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  1. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  2. Der Einfluss von Alitretinoin auf die Lebensqualität bei Patienten mit schwerem chronischen Handekzem: FUGETTA - Beobachtungsstudie unter Praxisbedingungen.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Matthias; Thaçi, Diamant; Kamps, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Alitretinoin ist die einzige zugelassene Behandlung für schweres chronisches Handekzem (CHE), das refraktär gegenüber potenten topischen Corticosteroiden ist. Bei dieser Studie (FUGETTA) wurde die Wirksamkeit von leitliniengerecht angewendetem oralem Alitretinoin sowie dessen Einfluss auf die Lebensqualität (LQ) bei Patienten mit schwerem refraktärem CHE beurteilt. Multizentrische, offene, nichtinterventionelle Beobachtungsstudie, durchgeführt in Deutschland. Die Patienten wurden nach Ermessen ihres behandelnden Arztes mit Alitretinoin 10 mg oder 30 mg einmal täglich über maximal 24 Wochen behandelt. Die Wirksamkeit wurde anhand des Physician Global Assessment (PGA) und des Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) bewertet. Zudem wurden unerwünschte Ereignisse (UE) erfasst. Die Studienpopulation bestand aus 658 Patienten (30 mg: n = 581; 10 mg: n = 77). Bei Beobachtungsbeginn litten die meisten Patienten (83 %) gemäß PGA an einem schweren CHE. Bei Beobachtungsende war das Handekzem bei 48 % der Patienten gemäß PGA vollständig oder fast vollständig abgeheilt (30 mg: 49 %; 10 mg: 43 %). Die mittlere Verbesserung des DLQI-Scores in Woche 24 betrug 58 % (30 mg: mittlere [SD] Veränderung gegenüber dem Ausgangswert -10,4 [8,04]) und 70 % (10 mg: mittlere [SD] Veränderung gegenüber dem Ausgangswert -10,8 [7,29]). Die Gesamtinzidenz von NW war niedrig und in den beiden Gruppen ähnlich. Alitretinoin führte zu einer schnellen, deutlichen Verbesserung der LQ bei Patienten mit schwerem CHE. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Wirkungen biogener Amine auf die Erregungs-Sekretions-Kopplung in der Speicheldrüse von Periplaneta americana (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Katja

    2003-07-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit habe ich wichtige Teilmechanismen der Erregungs-Sekretionskopplung in der Speicheldrüse der Schabe Periplaneta americana (L.) untersucht. Die Speicheldrüse ist von dopaminergen und serotonergen Fasern innerviert (Baumann et al., 2002). Beide Transmitter stimulieren eine unterschiedliche Reaktion der Drüse: Dopamin (DA) stimuliert die P-Zellen der Acini und die Ausführgangzellen, während Serotonin (5-HT) die P- und C-Zellen der Acini stimuliert, nicht jedoch die Ausführgangzellen. Der Endspeichel ist nach einer DA-Stimulierung proteinfrei. Dagegen enthält er nach einer 5-HT-Stimulierung Proteine, die von den C-Zellen sezerniert werden (Just & Walz, 1996). Im ersten Teil meiner Arbeit habe ich mittels Kapillarelektrophoretischer Analyse (CE-Analyse) die Elektrolytkonzentrationen im Endspeichel untersucht sowie die Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion gemessen. Damit wollte ich klären, welche Transporter an der Sekretion des Primärspeichels und an dessen Modifikation beteiligt sind. Ausserdem wollte ich die Rolle der transportaktiven Epithelzellen der Ausführgänge für die Modifikation des Primärspeichels untersuchen. Dafür habe ich einen Vergleich der Elektrolytkonzentrationen im DA- und 5-HT-stimulierten Endspeichel durchgeführt. Der Elektrolytgehalt des DA- und 5-HT-stimulierten Endspeichels unterscheidet sich nicht signifikant voneinander. Er ist nach beiden Stimulierungen hypoosmotisch zum verwendeten Ringer. Die Ausführgangzellen werden durch DA stimuliert und modifizieren den Primärspeichel durch eine netto-Ionenreabsorption. Meine Versuche zeigen jedoch, dass auch die während einer 5-HT-Stimulierung der Drüse unstimulierten Ausführgangzellen den Primärspeichel modifizieren. In einer nachfolgenden Versuchsreihe habe ich den Einfluss von Ouabain, einem Hemmstoff der Na+-K+-ATPase, und Bumetanid, einem Hemmstoff des NKCC, auf die Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion sowie den Elektrolytgehalt des Endspeichels untersucht. Ich

  4. Auf dem Weg zum universellen Quantencomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Dieter; Calarco, Tommaso; Zoller, Peter

    2000-11-01

    Die Quantenmechanik eröffnet faszinierende Perspektiven für die Kommunikation und die Informationsverarbeitung. Um universell programmierbare Quantenrechner realisieren zu können bedarf es der Implementierung von Konzepten zur Quanteninformationsverarbeitung die sich auf eine große Anzahl von Qubits anwenden lassen.

  5. Nanophysik: Wärmeübertrag auf der Nanometerskala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts waren die grundlegenden Prozesse des Wärmeaustauschs verstanden. Die Gesetze dienten dann als Grundlage für die Quantenmechanik. Doch gelten diese Gesetze auch auf der Nanometerskala? In den 1970er-Jahren wurde eine Theorie für den Wärmeübertrag im atomaren Bereich entwickelt. Physiker der Universität Oldenburg überprüften deren Vorhersagen und stießen dabei auf signifikante Abweichungen, welche auf einen Zusammenbruch der klassischen, makroskopischen Elektrodynamik hindeuten.

  6. Die Arbeitsunfähigkeit in der Statistik der GKV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Klaus

    Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt anhand der Statistiken des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit (BMG) einen Überblick über die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsdaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenkassen (GKV). Zunächst werden die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsstatistiken der Krankenkassen und die Erfassung der Arbeitsunfähigkeit erläutert. Hiernach wird auf die Entwicklung der Fehlzeiten auf GKV-Ebene eingegangen. Ebenfalls wird Bezug auf die Unterschiede der Fehlzeiten zwischen den verschiedenen Kassen genommen.

  7. Auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, G.; Lillestøl, E.; Sellevåg, I.

    This book is a German translation by C. Ascheron and J. Urbahn, of "The search for infinity: solving the mysteries of the universe", published in 1994. Diese Buch beschreibt anschaulich die Meilensteine, die der Mensch seit der Antike auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen erreicht und hinter sich gelassen hat. Es enthält Kurzbiographien der wichtigsten Forscher, verständlich geschriebene Texte sowie Erläuterungen der entscheidenen Fachtermini.

  8. Synthese von analogen Filtern auf einer rekonfigurierbaren Hardware-Architektur mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendelenburg, S.; Becker, J.; Henrici, F.; Manoli, Y.

    2008-05-01

    Rekonfigurierbare Analog-Arrays (FPAAs) sind der Versuch, die Vorteile der aus der digitalen Welt bekannten FPGAs (Flexibilität, Entwurfsgeschwindigkeit) auch für analoge Anwendungen verfügbar zu machen. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der analogen Schaltungstechnik ist die Abbildung von vorgegebenen Schaltungskonzepten auf eine FPAA-Architektur nicht immer einfach lösbar. Diese Arbeit stellt einen neuen Ansatz für die Synthese von Filtern auf einer FPAA-Architektur für zeitkontinuierliche Analogfilter mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus (GA) vor. Anhand eines Matlab-Modells des FPAA, das eine gute übereinstimmung mit Simulationen des FPAA auf Transistorebene aufweist, wurde gezeigt, dass eine große Vielzahl verschiedener Filterstrukturen auf dieser Architektur dargestellt werden kann. Daraufhin wurde ein Genetischer Algorithmus entwickelt, der es erlaubt, aus einer gegebenen Filterspezifikation Konfigurationsdatensätze zu synthetisieren, die den gewünschten Filter auf die FPAA-Architektur abbilden.

  9. Die Kometenmission Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Die Rosetta-Mission ist ein Meilenstein in der Erforschung der Kometen und ihrer Entstehung. Eine der größten üerraschungen war die unregelmäßge hantelförmige Gestalt des Zielkometen 67P/Tschurjumow-Gerassimenko. Er besteht wahrscheinlich aus zwei Einzelkörpern, die durch ihre Schwerkraft aneinander gehalten werden. Seine Oberfläche ist sehr rau und zeigt eine sehr vielf ältige Morphologie, die auf eine Vielzahl von ablaufenden Prozessen hindeutet. Der Kometenkern ist vermutlich auf Gr ößnskalen von mehr als etwa 10 bis 100 Metern homogen, Inhomogenitäten auf kleineren Skalen k nnten f r seine Aktivä t verantwortlich sein. Diese ist auf kleine Gebiete konzentriert, und auch Oberflächenveränderungen, die sich innerhalb von einigen Tagen bis wenigen Wochen abspielen, sind lokal. Im Kometenmaterial wurde eine Vielzahl an organischen Substanzen gemessen, die zum Teil als Schlüsselmoleküle für die Synthese der Grundbausteine des Lebens gelten, wie wir es kennen.

  10. Vollautomatische Einzelzellerkennung auf fluoreszenten Gewebeschnitten humaner Epidermis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerencke, Thora; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Grabe, Niels

    Wir stellen hier ein vollautomatisches Verfahren zur Einzelzellerkennung auf fluoreszenten Gewebeschnitten humaner Epidermis vor. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Expressionsverschiebungen von beispielsweise Zellmembran zu Nucleus detektieren zu können. Diese können bei pathologischen Veränderungen des Gewebes auftreten. Im Vergleich zu anderen existierenden Segmentierungen werden hier die Zellgrenzen in einem kombinierten Ansatz sowohl auf Basis einer Membranfärbung als auch anhand detektierter Zellkerne mittels Watershed ermittelt. Wir konnten zeigen, dass wir mit unserem Verfahren eine Membranfärbung deutlich von einer Zellkernfärbung unterscheiden können. Somit ermöglicht die von uns entwickelte Einzelzellerkennung eine Detektion von Translokationen in der Expression.

  11. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  12. Die histologischen Typen der lymphomatoiden Papulose - Ein Vorschlag für die Vereinfachung des Buchstabenchaos.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Mitteldorf, Christina; Karai, Laszlo J; Robson, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Die lymphomatoide Papulose (LYP) ist klinisch durch rezidivierende papulonoduläre Läsionen charakterisiert. Im Gegensatz zu dieser stereotypen klinischen Präsentation zeigt die Erkrankung ein breites histologisches Spektrum mit verschiedenen Infiltratmustern, unterschiedlichen Tumorzellgrößen und variablen Phänotypen. Die revidierte WHO-Klassifikation 2016 umfasst die histologischen LYP-Typen A bis E und einen sechsten Typ, dem eine spezielle Mutation zugrunde liegt. Darüber hinaus werden jedoch immer wieder neue Typen vorgeschlagen, wobei sich die Ausweitung nicht ausschließlich auf histologische Muster bezieht, sondern sich auch auf klinische und genetische Aspekte ausdehnt. Dies führt zu einer Ausweitung der alphabetischen Liste mit zunehmender Komplexität der Terminologie und kann anstelle eines vereinfachten diagnostischen Zugangs zur Verwirrung führen. Zudem kann es zu Überschneidungen unterschiedlicher Typen kommen. Diese Entwicklung wirft die Frage auf, wie die Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose vereinfacht werden kann, ohne dabei auf die histologischen Besonderheiten zu verzichten. Wir schlagen daher einen praktischen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoide Papulosen vor, welcher sich ausschließlich auf deskriptive Begriffe beschränkt und nicht auf einer alphabetischen Bezeichnung der LYP-Typen beruht. Unser Vorschlag soll einen praktikablen und benutzerfreundlichen Zugang zur Terminologie der lymphomatoiden Papulose ermöglichen und damit den diagnostischen Prozess sowie die Kommunikation zwischen Klinikern und Pathologen vereinfachen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  14. Die einzelnen Beanspruchungsarten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böge, Gert; Böge, Wolfgang

    Wird ein Stab mit beliebigem, gleichbleibendem Querschnitt durch die äußere Kraft F in der Schwerachse auf Zug oder Druck beansprucht, so wird bei gleichmäßiger Spannungsverteilung, also in genügender Entfernung vom Angriffspunkt der Kraft, die Zug- oder Druckspannung σ_{z,d}= Zug- oder Druckkraft F/Querschnittsfläche A {Zug- und Druck-Hauptgleichung} σ_{z,d}=F/A\\qquad σ&F&A N/mm2 & N&mm2 Je nach vorliegender Aufgabe kann die Hauptgleichung umgestellt werden zur Berechnung des erforderlichen Querschnitts (Querschnittsnachweis): A_{erf}=F/σ_{zul} Berechnung der vorhandenen Spannung (Spannungsnachweis): σ_{vorh}=F/A Berechnung der maximal zulässigen Belastung (Belastungsnachweis): F_{max}=σ_{zul}A Treten Zug- und Druckspannungen in einer Rechnung gleichzeitig auf, werden sie durch den Index z und d oder durch das Vorzeichen + und - unterschieden.

  15. Kamera-basierte Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen auf deutschen Straen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhüser, Dennis; Ziegenmeyer, Marco; Gumpp, Thomas; Scholl, Kay-Ulrich; Zöllner, J. Marius; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    An Fahrerassistenzsysteme im industriellen Einsatz werden hohe Anforderungen bezüglich Zuverlässigkeit und Robustheit gestellt. In dieser Arbeit wird die Kombination robuster Verfahren wie der Hough-Transformation und Support-Vektor-Maschinen zu einem Gesamtsystem zur Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen beschrieben. Es setzt eine Farbvideokamera als Sensorik ein. Die Evaluation auf Testdaten bestätigt durch die ermittelte hohe Korrektklassifikationsrate bei gleichzeitig geringer Zahl Fehlalarme die Zuverlässigkeit des Systems.

  16. Die Sonne, Stern unserer Erde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Ehlers, A.

    Dieses reich bebilderte Buch gibt eine Einführung in die Physik der Sonne und ihre Bedeutung für die Erde. Gestützt auf neueste Forschungsergebnisse aus Radioteleskop- und Satellitenbeobachtungen beschreibt der Autor die gewaltigen atomenergetischen Prozesse der Sonne, ihren geheimnisvollen Neutrinofluß, ihre seismischen Aktivitäten, Magnetfelder und Sonnenflecke, Korona, Sonnenausbrüche und Protuberanzen, den Sonnenwind, und die außerordentlich wichtige und vielfältige Bedeutung des Sonnenlichts, das Leben auf der Erde entstehen läßt und es auch gefährdet. Gut verständlich und in ansprechender Sprache geschrieben ist es ein wunderbares Buch für den Leser populärwissenschaftlicher Literatur, ein wertvolles Geschenk für Studenten der Astronomie und verwandter Disziplinen sowie Amateurastronomen.

  17. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  18. Untersuchung der Störwirkung von LTE auf SRD Anwendungen bei 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welpot, M.; Wunderlich, S.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    Moderne Hausautomatisierungssysteme, Alarmanlagen oder auch Funk-Zugangssysteme in Haus und Automobil setzen auf frei nutzbare Frequenzen in ISM/SRD-Bändern. Die rasante Zunahme an privaten und kommerziell genutzten Applikationen im SRD-Band bei 868 MHz und der Ausbau der LTE-Mobilfunknetze im Frequenzbereich unterhalb von 1 GHz ("Digital Dividend") wirft zunehmend die Frage nach der Funkverträglichkeit dieser Systeme untereinander auf. Während die SRD-Funkmodule auf eine geringe Sendeleistung von ~ +14 dBm beschränkt sind (Ralf and Thomas, 2009), beträgt die maximale LTE-Sendeleistung im Uplink nach (ETSI-Norm, 2011) +23 dBm. Zusammen mit der Einführung von LTE im Frequenzbereich unterhalb 1 GHz als DSL-Ersatz vor allem in ländlichen Gebieten, ergibt sich damit als mögliches Störszenario, dass durch die Aussendung des LTE-Endgerätes im Bereich von ca. 850 MHz die SRD-Funkverbindungen bei 868 MHz insbesondere dann gestört werden, wenn die Antennen beider Funksysteme räumlich nahe zueinander angeordnet sind und folglich nur eine geringe zusätzliche Entkopplung der Systeme bieten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das LTE-Störpotential auf SRD-Empfänger praxisnah untersucht.

  19. STF Optimierung von single-bit CT ΣΔ Modulatoren basierend auf skalierten Filterkoeffizienten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widemann, C.; Zorn, C.; Brückner, T.; Ortmanns, M.; Mathis, W.

    2012-09-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Signalübertragungsverhalten von single-bit continuous-time (CT) ΣΔ Modulatoren. Dabei liegt der Fokus der Untersuchung auf dem Peaking der Signaltransferfunktion (STF). Dieser Effekt kann die Performance und die Stabilität des Gesamtsystems negativ beeinflussen, da bei auftretendem STF-Peaking Signale außerhalb des Signalbands verstärkt werden. In dieser Arbeit wird ein neuer Ansatz zur Reduktion des Peakings vorgestellt, der auf der Optimierung der Systemdynamik basiert. Dabei werden die Filterkoeffizienten des Modulators systematisch angepasst. Anhand eines Beispielsystems wird gezeigt, dass der Ansatz genutzt werden kann, um das Übertragungsverhalten des Modulators abhängig vom Ausgangssystem zu verändern. So kann entweder die Systemsperformance verbessert werden, ohne Peaking in der STF zu erzeugen, oder das STF-Peaking reduziert werden, ohne die Systemperformance stark zu beeinflussen.

  20. Berechnung der auftretenden lokalen Kräfte auf der magnetischen Beschichtung eines magnetischen Rasterkraftmikroskops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisner, T.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    Die numerische Berechnung entstehender Kraftwirkungen auf Körper aufgrund magnetischer Wechselwirkungen zwischen diesen, ist in Bezug auf die mechanische Deformation dieser Körper ein noch nicht vollständig gelöstes Problem. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Vergleich vorhandener Kraftberechnungsmethoden hinsichtlich der totalen Kraft anhand eines analytisch berechenbaren Beispiels vorgestellt, sowie Unterschiede der lokalen Kraftdichten dieser Methoden in Anwendung auf die magnetische Beschichtung eines magnetischen Rasterkraftmikroskops aufgezeigt. Due to magnetic interactions between magnetic field inducing bodies, force effects occur on the materials. The numerical computation of those occuring forces with respect to a subsequent structural analysis of a deformable material is still a topic of interest in research. In this paper a comparison between several existent force calculation methods regarding the total force is given for an example with two magnetic cubes. Furthermore, differences are shown concerning the local force densities on the magnetic coating of a magnetic force microscope.

  1. Durch Raum und Zeit reisen - Eine Theorie gibt Antworten auf alte Fragen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Im Rahmen der Relativitätstheorie, sei es die spezielle oder auch allgemeine, kommt man zwangsläufig auf die Fragestellung, ob Zeitreisen möglich sind oder nicht. Es gibt darüber sehr viele Veröffentlichungen, da dieses Thema offensichtlich viele Leute beschäftigt: Naturwissenschaftler, Philosophen, Filmautoren. Wir wollen hier nur einige grundlegende Fragestellungen aufgreifen: Kann man in die Zukunft reisen? Gibt es Reisen mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit? Wie sieht es aus mit Reisen in die Vergangenheit? Wir unterschieden dabei zwischen mathematischen, physikalischen und technischen Lösungen, die Zeitreisen entweder erlauben oder unmöglich machen.

  2. Detektion von fahrspuren und kreuzungen auf nichtmarkierten straen zum autonomen führen von fahrzeugen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, Stefan; Bürkle, Cornelius; Schröder, Joachim; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Das Wissen über Position und Verlauf der Straße ist eine der wichtigsten Informationen, die zum Führen autonomer Straßenfahrzeuge benötigt wird. Die meisten Arbeiten gehen davon aus, dass Markierungen auf der Straße vorhanden sind, die die Erkennung enorm erleichtern. Üblicherweise werden die Fahrbahnränder detektiert und die Fahrspur mit Hilfe eines Kaiman-Filters geschätzt [1]. Andere Arbeiten verwenden zusätzlich die Straßenfarbe und kombinieren die verschiedenen Hinweise in einem Partikel-Filter [2]. Ein allgemeiner Überblick über Verfahren zur Fahrspurdetektion findet sich in [3].

