, HF, HNO(3), H(2)O, H(2)O(2), H(3)PO(4), H(2)SO(4), NaOH and NH(3) on the bulk composition of pumice powder was investigated-resulting in no detectable change. We conclude that superficially contaminated tephra can be washed in diluted HF to remove contaminations without influencing the chemical fingerprint.

  3. GROUDWATER REMEDIATION AT THE 100-HR-3 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA - 11507

    SciTech Connect

    SMOOT JL; BIEBESHEIMER FH; ELUSKIE JA; SPILIOTOPOULOS A; TONKIN MJ; SIMPKIN T

    2011-01-12

    The 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site underlies three former plutonium production reactors and the associated infrastructure at the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminant of concern at the site is hexavalent chromium; the secondary contaminants are strontium-90, technetium-99, tritium, uranium, and nitrate. The hexavalent chromium plume is the largest plume of its type in the state of Washington, covering an area of approximately 7 km{sup 2} (2.7 mi{sup 2}) with concentrations greater than 20 {micro}g/L. Concentrations range from 60,000 {micro}g/L near the former dichromate transfer station in the 100-D Area to large areas of 20 to 100 {micro}g/L across much of the plume area. Pump-and-treat operations began in 1997 and continued into 2010 at a limited scale of approximately 200 gal/min. Remediation of groundwater has been fairly successful in reaching remedial action objectives (RAOs) of 20 {micro}g/L over a limited region at the 100-H, but less effective at 100-D. In 2000, an in situ, permeable reactive barrier was installed downgradient of the hotspot in 100-D as a second remedy. The RAOs are still being exceeded over a large portion of the area. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company was awarded the remediation contract for groundwater in 2008 and initiated a remedial process optimization study consisting of modeling and technical studies intended to enhance the remediation. As a result of the study, 1,400 gal/min of expanded treatment capacity are being implemented. These new systems are designed to meet 2012 and 2020 target milestones for protection of the Columbia River and cleanup of the groundwater plumes.

  4. Electrochemical tuning of the activity and structure of a copper-cobalt micro-nano film on a gold electrode, and its application to the determination of glucose and of Chemical Oxygen Demand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinqi; Yao, Na; Li, Mei; Hu, Jia; Chen, Jianwei; Hao, Qiaoling; Wu, Kangbing; Zhou, Yikai

    Micro-nano structured Cu-Co was in situ fabricated on the surface of a gold electrode via electrochemical reduction of CuCl2 and Co(NO3)2. It is shown that the shape of the particles can be controlled by variation of deposition current, deposition time, pH value and the ratio of Cu(II) and Co(II) ions. If prepared under current of -200 μA in 0.1 M, pH 4.0 acetate buffer solution, the film possesses high catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of glucose at a largely increased oxidation current compared to a non-modified surface. The electrochemical activity of this sensor can be easily tuned. Glucose is a standard compound for evaluating the chemical oxygen demand (COD), and we have therefore studied the application of the sensor to the determination of this parameter. Under optimized conditions, the sensor has linear response to glucose in the 1.92-768 mg L(-1) concentration range, and the detection limit is 0.609 mg L(-1) (at an S/N ratio of 3). A large number of surface water samples was studied, and the results obtained by this method were found to be linearly correlated to those obtained by the dichromate method (r = 0.995; n = 33). Graphical AbstractThis study describes the facile synthesis of micro-nano Cu-Co by one-step electrodeposition of Cu(II) and Co(II) on gold electrode. The alloy composite exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities, and was successfully applied on the COD determination of glucose and water samples.

  5. The protective and toxic effects of rhubarb tannins and anthraquinones in treating hexavalent chromium-injured rats: the Yin/Yang actions of rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-na; Ma, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Lin-dong; Li, Rui-sheng; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Dan; Li, Qi; Jiang, Bing-qian; Pu, Shi-biao; Lü, Yang; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-02-15