  3. Die chronische venöse Insuffizienz - Eine Zusammenfassung der Pathophysiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Santler, Bettina; Goerge, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Die chronische Venenerkrankung ist eine weit verbreitete Krankheit, die in späteren Stadien mit einer Vielzahl an Symptomen, aber auch Komplikationen wie dem Ulcus cruris, einhergeht. Dies wiederum hat weitreichende Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität der Patienten wie auch auf das Gesundheitssystem. Für die Diagnostik der chronischen Venenerkrankungen steht eine Auswahl an Verfahren zur Verfügung, wobei sich die farbkodierte Duplexsonographie als Goldstandard etabliert hat. Im Bereich der Therapie kam es in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu großen Fortschritten, sodass heute auch Alternativen zum klassischen Stripping durch die endoluminalen Verfahren zur Verfügung stehen. Die Wahl der Therapieoption ist jedoch weiterhin stark abhängig von mehreren Faktoren, unter anderem von den anatomischen Gegebenheiten und dem Krankheitsstadium. Im folgenden Artikel werden die Anatomie und Pathophysiologie, sowie die aktuellen Standards der Diagnostik und Therapie zusammengefasst. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  5. Nagelbefall kann bei Patienten mit Psoriasis auf eine Enthesiopathie hinweisen.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-González, Maria; Joven, Beatriz Esther; Sánchez, Julio; Andrés-Esteban, Eva María; Vanaclocha-Sebastián, Francisco; Romero, Pablo Ortiz; Díaz, Raquel Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Obwohl subklinische Enthesiopathie ein gut etabliertes diagnostisches Merkmal der Psoriasisarthritis (PsA) ist, wird sie häufig übersehen, da viele Patienten asymptomatisch sind. Gäbe es klinische Hinweise auf das Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie, würde dies den Klinikern die Möglichkeit eröffnen, eine PsA frühzeitig zu diagnostizieren. Es wurde eine monozentrische prospektive Studie mit insgesamt 90 Psoriasis-Patienten durchgeführt, um mittels Ultraschall das Vorliegen von Enthesenanomalien zu untersuchen und eine Korrelation mit dem Befall der Nägel festzustellen. Enthesenanomalien wurden bei 23 Patienten (25,5 %) gefunden, von denen 19 (82,6 %) Nagelbefall aufwiesen. Bei 4 Patienten waren die Nägel nicht betroffen. Enthesiopathie lag bei 31,1 % (19/61) der Patienten mit Onychopathie vor, von den Patienten ohne Nagelbefall litten nur 13,8 % (4/29) an Enthesiopathie (p = 0,07). Zwischen dem Target-NAPSI-Score und dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie bestand eine signifikante Korrelation. Eine signifikante Korrelation bestand darüber hinaus auch zwischen dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie und der Anzahl der betroffenen Nägel (p = 0,035). Klinische Belege für eine Onychopathie können der Schlüssel für die frühe Diagnose einer Enthesiopathie bei Psoriasis-Patienten sein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Die Einzelhandelsakteure im Spannungsfeld des Wettbewerbs und öffentlicher Vorgaben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleyer, Burkhard

    2002-03-01

    Vielfältige, unterschiedlich starke und oft auch gegenläufig agierende Akteure und Interessenvertreter wirken auf das spezifische Standortmuster des Einzelhandels ein. Wie hat sich der Einzelhandel auf der Anbieter- und Nachfragerseite geändert? Es fehlt nicht an Regelungswerken für den großflächigen Einzelhandel und Konzepten für einen gleichrangigen Standortwettbewerb zwischen den traditionellen Einkaufslagen und denen auf der Grünen Wiese. Wer sind die Standortakteure und wie stimmen sie sich ab? Wie lösen sie die Standortkonflikte angesichts der Wettbewerbssituation? Welchen Beitrag leisten dazu staatliche und kommunale Vorgaben?

  7. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung jüngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gestützte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es wünschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Ansätzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit“. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. für die Abschätzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zusätzlich schätzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture“ (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unschärfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  8. Sind die klassischen Methoden zur mykologischen Diagnostik noch "State-of-the-Art"?

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Bauer, Andrea; Brasch, Jochen; Nenoff, Pietro; Schaller, Martin; Mayser, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Die Labordiagnose einer Pilzinfektion der Haut basiert traditionell auf dem Nativpräparat und der Anzucht des Erregers aus dem klinischen Material. Auch der dermato- histologischer Nachweis von Pilzelementen ist möglich. Diese Methoden sind, sofern sie korrekt ausgeführt werden, in der Regel zum Pilznachweis geeignet. Im Zuge der personalisierten Medizin und den daraus erwachsenden Aufgaben werden jedoch neue Verfahren erforderlich, welche einfach, spezifisch und schnell sind. Der zusätzliche Einsatz von DNA-basierten molekularen Methoden erhöht die Empfindlichkeit sowie die diagnostische Spezifität und reduziert die zum Teil wochenlange Durchführungszeit der konventionellen mykologischen Diagnostik auf 24 bis 48 Stunden. Im Zuge der stetigen Weiterentwicklung im Bereich der personalisierten Medizin sind einfache Analysensysteme auf PCR-Basis denkbar, die in der Hautarztpraxis eine Dermatophyten-Sofort-Diagnostik erlauben (Point-of-Care-Tests). © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  10. Konzeption und Entwurf einer auf Petri-Netzen basierenden programmierbaren Kontrollschaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, H.; Pfleiderer, H.-J.

    2003-05-01

    Petri-Netze eignen sich aufgrund der direkten Darstellbarkeit von Nebenläufigkeiten und leistungsfähiger Analyseverfahren zur Beschreibung von komplexen Kontrollabläufen. Die hier vorgestellte PNDU (Petri Net Decision Unit) ist ein programmierbarer Hardware- Interpreter für Kontrollalgorithmen, die durch Petri-Netze beschrieben werden. Die Petri-Netze werden kodiert in einem Speicher abgelegt und unter Einbeziehung der Eingangssignale und interner Zustände nach einem festgelegten Algorithmus abgearbeitet. Der implizite Wartezustand der PNDU motiviert in Hinblick auf den Einsatz in eingebetteten, batteriebetriebenen Geräten eine asynchrone Realisierung. Die PNDU wurde mit VHDL als synchrone und vergleichend dazu als selbstgetaktete Schaltung entworfen.

  11. Indikatorenbasierte Bewertung von Entwurfsentscheidungen auf Systemebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freier, M.; Wenzler, A.; Mayer, T.; Gerlach, J.; Rosenstiel, W.

    2013-07-01

    Bei dem Entwurf von anwendungsspezifischen integrierten Schaltungen muss ein Entwickler zusätzliche Funktionen integrieren und die zunehmende Komplexität bewältigen. Für die Reduzierung der Kosten bleibt weiterhin die Verkürzung der benötigten Entwicklungszeit ein Ziel. Ein entscheidender Faktor dabei ist die zuverlässige Absicherung von Entwurfsentscheidungen in einer frühen Entwurfsphase. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird eine Methode vorgestellt, die eine Bewertung von Entwurfsentscheidungen bei Systemmodellen mittels automatisch ermittelter Indikatoren ermöglichen soll. Die Systemmodelle können mit der Entwurfsumgebung MATLAB/Simulink oder in SystemC beschrieben sein.

  12. Wie die Sonne ins Kraftwerk kommt: Solarthermische Kraftwerke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Solarthermische Kraftwerke sammeln wie riesige Brenngläser die Sonnenstrahlung und treiben damit eine Wärmekraftmaschine an. Drei Konstruktionsprinzipien haben sich heute durchgesetzt. Bereits im kommerziellen Einsatz sind Systeme mit schwenkbaren, verspiegelten Parabolrinnen, die das Sonnenlicht auf ein zentrales Absorberrohr konzentrieren. Durch dieses fließt ein Wärmetransportmedium. Beim Zentral-Receiver-System fokussiert ein Feld verstellbarer Spiegel das Sonnenlicht auf die Spitze eines Turms. Dort sitzt ein Receiver, den ein Wärmetransportmedium durchströmt. Für kleine, dezentrale Anlagen eignen sich Dish-Stirling-Systeme. Das sind schwenkbare, paraboloide Spiegelschüsseln mit einem Stirling-Motor im Brennpunkt. Zentral-Receiver- und Dish-Stirling-Systeme sind noch im Entwicklungsstadium.

  13. Qualitätszentrierte Softwareentwicklung in wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgruppen Auf dem Weg vom Prototypen zum Produkt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleike, D.; Neuhaus, J.; Heimann, T.; Nolden, M.; Poxleitner, J.; Schöbinger, M.; Schwarz, T.; Seitel, M.; Wegner, I.; Wolber, P.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wolf, I.

    Neue Bildverarbeitungsmethoden werden häufig hauptsächlich für Publikationszwecke entwickelt. DieWeiterentwicklung bis zur Verwendbarkeit für klinische Anwender erfordert zusätzlichen Aufwand und wird daher oft nicht weiter verfolgt. In dieser Arbeit wurden mehrere Bildanalyseverfahren unserer Abteilung konsequent zu einem stabilen und benutzbaren Softwareprodukt weiter entwickelt, so dass es für den Einsatz bei klinischen Partnern und als Demonstrationssoftware auf Messen verwendbar ist. Wir beschreiben das Vorgehen bei der Weiterentwicklung, welche Erfahrungen gemacht wurden und welcher zusätzliche Aufwand damit verbunden ist.

  14. Behandlungspräferenzen für Biologika bei Psoriasis: erfahrene Patienten legen Wert auf Nachhaltigkeit.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Christian; Peitsch, Wiebke K; Herr, Raphael; Schmieder, Astrid; Sonntag, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Die Therapiezufriedenheit kann durch die Berücksichtigung von Patientenpräferenzen in der gemeinsamen Entscheidungsfindung verbessert werden. Kürzlich untersuchten wir Patientenpräferenzen für Eigenschaften von Biologika und fanden starke Präferenzen für Sicherheit und Wirksamkeit. Die vorliegende Studie hatte das Ziel, Auswirkungen von Therapieerfahrung auf diese Präferenzen zu erheben. Präferenzen für Ergebnis- (Wahrscheinlichkeit einer 50%igen und 90%igen Verbesserung, Zeit bis zum Ansprechen, Nachhaltigkeit des Erfolgs, Wahrscheinlichkeit von leichten und schweren Nebenwirkungen und Wahrscheinlichkeit eines ACR-20-Ansprechens) und Prozesseigenschaften (Behandlungsort, Behandlungshäufigkeit, Zeitaufwand und Applikationsweise) wurden bei 200 Teilnehmern mit mittelschwerer bis schwerer Psoriasis mit Hilfe von Conjoint-Analyse ermittelt. Der Einfluss aktueller und früherer Therapien, der Krankheitsdauer und der Behandlungszufriedenheit auf die "Relative Importance Scores" wurde durch Varianz-analysen, Post-hoc-Tests und multivariate Regressionen bestimmt. Teilnehmer, die aktuell eine topische Therapie (p = 0,02) oder eine Phototherapie (p = 0,032) erhielten, hielten den Zeitaufwand der Behandlung für wichtiger als andere. Diejenigen, denen zuvor traditionelle Systemtherapien (p = 0,028) oder Biologika (p = 0,044) verordnet worden waren, legten mehr Wert auf die Nachhaltigkeit als andere. Diese Eigenschaft gewann mit steigender Anzahl zuvor verabreichter systemischer Therapien (p = 0,045) und längerer Krankheitsdauer (p = 0,018) an Bedeutung. Patientenpräferenzen für Biologika variieren abhängig von der Therapieerfahrung und Krankheitsdauer. Diese Aspekte sollten bei der gemeinsamen Entscheidungsfindung berücksichtigt werden. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Die Schokoladen-Diät

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    Schlankheitskuren sind einerseits ein soziales Phänomen, aber auch ein großer Zweig der Nahrungsmittelindustrie. Die Industrie bietet dabei verschiedene Produkte an, wie Diätlebensmittel, Nahrungsergänzungsmittel, Sportkleidung und -ausrüstung, Übungsvideos und -bücher, usw. Allerdings ist es bekanntermaßen sehr schwer, das einmal erreichte Wunschgewicht auch langfristig zu halten. Häufig tritt dabei der so genannte Jojo-Effekt auf, so dass man schließlich nach der Diät mehr wiegt als vorher.

  16. Datenkompression, Prozessoptimierung, Aerodynamik: Eine Tour Durch die Skalen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    Enorm gestiegene Rechnerkapazitäten ermutigen zu einer immer genaueren Erschließung komplexer Prozesse in Natur- und Ingenieurwissenschaften durch numerische Simulation. Die Mathematik als Schnittstelle zwischen realer und digitaler Welt liefert einerseits die Grundlagen zur Formulierung notwendigerweise vereinfachter Modelle der Realität. Andererseits bietet sie aber auch die methodischen Grundlagen für den Entwurf effizienter Algorithmen, die aus solchen Modellen quantitative Information gewinnen können. Eine zentrale Herausforderung liegt dabei in der Tatsache, dass reale Prozesse meist durch relevante Anteile auf einer riesigen Spannweite von Längenskalen getrieben werden. Die Entwicklung mathematischer Methoden zur Behandlung von Mehrskaligkeit ist daher von wesentlicher Bedeutung. In diesem Artikel wird dies anhand jüngster Entwicklungen in ganz unterschiedlichen Anwendungsbereichen erklärt und illustriert, auch um deutlich zu machen, wieviele "Fliegen“ man mit einer "mathematischen Klappe“ schlagen kann. Insbesondere werden grundlegende, auf Waveletzerlegung beruhende Prinzipien zunächst im Rahmen der Bildkompression und -kodierung auf weitgehend elementare Weise erklärt. Es wird dann aufgezeigt, dass diese Konzepte in ganz ähnlicher Weise bei der Datenanalyse im Zusammenhang mit verfahrenstechnischen Anwendungen, bei großskaligen Optimierungsproblemen der Prozessindustrie sowie bei komplexen Strömungsproblemen wie in aerodynamischen Anwendungen zum Tragen kommen. Stabile Zerlegungen in Anteile unterschiedlicher Längenskalen eröffnen dabei einen Zugang zu adaptiven Lösungskonzepten, die in der Lage sind, automatisch Rechnerresourcen dort zu plazieren, wo sie zu einer ökonomischen Realisierung der gewünschten Lösungsqualität, etwa in Form von Genauigkeitstoleranzen, benötigt werden.

  17. Gerbstoffe aus Potentilla officinalis wirken entzündungshemmend im UV-Erythem-Test und bei Anwendung auf atopischer Haut.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wölfle, Ute; Schempp, Christoph M; Casetti, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Das Rhizom von Potentilla officinalis (PO) ist reich an Gerbstoffen und wird traditionell zur äußerlichen Behandlung von Entzündungen der Haut und der Schleimhäute verwendet. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Bestätigung der antiinflammatorischen Eigenschaften von PO mittels eines UV-Erythem-Tests und einer klinischen Anwendungsstudie bei atopischer Haut. Die antiinflammatorische Wirkung eines PO-Extrakts (standardisiert auf 2 % Trockensubstanz) wurde in einer prospektiven, randomisierten, placebokontrollierten Doppelblindstudie mit 40 gesunden Erwachsenen im UV-Erythem-Test im Vergleich zu 1 % Hydrocortisonacetat untersucht. Im Rahmen einer prospektiven nicht kontrollierten Studie wurde die Wirkung und Verträglichkeit der 2 % PO-Creme an zwölf Erwachsenen und zwölf Kindern mit atopischer Haut nach Anwendung über zwei Wochen in einem definierten Testareal anhand eines Teil-SCORAD untersucht. Zusätzlich wurde die Beeinflussung der Hautrötung im Testareal photometrisch gemessen. Im UV-Erythem-Test zeigte die PO-Creme eine signifikante Reduktion des Erythemindex im Vergleich zum Vehikel. Die antiinflammatorische Wirkung des Verums entsprach der der 1 % Hydrocortisonacetat-Creme. Die klinische Studie bei Atopikern zeigte eine signifikante Abnahme des Teil-SCORAD und des Erythems im Testareal. Es wurden keine Unverträglichkeitsreaktionen beobachtet. PO als 2%ige Zubereitung besitzt entzündungshemmende Eigenschaften und ist wirksam und gut verträglich auf atopischer Haut. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  19. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  20. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90 " "Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  1. Wege in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  2. Azelainsäure 20 % Creme: Auswirkung auf Lebensqualität und Krankheitsaktivität bei erwachsenen Patientinnen mit Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kainz, Julius Thomas; Berghammer, Gabriele; Auer-Grumbach, Piet; Lackner, Verena; Perl-Convalexius, Sylvia; Popa, Rodica; Wolfesberger, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Zur Wirksamkeit von Aknetherapien und deren Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität erwachsener Patienten liegen kaum Daten vor. ZIEL: Erhebung der Wirkung von Azelainsäure 20 % Creme (Skinoren(®) ) auf Akne-Schweregrad und krankheitsbedingte Lebensqualität. Nichtinterventionelle Studie bei erwachsenen Patientinnen mit leichter bis mittelschwerer Akne. Wirksamkeitsparameter waren DLQI sowie Akne-Schweregrad im Gesicht, am Dekolleté sowie am Rücken im Gesamturteil des Prüfarztes (IGA-Skala: Grad 1 = annähernd reine Haut; 2 = leichte Akne; 3 = mittelschwere Akne). Visiten waren zu Studienbeginn sowie nach 4-8 und zwölf Wochen geplant. Von den 251 eingeschlossenen Patientinnen lag zu Studienbeginn bei 59 %, 31 % bzw. 10 % ein IGA-Grad von 1, 2 bzw. 3 vor; die am häufigsten betroffene Hautpartie war das Gesicht (IGA-Grad 2 oder 3: 79 %). Nach zwölf Behandlungswochen war eine signifikante Besserung der Acne vulgaris im Gesicht (IGA-Grad 0 oder 1: 82 %) sowie auf Dekolleté und Rücken feststellbar. Der mediane DLQI-Wert sank von neun zu Studienbeginn auf fünf nach zwölf Behandlungswochen. Neunzig Prozent der behandelnden Ärzte und Patientinnen beurteilten die Verträglichkeit der Behandlung als sehr gut oder gut. Die Anwendung von 20%iger Azelainsäure-Creme führt bei erwachsenen Frauen zu einer signifikanten Besserung der Acne vulgaris und der krankheitsbedingten Lebensqualität. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  4. AUF1 regulation of coding and noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    White, Elizabeth J F; Matsangos, Aerielle E; Wilson, Gerald M

    2017-03-01

    AUF1 is a family of four RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) generated by alternative pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing, with canonical roles in controlling the stability and/or translation of mRNA targets based on recognition of AU-rich sequences within mRNA 3' untranslated regions. However, recent studies identifying AUF1 target sites across the transcriptome have revealed that these canonical functions are but a subset of its roles in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the RNA-binding properties of AUF1 together with their biochemical implications and roles in directing mRNA decay and translation. This is then followed by a survey of newly discovered activities for AUF1 proteins in control of miRNA synthesis and function, including miRNA assembly into microRNA (miRNA)-loaded RNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISCs), miRISC targeting to mRNA substrates, interplay with an expanding network of other cellular RBPs, and reciprocal regulatory relationships between miRNA and AUF1 synthesis. Finally, we discuss recently reported relationships between AUF1 and long noncoding RNAs and regulatory roles on viral RNA substrates. Cumulatively, these findings have significantly expanded our appreciation of the scope and diversity of AUF1 functions in the cell, and are prompting an exciting array of new questions moving forward. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1393. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. Aktivitätsmessung auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Oberflächen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Peter Michael

    2003-06-01

    Im Bereich der medizinischen Diagnostik spielen DNA-Chips eine immer wichtigere Rolle. Dabei werden Glas- oder Silikon-Oberflächen mit Tausenden von einzelsträngigen DNA-Fragmenten, sog. Sonden, bestückt, die mit den passenden DNA-Fragmenten in der zugefügten Patientenprobe verschmelzen. Die Auswertung solcher Messungen liefert die Diagnose für Krankheiten wie z.B. Krebs, Alzheimer oder für den Nachweis pathogener Erreger. Durch fortschreitende Miniaturisierung dieser Meßsysteme können bis zu 40.000 Genfragmente des Menschen in einer einzigen Messung analysiert werden. Neben den DNA-Fragmenten können Bio-Chips auch für andere biologische Komponenten wie Antikörper und Proteine eingesetzt werden, wobei bei letzteren neben der Bindung auch die Aktivität ein wichtiger Diagnoseparamter ist. Am Fraunhofer-Institut für medizinische Technik und am Lehrstuhl für Analytische Biochemie der Universität Potsdam wurden im Rahmen einer Doktorarbeit Methoden entwickelt, die es ermöglichen auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Sensoroberflächen die Aktivität von Proteinen zu messen. Es wurden Nukleinsäuren auf Oberflächen optischer Sensoren verankert. Diese fungierten als Rezeptor für die Proteine sowie auch als Substrat für Restriktionsenzyme, die Nukleinsäuren schneiden und Polymerasen, die Nukleinsäuren synthetisieren und verlängern können. Seine Anwendung fand diese Messmethode in der Messung der Aktivität des Proteins Telomerase, das in 90% aller Tumore erhöhte Aktivität gegenüber gesunden Zellen aufweist. Die Vorteile dieses neuen Assays gegenüber älteren Methoden liegt im Verzicht auf radioaktiv-markierten Komponenten und einer deutlich verkürzten Analysezeit. Die Arbeit schliesst mit einem funktionsfähigen Nachweis der Telomeraseaktivität im Zellextrakt von gesunden und kranken Zellen. Der direkte Einfluß von Hemmstoffen auf die Aktivität konnte sichtbar gemacht werden, und steht daher bei der Entwicklung neuer Tumor-Diagnostika und

  6. Verfahren zur Analyse klimatischer und anthropogener Einflüsse auf die Grundwasserstandsentwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wriedt, Gunter

    2017-03-01

    Limitations in applying the Wiener-Multichannel filter to analyze anthropogenic influences on groundwater level dynamics require a new approach independent from reference observation wells. This article presents a simple approach to analyze the relation between groundwater elevations and climate parameters for groundwater monitoring wells. A theoretical "climatic groundwater level series" is derived from monthly climatic water balances considering the transforming effects of the unsaturated zone and local conditions on groundwater level dynamics. Comparing theoretical groundwater levels with observed groundwater level fluctuations allows analyzing the agreement with the temporal dynamics of climatic parameters as well as detecting possible anthropogenic influences. A total of 284 of 573 groundwater observation wells in Lower Saxony show natural groundwater level dynamics, while artificial impacts were found in 221 wells and 68 wells remain unclear. A classification was therefore possible for 88% of the wells. A high model performance was detected for wells without artificial impacts and with minor artificial impacts. A split-sample cross validation proves the predictive capacity of the model for wells with natural dynamics.

  7. Einfluss von Methaneinträgen auf die Hydrochemie des Münsterländer Kiessandzuges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, M.; Wisotzky, F.

    2009-03-01

    The Münsterländer Kiessandzug, a Quaternary trench structure, forms an important groundwater reservoir and is of great importance for the regional drinking water supply in north-west Germany (“Münsterland”). Since 2004, the Ruhr-University Bochum has been investigating the Aldruper Mark, evaluating the quantitative and qualitative potential for drinking water abstraction in the area. Due to intensive agricultural utilisation, a high nitrate influx into groundwater is expected. Therefore, this study was focused on contamination of groundwater with nitrate as well as on the nitrate degradation capacity of the sediments. However, present analyses show low nitrate concentrations and a reductive groundwater environment. To find the causes of these reducing conditions, it is necessary to examine the geological and hydrochemical situation with respect to the environment and the substratum of the investigated area: the MünsterländerCretaceous basin is underlain by Carboniferous sand- and mudstones which are degasing methane to some extent. This methane was detected in deep observation wells in the second aquifer of the Münsterländer Kiessandzug. In its central area, low concentrations of nitrate as well as low sulphate concentrations and positive δ34Ssulfate-isotope data indicate active sulphate reduction is occurring in the groundwater. Furthermore, a corresponding sulphide content was found in these Quaternary soils (“secondary pyrite”). An input of methane in the aquifer is discussed as a possible reason for sulphate reduction in the deep aquifer.

  8. Der Einfluß des Prostomiums auf die Entwicklung der Geschlechtsprodukte des Polychaeten Anaitides mucosa (Phyllodocidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrkasten, A.

    1983-03-01

    Spermatogenesis and especially oogenesis have been investigated in decerebrate and intact specimens of Anaitides mucosa. The results indicate, in contrast to similar experiments on the related species Eulalia viridis, that decerebration causes an accelerated, but nevertheless qualitative normal growth of coelomic oocytes. The implantation of whole prostomia into the coelom of decerebrate females has no counteractive effects. It is likely that the prostomium exerts its influence via the ventral nerve cord.

  9. Ausländische Direktinvestitionen - bleibt die Sozialpartnerschaft auf der Strecke?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Peter; Weingarten, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Germany attracts ever higher levels of foreign direct investment. This raises the question how these investments affect labour relations, which in this country are characterized by a high importance of co-determination and social partnership. Foreign investors are often perceived as a threat, amongst other things, for co-determination or the rights of the workforce. There is also empirical evidence that points to a negative impact of foreign direct investment on the social partnership model. In contrast, other studies conclude that foreign investors value co-determination. Correspondingly, it is not plausible to consider foreign direct investment generally as threat for the social partnership model.

  10. Ausländische Direktinvestitionen - bleibt die Sozialpartnerschaft auf der Strecke?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Peter; Weingarten, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    Germany attracts ever higher levels of foreign direct investment. This raises the question how these investments affect labour relations, which in this country are characterized by a high importance of co-determination and social partnership. Foreign investors are often perceived as a threat, amongst other things, for co-determination or the rights of the workforce. There is also empirical evidence that points to a negative impact of foreign direct investment on the social partnership model. In contrast, other studies conclude that foreign investors value co-determination. Correspondingly, it is not plausible to consider foreign direct investment generally as threat for the social partnership model.

  11. Systemlieferant und OEM Hersteller für die Medizintechnik und Pharmabranche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Thomas; Reichenberger, Robert

    Unter einem Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) versteht man einen Hersteller fertiger Komponenten oder Produkte, der diese in seinen eigenen Produktionsfabriken produziert, sie aber anschließend nicht selbst in den Handel bringt. Die Anforderungen an einen OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche sind weitaus komplexer und umfangreicher als in anderen Branchen. Diese zusätzlichen Anforderungen haben schließlich auch ihre Berechtigung, da es letztendlich immer um die Gesundheit und das Leben von Menschen geht. Ein OEM muss neben der heute immer stärker geforderten Flexibilität, Schnelligkeit und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sämtliche für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche erforderlichen Qualitäts- und Prozesssicherheitskriterien erfüllen. Entsprechende Nachweise sind durch regelmäßige Kunden- und Überwachungsaudits zu erbringen. Das Arbeitsumfeld eines OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche bezieht sich somit nicht nur auf die Herstellung der Produkte für seine Kunden, sondern auch auf die Einhaltung sämtlicher Normen, Sicherheitskriterien, regulatorischen Voraussetzungen und Gesetze die zur Herstellung der Produkte notwendig sind.

  12. Die Bedeutung der blauen Farbe in der Dermatoskopie.

    PubMed

    Popadić, Mirjana; Sinz, Christoph; Kittler, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Hautläsionen mit blauer Färbung werden häufig chirurgisch entfernt, um Malignität auszuschließen zu können. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die Bedeutung der blauen Färbung zu untersuchen. Wir untersuchten dermatoskopische Bilder retrospektiv auf blaue Farbe und klassifizierten sie gemäß der Musteranalyse. Von 1.123 pigmentierten Hautläsionen wiesen 144 (12,8 %) eine blaue Färbung auf. Von diesen waren 92 (63,9 %) bösartig. Unter den Läsionen mit Blaufärbung waren Nävi (n = 35, 24,3 %) und seborrhoische Keratosen (n = 8, 5,6 %) die häufigsten gutartigen Diagnosen. Von 103 (71,5 %) Läsionen mit einem strukturlosen blauen Muster waren acht (7,8 %) vollständig blau gefärbt und 95 (92,2 %) teilweise blau, davon zeigten 81 (78,6 %) periphere oder fleckige und 14 (13.6 %) eine zentrale Blaufärbung. Die meisten Läsionen mit peripherer oder fleckiger blauer Färbung waren Melanome (n = 47, 58 %), wohingegen die meisten Läsionen mit zentraler Blaufärbung Nävi darstellten (n = 9, 64,3 %). Von 28 Läsionen mit blauen Schollen waren 17 (60,7 %) Basalzellkarzinome. Bezüglich der Malignität war der positive prädiktive Wert der blauen Farbe 63,9 % (95 % KI: 56,0-71,8 %). Unter blaugefärbten bösartigen Läsionen ist eine strukturlose periphere oder fleckige blaue Farbe ein Hinweis auf Melanome, während blaue Schollen auf ein Basalzellkarzinom hinweisen. Als Fallstricke können sich seborrhoische Keratosen erweisen, die eine Blaufärbung zeigen können, sowie einige Nävi, vor allem kombinierte. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diagnostische Präzision der komponentenbasierten vs. der extraktbasierten In-vitro-Diagnostik von Insektengift-Allergien: Auswirkungen auf das klinische Management.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Florian; Miguel, Diana; Schliemann, Sibylle; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2017-05-01

    Die Bestimmung von spezifischen IgE-Antikörpern spielt eine zentrale Bedeutung bei der Diagnostik von Bienen- und Wespengiftallergien. In den letzten Jahren wurden die komponentenbasierte Diagnostik (CRD) eingeführt, die die Bestimmung spezifischer IgE-Antikörper gegen die Allergene Api m 1, Ves v 1, Ves v 5 und Pol d 5 sowie kreuzreaktive Kohlenhydratdeterminanten (CCDs) erlaubt. Hierdurch soll vor allem bei Probanden mit Doppelsensibilisierungen die klinische Relevanz der einzelnen Sensibilisierungen besser beurteilt werden können. Die spezifischen IgE-Antikörper-Bestimmungen an 143 Probanden mit Bienen- und/oder Wespengiftallergie erfolgten mit den extraktbasierten ImmunoCAP®-Allergenen i1 und i3 sowie den ImmunoCAP®-Allergenkomponenten i208-211 und o214 (Api m 1, Ves v 1, Ves v 5, Pol d 5, CCD). Bei Doppelsensibilisierten wurde zusätzlich ein Inhibitionstest durchgeführt. An einem Teilkollektiv der Studienpopulation erfolgten sIgE-Bestimmungen gegen Api m 1, Api m 4, Pol d 5 und Ves v 5 mittels Allergiechip (ISAC®, n  =  44). Die Sensitivität von Ves v 5 bei isolierten Wespengiftallergikern betrug 78,5 %, gemeinsam mit Ves v 1 stieg diese auf 92,3 %. Die Sensitivität von Api m 1 bei isolierten Bienengiftallergikern betrug 25 %. Die komponentenbasierte Diagnostik und Inhibitionstests bei Doppelsensibilisierten lieferten divergente Ergebnisse. Die CRD mittels ISAC®-Allergiechip erbrachte deutliche Unterschiede vor allem im Hinblick auf die Diagnostik von Api m 1 und CCDs. Die CRD bereichert das diagnostische Spektrum, sofern sie nicht allein sondern zusätzlich zu den etablierten Verfahren eingesetzt wird. Sie sollte neben Ves v 5 stets die Bestimmung der IgE-Antikörper gegen Ves v 1 umfassen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  15. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  16. Packaged die heater

    DOEpatents

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  17. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften¬Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90¬"Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  18. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  19. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  20. On the stability of AuFe alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Velasco, V; Pohl, D; Surrey, A; Bonatto-Minella, A; Hernando, A; Crespo, P; Rellinghaus, B

    2014-05-30

    AuFe nanoparticles with mean diameters d p  = 13.2 nm have been prepared by inert-gas condensation. Conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy investigations show that the particles are mostly icosahedra. Scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy-loss spectroscopy show that the as-grown particles exhibit a core-shell structure. The shell is mainly composed of an amorphous FeO layer. Although Fe and Au are immiscible in the bulk, the particle cores are found to be homogeneously mixed at the atomic level with a local composition of around Au84Fe16 (at.%). AuFe nanoparticles exhibit a complex magnetic structure in which the core behaves as a spin glass with a freezing temperature of 35 K, whereas the amorphous FeO shell behaves as a ferro-ferrimagnetic system. On annealing above 300 °C, the AuFe icosahedra phases separate into their elemental constituents. Hence the as-grown AuFe icosahedra are metastable, thereby implying that the bulk phase diagram also applies for nanoscopic materials.

  1. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  2. RNA-Binding Protein AUF1 Promotes Myogenesis by Regulating MEF2C Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Amaresh C.; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Curtis, Jessica; Mercken, Evi M.; Chenette, Devon M.; Zhang, Yongqing; Schneider, Robert J.; Becker, Kevin G.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian RNA-binding protein AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1, also known as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D [hnRNP D]) binds to numerous mRNAs and influences their posttranscriptional fate. Given that many AUF1 target mRNAs encode muscle-specific factors, we investigated the function of AUF1 in skeletal muscle differentiation. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, where AUF1 levels rise at the onset of myogenesis and remain elevated throughout myocyte differentiation into myotubes, RNP immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis indicated that AUF1 binds prominently to Mef2c (myocyte enhancer factor 2c) mRNA, which encodes the key myogenic transcription factor MEF2C. By performing mRNA half-life measurements and polysome distribution analysis, we found that AUF1 associated with the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Mef2c mRNA and promoted MEF2C translation without affecting Mef2c mRNA stability. In addition, AUF1 promoted Mef2c gene transcription via a lesser-known role of AUF1 in transcriptional regulation. Importantly, lowering AUF1 delayed myogenesis, while ectopically restoring MEF2C expression levels partially rescued the impairment of myogenesis seen after reducing AUF1 levels. We propose that MEF2C is a key effector of the myogenesis program promoted by AUF1. PMID:24891619

  3. Der Körper der Craniota und die Differenzierung seiner Grundgestalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Reinhard; Maier, Wolfgang; Goldschmid, Alfred; Westheide, Wilfried

    Die rezenten Wirbeltiere — die wir nun auf Grund ihres wichtigsten Schlüsselmerkmals generell Cranioten oder Schädeltiere nennen sollten (s. a. S. 5) — umfassen nah ezu 50.000 Arten. Nach allgemeinen Schätzungen sind dies etwa 1% der Tiere dieses Taxons, die jemals existierten. Bis heute wurden mehrere zehntausend fossiler Arten nachgewiesen, und ständig kommen neue Fossilfunde hinzu. Die ältesten eindeutig als Craniota anzusprechenden Fossilfunde haben ein Alter von etwa 545 Mio. Jahren (S. 187). Paläontologie und Paläobiologie rekonstruierten eingehend Aussehen und Lebensweise vieler dieser ausgestorbenen Arten. Viele Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen zwischen den rezenten Wirbeltiertaxa werden nur unter Berücksichtigung dieser Fossilformen verständlich.

  4. Physik gestern und heute Die Messung elektrostatischer Kräfte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Im Jahre 1785 veröffentlichte der französische Militäringenieur Charles Augustin Coulomb das Kraft-Abstand-Gesetz für elektrische Ladungen. Bereits zuvor hatte Henry Cavendish auf andere Art und Weise diese Beziehung nachgewiesen, aber nicht publiziert. Entsprechende Experimente wurden auch noch in jüngerer Zeit ausgeführt, da sie eine obere Abschätzung für die Ruhemasse des Photons erlauben.

  5. Die Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft: Potenziale und Herausforderungen der IKT-Branche für Utility 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichele, Christian; Schönberger, Marius

    Energieunternehmen haben auf dem Weg zur digitalen Transformation noch viele Herausforderungen zu bewältigen. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt derzeit auf der Modernisierung der IT-Systeme. Ausgangspunkt hierzu ist, dass sich bei den Endkonsumenten Mobile Applikationen, Smartphones, Tablet-PCs oder Smart TVs einer immensen Beliebtheit erfreuen. Durch diese Technologien wird die physische und virtuelle Welt in immer weiter zunehmendem Maße miteinander verknüpft. Mobile Applikation können einen wahren Hype hervorrufen und Verhaltensweisen auch nachhaltig verändern (ein Beispiel hierfür ist Pokémon Go, eine App die ein virtuelles Spiel mit der realen Umgebung kombiniert und die erstmalig auch eingefleischte Zocker aus der Anonymität ihrer häuslichen Umgebung hervorlocken konnte und für analoge Bewegung im Freien sorgte).

  6. Kundenfokus: Startpunkt für die digitale Transformation bei Stadtwerken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fett, Perry; Küller, Philipp

    Big Data, Internet der Dinge, Mobile Computing und soziale Medien - die modernen Informationstechnologien durchdringen den Alltag der meisten Menschen und lösen hierdurch eine digitale Transformation aus. Im Unternehmenskontext manifestiert sich die Digitalisierung durch eine neue Qualität der wissensbasierten Entscheidungsunterstützung und der Automatisierung bzw. Autonomisierung der Geschäftsprozesse. Für Stadtwerke gilt es nun, die Chancen der Digitalisierung zu ihren Gunsten zu nutzen. Ein Startpunkt könnte hierbei sein, wie Stadtwerke zukünftig mit ihren Kunden interagieren. Ausgelöst durch die Liberalisierung der Märkte rückt der Kunde heute stärker in den Mittelpunkt - die Energiewirtschaft steht nun vor der Herausforderung, dem Wettbewerb einen Schritt voraus zu sein und dem Kunden ein absolut positives Kundenerlebnis (Customer Experience) sowohl als Maßnahme zur Kundenbindung als auch zum Kundenaufbau zu bieten. Das vorliegende Kapitel zeigt hierfür die Erfolgskriterien für die gelungene Etablierung des Kundenfokus im eigenen Unternehmen auf. Mit dem Customer-Focus-Cycle-Modell von Fujitsu, angelehnt an den Deming-Kreislauf, wird ein allgemeingültiger Ansatz für ein mögliches Vorgehen beim Aufbau des Kundenfokus vorgestellt. Die sechs Phasen werden dabei anhand praktischer Beispiele erläutert und geben zudem Hinweise zu Methoden und Tools. Aus dem vorgestellten "Werkzeugkasten" wird ferner die Customer-Journey-Methode im Detail erläutert. Weiter soll das präsentierte Reifegradmodell Unternehmen dabei unterstützen, den eigenen Status quo festzustellen und die persönlichen Ziele auf dem Weg zur kundenzentrierten Organisation festzulegen.

  7. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  8. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  9. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  10. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  11. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  12. The Angry Dying Patient.

    PubMed

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  13. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  14. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  15. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  16. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  17. Electrical impedance measurements in reentrant Au-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barco, R.; Fraga, G. L. F.; Pureur, P.

    2017-08-01

    We report on impedance experiments carried out in the reentrant alloys Au-Fe 18 at.% and Au-Fe 21 at.%. A spin-glass system Au-Fe 13.5 at.% was also studied for comparison. Measurements cover an extended temperature interval including the paramagnetic state, the intermediate ferromagnetic-like phase and the low temperature reentrant regime. Several frequencies in the range 0.1-1.8 MHz were applied. Magneto-impedance measurements were also performed in low magnetic fields applied parallel to the current orientation. From the impedance versus temperature data, the real and imaginary components of the circumferential permeability were extracted. A Hopkinson maximum is observed in both permeability components of the reentrant magnets. Also observed in these systems is a downwards inflexion in the permeability versus temperature curves at the canting temperature TK where the reentrant regime sets in. The anisotropy field HK was obtained from the magneto-impedance measurements in several temperatures spanning the ferromagnetic and reentrant states. A marked increase of the HK magnitude occurs in temperatures below TK , indicating the stabilization of the reentrant phase by the anisotropic Dzyaloshisnskii-Moriya coupling. These results are in agreement with predictions of the mean-field theory that explains canting and the reentrant state with basis on the freezing of the spin components which are transverse to the field orientation.

  18. Pultrusion Die Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor); Frye, Mark W. (Inventor); Stanfield, Clarence E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pultrusion die assemblies, and more particularly, to a pultrusion die assembly which incorporates a plurality of functions in order to produce a continuous, thin composite fiber reinforced thermoplastic material. The invention is useful for making high performance thermoplastic composite materials in sheets which can be coiled on a spool and stored for further processing.

  19. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  20. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  1. Extrusion die and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, G.D.

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity. 4 figures.

  2. Interaktive Visualisierung von Abständen und Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen für die Interventionsplanung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössling, Ivo; Cyrus, Christian; Dornheim, Lars; Hahn, Peter; Preim, Bernhard; Boehm, Andreas

    Im Rahmen der Interventionsplanung muss der Chirurg therapierelevante Entscheidungen auf Basis räumlicher Relationen anatomischer Strukturen treffen. Interaktive 3D-Visualisierungen unterstützen diesen Prozess qualitativ. Quantitative Fragestellungen (Tumorausdehnung, Infiltrationstiefe, etc.) erfordern die Integration einer Bemaßung, deren Nutzen wesentlich von einer geeigneten Darstellung abhängt. In dieser Arbeit haben wir allgemeine Kriterien für die Eignung von Visualisierungen von Bemaßungen in interaktiven 3D-Szenen erarbeitet. Daran orientierend haben wir verschiedene Varianten der Darstellung von Abständen und Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen betrachtet und ihr Erscheinungsbild hierzu zweckmäßig parametrisiert. Die Ausprägungen dieser Darstellungsparameter wurden in einer Studie auf ihre visuellen Wirkung hin an Chirurgen evaluiert. Es zeigte sich, dass die befragten Mediziner höchsten Wert auf Kohärenz und klare Zuordnung der Bemaßung setzten und überraschenderweise dafür sogar Abstriche in der direkten Lesbarkeit in Kauf nahmen.

  3. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  4. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  5. Modulation of neoplastic gene regulatory pathways by the RNA-binding factor AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Zucconi, Beth E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    The mRNA-binding protein AUF1 regulates the expression of many key players in cancer including proto-oncogenes, regulators of apoptosis and the cell cycle, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, principally by directing the decay kinetics of their encoded mRNAs. Most studies support an mRNA-destabilizing role for AUF1, although other findings suggest additional functions for this factor. In this review, we explore how changes in AUF1 isoform distribution, subcellular localization, and post-translational protein modifications can influence the metabolism of targeted mRNAs. However, several lines of evidence also support a role for AUF1 in the initiation and/or development of cancer. Many AUF1-targeted transcripts encode products that control pro- and anti-oncogenic processes. Also, overexpression of AUF1 enhances tumorigenesis in murine models, and AUF1 levels are enhanced in some tumors. Finally, signaling cascades that modulate AUF1 function are deregulated in some cancerous tissues. Together, these features suggest that AUF1 may play a prominent role in regulating the expression of many genes that can contribute to tumorigenic phenotypes, and that this post-transcriptional regulatory control point may be subverted by diverse mechanisms in neoplasia. PMID:21622178

  6. Die Zeitung der Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Christoph; Schaffert, Sebastian

    Schon lange wird spekuliert, wie wir in Zukunft Zeitung lesen werden. Werden wir am Frühstückstisch wie gewohnt in einer Zeitung aus Papier schmökern oder werden wir die Zeitung als biegsame Folie beschrieben mit elektronischer Tinte in Händen halten? Wird die Zeitung mit anderen Medien wie Radio und Fernsehen verschmelzen? Viele Varianten sind denkbar. Heute lässt sich schon ein Trend ablesen: Immer mehr Leser entdecken die Online-Zeitung als Informationsmedium, eine Voraussetzung für die Nutzung neuer Technologien in der Zeitung der Zukunft. In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Online-Zeitung dar, wie sie im Social Semantic Web möglich werden.

  7. Assisted Dying & Disability.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2017-07-01

    This article explores at least two dominant critiques of assisted dying from a disability rights perspective. In spite of these critiques, I conclude that assisted dying ought to be permissible. I arrive at the conclusion that if we respect and value people with disabilities, we ought to permit assisted dying. I do so in the following manner. First, I examine recent changes in legislation that have occurred since the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel on End-of-Life Decision-Making report, published in this journal. I suggest that these changes are likely to only strengthen opposition to assisted dying from disability rights activists and people with disabilities. Second, I focus on respect for people with disabilities and in particular, respect for their autonomy and decision-making abilities. Third, I explore the opposition to assisted dying that focuses on risk and the vulnerability of people with disabilities. Here I suggest that this risk ought not to be of special concern. Ultimately, I conclude that upholding respect for the disabled requires the legalization of assisted dying, rather than the denial of access in a misguided effort to protect people with disabilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  9. Analyse unterschiedlicher Modellierungsvarianten des "Direct Power Injection" Verfahrens für die EMV Charakterisierung integrierter Schaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stürmer, U.; Ritzmann, S.; Jovic, O.; Wilkening, W.