    Chromium nephrotoxicity (CrNT) is thought to occur through the oxidant lesion mechanism. There is still a lack of specific remedies against CrNT. We primarily screened Chinese herbal medicines with a potential protective effect against CrNT, e.g., rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.). However, the active constituents in rhubarb and its mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the total rhubarb extract (TR) was successively separated into three parts: total anthraquinone extract (TA), total tannin extract (TT) and remaining component extract (RC). The effects of each extract on the potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7))-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were comparatively assessed. The results showed that only the administration of TT protected the kidney function in K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-injured rats. Besides, TT showed significant activity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, which is considered to be the dominant lesion product generated by hexavalent chromium. TT also showed a reduced ability to transform toxic high valence chromium ions into non-toxic low valence ions. And TT was able to further precipitate chromium ions. These results suggested that rhubarb tannins treat CrNT as a free radical scavenger, reductant, and metal precipitant. The multiple protective routes of the plant tannins reveal a superior option for development into a promising natural remedy against CrNT. In addition, the opposite effects of rhubarb anthraquinones in treating CrNT were observed compared to rhubarb tannins, which suggested the duo-directional effects (Yin and Yang) of herbal medicines should be addressed.

  6. In vitro cultivation of Hammondia heydorni: Generation of tachyzoites, stage conversion into bradyzoites, and evaluation of serologic cross-reaction with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Gondim, L F P; Meyer, J; Peters, M; Rezende-Gondim, M M; Vrhovec, M G; Pantchev, N; Bauer, C; Conraths, F J; Schares, G

    2015-06-15

    Hammondia heydorni was in vitro isolated from oocysts shed by three dogs using a finite cell line from embryonal bovine heart (KH-R). The oocysts were purified and suspended in 2% potassium dichromate or 2% sulphuric acid for sporulation for 2-5 days at room temperature. The parasites were confirmed as H. heydorni by PCR using specific primers (JS4/JS5) and by negative reaction for Neospora caninum employing the primers Np6+/Np21+. H. heydorni sporulated oocysts (1 × 10(6)) from each dog were initially treated with sodium hypochlorite. For excystation of sporozoites, oocysts from one dog were lysed by ultrasound followed by incubation with 0.75% taurocholate. Excystation of sporozoites from the other two dogs was achieved by oocyst fragmentation with glass beads with no further chemical treatment. Tachyzoites were clearly seen in the cultures at three days post inoculation (dpi). Bradyzoite conversion and cyst formation were evaluated at different time points by using a polyclonal rabbit serum against a bradyzoite-specific antigen (anti-BAG1), and a rat monoclonal antibody (mAbCC2) against a cyst wall protein. Bradyzoites were firstly detected at 7 dpi. Between 18 and 21 dpi most of cultured parasites consisted of encysted bradyzoites. The H. heydorni cysts increased in size during cultivation and reached a length of up to 135 μm. The parasite was maintained in the bovine heart cells up to 4.5months. Sera from mice and sheep experimentally infected with H. heydorni oocysts reacted with H. heydorni by IFAT, but did not cross-react with N. caninum antigens using IFAT or immunoblot. These findings suggest that serological cross-reactivity between H. heydorni and N. caninum seems to be of minor importance.

  7. Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

  8. Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Sinsel

    2003-06-30

    Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

  9. Investigation of the mode of action underlying the tumorigenic response induced in B6C3F1 mice exposed orally to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Hébert, Charles D; Grimes, Sheila D; Shertzer, Howard G; Kopec, Anna K; Hixon, J Gregory; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Harris, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice. To investigate the mode of action (MOA) underlying these tumors, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted using similar exposure conditions as in a previous cancer bioassay, as well as lower (heretofore unexamined) drinking water concentrations. Tissue samples were collected in mice exposed for 7 or 90 days and subjected to histopathological, biochemical, toxicogenomic, and toxicokinetic analyses. Described herein are the results of toxicokinetic, biochemical, and pathological findings. Following 90 days of exposure to 0.3-520 mg/l of sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), total chromium concentrations in the duodenum were significantly elevated at ≥ 14 mg/l. At these concentrations, significant decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed. Beginning at 60 mg/l, intestinal lesions were observed including villous cytoplasmic vacuolization. Atrophy, apoptosis, and crypt hyperplasia were evident at ≥ 170 mg/l. Protein carbonyls were elevated at concentrations ≥ 4 mg/l SDD, whereas oxidative DNA damage, as assessed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, was not increased in any treatment group. Significant decreases in the GSH/GSSG ratio and similar histopathological lesions as observed in the duodenum were also observed in the jejunum following 90 days of exposure. Cytokine levels (e.g., interleukin-1β) were generally depressed or unaltered at the termination of the study. Overall, the data suggest that Cr(VI) in drinking water can induce oxidative stress, villous cytotoxicity, and crypt hyperplasia in the mouse intestine and may underlie the MOA of intestinal carcinogenesis in mice.

  10. Comparison of the effects of hexavalent chromium in the alimentary canal of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following exposure in drinking water: implications for carcinogenic modes of action.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C; Hébert, Charles D; Mann, Jill F; Shertzer, Howard G; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1-182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3-520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well.

  11. Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53

    SciTech Connect

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Lee, JeHoon; Stephen, Sam D.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-03-15

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been widely used in industries throughout the world. Increased usage of CrVI and atmospheric emission of CrVI from catalytic converters of automobiles, and its improper disposal causes various health hazards including female infertility. Recently we have reported that lactational exposure to CrVI induced a delay/arrest in follicular development at the secondary follicular stage. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, primary cultures of rat granulosa cells were treated with 10 {mu}M potassium dichromate (CrVI) for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment for 24 h. The effects of CrVI on intrinsic apoptotic pathway(s) were investigated. Our data indicated that CrVI: (i) induced DNA fragmentation and increased apoptosis, (ii) increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to cytosol, (iii) downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, HSP70 and HSP90; upregulated pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD, (iv) altered translocation of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, BAX, BAD, HSP70 and HSP90 to the mitochondria, (v) upregulated p-ERK and p-JNK, and selectively translocated p-ERK to the mitochondria and nucleus, (vi) activated caspase-3 and PARP, and (vii) increased phosphorylation of p53 at ser-6, ser-9, ser-15, ser-20, ser-37, ser-46 and ser-392, increased p53 transcriptional activation, and downregulated MDM-2. Vitamin C pre-treatment mitigated CrVI effects on apoptosis and related pathways. Our study, for the first time provides a clear insight into the effect of CrVI on multiple pathways that lead to apoptosis of granulosa cells which could be mitigated by vitamin C.

  12. An optimised protocol for molecular identification of Eimeria from chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Moftah, Abdalgader; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Chaudhry, Abdul S; Sparagano, Olivier; Banerjee, Partha S; Kundu, Krishnendu; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P

    2014-01-17

    Molecular approaches supporting identification of Eimeria parasites infecting chickens have been available for more than 20 years, although they have largely failed to replace traditional measures such as microscopy and pathology. Limitations of microscopy-led diagnostics, including a requirement for specialist parasitological expertise and low sample throughput, are yet to be outweighed by the difficulties associated with accessing genomic DNA from environmental Eimeria samples. A key step towards the use of Eimeria species-specific PCR as a sensitive and reproducible discriminatory tool for use in the field is the production of a standardised protocol that includes sample collection and DNA template preparation, as well as primer selection from the numerous PCR assays now published. Such a protocol will facilitate development of valuable epidemiological datasets which may be easily compared between studies and laboratories. The outcome of an optimisation process undertaken in laboratories in India and the UK is described here, identifying four steps. First, samples were collected into a 2% (w/v) potassium dichromate solution. Second, oocysts were enriched by flotation in saturated saline. Third, genomic DNA was extracted using a QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit protocol including a mechanical homogenisation step. Finally, nested PCR was carried out using previously published primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1). Alternative methods tested included sample processing in the presence of faecal material, DNA extraction using a traditional phenol/chloroform protocol, the use of SCAR multiplex PCR (one tube and two tube versions) and speciation using the morphometric tool COCCIMORPH for the first time with field samples.