    2009-05-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert zwei Ansätze zur Modellierung eines Teststandes zur Charakterisierung von integrierten Schaltungen mittels Direct Power Injection (DPI) auf einem Wafer. Die erste Variante ist zur Analyse bereits vorliegender integrierter Schaltungen nutzbar. Sie benötigt gemessene S-Parameterdaten, mit denen die an einem realen Messobjekt anliegenden Störspannungen frequenzabhängig bestimmt werden können. Die zweite Variante ist bereits anwendbar, bevor Silizium gefertigt worden ist. Sie modelliert einen Netzwerkanalysatorkanal der aus einer Signalquelle, einem Leistungsmesser und einem Verstärker mit nachgeschaltetem Richtkoppler und Entkoppelnetzwerken besteht. Zunächst werden die oben genannten verschiedenen Varianten der DPI-Streckenmodellierung dargestellt. Sie werden miteinander und anhand von Messdaten einer einfachen Teststruktur verglichen. Die Teststruktur besteht aus einem MOS-Transistor mit Arbeitswiderstand. Der Beitrag diskutiert Vor- und Nachteile der Varianten einschließlich Modellierungsaufwand und Simulationsgeschwindigkeit.

  10. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution in Au-Fe Nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Vassalini, Irene; Borgese, Laura; Mariz, Michele; Polizzi, Stefano; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Ghigna, Paolo; Sartorel, Andrea; Amendola, Vincenzo; Alessandri, Ivano

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the most critical step in water splitting, still limiting the development of efficient alkaline water electrolyzers. Here we investigate the OER activity of Au-Fe nanoalloys obtained by laser-ablation synthesis in solution. This method allows a high amount of iron (up to 11 at %) to be incorporated into the gold lattice, which is not possible in Au-Fe alloys synthesized by other routes, due to thermodynamic constraints. The Au0.89 Fe0.11 nanoalloys exhibit strongly enhanced OER in comparison to the individual pure metal nanoparticles, lowering the onset of OER and increasing up to 20 times the current density in alkaline aqueous solutions. Such a remarkable electrocatalytic activity is associated to nanoalloying, as demonstrated by comparative examples with physical mixtures of gold and iron nanoparticles. These results open attractive scenarios to the use of kinetically stable nanoalloys for catalysis and energy conversion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide induces p16(INK4a) through an AUF1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gai E; Ma, Li Wei; Jiang, Bin; Yi, Jie; Tong, Tan Jun; Wang, Wen Gong

    2010-04-01

    Elevation of p16(INK4a) has been described as an important mechanism for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced replicative senescence. However, the mechanisms underlying remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate an important role of RNA-binding protein AUF1-mediated mRNA turnover in H2O2-induced p16(INK4a) expression. The induction of p16 by H2O2 was accompanied with declined cytoplasmic AUF1 level. Accordingly, exposure of cells to H2O2 remarkably reduced the binding of AUF1 to p16 3'UTR and increased the half-life of an EGFP-p16-3'UTR chimeric transcript. In AUF1-silenced cells, the effect of H2O2 on p16 induction was abolished. Furthermore, in cells co-transfected with vectors expressing AUF1s, treatment with H2O2 failed to significantly reduce the expression of AUF1 and subsequently elevate the levels of p16. Moreover, HeLa cells overexpressing AUF1s were resistant to H2O2-induced senescence. Our results indicate that AUF1 is critical for H2O2-induced p16 expression and cellular senescence. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Involvement of RNA binding proteins AUF1 in mammary gland differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Kentaro . E-mail: akenaga@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Sakai, Senkiti

    2007-08-01

    The expression of many genes, such as {beta}-casein, c-myc, and cyclin D1, is altered by lactogenic hormone stimulation during mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that post-transcriptional regulation plays an important role to establish gene expression required to initiate milk production as well as transcriptional control. AUF1 protein, a member of the AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein family, plays a role in ARE-mRNA turnover by regulating mRNA stability and/or translational control. Cytoplasmic localization of AUF1 protein is critically linked to function. We show that as the mammary gland differentiates, AUF1 protein moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, in mammary gland epithelial cells (HC11), stimulation by lactogenic hormone decreased cytoplasmic and increased nuclear AUF1 levels. Direct binding of AUF1 protein was observed on c-myc mRNA, but not {beta}-casein or cyclin D1 mRNA. AUF1 downregulation in HC11 cells increased the expression of {beta}-casein mRNA and decreased the expression of c-myc mRNA by lactogenic hormone. Conversely, overexpression of AUF1 inhibited these effects of lactogenic hormone stimulation in HC11 cells. These results suggest that AUF1 participates in mammary gland differentiation processes under the control of lactogenic hormone signals.

  13. Europäische Leitlinien (S1) für die Anwendung von hochdosierten intravenösen Immunglobulinen in der Dermatologie.

    PubMed

    Enk, Alexander; Hadaschik, Eva; Eming, Rüdiger; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; French, Lars; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Hertl, Michael; Jolles, Stephen; Karpati, Sarolta; Steinbrink, Kerstin; Stingl, Georg; Volc-Platzer, Beatrix; Zillikens, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    Die Behandlung schwerer dermatologischer Autoimmunerkrankungen und der toxischen epidermalen Nekrolyse (TEN) mit hochdosierten intravenösen Immunglobulinen (IVIg) ist ein bewährtes therapeutisches Verfahren in der Dermatologie. Da eine IVIg-Therapie in der Regel nur bei seltenen Erkrankungen oder bei schweren Fällen in Betracht gezogen wird, stützt sich die Anwendung von Immunglobulinen zumeist nicht auf Daten aus randomisierten kontrollierten Studien, wie sie in der evidenzbasierten Medizin erforderlich sind. Da Indikationen für die Anwendung von IVIg selten sind, ist es unwahrscheinlich, dass solche Studien in absehbarer Zeit durchgeführt werden. Wegen der hohen Kosten für IVIg im First-Line-Einsatz wurden die ersten klinischen Leitlinien für die Anwendung von IVIg bei dermatologischen Erkrankungen im Jahr 2008 herausgegeben und im Jahr 2011 überarbeitet. Diese europäischen Leitlinien wurden von einer Gruppe durch das EDF und die EADV benannter Experten erarbeitet. Die Leitlinien wurden erstellt, um die derzeit als wirksam erachteten Behandlungsindikationen zu aktualisieren und die für die Anwendung von IVIg bei dermatologischen Autoimmunerkrankungen und TEN vorliegenden Daten zusammenzufassen. Die vorliegenden Leitlinien repräsentieren die einvernehmlichen Meinungen und Definitionen von Experten zur Anwendung von IVIg, die die aktuell publizierten Daten widerspiegeln, und sollen als Entscheidungshilfe für den Einsatz von IVIg bei dermatologischen Erkrankungen dienen. © 2017 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  14. Schlüsselkomponenten für Roboter in der Produktion Roboterhaut und Sicherheitskonzept für die Mensch-Roboter Kooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkena, B.; Hesse, P.; Friederichs, J.; Wedler, A.

    Vorgestellt wird der Aufbau einer aktiven Sensor-Matrix zur Abstands- und Kontaktdetektion in der Robotik. Diese besteht aus einem Sensornetzwerk zur Fusion und Überlagerung differenter physikalischer Wirkprinzipien. Die Sicherheit der I2C-Bus Kommunikation, der Aufbau der Roboterhaut, Ergebnisse der Abstandsdetektion mit Infrarot-, und Ultraschallsensorik werden dargestellt. Ferner wurden Temperatur-, und Beschleunigungssensoren auf die Oberfläche der Roboterhaut aufgebracht um Informationen über die Umgebung sicher an ein übergeordnetes Leitsystem zu übertragen. Eine unterlagerte sichere Roboterhaut mit Kontaktdetektion zeigt als einfache Schlüsselkomponente ein analoges Ausschaltverhalten für geringe Latenzzeiten. Als Schluss wird auf den Einsatz an einem Industrieroboter in der Produktion ohne trennende Schutzeinrichtungen (OTS) eingegangen.

  15. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  16. Evolutionäre Algorithmen zur Topologieentwicklung von Neuronalen Netzen für die Roboter-Navigation im praktischen Einsatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köpsel, T.; Noglik, A.; Pauli, J.

    Eine wichtige Frage in der mobilen Robotik ist die sichere Navigation in unbekannten Umgebungen unter der Anwendung preiswerter Sensorik. Solch eine Navigation kann ein künstliches Neuronales Netz (kNN) übernehmen, welches die Kopplung der Sensoren des Roboters mit dessen Antriebssystem herstellt. "Neuro Evolution of Augmenting Topologies“ (NEAT) von Stanley und Miikkulainen [1] verwendet den Evolutionären Ansatz sowohl für die Topologieentwicklung, als auch für die Bestimmung der Gewichte eines kNN. NEAT hat sich als sehr gut, anpassungsfähig und relativ einfach in der Anwendung gezeigt. In diesem Beitrag wird NEAT in der Simulation angewendet, um ein kNN, das die Navigation des Roboters übernimmt, zu erhalten. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf der Erstellung der Fitnessfunktion und die Spezifikation und Durchführung einer realitätstreuen Simulation für den praktischen Einsatz. Die enge Verknüpfung von Realität und Simulationswelt hat entscheidend dazu beigetragen, dass der Umstieg aus der Simulation in die reale Welt ein Erfolg (höhere Anpassungsfähigkeit) wird. Dieser Artikel basiert auf der Diplomarbeit von [2].

  17. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have fun with. That absence leaves a big hole in our lives. Maybe you had a pet that died . Remember the first few times you walked into the house after your dog or cat was gone? It was strange not to have ...

  18. When a Baby Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Martha Jo; And Others

    Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…

  19. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  20. Poetry and the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates roles poetry can play as people confront the death of loved ones and their own dying. Gives examples of Heinrich Heine transforming his agony into art and, from the poetry of two college students, both in advanced stages of neurological disease, which was read aloud in class, teaching all present something about how to approach their…

  1. When a Student Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    A student athlete died after the first day of football practice in Texas. His parents brought suit (Roventini v. Pasadena Independent School District) for monetary damages in federal district court contending that the defendants violated the student's rights. Presents the judge's analysis of the legal issues. Advises board members and…

  2. Dying to Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    1998-01-01

    In August 1995, a young football player died as a result of heat exhaustion suffered on the first day of football practice in Arkansas. Spurred by this tragedy, the district made some changes that every school district with an athletic program should consider. These include using a heat-stress monitor; abandoning the practice of group physical…

  3. Dying in hospital.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-06-22

    While surveys consistently show that about two thirds of people want to die at home, more than half of all deaths happen in hospitals. And in their last days, many people are cared for by generalist nursing staff who may be reticent, or even afraid, to talk about what is happening.

  4. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... container is gone, but what's inside — the water — remains. The part of a person that's left after the body dies is often called the "soul" or "spirit." Some people believe the soul is the part of a human that loves, feels, and creates; it's the part ...

  5. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  6. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  7. Role of Auf1 in elimination of oxidatively damaged messenger RNA in human cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takashi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Adachi, Noritaka; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo

    2015-02-01

    In aerobically growing cells, in which reactive oxygen species are produced, the guanine base of RNA is oxidized to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, which induces alterations in gene expression. Here we show that the human Auf1 protein, also called HNRNPD, binds specifically to RNA containing this oxidized base and may be involved in cellular processes associated with managing the problems caused by RNA oxidation. Auf1-deficient cells were constructed from human HeLa and Nalm-6 lines using two different targeting procedures. Both types of Auf1-deficient cells are viable, but exhibit growth retardation. The stability of messenger RNA for four different housekeeping genes was determined in Auf1-deficient and -proficient cells, treated with or without hydrogen peroxide. The level of oxidized messenger RNA was considerably higher in Auf1-deficient cells than in Auf1-proficient cells. Auf1 may play a role in the elimination of oxidized RNA, which is required for the maintenance of proper gene expression under conditions of oxidative stress.

  8. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  9. Die kalte Zunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Sören; Müller, Rüdiger

    Gefühlte Temperaturen. Ist ein Null Grad Celsius kalter Metallstab eigentlich kälter als ein Holzstab mit der selben Temperatur? Rein physikalisch gesehen natürlich nicht, aber wenn wir beide Stäbe anfassen, kommt uns der Metallstab deutlich kälter vor. Und wer kennt nicht die Szene aus dem Film Dumm und Dümmer in der Harry mit seiner Zunge am Metallrahmen des Skilifts hängen bleibt.Würde das auch passieren, wenn man an einem eiskalten Stück Holz lecken würde? Wohl kaum, doch woran liegt das eigentlich? Unterschiedliche Materialien haben verschiedene Fähigkeiten, Wärme zu übertragen und zu leiten. So transportiert Metall die von der Zunge ausgehende Wärme sehr schnell weiter und verändert seine Temperatur kaum, während die Zunge abkühlt. Holz hingegen leitet Wärme fast gar nicht und daher wird der Teil, der von der Zunge berührt wird, aufgewärmt.

  10. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  11. 'We Have No Dying Patients'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lisa

    1974-01-01

    A course on death and dying offered by the University of Maryland School of Nursing focuses on developing relationships between health care workers and dying people, using actual clients as the vehicle for learning. (Author/EA)

  12. Designing a Die for Hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Radu

    2016-12-01

    Designing a die is in every application field an intensive process of bringing together know how from design, testing and every-day use from previous dies with the new application requirements. Contribution deals with a knowledge oriented, modular and feature integrated computer aided design system for die development. This paper describes the concepts behind designing a hydroforming die for sheet metal forming, with easy application-use in small workshops for testing hydroforming capabilities of different materials.

  13. Die Behandlung des Wilden Westerns auf der Mittelstufe (Treatment of the Wild West in the Intermediate Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omasreiter, Ria

    1979-01-01

    Presents a 2- to 3-hour teaching unit dealing with conflict between Whites and Indians, taking as an example the Black Hawk War. The reports of Chief Black Hawk and of historian Billington (sources for both are given) are taken as a basis for discussion. (IFS/WGA)

  14. Die Behandlung des Wilden Westerns auf der Mittelstufe (Treatment of the Wild West in the Intermediate Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omasreiter, Ria

    1979-01-01

    Presents a 2- to 3-hour teaching unit dealing with conflict between Whites and Indians, taking as an example the Black Hawk War. The reports of Chief Black Hawk and of historian Billington (sources for both are given) are taken as a basis for discussion. (IFS/WGA)

  15. Der Einfluß von Verbraucher und Handel auf die Qualität landwirtschaftlicher Produkte und Lebensmittel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, W.

    1991-07-01

    The modern consumer is very much interested in healthy food. The reason is that a special group of consumers is focusing more and more attention on health and nutrition problems. Further, there is increased emphasis on education in food science at universities as well as polytechnics. For some years worldwide dietary goals are published with the intention to reduce nutrition-based sickness. For the first time in our nutrition report 1988, clear proposals for optimal nutrition were formulated.

  16. Auf gute Nachbarschaft!. Verantwortungsübernahme durch Unternehmen für die Stadtteilentwicklung - Haniel und Grillo in Duisburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine-König, Christiane; Hohn, Uta

    2016-03-01

    Companies' community involvement turns out to be spatially relevant and-in many cases-to be focused on the near surroundings of the place of business. Some companies strategically align their involvement in order to systematically address local challenges. The essay at hand addresses the subject of corporate social responsibility from a local development perspective. Using the example of two family-owned enterprises based in Duisburg, Haniel and Grillo, it illustrates how socially committed companies can get involved with their local community by acting as good neighbours. Furthermore, it argues that socially committed companies can function as producers of space concerning matters of urban and local development. The specific local settings as well as the economic conditions of the local community serve as an explanatory background of the companies' involvement. The cases presented in this paper prove the firms' specific knowledge of local development needs and possibilities. This makes them qualified partners for local government actors and civil society actors. Thus, in the future, it is worth addressing corporate local responsibility from a governance point of view both in theory and in practice.

  17. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  18. Die Titicaca-See-Region auf dem Altiplano von Peru und Bolivien und die Folgen eingeführter Fische für Wildarten und ihren Lebensraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villwock, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In the course of a long-term case study (since 1960) the interaction between different exotic fish (salmonids, atherinids) on the endemic ichthyofauna (genus Orestias: Cyprinodontidae) introduced to the interandean basin of Lake Titicaca was observed. The contribution deals not only with the actual consequences which endanger endemic species but also the socio-economic effects on the native Indian population, both causing further ecological problems in the region of concern.

  19. Dying with dignity.

    PubMed

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Rep. George Brown dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    George E. Brown, ranking Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee, died on July 15 at the age of 79 due to complications following a heart valve replacement last May. He was a strong advocate for science and environmental protection measures, and an independent thinker who sometimes found himself alone or far ahead of other people on issues. A congressman for 34 years who represented first the 29th Congressional District and then the 42nd District in California, Brown served on the science committee since 1965 and was chair from 1991 through 1994.

  1. Synthesis and properties of Au-Fe3O4 heterostructured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yang; Xue, Junmin

    2012-05-15

    Au-Fe(3)O(4) composite nanoparticles have received much research interest due to their promising biomedical applications. In this work, Au-Fe(3)O(4) composites with well-defined dimer-like nanostructure were synthesized via thermal decomposition route. The surfactant 1,2-hexandicandiol has proved to be critical for the formation of the Au-Fe(3)O(4) hetero-dimers. The hetero-dimers production yield could be significantly improved to be 90% when the 1,2-hexandicandiol concentration was optimized at 0.6 M. The obtained Au-Fe(3)O(4) hetero-dimers possess dual-functionalities of plasmon resonance and magnetization. Moreover, the Fe(3)O(4) domain of the hetero-dimers can be tuned readily by adjusting the molar ratio between Fe and Au sources. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that these Au-Fe(3)O(4) hetero-dimers could be further developed into star-like Au-Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles which showed plasmon absorption at NIR region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Competitive binding of AUF1 and TIAR to MYC mRNA controls its translation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Baisong; Hu, Yan; Brewer, Gary

    2007-06-01

    (A+U)-rich elements (AREs) within 3' untranslated regions are signals for rapid degradation of messenger RNAs encoding many oncoproteins and cytokines. The ARE-binding protein AUF1 contributes to their degradation. We identified MYC proto-oncogene mRNA as a cellular AUF1 target. Levels of MYC translation and cell proliferation were proportional to AUF1 abundance but inversely proportional to the abundance of the ARE-binding protein TIAR, a MYC translational suppressor. Both AUF1 and TIAR affected MYC translation via the ARE without affecting mRNA abundance. Altering association of one ARE-binding protein with MYC mRNA in vivo reciprocally affected mRNA association with the other protein. Finally, genetic experiments revealed that AUF1 and TIAR control proliferation by a MYC-dependent pathway. Together, these observations suggest a novel regulatory mechanism where tuning the ratios of AUF1 and TIAR bound to MYC mRNA permits dynamic control of MYC translation and cell proliferation.

  3. Die großen Zeppeline: Die Geschichte des Luftschiffbaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinheins, Peter; Meighörner, Wolfgang

    Über die glanzvolle Zeit der Zeppeline sind viele Bücher erschienen, die vorwiegend den Einsatz der Luftschiffe in Frieden und Krieg schildern. Nur wenige wissen, dass die Baugeschichte der Zeppeline eine der faszinierendsten Phasen der modernen Technik ist. Peter Kleinheins hat dieses Geschehen sachkundig aufgearbeitet und zusammengestellt. Entstanden ist eine reich illustrierte Dokumentation in einer interessanten Mischform aus zeitgenössischen Berichten und hochwertigen Originalquellen.

  4. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  5. Where people die.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources. PMID:515338

  6. Coupling between magnetic and optical properties of stable Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Julián Fernández, C; Mattei, G; Paz, E; Novak, R L; Cavigli, L; Bogani, L; Palomares, F J; Mazzoldi, P; Caneschi, A

    2010-04-23

    Au-Fe nanoparticles constitute one of the simplest prototypes of a multifunctional nanomaterial that can exhibit both magnetic and optical (plasmonic) properties. This solid solution, not feasible in the bulk phase diagram in thermal equilibrium, can be formed as a nanostructure by out-of-equilibrium processes. Here, the novel magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of ion-implanted Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles dispersed in a SiO(2) matrix are investigated and correlated. The surface plasmon resonance of the Au-Fe nanoparticles with almost equicomposition is strongly damped when compared to pure Au and to Au-rich Au-Fe nanoparticles. In all cases, the Au atoms are magnetically polarized, as measured by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetically coupled with Fe atoms. Although the chemical stability of Au-Fe nanoparticles is larger than that of Fe nanoparticles, both the magnetic moment per Fe atom and the order temperature are smaller. These results suggest that electronic and magnetic properties are more influenced by the hybridization of the electronic bands in the Au-Fe solid solution than by size effects. On the other hand, the magneto-optical transitions allowed in the vis-nIR spectral regions are very similar. In addition, we also observe, after studying the properties of thermally treated samples, that the Au-Fe alloy is stabilized, not by surface effects, but by the combination of the out-of-equilibrium nature of the ion implantation technique and by changes in the properties due to size effects.

  7. Coupling between magnetic and optical properties of stable Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Julián Fernández, C.; Mattei, G.; Paz, E.; Novak, R. L.; Cavigli, L.; Bogani, L.; Palomares, F. J.; Mazzoldi, P.; Caneschi, A.