  13. Simvastatin attenuates chromium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Zahra; Karami, Esmaeil; Ahmadizadeh, Massumeh

    2017-01-01

    Background Hexavalent Chromium (Cr (VI)) compounds are extremely toxic and have been demonstrated to induce nephrotoxicity associated with oxidative stress in humans and animals. The wide environmental distribution of these agents lead to an increase interest of preventive effects of its adverse effects. Objectives The propose of the present study was to determine the potential protective effects of simvastatin (SIMV) on Cr (VI)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Materials and Methods Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g BW) were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6). Group one received SIMV 20 mg/kg/day. Group two was given vehicle only. Groups three, five and seven received intraperitoneally (i.p) sodium dichromate (Cr (VI)) at doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg body weight. Groups four, six and eight pretreated with the 20 mg/kg SIMV 30 minutes to prior administration of Cr (VI) at doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg, respectively. The experiment repeated for eight consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, animals were killed with overdose of sodium pentobarbital. Kidney tissues were excised for measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and histopathological examination. Results Chromium induced a dose dependent elevation of MDA and reduction of GSH levels. Histopathological manifestations were observed in Cr (VI)-treated rats. SIMV administration restored Cr (VI) produced biochemical and morphological changes in rat kidney. SIMV decreased MDA values and increased GSH levels in Cr (VI)-treated rats. SIMV clearly reversed the microscopic damage, demonstrating its protective effects against Cr (VI)-induced kidney injury. Conclusions This observation suggests that SIMV may have a protective effect against Cr (VI)-induced oxidative stress in rat kidney. PMID:28042547

  14. The use of air fuel cell cathodes to remove contaminants from spent chromium plating solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, K L; Holsen, T M; Chou, T C; Yang, M C

    2004-01-01

    Results from experiments using an impregnation-reduction (I-R) Pt / Nafion membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in an air fuel cell cathode to remove contaminants (Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(III)) from spent chromium electroplating baths are presented in this study. A platinum-carbon (Pt-C) / Nafion MEA and a Pb planar cathode were also used for comparison. The average removal rates of Cu(II) and Ni(II) were almost the same (0.39 and 0.40 mM hr(-1) (or 0.117 and 0.12 mmol hr(-1)), respectively) but higher than that of Fe(III) (0.16 mM hr(-1), or 0.048 mmol hr(-1)) in accordance with the Nernst-Planck flux equation. The removal rates for the same cation were independent of the cathode used. The average removal rate of each impurity was approximately proportional to the product of its initial concentration and separator area/anolyte volume ratio using Pb cathodes. Under constant current conditions the system using the Pt-C / Nafion cathode needed the highest cell voltage, about 3 V more than needed for the system with the Pt / Nafion cathode. The cell voltage required using the Pt / Nafion cathode was similar to that using the conventional planar Pb cathode. Analyses of cathode deposits by SEM/EDS and XPS techniques indicated they were minimal on the Pb and Pt / Nafion cathode and more apparent on the Pt-C / Nafion cathode. The primary deposits on the Pb cathode were chromium oxides (e.g., Cr2O3) with minor amount of lead chromate (lead dichromate or lead trichromate) and other chromium solids (Cr black). As expected, the dominant deposit on the lead anode surface was PbO2.

  15. Identifying a novel role for X-prolyl aminopeptidase (Xpnpep) 2 in CrVI-induced adverse effects on germ cell nest breakdown and follicle development in rats.

    PubMed

    Banu, Sakhila K; Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    Environmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is one cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC widely used in more than 50 industries, including chrome plating, welding, wood processing, and tanneries. Recent data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indicate increased levels of Cr in drinking water from several American cities, which potentially predispose residents to various health problems. Recently, we demonstrated that gestational exposure to CrVI caused POF in F1 offspring. The current study was performed to identify the molecular mechanism behind CrVI-induced POF. Pregnant rats were treated with 25 ppm of potassium dichromate from Gestational Day (GD) 9.5 to GD 14.5 through drinking water, and the fetuses were exposed to CrVI through transplacental transfer. Ovaries were removed from the fetuses or pups on Embryonic Day (ED) 15.5, ED 17.5, Postnatal Day (PND) 1, PND 4, or PND 25, and various analyses were performed. Results showed that gestational exposure to CrVI: 1) increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis and advanced germ cell nest (GCN) breakdown; 2) increased X-prolyl aminopeptidase (Xpnpep) 2, a POF marker in humans, during GCN breakdown; 3) decreased Xpnpep2 during postnatal follicle development; and 4) increased colocalization of Xpnpep2 with Col3 and Col4. We also found that Xpnpep2 inversely regulated the expression of Col1, Col3, and Col4 in all the developmental stages studied. Thus, CrVI advanced GCN breakdown and increased follicle atresia in F1 female progeny by targeting Xpnpep2.

  16. A fetal whole ovarian culture model for the evaluation of CrVI-induced developmental toxicity during germ cell nest breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A, dioxin, pesticides, and cigarette smoke, has been linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and early menopause in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries. As one of the world’s leading producers of Cr compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against adverse effects of CrVI. Our recent findings demonstrated that in vivo CrVI exposure during gestational period caused POF in F1 offspring. Our current research focus is three-fold: (i) to identify the effect of CrVI on critical windows of great vulnerability of fetal ovarian development; (ii) to understand the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced POF; (iii) to identify potential intervention strategies to mitigate or inhibit CrVI effects. In order to accomplish these goals we used a fetal whole ovarian culture system. Fetuses were removed from the normal pregnant rats on gestational day 13.5. Fetal ovaries were cultured in vitro for 12 days, and treated with or without 0.1 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from culture day 2-8, which recapitulated embryonic day 14.5 – 20.5, in vivo. Results showed that CrVI increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis by increasing caspase 3, BAX, p53 and PUMA; decreasing BCL2, BMP15, GDF9 and cKIT; and altering cell cycle regulatory genes and proteins. This model system may serve as a potential tool for high throughput testing of various drugs and/or EDCs in particular to assess developmental toxicity of the ovary. PMID:26348139

  17. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of oxidative reactions of [19,19-(2)H(2)]19-hydroxy-3-deoxy androgens by placental aromatase. bsence of a deuterium-isotope effect.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Masao; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2005-11-01

    Aromatase is a cytochrome P-450 enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) to estrone through three sequential oxidations of the 19-methyl group. 3-DeoxyAD (1) and its 5-ene isomer 4 are potent and good competitive aromatase inhibitors, which are converted by aromatase to the aldehyde derivatives 3 and 6, respectively, through 19-hydroxy intermediates 2 and 5, respectively. To study the deuterium isotope effect on the conversions of 19-ols 2 and 5 into the corresponding 19-als 3 and 6, we initially synthesized [19,19-(2)H(2)]19-ols 2 and 5 starting from the corresponding non-labeled 19-als 3 and 6 through NaB(2)H(4) reduction of the 19-aldehyde group, followed by oxidation with pyridinium dichromate, and a subsequent NaB(2)H(4) reduction. Approximately 1:1 mixtures of non-labeled (d(0)) and deuterated (d(2)) 19-ols 2 and 5 were separately incubated with human placental microsomes in the presence of NADPH under an air atmosphere, and deuterium contents of the recovered substrates and the 19-aldehyde products were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In each experiment, the ratio of d(0) to d(2) of the recovered substrate along with that of d(0) to d(1) of the product were identical to the d(0) to d(2) ratio of the employed substrate irrespective of the incubation time, indicating that the 19-oxygenations of the 3-deoxy steroids 2 and 5 proceeded without a detectable isotope effect, as seen in the aromatization sequence of the natural substrate AD.

  18. "Carbo-aromaticity" and novel carbo-aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cocq, Kévin; Lepetit, Christine; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi

    2015-09-21

    While the concept of aromaticity is being more and more precisely delineated, the category of "aromatic compounds" is being more and more expanded. This is illustrated by an introductory highlight of the various types of "aromaticity" previously invoked, and by a focus on the recently proposed "aromatic character" of the "two-membered rings" of the acetylene and butatriene molecules. This serves as a general foundation for the definition of "carbo-aromaticity", the relevance of which is surveyed through recent results in the synthetic, physical, and theoretical chemistry of carbo-mers and in particular macrocyclic-polycyclic representatives constituting a natural family of "novel aromatic compounds". With respect to their parent molecules, carbo-mers are constitutionally defined as "carbon-enriched", and can also be functionally regarded as "π-electron-enriched". This is exemplified by recent experimental and theoretical results on functional, aromatic, rigid, σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-benzene archetypes of various substitution patterns, with emphasis on the quadrupolar pattern. For the purpose of comparison, several types of non-aromatic references of carbo-benzenes are then considered, i.e. freely rotating σ,π-acyclic carbo-n-butadienes and flexible σ-cyclic, π-acyclic carbo-cyclohexadienes, and to "pro-aromatic" congeners, i.e. rigid σ,π-macrocyclic carbo-quinoids. It is shown that functional carbo-mers are entering the field of "molecular materials" for properties such as linear or nonlinear optical properties (e.g. dichromism and two-photon absorption) and single molecule conductivity. Since total or partial carbo-mers of aromatic carbon-allotropes of infinite size such as graphene (graphynes and graphdiynes) and graphite ("graphitynes") have long been addressed at the theoretical or conceptual level, recent predictive advances on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of such carbo-materials are surveyed. Very preliminary experimental results