    2010-04-01

    Au-Fe nanoparticles constitute one of the simplest prototypes of a multifunctional nanomaterial that can exhibit both magnetic and optical (plasmonic) properties. This solid solution, not feasible in the bulk phase diagram in thermal equilibrium, can be formed as a nanostructure by out-of-equilibrium processes. Here, the novel magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of ion-implanted Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix are investigated and correlated. The surface plasmon resonance of the Au-Fe nanoparticles with almost equicomposition is strongly damped when compared to pure Au and to Au-rich Au-Fe nanoparticles. In all cases, the Au atoms are magnetically polarized, as measured by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetically coupled with Fe atoms. Although the chemical stability of Au-Fe nanoparticles is larger than that of Fe nanoparticles, both the magnetic moment per Fe atom and the order temperature are smaller. These results suggest that electronic and magnetic properties are more influenced by the hybridization of the electronic bands in the Au-Fe solid solution than by size effects. On the other hand, the magneto-optical transitions allowed in the vis-nIR spectral regions are very similar. In addition, we also observe, after studying the properties of thermally treated samples, that the Au-Fe alloy is stabilized, not by surface effects, but by the combination of the out-of-equilibrium nature of the ion implantation technique and by changes in the properties due to size effects.

  8. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  9. Die Milchstraße.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, N.; Couper, H.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, from the English original "The guide to the Galaxy", published in 1994 (see Abstr. 61.003.065). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung unserer Galaxis. 2. Die Lokale Gruppe. 3. Die Geographie der Galaxis. 4. Der Perseus-Arm. 5. Der Orion-Arm. 6. Unsere lokale Nachbarschaft: ein typischer Winkel der Galaxis. 7. Der Sagittarius-Arm: innerhalb der Sonnenumlaufbahn. 8. Das Zentrum der Galaxis.

  10. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  11. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  12. Reduction of AUF1-mediated follistatin mRNA decay during glucose starvation protects cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiangwei; Dong, Haojie; Lin, Chen; Sheng, Jinghao; Zhang, Fan; Su, Jinfeng; Xu, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    Follistatin (FST) performs several vital functions in the cells, including protection from apoptosis during stress. The expression of FST is up-regulated in response to glucose deprivation by an unknown mechanism. We herein showed that the induction of FST by glucose deprivation was due to an increase in the half-life of its mRNA. We further identified an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3'UTR of FST mRNA that mediated its decay. The expression of FST was elevated after knocking down AUF1 and reduced when AUF1 was further expressed. In vitro binding assays and RNA pull-down assays revealed that AUF1 interacted with FST mRNA directly via its ARE. During glucose deprivation, a majority of AUF1 shuttled from cytoplasm to nucleus, resulting in dissociation of AUF1 from FST mRNA and thus stabilization of FST mRNA. Finally, knockdown of AUF1 decreased whereas overexpression of AUF1 increased glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis. The apoptosis promoting effect of AUF1 was eliminated in FST expressing cells. Collectively, this study provided evidence that AUF1 is a negative regulator of FST expression and participates in the regulation of cell survival under glucose deprivation.

  13. Reduction of AUF1-mediated follistatin mRNA decay during glucose starvation protects cells from apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiangwei; Dong, Haojie; Lin, Chen; Sheng, Jinghao; Zhang, Fan; Su, Jinfeng; Xu, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    Follistatin (FST) performs several vital functions in the cells, including protection from apoptosis during stress. The expression of FST is up-regulated in response to glucose deprivation by an unknown mechanism. We herein showed that the induction of FST by glucose deprivation was due to an increase in the half-life of its mRNA. We further identified an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3′UTR of FST mRNA that mediated its decay. The expression of FST was elevated after knocking down AUF1 and reduced when AUF1 was further expressed. In vitro binding assays and RNA pull-down assays revealed that AUF1 interacted with FST mRNA directly via its ARE. During glucose deprivation, a majority of AUF1 shuttled from cytoplasm to nucleus, resulting in dissociation of AUF1 from FST mRNA and thus stabilization of FST mRNA. Finally, knockdown of AUF1 decreased whereas overexpression of AUF1 increased glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis. The apoptosis promoting effect of AUF1 was eliminated in FST expressing cells. Collectively, this study provided evidence that AUF1 is a negative regulator of FST expression and participates in the regulation of cell survival under glucose deprivation. PMID:25159612

  14. Adapt or die?

    PubMed

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  15. Dying and 'euthanasia'.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1992-07-01

    Medical progress, secularisation of life, growing acceptance of individual human rights (including the right to refuse medical treatment) and of shared decision-making in medicine have focused public attention on the ways in which life may, and perhaps even ought to, be allowed to end in our complex modern era. Intense and thoughtful bio-ethical debate over many years has 'unpacked' the many different understandings and interpretations of the word euthanasia. The consequent conceptual clarification together with recognition and acknowledgement of psychological implications has facilitated a growing rational consensus on openly accepting the withholding and withdrawing of treatment (under defined conditions) within the realm of sound medical practice. This is clearly distinct from assisted suicide and active euthanasia which are generally considered unacceptable perversions of medical practice. Given the ability to sustain life for prolonged periods, often in a permanent state of unconsciousness, the unrealistic expectations of some medical personnel and the lay public, the severe constraints on health care facilities in South Africa and the totally inadequate allocation of resources for highly effective medical treatments, it is appropriate to re-open public debate on the limits of 'striving officiously to keep alive' and on the distinction between 'allowing to die' and 'killing'. Concern that 'rational' arguments reflect moral decay rather than moral progress keeps the debate open and focuses attention on some 'slippery slope' consequences.

  16. I Could Have Died Laughing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael Forrest; Smith, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Notes that caregivers of the dying would do well to consider the prescriptive power of humor when confronting the challenges of healthy care for the terminally ill. Addresses laughter as the best medicine not only for the dying person but also for family and principal caregivers. Includes examples of therapeutic use of humor with the terminally…

  17. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  18. Spin glass transition in canonical AuFe alloys: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Gui-Bin; Zhu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Although spin glass transitions have long been observed in diluted magnetic alloys, e.g. AuFe and CuMn alloys, previous numerical studies are not completely consistent with the experiment results. The abnormal critical exponents of the alloys remain still puzzling. By employing parallel tempering algorithm with finite-size scaling analysis, we investigated the phase transitions in canonical AuFe alloys. Our results strongly support that spin glass transitions occur at finite temperatures in the alloys. The calculated critical exponents agree well with those obtained from experiments.

  19. Dying: A universal human experience?

    PubMed

    Bregman, L

    1989-03-01

    This paper explores the question, "Is there a universal psychological experience suffered by all dying persons?" a question to which the popular theory of Kübler-Ross presupposes an affirmative answer. Our answer takes three steps: first, a comparison between the Kübler-Ross model of dying and that of the late medievalBook of the Craft of Dying centered upon the five Kübler-Ross "stages"; second, a philosophical critique of the terms of this comparison; and third, a revised look at the alleged similarities between the two models, providing a deeper look at the moral and spiritual assumptions behind each.

  20. Melker Meilensteine auf dem Weg in ein naturwissenschaftliches Zeitalter - Glanzlichter der Ausstellung zum Internationalen Astronomiejahr 2009 in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Paul G.; Zotti, Georg

    2009-06-01

    Das Mittelalter wird weithin als die dunkle Epoche in der Geschichte der Europäischen Wissenschaften betrachtet, und insbesondere das Leben in den Klöstern galt lange Zeit als frei von jeglichem Interesse für Naturwissenschaften abseits der Medizin. Im Mittelalter galt die Astronomie bloß als Mittel zum Zweck, um religiöse und zivile Kalender erstellen zu können. Durch den Bestand der Handschriftenkammer der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eröffnet sich uns eine neue Sichtweise auf das gegen Ende des Mittelalters wachsende Interesse an den Naturwissenschaften. Dies wurde durch die starke Aufwertung der Klosterbibliothek im Rahmen der 'Melker Reform' im 15. Jahrhundert noch weiter verstärkt. Diese Epoche fällt mit der Frühphase der Universität Wien und der 'ersten Wiener Schule der Astronomie' zusammen. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet ausgewählte astronomischen Werke in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek zwischen dem frühen 9 und dem 18. Jahrhundert. Einen Schwerpunkt stellt das Wirken der Wiener Schule der Astronomie dar, wobei wir u.a. die Melker Abschrift von Peuerbachs Gutachten über den Kometen von 1456 sowie die im Stift Melk durchgeführte Beobachtung der Mondfinsternis von 1457 durch Regiomontanus und Peuerbach beleuchten. Dieser Beitrag ist der einführende Übersichtsartikel zum Ausstellungsprojekt in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek im Rahmen des Internationalen Jahres der Astronomie 2009. The medieval period is commonly seen as a dark epoch for science in Europe. Especially monasteries were seen as institutions without interest in natural sciences except for medicine. Astronomy was allegedly only a tool to construct religious and civil calendars. The inventory of the medieval manuscript collection of the library of the Abbey of Melk allows a new view on the growing interest in the exact sciences towards the end of the medieval ages. This interest was intensified through the increased importance of the monastery library due to the monastery reform

  1. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  2. Heat treatment of forging dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovnar, S. A.; Kadnikov, S. A.

    1987-08-01

    In forging-die production there is a considerable range of forging dies which are promising for a changeover into advanced heat treatment involving bulk temper hardening and surface hardening using induction heating. The heat treatment suggested provides a saving of material resources as a result of improving the life of forging dies by a factor of 1.5-3 depending on the grade of die steel. As a result of induction hardening of forging dies, after temper hardening close to the boundary of the hardened layer a zone of reduced hardness forms whose unfavorable effect may be reduced by using before induction surface hardening bulk warming in a furnace or deep induction heating with a reduced energy concentration in the heating zone to the tempering temperature in the temper hardening cycle. In order to improve the uniformity of induction surface hardening for dies with a complex working shape it is desirable to use heating at reduced power with an increase in heating time.

  3. Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles: one-pot synthesis, biofunctionalization and toxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariti, A.; Desai, P.; Maddirala, S. K. Y.; Ercal, N.; Katti, K. V.; Liang, X.; Nath, M.

    2014-09-01

    Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles have been synthesized using a single step hot-injection precipitation method. The synthesis involved using Fe(CO)5 as iron precursor and HAuCl4 as gold precursor in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid. Oleylamine helps in reducing Au3+ to Au0 seeds which simultaneously oxidizes Fe(0) to form Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles. Triton® X-100 was employed as a highly viscous solvent to prevent agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Detailed characterization of these nanoparticles was performed by using x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Mössbauer and magnetometry studies. To evaluate these nanoparticles’ applicability in biomedical applications, L-cysteine was attached to the Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was tested using CHO cells by employing MTS assay. L-cysteine modified Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were qualitatively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy; and quantitatively using acid ninhydrin assay. Investigations reveal that that this approach yields Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles with an average particle size of 80 nm. Mössbauer studies indicated the presence of Fe in Fe3+ in A and B sites (tetrahedral and octahedral, respectively) and Fe2+ in B sites (octahedral). Magnetic measurements also indicated that these nanoparticles were superparamagnetic in nature due to Fe3O4 region. The saturation magnetization for the bifunctional nanoparticles was observed to be ˜74 emu g-1, which is significantly higher than the previously reported Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Mössbauer studies indicated that there was no significant Fe(0) impurity that could be responsible for the superparamagnetic nature of these nanoparticles. None of the investigations showed any presence of other impurities such as Fe2O3 and FeOOH. These Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional

  4. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  5. Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J; Sim, Stanley Siong Wei; Liu, Linbo; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-11-07

    Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT.

  6. Acting to let someone die.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  8. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  9. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  10. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  11. Retrospektive Analyse von Zufallsbefunden, die bei Patienten mit kutanem malignen Malignom durch (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-PET/CT erhoben wurden.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Franziska; Winkens, Thomas; Kaatz, Martin; Goetze, Steven; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Bei der (18) F-Fluordeoxyglucose-Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (FDG-PET/CT) ergeben sich häufig Zufallsbefunde. In der vorliegenden Studie konzentrierten wir uns auf mittels FDG-PET/CT erhaltene Zufallsbefunde bei Patienten mit kutanem Melanom und überprüften deren Relevanz hinsichtlich weiterer diagnostischer Maßnahmen und Interventionen. Die Krankenakten von 181 konsekutiven Melanom-Patienten wurden retrospektiv ausgewertet, um das Management von Zufallsbefunden zu dokumentieren. Der Schwerpunkt lag dabei auf den histologischen Befunden. Bei 33 von 181 (18 %) Patienten lagen 39 relevante Zufallsbefunde vor, und zwar im Kolorektalbereich (n = 15 Patienten), in der Schilddrüse (n = 8), der Prostata (n = 2), dem Bewegungsapparat (n = 2), in Lymphknoten (n = 2), der Parotis (n = 1), den Mandeln (n = 1), den Nieren (n = 1) und der Gallenblase (n = 1). Bei 25 Patienten schlossen sich weitere diagnostische Verfahren an, wobei in 21 Fällen ein klinisches Korrelat nachgewiesen wurde. Bei 16 von 21 Patienten ergab sich eine Neoplasie, darunter fünf maligne Läsionen (vier Kolonkarzinome und ein Prostatakarzinom). Die Malignome wurden frühzeitig diagnostiziert und in der Mehrzahl der Fälle erfolgreich entfernt. Der Einsatz der FDG-PET/CT als Routine-Diagnostik wird in den Leitlinien empfohlen und ist indiziert bei malignem Melanom ab Stadium IIC. In dieser Studie wurden auf effektive Weise ansonsten nicht erkannte Krebserkrankungen, insbesondere Kolonkarzinome, detektiert. In den meisten Fällen war eine frühe Intervention möglich. Zufallsbefunde durch FDG-PET/CT sollten, unter Berücksichtigung des Zustands und der Wünsche des Patienten, mit den geeigneten diagnostischen Maßnahmen abgeklärt werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  13. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  14. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  15. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  16. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sayan; Frey Huls, N. A.; Phan, M. H.; Srinath, S.; Garcia, M. A.; Lee, Youngmin; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shouheng; Iglesias, Òscar; Srikanth, H.

    2014-02-01

    We report exchange bias (EB) effect in the Au-Fe3O4 composite nanoparticle system, where one or more Fe3O4 nanoparticles are attached to an Au seed particle forming ‘dimer’ and ‘cluster’ morphologies, with the clusters showing much stronger EB in comparison with the dimers. The EB effect develops due to the presence of stress at the Au-Fe3O4 interface which leads to the generation of highly disordered, anisotropic surface spins in the Fe3O4 particle. The EB effect is lost with the removal of the interfacial stress. Our atomistic Monte Carlo studies are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. These results show a new path towards tuning EB in nanostructures, namely controllably creating interfacial stress, and opens up the possibility of tuning the anisotropic properties of biocompatible nanoparticles via a controllable exchange coupling mechanism.

  17. Das Blüte-Bestäuber-Netz auf Brachflächen : biozönologische Untersuchung zur Bedeutung von Brachen in einer intensiv genutzten Agrarlandschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Robert

    2002-11-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird die Bedeutung von Brachen für Artenvielfalt und Stabilität von Blüte-Bestäuber-Nahrungsnetzen in agrarisch genutzten Landschaften anhand ausgewählter blütenbesuchender Insektengruppen (Syrphidae, Lepidoptera) untersucht. Die Freilandarbeiten fanden von 1998-2000 im Raum der Feldberger Seenlandschaft, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, statt. Es werden die beiden Hauptnahrungsquellen Nektar und Pollen betrachtet, dabei fanden Untersuchungen zur Intensität der Blüte-Bestäuber-Interaktion auf Stilllegungsflächen, zum flächenbezogenen quantitativen Nektarangebot im Jahresverlauf, zur individuellen Pollennutzung bei Syrphiden und zur Breite und Überlappung der Nahrungsnischen bei den dominanten Arten Episyrphus balteatus, Metasyrphus corollae, Syritta pipiens und Sphaerophoria scripta statt. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich eine hohe Bedeutung der Brachflächen für die Stabilität des Blüte-Bestäuber-Netzes, während die Diversität von anderen, eher landschaftsbezogenen Faktoren abhängig ist. This dissertation examines the importance of fallow land for the diversity and stability of pollination webs in agricultural landscapes as exemplified by selected groups of anthophilous insects (syrphidae and lepidoptera). The field studies were carried out between 1998 and 2000 in the Feldberg lakeland area in the north-east German State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Observations were made of nectar and pollen as the two main sources of food. Studies were conducted into the intensity of plant-pollinator interaction in set-aside areas, the site-specific quantity of nectar available during the vegetation period and the individual pollen intake of syrphid flies. Different methods were employed to establish the breadth of the trophic niches among the predominant species (Episyrphus balteatus, Metasyrphus corollae, Syritta pipiens and Sphaerophoria scripta) and the extent to which they overlapped. The studies showed that, while fallow land is very

  18. Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Sim, Stanley Siong Wei; Liu, Linbo; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT.Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05459a

  19. A plasma protein corona enhances the biocompatibility of Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Lisa; Christner, Carolin; Storck, Wiebke; Schick, Isabel; Krumbein, Ines; Dähring, Heidi; Haedicke, Katja; Heinz-Herrmann, Karl; Teichgräber, Ulf; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles (JPs) are heteroparticles with discrete domains defined by different materials. Their tunable composition and morphology confer multimodal and versatile capabilities for use as contrast agents and drug carriers in future medicine. Au@Fe3O4 JPs have colloidal properties and surface characteristics leading to interactions with proteins in biological fluids. The resulting protein adsorption layer ("protein corona") critically affects their interaction with living matter. Although Au@Fe3O4 JPs displayed good biocompatibility in a standardized in vitro situation, an in-depth characterization of the protein corona is of prime importance to unravel underlying mechanisms affecting their pathophysiology and biodistribution in vitro and in vivo. Here, we comparatively analyzed the human plasma corona of Au-thiol@Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG JPs (NH2-functionalized and non-functionalized) and spherical magnetite (Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG) particles and investigated its effects on colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Label-free quantitative proteomic analyses revealed that complex coronas including almost 180 different proteins were formed within only one minute. Remarkably, in contrast to spherical magnetite particles with surface NH2 groups, the Janus structure prevented aggregation and the adhesion of opsonins. This resulted in an enhanced biocompatibility of corona sheathed JPs compared to spherical magnetite particles and corona-free JPs.

  20. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  2. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  3. A micro-mechanical evaluation of the effects of die hardener on die stone.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Hong; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Planitz, Nina; Swain, Michael V

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of a die hardener penetrated layer and evaluate its protective effects on the surface of die stone. A commercial die hardener (PDQ die hardener, Whipmix corp., USA) was tested on a die stone (GC Fujirock EP die stone, GC Europe, Belgium) and a dental plaster (Dental Stone, United States Gypsum Company, USA). Nanoindentation and micro-scratch tests were performed on both coated and uncoated specimens. The scratch damage was observed by SEM and the penetration depth of die hardener was detected by the affiliated EDX. Upon drying, the die hardener penetrated into the die stone to a depth of 3-5 microm, and deposited a thin film on the surface of die stone. Although the die hardener penetrated layer did not show improved mechanical properties, the die hardener film on the surface did protect the specimens from abrasion damage.

  4. Exploratory study on H13 steel dies

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    Ultrahigh-strength H13 steel is a recommended die material for aluminum die casting; dies made from H13 steel can be safely water- cooled during hot working operations without cracking. However, after time the dies exhibited surface cracking and excessive wear. Erosive wear also occurs owing to high pressure injection of molten Al. An exploratory study was made of the causes for surface cracking of H13 dies. Results suggest that surface cracking is caused by interrelated factors, internal to the die material as well as externally induced conditions.

  5. Integrated Forming Simulations and Die Structural Analysis for Optimal Die Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitharaju, Venkat; Liu, Malcolm; Dong, Jennifer; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, Chuan-tao

    2005-08-01

    After gaining a huge success in applying stamping simulations and formability analysis to validate die face developments, GM moves forward to winning total manufacturability in stamping process. Of which, ensuring die structure integrity and minimizing weight is one of the important initiatives. Stamping die design (or solid modeling of stamping dies) was traditionally conducted by following the die design manuals and standards. For any design changes beyond the standards, however, there are no math-based tools available to die designers to verify the outcome of the changes. Die structural analysis (DSA) provides a math-tool to validate the design changes and quantify the safety factors. Several years ago, GM Manufacturing Engineering — Die Center started die structural analysis to meet the increasing demands of customer needs in various areas: (1) to validate design changes; (2) to identify root cause of die breakage during the tryout and stamping operations and propose repair schemes; (3) to optimize the die design for weight reduction; (4) to improve press throughput via optimizing the scrap chute openings, and (5) to provide a math-based tool to validate revisions to the current die design standards. In the integrated forming and die structural analysis, after successful line die surface developments, the forming loads (binder force, pad force, and forming tonnages) are extracted from forming simulations and applied to solid die members for structural analyses of stress, strains, and deflections. In the past few years, Die Center conducted static, dynamic and fatigue analysis for many dies that covers the die design changes requested by die design, die construction and stamping plants. This paper presents some fundamentals and issues of integrated forming and die structural analysis and illustrates the significant impact of die structural analysis on die design, die construction and production stamping.

  6. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed

    Frost, Thomas D G; Sinha, Devan; Gilbert, Barnabas J

    2014-01-15

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion "This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying". This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework.

  7. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Husak, D N

    1979-01-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  8. Adolescents’ Perceived Risk of Dying

    PubMed Central

    Fischhoff, Baruch; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Parker, Andrew M.; Millstein, Susan G.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Although adolescents’ expectations are accurate or moderately optimistic for many significant life events, they greatly overestimate their chances of dying soon. We examine here whether adolescents’ mortality judgments are correlated with their perceptions of direct threats to their survival. Such sensitivity would indicate the importance of ensuring that adolescents have accurate information about those threats, as well as the psychological support needed to deal with them. Methods Data from two separate studies were used: a national study of 3,436 14–18 year old adolescents and a regional sample of 124 7th graders and 132 9th graders, 12–16 years old. Participants were asked about their chance of dying in the next year and before age 20, and about the extent of various threats to their physical well being. Results Adolescents in both samples greatly overestimated their chance of dying. Those mortality estimates were higher for adolescents who reported direct threats (e.g., an unsafe neighborhood). Thus, adolescents were sensitive to the relative size of threats to their survival, but not to the implications for absolute risk levels. Conclusions Contrary to the folk wisdom that adolescents have a unique sense of invulnerability, those studied here reported an exaggerated sense of mortality, which was highest among those reporting greater threats in their lives. Such fears could affect adolescents’ short-term well being and future planning. PMID:20159504

  9. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  10. Letting die and mercy killing.

    PubMed

    Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

    2003-01-01

    We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia'). The word "killing" seems proper for euthanasia, because "to kill" does mean " to intentionally cause the death of someone." It can be morally acceptable to withhold or withdraw a treatment precisely because it is reasonably judged as inefficacious (futile), or excessively burdensome for the patient. One's reason for withholding such treatment must not be a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the patient's life, but a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the treatment, which is futile or burdensome.

  11. Guide for extrusion dies eliminates straightening operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.; Hoover, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent distortion of extruded metal, a guidance assembly is aligned with the die. As the metal emerges from the extrusion dies, it passes directly into the receiver and straightening tube system, and the completed extrusion is withdrawn.

  12. HuR/Methyl-HuR and AUF1 regulate the MAT expressed during liver proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Chantada, Mercedes; Fernández-Ramos, David; Embade, Nieves; Martínez-Lopez, Nuria; Varela-Rey, Marta; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Anglim, Paul P.; Finnell, Richard H.; Caballería, Juan; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.; Gorospe, Myriam; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, José M; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatic de-differentiation, liver development, and malignant transformation are processes in which the levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) are tightly regulated by two genes, MAT1A and MAT2A. MAT1A is expressed in the adult liver, whereas MAT2A expression is primarily extra-hepatic and is strongly associated with liver proliferation. The mechanisms that regulate these expression patterns are not completely understood. In silico analysis of the 3′ untranslated region of MAT1A and MAT2A revealed putative binding sites for the RNA-binding proteins AUF1 and HuR, respectively. We investigated the post-transcriptional regulation of MAT1A and MAT2A by AUF1, HuR and methyl-HuR in the aforementioned biological processes. Results During hepatic de-differentiation, the switch between MAT1A and MAT2A coincided with an increase in HuR and AUF1 expression. SAMe treatment altered this homeostasis by shifting the balance of AUF1 and methyl-HuR/HuR, which was identified for the first time as an inhibitor of MAT2A mRNA stability. We also observed a similar temporal distribution and a functional link between HuR, methyl-HuR, AUF1, and MAT1A and MAT2A during the fetal liver development. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed increased levels of HuR and AUF1, and a decrease in methyl-HuR levels in human livers with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Conclusions Our data strongly support a role for AUF1 and HuR/methyl-HuR in liver de-differentiation, development and human HCC progression through the post-translational regulation of MAT1A and MAT2A mRNAs. PMID:20102719

  13. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  14. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  15. Rotary press utilizing a flexible die wall.

    PubMed

    Amidon, G E; Smith, D P; Hiestand, E N

    1981-06-01

    A die with a flexible wall was constructed and evaluated on a specially modified instrumented rotary tablet press. The design permits an inward deflection of the die wall by a side punch, which rolls past a side compression roll during compression-decompression. The side compression roll is instrumented to monitor the applied side compression roll forces. On decompression, return of the die wall to its original position permits release of residual die wall pressure. The decreased residual die wall pressure can decrease fracture and capping of tablets for problem formulations. The performance was tested on three experimental formulations. For these formulations, tablets made in a conventional die exhibited severe capping problems. However, most tablets compressed in the special die were superior. With proper adjustment of punch and die wall compression forces, excellent tablets could be manufactured. The merits of the special die and modified tablet machine are substantiated, although this initial design did not provide adequate die wall pressure for all formulations. Further engineering efforts could result in practical production equipment.

  16. Colorimetric aptasensing of ochratoxin A using Au@Fe3O4 nanoparticles as signal indicator and magnetic separator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengquan; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kun; Yang, Xingwang; Liu, Qian; Hao, Nan; Wang, Chengke; Dong, Xiaoya; Huang, Xingyi

    2016-03-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) doped Fe3O4 (Au@Fe3O4) NPs have been synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method. The peroxidase-like activity of Au@Fe3O4 NPs was effectively enhanced due to the synergistic effect between the Fe3O4 NPs and Au NPs. On this basis, an efficient colorimetric aptasensor has been developed using the intrinsic dual functionality of the Au@Fe3O4 NPs as signal indicator and magnetic separator. Initially, the amino-modified aptamer specific for a typical mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), was surface confined on the amino-terminated glass beads surafce using glutaraldehyde as a linker. Subsequently, the amino-modified capture DNA (cDNA) was labeled with the amino-functionalized Au@Fe3O4 NPs and the aptasensor was thus fabricated through the hybridization reaction between cDNA and the aptamers. While upon OTA addition, aptamers preferred to form the OTA-aptamer complex and the Au@Fe3O4 NPs linked on the cDNA were released into the bulk solution. Through a simple magnetic separation, the collected Au@Fe3O4 NPs can produce a blue colored solution in the presence of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and H2O2. When the reaction was terminated by addition of H(+) ions, the blue product could be changed into a yellow one with higher absorption intensity. This colorimetric aptasensor can detect as low as 30 pgmL(-1) OTA with high specificity. To the best of our knowledge, the present colorimetric aptasensor is the first attempt to use the peroxidase-like activity of nanomaterial for OTA detection, which may provide an acttractive path toward routine quality control of food safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychiatry and the dying prisoner.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Due to the growing number of ageing prisoners in the American correctional system, penal institutions are increasingly caring for patients with chronic and potentially terminal medical conditions. To address this problem states have attempted sentencing reform initiatives and adopted compassionate release programmes; however, these efforts have failed to significantly reduce the number of elderly or seriously ill inmates. Correctional mental health services are now called upon to aid in the care of prisoners at the end of life. This article presents the common elements of prison hospice programmes and the role psychiatry plays in this multidisciplinary effort. The right-to-die movement holds future implications for correctional mental health professionals. The historical and legal background of this international movement is presented with particular attention given to landmark cases and statutes protecting institutionalized patients.

  18. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    León Félix, L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. de los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell. PMID:28165012

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León Félix, L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. De Los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-02-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell.

  1. Chemically synthesized Au-Fe3O4 nanostructures with controlled optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Victor; Muñoz, Laura; Mazarío, Eva; Menéndez, Nieves; Herrasti, Pilar; Hernando, Antonio; Crespo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like, flower-like and core-shell nanostructures with different sizes ranging between 4-15 nm have been synthesized via the thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl and reduction of gold salts. By means of the variation of the precursors’ molar ratio, the injection temperature and the reaction time, the optical and magnetic properties have been tailored. A strong dependence on the dielectric function of the present Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) was detected. The gold characteristic plasmon peak shifts from 525 nm (pure gold NPs) to close to 600 nm showing an electron damping in the Au NPs surrounded by Fe3O4. These NPs are ferromagnetic at low temperature, exhibiting a coercive field ranging between 85-500 Oe, whereas they behave as a superparamagnetic system above the blocking temperature, which is found to be between 18-110 K. A high magnetic anisotropy is generated in the interface of Au-Fe3O4 NPs.

  2. Bacteria Interactions with Dying Diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smriga, S.; Juarez, G.; Fernandez, V.; Stocker, R.

    2016-02-01

    Dying phytoplankton are surrounded by microscale gradients of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can attract bacteria. These 'phycospheres' may impact the trophic transfer of DOM in the marine microbial food web and enable the growth of bacterial populations, yet these effects remain poorly quantified particularly in relation to the physiological state of the phytoplankton. We dissected phycosphere interactions at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution using the model diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the bacterium Marinobacter adhaerans. Diatom stress was stimulated by addition of polyunsaturated aldehyde (PUA) and both diatom and bacterial responses were captured via time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. We found that stressed diatoms underwent lysis 10-15 h after PUA treatment. Coordinated with the timing of this transition into phytodetritus, wild-type Marinobacter accumulated via chemotaxis near the diatoms immediately following lysis. In contrast, at lysis there was no accumulation of either a non-chemotactic or a non-motile mutant of Marinobacter, pointing to behavioral rather than demographic responses as drivers for the accumulation. Despite the lack of response, non-chemotactic as well as non-swimming bacterial cells that by chance attached to or were located near (<30 µm) stressed diatoms experienced more growth than cells further afield. Growth within the phycosphere was even greater after diatom lysis. Through quantification at the microscale, these results reveal that chemotaxis may precede rapid bacterial attachment to stressed and dying diatoms and may be integral to the microbial colonization of new phytodetritus during phytoplankton blooms and bloom collapses in coastal ecosystems. Even while chemotactic cells retain a growth advantage given their ability to sense and respond to lysis events, phycosphere DOM provides growth benefits to both motile and non-motile taxa that become attached to or happen to be co-located with new

  3. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  4. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  5. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C [Tucson, AZ; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Clews, Peggy J [Tijeras, NM; Baker, Michael S [Albuquerque, NM; De Boer, Maarten P [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  6. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  7. Shopping-Center in deutschen Mittelstädten und ihr Einfluss auf die Zentralitätsentwicklung. Eine Untersuchung unter der Verwendung von Einzelhandelskennzahlen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Yannick

    2017-06-01

    Shopping-centers have been subject to intense analysis from various angles. Due to by the growing number of shopping-centers located in medium-sized cities, a change of money flows within the municipal boundaries is expected. On a multi-level basis this article shows key retail figures of medium-sized cities with shopping-centers in comparison to ones without. The final result reveals that the retail turnover of medium-sized cities with a shopping-center reaches a significantly higher level than cities without a shopping-center. Furthermore, the evaluation of data shows a rise of the retail centrality in medium sized towns as a consequence of the opening of a shopping-center. This means the construction of shopping-centers doesn't only cause a shift of money flows within the city boundaries but also leads to an additional influx of money from outside the municipalities.

  8. The Influence of Surface Roughness and Bubbles on Sea Surface Acoustic Backscattering (Der Einfluss von Seegangsrauhigkeit und Blasen auf die Akustischen Rueckstreueigen-Schaften der Meeresoberflaeche)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-12

    s’.gn,,ficant waveheight H1/3 (longer average times arn seicctable), * a plot of the power spectral density averaged over 0.5 hour- or 4 hours...America, vol. 61, no.2, February 1977, pp. 325-337. 5. B. Nuetzel and R. Jacobsen , Beschreibung des Nachhall-Messplatzes, Interner FWG-Bericht 1985-7

  9. Goethe almost died of urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Gross, A J; Hummel, G

    1999-12-01

    In the year of 1805, Goethe almost died of urosepsis. His urological problems were not diseases arising from full health but a new variation in a life accompanied by illnesses. Some sources date the first colics he experienced to the year 1795 and others say 1805. The most dramatic period in the course of his illness was in February, when he suffered from fever of such an extent that one could speak of urosepsis. Recovery took place slowly and was accompanied by minor relapses. Nothing about this is written down in his work. On the advice of his doctors, Goethe undertook a cure in Lauchstädt in July and August. The report of his consultant, Professor Johann Christian Reil, on his problems in the field of urology remained undiscovered until 1937. Professor Reil recommended treatment with thermae carolinae, aqua calcis, soap soda crystallisata, herbae subastringentes, and uva ursi, among other measures. With increasing age, Goethe's colics disappeared. The passing of a stone has never been described. Whereas Goethe hinted about medical problem other than those reported herein, the urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned. Nonetheless, literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting from the aspect of both the history of medicine and the history of culture.

  10. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  11. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  12. Death and Dying: Issues for Educational Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore, Myers, Jane E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on death orientations, the dying process, and bereavement, with a major focus on the elderly. Suggests that relevant knowledge about death and dying are important for gerontological practitioners and proposes that death-related content be systematically integrated into academic curricula at the preservice and inservice levels.…

  13. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  14. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  15. Puzzling cases about killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Favor, C D

    1996-01-01

    Discussions of euthanasia often appeal to the distinction between killing people and letting them die. Favor asks whether this distinction is morally important--in particular, whether killing is worse than merely letting someone die, even when the motivations and consequences are the same. She explores our moral intuitions via a discussion of various subtly different hypothetical examples.

  16. Killing and letting die: a defensible distinction.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, W

    1996-04-01

    The distinction between killing and letting die is investigated and clarified. It is then argued that in most cases, though not in all, it is worse to kill than to let die. In euthanasia the significance of the distinction is diminished, but still important.

  17. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  18. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  19. Killing, letting die, and simple conflicts.

    PubMed

    Malm, H M

    1989-01-01

    Proponents of the moral equivalence of killing and letting die argue that in cases of simple conflict, where one agent must either perform a positive act and kill one person, or not perform that act and allow another person to die, the agent's alternatives are clearly morally equivalent. Malm rejects this view in a three part essay. He argues that in cases of simple conflict, the acts of killing and letting die are morally different, and that killing is not in itself worse than letting die. Malm considers and rejects the suggestion that the agent should decide randomly between the two alternatives. He concludes that while simple conflict cases require us to recognize a morally significant difference between killing and letting die, they do not require us to recognize a morally significant difference between acting and refraining.

  20. [Dying and death in societal transformation].

    PubMed

    Heller, Andreas; Wegleitner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1. We live longer and we die longer. 2. We no longer die suddenly and unexpectedly but slowly and foreseeably. 3. Even though our biological life on earth has become longer, our life has been shortened by the loss of eternity. 4. We no longer die on the stage of ritualized relationships with our family and neighbours but behind the curtains of organizations. 5. We live and die in a society of organizations and have to get organized for the final phase of our life. 6. Living and dying are no large, state-owned enterprises but small, private enterprises. 7. The hospice movement as well as palliative medicine have created public awareness, made dying a matter of discussion and offered a new set of options.In late modernism end-of-life care requires new approaches based on individual and shared responsibility as well as cooperation between professional institutions and community-based voluntary care.A change towards community care is visible. Thus "dying" is a topic in the discussion about the future of public health and societal solidarity.

  1. Awareness of dying: it needs words.

    PubMed

    Lokker, Martine E; van Zuylen, Lia; Veerbeek, Laetitia; van der Rijt, Carin C D; van der Heide, Agnes

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to study to what extent dying patients are aware of the imminence of death, whether such awareness is associated with patient characteristics, symptoms and acceptance of dying, and whether medical records and nurses' and family caregivers' views on patients' awareness of dying agree. Nurses and family caregivers of 475 deceased patients from three different care settings in the southwest Netherlands were requested to fill out questionnaires. The two groups were asked whether a patient had been aware of the imminence of death. Also, medical records were screened for statements indicating that the patient had been informed of the imminence of death. Nurses completed questionnaires about 472 patients, family caregivers about 280 patients (response 59%). According to the medical records, 51% of patients had been aware of the imminence of death; according to nurses, 58%; according to family caregivers, 62%. Patients who, according to their family caregiver, had been aware of the imminence of death were significantly more often in peace with dying and felt more often that life had been worth living. Inter-rater agreement on patients' awareness of dying was fair (Cohen's kappa = 0.23-0.31). Being aware of dying is associated with acceptance of dying, which supports the idea that open communication in the dying phase can contribute to the quality of the dying process. However, views on whether or not patients are aware of the imminence of death diverge between different caregivers. This suggests that communication in the dying phase of patients is open for improvement.

  2. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  3. Auf der Suche nach dem Codierungs-Gral für genetische Algorithmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weicker, Karsten

    Die umstrittene Frage nach dem "wichtigsten" Operator im genetischen Algorithmus - Mutation oder Crossover - hängt eng zusammen mit der Frage nach der richtigen binären Codierung. Gray- und standardbinärer Code bringen unterschiedliche Vor- und Nachteile in einen genetischen Algorithmus ein. Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Suche nach einer Codierung, welche die Vorteile beider Codes vereinbart, und berichtet von einem Teilerfolg für mit 4 Bits encodierten Zahlen.

  4. [Where do people die?: On the question of dying in institutions].

    PubMed

    Thönnes, M; Jakoby, N R

    2011-10-01

    There is a great discrepancy in society between the number of people that prefer to die within their home and the number of cases where this wish actually becomes reality. The most frequent place of dying in Western societies is not the home but an institution, such as a hospital or nursing home. But what is the actual distribution of places of dying? Can we identify social patterns of dying related to the various places of dying? The article provides a theoretical and empirical overview of place of dying as a social phenomenon. Contemporary discourse on the institutionalization of dying is subjected to critical scrutiny in light of the state of the art of research.

  5. Caring for dying people in hospital.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Jane B; Hallett, Christine E; Luker, Karen A

    2003-12-01

    Fifty-four per cent of people who die in England and Wales do so in hospital. Evidence suggests that care delivered to dying people in hospital does not match up to the ideal of a good death. These studies have provided organizational and structural explanations of nurses' behaviour that support argument for change at the macro level, in order to improve the quality of care delivered to dying people. There has been little study of the perceptions of nurses working in acute medical settings in relation to their experience of caring for dying people. Therefore, there is little evidence on which to base supportive strategies at the level of individual nurses. In this study we set out to develop an understanding of care for dying people in hospital, from the perspective of newly qualified staff nurses in the UK. The purpose was to build a theory of how nurses might be helped to deliver quality care to dying people in hospital. This paper is based on an exploratory study underpinned by phenomenological philosophy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 newly qualified nurses, focusing on their experiences of caring for dying people on medical wards in two acute hospitals in England in 1999. The interview transcripts were interpreted using a phenomenological approach. The findings presented in this paper relate to commonalities found to underlie study participants' perceptions of their experiences. All the nurses' stories were found to be built around six essences - the personal ideal, the actual, the unknown, the alone, tension and anti-tension. These essences, and the relationships between them, were used to build a model of the experience of caring for dying people in hospital. This descriptive study of the experience of individual nurses does not examine the wider social context. It attempts to complement existing sociological theory of death and dying. The study revealed how a group of newly qualified nurses experienced caring for dying people. We theorize that

  6. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  7. Die Absorptionseigenschaften primordialer Materie und ihre Anwendung auf die Struktur und Stabilität stationärer Akkretionsscheiben; The absorption properties of primordial matter and their application to the structure and stability of stationary accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Primordial matter mainly consists of hydrogen and helium with a small amount of lithium. Taking into account contributions to the opacity from hydrogen and helium only has been assumed to be sufficient so far. Lithium, however, influences the opacity indirectly through a change in chemical equilibrium due to absorption of atomic lithium and lithium hydride. The differences reach two orders of magnitude, compared with zero-metallicity, lithium-free opacity. Possible changes in the cooling of primordial matter are being addressed shortly. These opacity calculations are the first to extend the temperature range below 1000K. Accretion disc models calculated with this opacity show a good agreement with today's accretion discs for temperatures larger than 104K. Below that temperature there are major differences, reflecting the change in opacity: For accretion rates above 10-5Msolaryr-1 we find optically thick, CIA (collision induced) absorption dominated accretion. Below there is optically thin accretion either by molecule line absorption or isothermal accretion at 3440K resulting from a temperature locking due to a drastic change in opacity. Subsequently, the assumption of chemical equilibrium is lost with decreasing accretion rate. We find in addition to the well known H--instability two additional thermal instabilities in the optical thin regime. At least for one of them the condition for chemo-thermal instability is fulfilled. Due to the lack of dust absorption in primordial matter primordial disks are likely to show much stronger outbursts showing an increase of accretion rate of three orders of magnitude.

  8. Multifunctional Au-Fe3O4@MOF core-shell nanocomposite catalysts with controllable reactivity and magnetic recyclability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Fei; Wang, Luhuan; Zhu, Junfa

    2014-12-01

    The recovery and reuse of expensive catalysts are important in both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis due to economic and environmental reasons. This work reports a novel multifunctional magnetic core-shell gold catalyst which can be easily prepared and shows remarkable catalytic properties in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The novel Au-Fe3O4@metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst consists of a superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 core and a porous MOF shell with controllable thickness. Small Au nanoparticles (NPs) of 3-5 nm are mainly sandwiched between the Fe3O4 core and the porous MOF shell. Catalytic studies show that the core-shell structured Au-Fe3O4@MOF catalyst has a much higher catalytic activity than other reported Au-based catalysts toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Moreover, this catalyst can be easily recycled due to the presence of the superparamagnetic core. Therefore, compared to conventional catalysts used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, this porous MOF-based magnetic catalyst is green, cheap and promising for industrial applications.The recovery and reuse of expensive catalysts are important in both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis due to economic and environmental reasons. This work reports a novel multifunctional magnetic core-shell gold catalyst which can be easily prepared and shows remarkable catalytic properties in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The novel Au-Fe3O4@metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst consists of a superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 core and a porous MOF shell with controllable thickness. Small Au nanoparticles (NPs) of 3-5 nm are mainly sandwiched between the Fe3O4 core and the porous MOF shell. Catalytic studies show that the core-shell structured Au-Fe3O4@MOF catalyst has a much higher catalytic activity than other reported Au-based catalysts toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Moreover, this catalyst can be easily recycled due to the presence of the superparamagnetic core. Therefore, compared to conventional

  9. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  10. House of Lords debates assisted dying (again).

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Lord Joffe's Patient (Assisted Dying) Bill (see Bulletin 187) had its Second Reading on 6 June. The debate was lively, informed and inevitably somewhat polarised. However, some common themes emerged and are outlined below.

  11. Is there a moral duty to die?

    PubMed

    Corlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.