  19. Non-Arrhenian Multicomponent Melts Viscosity: Extension of the Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiacapra, A.; Giordano, D.; Potuzak, M.; Dingwell, D. B.; Russell, J. K.

    2003-12-01

    Viscosity exerts a strong control on many magmatic and petrological processes on micro- and macroscopic scales. Furthermore, knowledge of such a property gives important constraints for structural theories of silicate melts. Giordano and Dingwell (GD)[1] recently described the viscosity of a large number of silicate melts coping a wide compositional range, on the basis of an empirical parameter (SM), sum on a molar basis of the network modifying cations. That model does not consider the contribution of the iron oxidation state to influencing the viscosity. Here, this is rectified. In this experimental study we have doubled (over 700 data) the number of viscosity determinations input into the model provided by [1] extending the compositional basis to further rhyolitic, trachytic, moldavitic, andesitic, latitic, pantelleritic, basaltic and basanitic melt compositions. The effect of Fe2+/Fe3+ on viscosity has been expressly examined. The temperature-dependence of the new liquid compositions have been investigated at high temperature (1050-1600° C) and low temperature (616-860° C) by using a concentric cylinder apparatus and the micropenetration technique, respectively. Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio has been determined by combining a wet chemistry technique (potassium dichromate titration) with microprobe analysis for each sample, before and after the high and low-T viscometry. Viscosity parameterization along the lines of the GD model, and incorporating the constraint that the high-T viscosities converge to a common value [2], reveal very good agreement with those calculated by [1]. Explicit redox influences appear to be small. [1] D.Giordano, D.B. Dingwell, 2003. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 208, 337-349; [2] J.K. Russell, D. Giordano, D.B. Dingwell, 2003, Am. Mineral. 88, 1390-1394.

  20. Molecular hybridization approach of bio-potent Cu(II)/Zn(II) complexes derived from N, O donor bidentate imine scaffolds: Synthesis, spectral, human serum albumin binding, antioxidant and antibacterial studies.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Mohammad; Hanif, Summaiya; Alam, Md Fazle; Younus, Hina

    2016-12-01

    Novel bio-relevant monometallic Schiff base complexes of the type, [Cu(L(1))2] (1), [Zn(L(1))2]·2H2O (2), [Cu(L(2))2]·2H2O (3) and [Zn(L(2))2]·H2O (4) [L(1)(E)-3-(((3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)imino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol and L(2)(E)-2-chloro-4-((1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)amino)phenol] were synthesized and characterized. A comparative account of analytical, spectroscopic (FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, Mass, UV-vis and EPR), thermal (TGA/DTA), XRD and SEM studies revealed a correlation between the structure and function of these biologically active molecular entities. HSA (Human serum albumin) binding profiles of the metal complexes (1-4) were monitored using biophysical techniques viz., absorbance, fluorescence, circular dichromism (CD) and foster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) demonstrated substantial binding propensity of L(1) linked complexes (1 and 2) in comparison to L(2) complexes (3 and 4) suggesting L(1) to be more bio-active pharmacophore due to higher planarity and conjugation as compared to L(2) ligand. The outcome of fluorescence study revealed static quenching mechanism on the basis of the quenching of HSA by the complexes (1-4). However, modifications in the secondary structure of HSA by complexes (1-4) inferred via CD measurements which revealed the enhancement of α-helicity (67.47% to 69.20%) with the preference order of 1>2>3>4. Furthermore, in-vitro antibacterial study against different bacteria and antioxidant activities against DPPH and superoxide radical (O2(-)) at variable concentrations outspread discernible bio-potencies of the metal complexes as compared to free ligand scaffolds due to the chelation effect.