  12. Hubble View of a Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-21

    This image of a dying star, protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306, containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. Taken by NASA Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

  13. Supporting dignified dying in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Abaquin, Carmencita; Perrin, Margot E; Eaton, Linda; Balabagno, Araceli O; Rue, Tessa; Ramos, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the appropriateness of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue for palliative nursing in the Philippines. Methods The study recruited 230 nurses to complete the ICNP Dignified Dying survey. Participants rated ICNP nursing intervention items and identified additional interventions for promoting dignified dying. Results All of the intervention items were scored on average as being at least ‘slightly important’. The three top-ranked nursing intervention categories were providing social support, maintaining privacy boundaries, and relieving psychological distress. Conclusions The ICNP Palliative Care for Dignified Dying catalogue lists nursing interventions that are appropriate to promoting dignity at the end of life in the Philippines. PMID:21471908

  14. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  15. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  16. Thick film silicon growth techniques. [die materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research which was directed toward finding an improved die material is reported. Wetting experiments were conducted with various materials to determine their compatibility with silicon. Work has also continued toward the development of quartz as a die material as new techniques have provided more optimistic results than observed in the past. As a result of the thermal modification previously described, improvements in growth stability have contributed to an increase in ribbon quality.

  17. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  18. Is killing no worse than letting die?

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, W

    1995-01-01

    Those who wish to refute the view that it is worse to kill than to let die sometimes produce examples of cases in which an agent lets someone die but would be generally agreed to be no less reprehensible than if he had killed. It is argued that the examples produced typically possess a feature which makes their use in this context illegitimate, and that when modified to remove this feature, they provide support for the view which they were designed to undermine.

  19. Killing and letting die: hidden value assumptions.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G

    1983-01-01

    In this paper I argue for several related theses: first, that the distinction between killing and letting die, as it is drawn by ordinary persons in ordinary contexts, is more complex than is generally understood; second, that the key feature of this complexity lies in the presence of a hidden normative component in what appears to be a straightforwardly descriptive distinction; and, third, that this complexity renders the killing/letting die distinction an inadequate and hazardous guide for moral reasoning.

  20. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K.; Brucher, H.G.

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  1. Thermal Modelling In Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasgado, M. T. Alonso; Davey, K.; Watari, H.

    2004-06-01

    The pressure die casting process is cyclic and the temperature levels in the die are principally dictated by the total energy received from the casting. It is thus extremely important that any solidification model for the casting is able to predict energy extraction rates to a high degree of accuracy. In this paper an efficient three dimensional hybrid thermal model for the pressure die casting process is described. The finite element method (FEM) is used for modelling heat transfer in the casting, coupled to a boundary element (BE) model for the die. The FEM can efficiently account for the non-linearity introduced by the release of latent heat on solidification, whereas the BEM is ideally suited for modelling linear heat conduction in the die, as surface temperatures are of principal importance. The FE formulation for the casting is based on a control volume capacitance method, which is shown to provide high accuracy and stability. This method is similar to the apparent and effective heat capacitance methods, which are popular approaches used where conduction predominates over other heat transfer mechanisms. These methods involve the specification of element or nodal capacitances to accommodate for the release of latent heat. Unfortunately they suffer from a major drawback in that energy is not correctly transported through elements and so providing a source of inaccuracy. The control volume capacitance method allows for the transport of mass arising from volumetric shrinkage and ensures that energy is correctly transported. The BE model caters for surface phenomena such as boiling in the cooling channels, which is important, as this effectively controls the manner in which energy is extracted. The die temperature is decomposed into two components, one a steady-state part and the other a time-dependent perturbation. This approach enables the transient die temperatures to be calculated in an efficient way, since only die surfaces close to the die cavity are

  2. A comparison of the accuracy of three removable die systems and two die materials.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, I; Mohan, J; Arunachalam, K S; Zankari, V

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensional shift of three commonly used die systems (Conventional system, Pindex system, Di-Lok tray system) with two commercially available type IV die stones (Ultra rock and Pearl stone). Under controlled conditions, ten casts, each with two removable dies, were constructed for each system for a total of 30 casts and 60 removable dies. Before and after sectioning measurements to within 0.01 mm in horizontal and vertical planes were recorded and differences calculated. Data were analyzed with 't' tests, one way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test. The results demonstrated that among the die systems compared, no single system was superior to the others in all respects. But among the die materials, dies poured in Pearl stone exhibited more dimensional changes than Ultra rock (p<0.05). Selection of die material is as critical as selection of any particular die system for successful fabrication of fixed partial denture and implant prosthesis.

  3. Linc-RoR promotes c-Myc expression through hnRNP I and AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianguo; Zhang, Ali; Ho, Tsui-Ting; Zhang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Nanjiang; Ding, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Min; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Linc-RoR was originally identified to be a regulator for induced pluripotent stem cells in humans and it has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of Linc-RoR-mediated gene expression in cancer is poorly understood. The present study demonstrates that Linc-RoR plays an oncogenic role in part through regulation of c-Myc expression. Linc-RoR knockout (KO) suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth. In particular, Linc-RoR KO causes a significant decrease in c-Myc whereas re-expression of Linc-RoR in the KO cells restores the level of c-Myc. Mechanistically, Linc-RoR interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) I and AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1), respectively, with an opposite consequence to their interaction with c-Myc mRNA. While Linc-RoR is required for hnRNP I to bind to c-Myc mRNA, interaction of Linc-RoR with AUF1 inhibits AUF1 to bind to c-Myc mRNA. As a result, Linc-RoR may contribute to the increased stability of c-Myc mRNA. Although hnRNP I and AUF1 can interact with many RNA species and regulate their functions, with involvement of Linc-RoR they would be able to selectively regulate mRNA stability of specific genes such as c-Myc. Together, these results support a role for Linc-RoR in c-Myc expression in part by specifically enhancing its mRNA stability, leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. PMID:26656491

  4. AUF1/hnRNP D is a novel protein partner of the EBER1 noncoding RNA of Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nara; Pimienta, Genaro; Steitz, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–infected cells express two noncoding RNAs called EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) 1 and EBER2. Despite their high abundance in the nucleus (about 106 copies), the molecular function of these noncoding RNAs has remained elusive. Here, we report that the insertion into EBER1 of an RNA aptamer that binds the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein allows the isolation of EBER1 and associated protein partners. By combining MS2-mediated selection with stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and analysis by mass spectrometry, we identified AUF1 (AU-rich element binding factor 1)/hnRNP D (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D) as an interacting protein of EBER1. AUF1 exists as four isoforms generated by alternative splicing and is best known for its role in destabilizing mRNAs upon binding to AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3′ untranslated region (UTR). Using UV crosslinking, we demonstrate that predominantly the p40 isoform of AUF1 interacts with EBER1 in vivo. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that EBER1 can compete for the binding of the AUF1 p40 isoform to ARE-containing RNA. Given the high abundance of EBER1 in EBV-positive cells, EBER1 may disturb the normal homeostasis between AUF1 and ARE-containing mRNAs or compete with other AUF1-interacting targets in cells latently infected by EBV. PMID:23012480

  5. AUF1/hnRNP D is a novel protein partner of the EBER1 noncoding RNA of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nara; Pimienta, Genaro; Steitz, Joan A

    2012-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells express two noncoding RNAs called EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) 1 and EBER2. Despite their high abundance in the nucleus (about 10(6) copies), the molecular function of these noncoding RNAs has remained elusive. Here, we report that the insertion into EBER1 of an RNA aptamer that binds the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein allows the isolation of EBER1 and associated protein partners. By combining MS2-mediated selection with stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and analysis by mass spectrometry, we identified AUF1 (AU-rich element binding factor 1)/hnRNP D (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D) as an interacting protein of EBER1. AUF1 exists as four isoforms generated by alternative splicing and is best known for its role in destabilizing mRNAs upon binding to AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3' untranslated region (UTR). Using UV crosslinking, we demonstrate that predominantly the p40 isoform of AUF1 interacts with EBER1 in vivo. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that EBER1 can compete for the binding of the AUF1 p40 isoform to ARE-containing RNA. Given the high abundance of EBER1 in EBV-positive cells, EBER1 may disturb the normal homeostasis between AUF1 and ARE-containing mRNAs or compete with other AUF1-interacting targets in cells latently infected by EBV.

  6. Effects of coating molecules on the magnetic heating properties of Au-Fe3O4 heterodimer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ogasawara, J.; Himukai, H.; Itoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report the heating properties of gold-magnetite (Au-Fe3O4) heterodimer nanoparticles (NPs) subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The Au-Fe3O4 NPs coated with oleic acid and oleylamine (OA) were synthesized through a method that combines seed mediation and high-temperature decomposition. The coating was replaced with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) by the ligand-exchange method. The specific absorption rates (SARs) for the OA- and DMSA-coated Au-Fe3O4 NPs coated with OA and DMSA at room temperature were determined through the calorimetric and magnetometric methods. SAR depended on the square of the magnetic field H up to an H value of 4 kA/m. The absolute value of the SAR for DMSA-coated NPs is about fivefold higher than that of the OA-coated NPs. The AC magnetic hysteresis measurements showed the recovery of the magnetic volume and the decrease in the magnetic anisotropy of the DMSA-coated NPs relative to those of the OA-coated NPs. These results suggest that the protective agent influences the magnetic properties of magnetite NPs via gold NPs.

  7. Multifunctional Au-Fe3O4@MOF core-shell nanocomposite catalysts with controllable reactivity and magnetic recyclability.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Wang, Luhuan; Zhu, Junfa

    2015-01-21

    The recovery and reuse of expensive catalysts are important in both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis due to economic and environmental reasons. This work reports a novel multifunctional magnetic core-shell gold catalyst which can be easily prepared and shows remarkable catalytic properties in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The novel Au-Fe3O4@metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst consists of a superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 core and a porous MOF shell with controllable thickness. Small Au nanoparticles (NPs) of 3-5 nm are mainly sandwiched between the Fe3O4 core and the porous MOF shell. Catalytic studies show that the core-shell structured Au-Fe3O4@MOF catalyst has a much higher catalytic activity than other reported Au-based catalysts toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Moreover, this catalyst can be easily recycled due to the presence of the superparamagnetic core. Therefore, compared to conventional catalysts used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, this porous MOF-based magnetic catalyst is green, cheap and promising for industrial applications.

  8. Strong dependence of surface plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering on the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Polizzi, Stefano; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Nanoalloys of noble metals with transition metals are crucial components for the integration of plasmonics with magnetic and catalytic properties, as well as for the production of low-cost photonic devices. However, due to synthetic challenges in the realization of nanoscale solid solutions of noble metals and transition metals, very little is known about the composition dependence of plasmonic response in nanoalloys. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the elemental composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys obtained by laser ablation in liquid solution can be tuned by varying the liquid environment. Due to surface passivation and reaction with thiolated ligands, the nanoalloys obtained by our synthetic protocol are structurally and colloidally stable. Hence, we studied the dependence of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the iron fraction and, for the first time, we observed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in Au-Fe nanoalloys. SPR and SERS performances are strongly affected by the iron content and are investigated using analytical and numerical models. By demonstrating the strong modification of plasmonic properties on the composition, our results provide important insights into the exploitation of Au-Fe nanoalloys in photonics, nanomedicine, magneto-plasmonic and plasmon-enhanced catalysis. Moreover, our findings show that several other plasmonic materials exist beyond gold and silver nanostructures.

  9. Ethical challenges when caring for dying children.

    PubMed

    Furingsten, Lovisa; Sjögren, Reet; Forsner, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Caring for dying children presents special challenges, according to the children themselves, their relatives and healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to describe caring as represented in healthcare workers' experiences of caring for dying children. A phenomenological approach was chosen, in-depth interviews were carried out and data were analysed in four steps focusing on (a) open reading, (b) meaning units, (c) constituents and (d) essence. Four nurses in a general acute paediatric care setting in Sweden participated after providing written informed consent. Voluntary participation and confidentiality were ensured, and the study was ethically approved. The essence of caring for dying children was likened to a musically attuned composition, comprising five constituents: presence, self-knowledge, injustice in dying, own suffering and in need of others. Presence was found to be a prerequisite for caring when a child is dying. Self-knowledge and support from others can be of help when struggling with emotional pain and injustice. Caring for dying children has been found to be a delicate task for healthcare workers all over the world, and the ethical dimension is emphasized in international research. In this study, emotional pain and suffering accompanied caring, but an atmosphere in which it is possible to give and get support from colleagues and to have time to grieve and time to focus on the patient's needs may ease the burden, as can having time to process thoughts about life and death, and a possibility to grow in self-knowledge. Caring in ethically demanding situations may be facilitated through presence, atmosphere, self-knowledge and time. The challenge does not demand highly technological solutions; these assets are readily available, no matter where on earth. However, there is a need to further investigate these prerequisites for caring, particularly when a child is dying. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Annealing-induced recovery of indents in thin Au(Fe) bilayer films

    PubMed Central

    Kosinova, Anna; Schwaiger, Ruth; Klinger, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    We employed depth-sensing nanoindentation to produce ordered arrays of indents on the surface of 50 nm-thick Au(Fe) films deposited on sapphire substrates. The maximum depth of the indents was approximately one-half of the film thickness. The indented films were annealed at a temperature of 700 °C in a forming gas atmosphere. While the onset of solid-state dewetting was observed in the unperturbed regions of the film, no holes to the substrate were observed in the indented regions. Instead, the film annealing resulted in the formation of hillocks at the indent locations, followed by their dissipation and the formation of shallow depressions nearby after subsequent annealing treatments. This annealing-induced evolution of nanoindents was interpreted in terms of annihilation of dislocation loops generated during indentation, accompanied by the formation of nanopores at the grain boundaries and their subsequent dissolution. The application of the processes uncovered in this work show great potential for the patterning of thin films. PMID:28144556

  11. Cloning and functional characterization of nitrilase from Fusarium proliferatum AUF-2 for detoxification of nitriles.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Farnaz; Rather, Irshad Ahmad; Jamwal, Urmila; Gandhi, Sumit G; Chaubey, Asha

    2015-07-01

    A fungal nitrilase gene from Fusarium proliferatum AUF-2 was cloned through reverse transcription-PCR. The open reading frame consisted of 903 bp and potentially encoded a protein of 301 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular mass of 33.0 kDa. The encoding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and the recombinant protein with His6-tag was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The purified enzyme exhibited optimal activity in the range of 35-40 °C and pH 8.0. EDTA, Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+) stimulated hydrolytic activity, whereas Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) had inhibitory effect on nitrilase activity. Ag(+) ions showed a strong inhibitory effect on the recombinant nitrilase activity. This nitrilase was specific towards aliphatic, heterocyclic and aromatic nitriles. The kinetic parameters V(max) and K(m) for benzonitrile substrate were determined to be 14.6 μmol/min/mg protein and 1.55 mM, respectively. Homology modelling and molecular docking studies provided an insight into the substrate specificity and the proposed catalytic triad for recombinant nitrilase consisted of Glu-54, Lys-133 and Cys-175. This is the first report on the cloning and heterologous expression of nitrilase from Fusarium proliferatum.

  12. Indentation-induced solid-state dewetting of thin Au(Fe) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosinova, Anna; Schwaiger, Ruth; Klinger, Leonid; Rabkin, Eugen

    2017-07-01

    We studied the effect of local plastic deformation on the thermal stability and solid-state dewetting of thin homogeneous Au(Fe) films deposited on sapphire substrates. The films with ordered square arrays of indents produced by nanoindentation were annealed at the temperature of 700 °C in a forming gas atmosphere. The behavior of the film in the region of shallow indents (reaching a depth up to one half of the film thickness) was very different from the one in the region of deep indents (with depths greater than one half of the film thickness). In the first case, the grain growth in indented and unperturbed regions of the film proceeded quite similarly, and nearly complete healing of the indents was observed. In the latter case, a recrystallization process in the vicinity of the indents resulted in the formation of small new grains with misorientation angles that were not present in the as-deposited film. The thermal grooving along the corresponding new high-energy grain boundaries caused an increase of the depth of the indents and the formation of the dewetting holes. The morphology of these holes and their size were different compared to the holes formed randomly in the unperturbed regions of the same films. In particular, the interaction between the individual indents of an array led to the preferential formation of holes at the periphery of the arrays. These findings shed a new light on the process of nucleation of the solid-state dewetting in thin films.

  13. Electronic structure and vibrational entropies of fcc Au-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Jorge A.; Lucas, Matthew; Mauger, L; Halevy, I; Horwath, J; Semiatin, S L; Xiao, Yuming; Stone, Matthew B; Abernathy, Douglas L; Fultz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonon density of states (DOS) curves were measured on alloys of face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au-Fe using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The NRIXS and INS results were combined to obtain the total phonon DOS and the partial phonon DOS curves of Au and Fe atoms. The 57Fe partial phonon DOS of the dilute alloy Au0.97 57Fe0.03 shows a localized mode centered 4.3% above the cutoff energy of the phonons in pure Au. The Mannheim model for impurity modes accurately reproduced this partial phonon DOS using the fcc Au phonon DOS with a ratio of host-host to impurity-host force constants of 1.55. First-principles calculations validated the assumption of first-nearest-neighbor forces in the Mannheim model and gave a similar ratio of force constants. The high energy local mode broadens with increasing Fe composition, but this has a small effect on the composition dependence of the vibrational entropy. The main effect on the vibrational entropy of alloying comes from a stiffening of the Au partial phonon DOS with Fe concentration. This stiffening is attributed to two main effects: 1) an increase in electron density in the free-electron-like states, and 2) stronger sd-hybridization. These two effects are comparable in magnitude.

  14. Compassionate community networks: supporting home dying.

    PubMed

    Abel, Julian; Bowra, Jon; Walter, Tony; Howarth, Glennys

    2011-09-01

    How may communities be mobilised to help someone dying at home? This conceptual article outlines the thinking behind an innovative compassionate community project being developed at Weston-super-Mare, UK. In this project, a health professional mentors the dying person and their carer to identify and match: (a) the tasks that need to be done and (b) the members of their social network who might help with these tasks. Network members may subsequently join a local volunteer force to assist others who are network poor. Performing practical tasks may be more acceptable to some family, friends and neighbours than having to engage in a conversation about dying, and provides a familiarity with dying that is often lacking in modern societies, so in this model, behavioural change precedes attitudinal change. The scheme rejects a service delivery model of care in favour of a community development model, but differs from community development schemes in which the mentor is a volunteer rather than a health professional, and also from those approaches that strive to build community capacity before any one individual dying person is helped. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. There is a need for evaluation of this and similar schemes, and for basic research into naturally occurring resource mobilisation at the end of life.

  15. Sexualverhalten, STIs und HIV-Übertragungsrisiken bei HIV-positiven MSM - Ansätze für die ärztliche Präventionsarbeit.

    PubMed

    Esser, Stefan; Krotzek, Judith; Dirks, Henrike; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Steigende Inzidenzen von HIV-Infektionen und STIs (sexually transmitted infections) bei MSM (men having sex with men) seit 2001 in Deutschland erfordern neue Ansätze in der ärztlichen Präventionsarbeit. Diese Studie befasst sich mit geeigneten Parametern für gezielte ärztliche Angebote an HIV-positive MSM mit hohem Risiko für die Übertragung von HIV und STIs. In einem zweijährigen Beobachtungszeitraum wurden 233 HIV-positive MSM in der HIV-Ambulanz des Universitätsklinikums Essen zu ihrem Sexualverhalten, Suchtmittelkonsum und psychischem Befinden im vorhergehenden Jahr systematisch befragt. Die dokumentierten Labordaten und klinische Verläufe wurden von der Erstdiagnose der HIV-Infektion bis zum Januar 2014 ausgewertet. Drogengebrauch, Promiskuität, jüngeres Lebensalter und bekannte STIs in der Vorgeschichte waren bei HIV-positiven MSM mit häufigerem ungeschützten Geschlechtsverkehr und einer höheren STI-Inzidenz assoziiert. Zusätzliche HIV-spezifische Parameter für ein erhöhtes HIV-Transmissionsrisiko waren neben einer nachweisbaren HIViruslast unbehandelte HIV-Infektionen, Therapieadhärenzprobleme, Wechsel der antiretroviralen Therapie in den letzten zwölf Monaten, bekannte HIV-Multiresistenz und ein höherer CD4-Zell-Nadir. Obwohl die HIViruslast in der Routineversorgung quartalsweise bestimmt und anschließend vom Arzt mitgeteilt wird, schätzten nur 60 % der HIV-positiven MSM ihr HIV-Transmissionsrisiko korrekt ein. Aus Routineuntersuchungen ergeben sich bei HIV-positiven MSM Profile, die auf ein Sexualverhalten mit hohem Risiko für die Übertragung von HIV und STIs hinweisen und Ansätze für die ärztliche Präventionsarbeit bieten. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  17. Acts and omissions, killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1986-01-11

    Gillon asks what, if any, moral importance resides in the distinction between killing and letting die in the context of medical care. He considers and rejects the acts and omissions doctrine, which claims that actions (killing) resulting in some undesirable end are in general morally worse than failures to act (allowing to die) that have the same result. He also refutes the argument that the moral distinction between killing and letting die is one of harming versus benefitting, and that a physician has a responsibility not to harm (kill) a patient but no duty to help (keep alive). Gillon concludes by discussing the moral claims upon which the Roman Catholic rejection of the acts and omissions doctrine is based, which are the subjects of his next British Medical Journal article on medical ethics.

  18. The right to be allowed to die.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A G

    1983-09-01

    The unbridled use of modern medical skills and technology in preserving life at all costs has stimulated interest in expressing a 'right to die' by the legally competent patient who is anxious to protect his autonomy. Some recent decisions by American courts are seen to threaten this 'right to die' of competent patients and imply that legally incompetent patients including children should not have this right under any circumstances, even when expressed on their behalf by guardians, nearest relatives or parents. It is argued that this is contrary to 'natural justice' as viewed by most people. It should be possible to develop procedures which are protective of the basic 'right to life' of the incompetent yet will recognise circumstances where they could be allowed to die. This paper was presented at the 1983 annual conference of the London Medical Group, 'Human Rights in Medicine'.

  19. Is there a duty to die?

    PubMed

    Hardwig, J

    1997-01-01

    Many people were outraged when Richard Lamm claimed that old people had a duty to die. Modern medicine and an individualistic culture have seduced many to feel that they have a right to health care and a right to live, despite the burdens and costs to our families and society. But in fact there are circumstances when we have a duty to die. As modern medicine continues to save more of us from acute illness, it also delivers more of us over to chronic illnesses, allowing us to survive far longer than we can take care of ourselves. It may be that our technological sophistication coupled with a commitment to our loved ones generates a fairly widespread duty to die.

  20. Diagnosing dying: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Catriona; Brooks-Young, Patricia; Brunton Gray, Carol; Larkin, Phil; Connolly, Michael; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Larsson, Maria; Smith, Tracy; Chater, Susie

    2014-09-01

    To ensure patients and families receive appropriate end-of-life care pathways and guidelines aim to inform clinical decision making. Ensuring appropriate outcomes through the use of these decision aids is dependent on timely use. Diagnosing dying is a complex clinical decision, and most of the available practice checklists relate to cancer. There is a need to review evidence to establish diagnostic indicators that death is imminent on the basis of need rather than a cancer diagnosis. To examine the evidence as to how patients are judged by clinicians as being in the final hours or days of life. Integrative literature review. Five electronic databases (2001-2011): Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. The search yielded a total of 576 hits, 331 titles and abstracts were screened, 42 papers were retrieved and reviewed and 23 articles were included. Analysis reveals an overarching theme of uncertainty in diagnosing dying and two subthemes: (1) 'characteristics of dying' involve dying trajectories that incorporate physical, social, spiritual and psychological decline towards death; (2) 'treatment orientation' where decision making related to diagnosing dying may remain focused towards biomedical interventions rather than systematic planning for end-of-life care. The findings of this review support the explicit recognition of 'uncertainty in diagnosing dying' and the need to work with and within this concept. Clinical decision making needs to allow for recovery where that potential exists, but equally there is the need to avoid futile interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Ambiguities in 'killing' and 'letting die'.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G M

    1983-05-01

    In a recent article Carla Kary (1980) attempts to show that there can be a significant moral difference between instances of killing and letting die. I shall maintain in Section I that Kary's argument is somewhat weakened by her failure to note an important ambiguity in the notion of killing a person. I shall also argue in Section II that a similar ambiguity affects the notion of letting someone die, and that failure to note this latter ambiguity also weakens the position developed by Robert Coburn (1980) with regard to defective newborns.

  2. Die Europäische Union, die Europäische Gemeinschaft und ihre Rechtsordnung, die Europäische Lebensmittelkontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhoff, Gudrun; Rimkus, Gerhard G.

    Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein Zusammenschluss von siebenundzwanzig unabhängigen Staaten, um deren wirtschaftliche, politische und soziale Zusammenarbeit zu verstärken. Seit 1. Mai 2007 hat sie die folgenden Mitglieder: Österreich, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Griechenland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande, Portugal, Spanien, Schweden, das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Rumänien, die Slowakei und Slowenien [1]. (Hinweis: Die Republik Zypern hat juristisch Souveränität über die ganze Insel, da die Türkische Republik Nordzypern international nicht anerkannt wird.)

  3. Effect of Die Strength and Work Piece Strength on the Wear of Hot Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the strength ratio extracted from an Archard model for wear is used to describe the wear rates expected in hot forging dies. In the current study, the strength ratio is the strength of the hot forging die to the strength of the work piece. Three hot forging die steels are evaluated. The three die steels are FX, 2714, and WF. To determine the strength of the forging die, a continuous function has been developed that describes the yield strength of three die steels for temperatures from 600 to 700 °C and for times up to 20 h (i.e., tempering times of up to 20 h). The work piece material is assumed to be AISI 1045. Based on the analysis, the wear resistance of WF should be superior and FX should be slightly better than 2714. Decreasing the forging temperature increases the strength ratio, because the strength of the die surface increases faster than the flow strength of AISI 1045. The increase in the strength ratio indicates a decrease in the expected wear rate.

  4. Deformation properties of pharmaceutical excipients determined using an in-die and out-die method.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Ilija; Govedarica, Biljana; Šibanc, Rok; Dreu, Rok; Srčič, Stane

    2013-03-25

    This study investigated deformation mechanisms of some commonly used pharmaceutical fillers, such as microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, dicalcium phosphate, isomalt and cornstarch, using a combination of the in-die and out-die method with the Heckel and Walker models. The tableting mixtures contained of 98.5% (w/w) filler, the rest consisted of dry binder and an antiadhesive agent. Our results showed that plasticity and elasticity may be considered independent deformation properties as highly plastic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cornstarch) also exhibited high elasticity. Particular emphasis was placed on explaining the differences observed between the in-die and out-die method-comparison revealed that the differences are a consequence of the material's elastic properties. Larger error of in-die results can be expected for more elastic materials, and thus in-die Heckel should be used with some considerations. In contrast, the Walker model was found to be more robust and smaller differences were observed between the two methods. We consider the most correct results to have been obtained by the out-die approach, which excludes the elastic properties of the material evaluated. An excellent correlation between elastic determination at the single-particle level and multiple-particle scale was demonstrated, suggesting a great potential of nanoscale determination of a material's mechanical properties for better elucidation of deformation mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of Die Stress Profiles during Powder Compaction using Instrumented Die

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The radial stress profile in a cylindrical die during compaction of titanium (Ti) powder was investigated by experiments. The concept of an instrumented die was extended to design an enhanced instrumented die. Custom-made strain gage pins were used to measure the radial stress during powder compaction. The test fixture was designed to simulate double-action pressing. The measured die stress profile for Ti powder was compared with that for a commercially available iron (Fe) powder. The stress history shows that an appreciable residual stress remains in the die in the radial direction after the axial compaction stress is removed from the powder. Furthermore, the radial stress profile in the die, while under maximum axial compaction stress, is more uniform across the height of the Fe compact than that of the Ti compact. In addition, the residual stress profile in the die in the radial direction reduces symmetrically in both directions beyond the height of the compact for both powders. Finally, the Ti powder shows a significantly higher frictional coefficient at the maximum axial compaction stress, and consequently a higher maximum axial ejection stress than the Fe powder.

  6. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  7. A Dying Star in a Different Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-17

    This image composite shows two views of a puffy, dying star, or planetary nebula, known as NGC 1514. At left is a view from a ground-based, visible-light telescope; the view on the right shows the object in infrared light from NASA WISE telescope.

  8. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  9. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  10. The Hospice: Advocate for the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anspaugh, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The hospice philosophy seeks to meet the needs of dying patients and their families. These needs include: effective control of pain; to be loved and to alleviate loneliness; to retain dignity and maintain control of as many aspects of life as possible; and to help the family be supportive and adapt to their inevitable loss. (JMF)

  11. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  12. Counseling Older Persons: Careers, Retirement, Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinick, Daniel

    The focus of this monograph is on three areas of counseling with older clients: career counseling, retirement counseling, and counseling regarding death and dying. The portion on career counseling includes reasons older persons change careers, obstacles they are likely to face when seeking employment, myths surrounding the employability of older…

  13. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  14. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  15. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  16. Continuing Education on Dying and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodil, Judith J.; Dulaney, Peggy E.

    1984-01-01

    "Dying and Death in Critical Care Practice" was a one-day continuing education offering designed for registered nurses who practiced in settings such as emergency rooms, intensive care units, coronary care units, and operating rooms. The workshop was part of a continuing education curriculum in critical care nursing. (SSH)

  17. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  18. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  19. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  20. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  1. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  2. Death and Dying in Young Adult Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Carolyn; Dowd, Frances S.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a content analysis study of 25 novels about youth facing death and dying to determine whether death and grieving are realistically portrayed in young adult literature. Describes the evaluative instruments developed and discusses findings, concluding that young people can be informed and comforted by these realistic novels. (38…

  3. Teaching Humane Care for Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Elise L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an elective, upper-level course on caring for terminally ill patients, designed for baccalaureate nursing students. Discusses the hospice concept and its background, course design, communication with dying patients and their families, and outcomes of the course as measured by a pretest and two posttests. (CH)

  4. A profile of silicosis cases who died.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H

    1982-01-01

    Silicosis cases which had been notified by doctors and confirmed after investigations were followed up by the Industrial Health Division. Up to August 1981, a total of 313 persons were confirmed as having the disease. Of these, 59 had died. The majority of these 59 persons had had their silica exposure in the granite quarries. 13 had been exposed to "rubber powder" which contained a high percentage of free silica. 52 of those who died were male, and their average age at death was 60.87 years. This did not appear to be significantly shorter than their life expectancy of 65.1 years. But the average age of death for the 7 women was 58.86 years, which was much shorter than their life expectancy of 70 years. Many of the men died from causes unrelated to silicosis. But 6 of the 7 women had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) and they apparently died of the disease or complications arising from it.

  5. Constructing Death: Three Pathographies about Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Anne Hunsaker

    1991-01-01

    Discusses three pathographies as models for the "good death." In each, the author organizes the phenomena associated with the illness and death of a spouse from cancer into a coherent pattern. The result is three different paradigms of the experience of dying: "ritual death,""victorious death," and "one's own death." (Author/LLL)

  6. Die Baukastensystematik in der Fördertechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebulke, Johannes

    In der Fördertechnik wird kaum ein größerer Einsatzfall so dem anderen gleichen, dass man zwei Anlagen nach denselben Zeichnungen fertigen kann. Konstruktionszeiten, Rüst- und Umstellungszeiten der Fertigung sind hoch; der Kunde muss bei Einzelanfertigung lange Lieferzeiten in Kauf nehmen. In der Fördertechnik haben sich daher Baukastenprinzip, Standardisierung und die Konstruktion von Erzeugnisreihen weitgehend durchgesetzt.

  7. March of Asteroids Across Dying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-12

    A dying star, called the Helix nebula, is shown surrounded by the tracks of asteroids in an image captured by NASA WISE. Skirting around the edges of the Helix nebula are the footprints of asteroids marching across the field of view.

  8. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  9. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  10. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  11. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  12. A moral dilemma: killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K

    Most health care professionals believe that there is a clear difference between killing and letting die, i.e. between active and passive euthanasia. Philosophers, however, have repeatedly attacked the moral validity of their argument. This article explores various related issues and theoretical approaches to the distinction between acts and omissions.

  13. A moral dilemma: killing and letting die.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kath

    1993-06-24

    Most health care professionals believe that there is a clear difference between killing and letting die, i.e. between active and passive euthanasia. Philosophers, however, have repeatedly attacked the moral validity of their argument. This article explores various related issues and theoretical approaches to the distinction between acts and omissions.

  14. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  15. Porcelain shoulder adaptation using direct refractory dies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D M; Levi, M S; Mori, D F

    1976-11-01

    Eleven direct refractory dies were made from separate polysulfide rubber impressions of two Dentoform teeth which had been prepared for porcelain-fused-to-gold veneer crowns with labial porcelain shoulders. Porcelain veneer crowns were built and fired directly on the dies, following the manufacturer's instructions and using a common laboratory technique. The finished crowns were seated on the Dentoform teeth, and the porcelain-tooth adaptation was measured with a micrometer eyepiece in a dissecting microscope. In general, the study indicated that by use of a direct refractory die, the porcelain adaptation of an average porcelain shoulder veneer crown could be made to fall within the tolerances of a clinically acceptable gold margin (39 mu).21 The crown could likewise be made to adapt closer than the normal thickness of cement film may allow (20 to 40 mu).22 However the adaptation of many crowns was more uneven than the above statements would tend to indicate. The study also showed that with great care and a limited number of firings, margins of a lesser thickness than a piece of 0.001 inch (25.4 mu) platinum foil could be attained. There appears to be promise in the use of a direct refractory die material. However, more studies are needed to overcome some of the problems in the technique described.

  16. Kopplung eines auf der Momentenmethode basierenden Computerprogramms mit einem FEM-Algorithmus zur Berechnung von elektromagnetischen Streuproblemen im medizinischen Bereich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, M.; Landstorfer, F. M.

    2004-05-01

    Am Beispiel der Verkopplung von medizinischen Geräten über den menschlichen Körper werden elektromagnetische Störphänomene im Klinikbereich betrachtet. Für die Berechnung dieser komplexen Szenarien wird zum einen die Momentenmethode (MoM) verwendet, die sich in besonderem Maße für die Berücksichtigung metallischer Strukturen und offener Streuprobleme eignet, und zum anderen die Methode der Finiten Elemente (FEM), mit der die Eigenschaften des menschlichen Körpers besser berücksichtigt werden können. Mit Hilfe des Äquivalenzprinzips lässt sich das Gesamtproblem in zwei Teile zerlegen, in ein inneres und in ein äußeres. Der Außenraum wird dabei mit der MoM behandelt und das Innere, d.h. der Körper mit der FEM. Die Kopplung der beiden Methoden erfolgt an der Körperoberfläche über äquivalente Oberflächenströme. Durch Lösen des resultierenden linearen Gleichungssystems für das gesamte Problem lassen sich dann die Oberflächenströme und die über die Kontinuitätsgleichung miteinander verknüpften elektromagnetischen Felder bestimmen.

  17. Wie LCC-Management die Produktionstechnik und die Instandhaltung verändert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Manfred

    Die zunehmende Komplexität von Produktionsanlagen und deren steigende Investitionssummen erfordern eine intensive Nutzung und überschaubare Folgekosten, zum Beispiel in der Instandhaltung. Um diese Ziele beim Investitionsvorgang von Anlagen effizienter als in der Vergangenheit zu gestalten sind Organisationsverfahren wie Life Cycle Cost Management (LCC-Management) bzw. Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) sinnvoll. Dieser Beitrag zeigt, wie Hersteller und Betreiber bis heute mit diesen Verfahren die Auslegung und das Betriebsverhalten von Anlagen entwickeln, deren reduzierten Instandhaltungsaufwand prognostizieren und die Leistungen zum Vorteil beider Vertragspartner steigern.

  18. Dying other, dying self: creating culture and meaning in palliative healthcare.

    PubMed

    McCann, Christopher J; Adames, Hector Y

    2013-08-01

    Dying is an act of creativity, and we each die as cultural beings. Culture helps us create the meaning death requests of us. However, the dominant culture of the healthcare system views death as a failure of modern medicine, an event of unspeakable terror and taboo. Palliative clinicians must honor each dying person's cultural identity (as well as the person's family), not subject it to the dominant discourse of Western medicine. This article offers practical guidelines for palliative clinicians to do so, as well as a case vignette.

  19. Use of aerosol route to fabricate positively charged Au/Fe3O4 Janus nanoparticles as multifunctional nanoplatforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-10-01

    Gold (Au)-decorated iron oxide (Fe3O4), Au/Fe3O4, Janus nanoparticles were fabricated via the continuous route for aerosol Au incorporation with Fe3O4 domains synthesized in an aqueous medium as multifunctional nanoplatforms. The fabricated nanoparticles were subsequently exposed to 185-nm UV light to generate positive charges on Au surfaces, and their activities were tested in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, gene-delivery and photothermal therapy. No additional polymeric coatings of the Janus particles also had a unique ability to suppress inflammatory responses in macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide, which may be due to the absence of amine groups.

  20. [Anguish about death and fear of dying, supportive care for the dying].

    PubMed

    Bouregba, A; Lebret, T

    2008-11-01

    During metastatic patient follow up, anguish about death is different from the fear of dying. In fact anguish is unconscious and associated with anxiety, on the other hand the fear of dying is a reaction to the threat of imminent death. Physical pain and isolation are factors that increase the pangs of death. The support of friends and family constitutes a real benefit for the treatment of patients during this period.

  1. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  2. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed Central

    Mermann, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377

  3. Clayton's compromises and the assisted dying debate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Richard Huxtable has recently argued that while assisted dying has been both repeatedly condemned and commended, a compromise resolution is possible. Following critique of other purported solutions, he argues for a new legal offence of "compassionate killing" as a plausible compromise between supporters and opponents of legalised assisted dying, because it offers something of significance to both sides. However, it turns out that "compassionate killing" would leave both sides with insufficient net benefit for the proposal to qualify as a compromise between them. By analogy with another apparently intractable bioethical debate, concerning destructive embryo research, this column rejects Huxtable's solution as another "Clayton's compromise". True compromise is not possible in bioethical debates involving divisions over deeply held values and world views. Resolving such debates inevitably involves the substitution of one dominant world view with another.

  4. Natural law and the "right to die".

    PubMed

    Whiting, R A

    Over the last two decades social concerns with the "right to die" have grown beyond the ability of our governmental and judicial institutions to consistently deal with them. One reason for this difficulty has been the unavailability of any legal or judicial standard that is consistent with American conceptions of liberty, morality, and justice. This article attempts to examine the theory of natural law to determine whether it may provide a consistent standard for resolving these difficult questions. As natural law theories are traced through history, they lead directly to the United States where a uniquely American interpretation became one of the foundational principles for our constitution. By applying these theories to the contemporary question of the "right to die," natural law can again provide the foundational principles needed to develop standards for dealing with such questions that are consistent with our historical, philosophical, and political traditions.

  5. [Assisted dying and conflict of interest].

    PubMed

    Hug, G

    1997-01-18

    A Swiss physician obtained his elderly patient's house, valued at $2 million, as a gift. The patient retained the right to stay in the house until her death. The physician also knew that she had made him the beneficiary of her estate, valued at + 10 million. She then died of untreated pneumonia while in his care. He had not discussed withholding of antibiotics with her or her family. In countries with advanced life-sustaining technology, 35% of all deaths are thought to occur after withholding of treatment. Physicians and others making such "MDEL" (medical decisions concerning the end of life) have a conflict of interest, if they benefit from their patients' death. These conflicts are unethical. They are dangerous to patients, physicians, the medical profession, and the public. The Netherlands have laws and rules of professional conduct that prohibit MDEL-for-profit, i.e., a mode of assisted dying that benefits caregivers to the detriment of patients and their families.

  6. [Sudden die-off of honeybee colonies].

    PubMed

    Muz, Mustafa N

    2008-01-01

    Apis mellifera is used for honeybee keeping all over Turkey. Recently, honeybees have been suddenly disappearing for no apparent reason. It is presumed that some viral and parasitic honeybee pathogens are responsible for this. No medical research has been conducted to determine the pathologic causes of the sudden die-off of the honeybee colonies in Turkey as yet. This is of urgent importance for future of the honeybee industry.

  7. Died of wounds: a mortality review.

    PubMed

    Keene, Damian Douglas; Penn-Barwell, J G; Wood, P R; Hunt, N; Delaney, R; Clasper, J; Russell, R J; Mahoney, P F

    2016-10-01

    Combat casualty care is a complex system involving multiple clinicians, medical interventions and casualty transfers. Improving the performance of this system requires examination of potential weaknesses. This study reviewed the cause and timing of death of casualties deemed to have died from their injuries after arriving at a medical treatment facility during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, in order to identify potential areas for improving outcomes. This was a retrospective review of all casualties who reached medical treatment facilities alive, but subsequently died from injuries sustained during combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. It included all deaths from start to completion of combat operations. The UK military joint theatre trauma registry was used to identify cases, and further data were collected from clinical notes, postmortem records and coroner's reports. There were 71 combat-related fatalities who survived to a medical treatment facility; 17 (24%) in Iraq and 54 (76%) in Afghanistan. Thirty eight (54%) died within the first 24 h. Thirty-three (47%) casualties died from isolated head injuries, a further 13 (18%) had unsurvivable head injuries but not in isolation. Haemorrhage following severe lower limb trauma, often in conjunction with abdominal and pelvic injuries, was the cause of a further 15 (21%) deaths. Severe head injury was the most common cause of death. Irrespective of available medical treatment, none of this group had salvageable injuries. Future emphasis should be placed in preventative strategies to protect the head against battlefield trauma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Public attitudes toward the right to die.

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, S J; Genuis, S K; Chang, W C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine public attitudes toward the right to die, euthanasia and related end-of-life decisions. DESIGN: Mail survey based on telephone numbers randomly selected by computer. SETTING: Edmonton. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1347 computer-generated, randomly selected telephone numbers called between February and June 1992, 902 individuals were reached, and 500 eligible contacts (55%) agreed to fill out the mailed questionnaire based on 12 vignettes involving end-of-life decisions. A total of 356 usable questionnaires (71%) were subsequently returned. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Attitudes toward end-of-life decisions including withdrawal of life support, euthanasia, chronic suffering and the right to die, living wills and family involvement in decision making for incompetent individuals. Comments and demographic data were also solicited. RESULTS: Of the respondents 84% supported a family's right to withdraw life support from a patient in a persistent coma, and 90% supported a mentally competent patient's right to request that life support be withdrawn. Active euthanasia was supported by 65% for only patients experiencing severe pain and terminal illness. There was marked opposition to euthanasia for patients in other circumstances, such as an elderly disabled person who feels he or she is a burden on relatives (opposed by 65%), a patient with chronic depression resistant to treatment (by 75%) or an elderly person no longer satisfied with life and who has various minor physical ailments (by 83%). In all, 63% of the respondents felt that legalization of euthanasia for terminal illnesses would lead to euthanasia for many other, unsupported reasons, and 34% supported legislation to prohibit euthanasia in all situations. CONCLUSIONS: Public support for the right to die varies depending on the circumstances of the patient. The single most significant factor determining attitudes was the level of religious activity. The family's wishes were an important factor in end

  9. Diagnosing dying: an integrative literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona; Brooks-Young, Patricia; Brunton Gray, Carol; Larkin, Phil; Connolly, Michael; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Larsson, Maria; Smith, Tracy; Chater, Susie

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure patients and families receive appropriate end-of-life care pathways and guidelines aim to inform clinical decision making. Ensuring appropriate outcomes through the use of these decision aids is dependent on timely use. Diagnosing dying is a complex clinical decision, and most of the available practice checklists relate to cancer. There is a need to review evidence to establish diagnostic indicators that death is imminent on the basis of need rather than a cancer diagnosis. Aim To examine the evidence as to how patients are judged by clinicians as being in the final hours or days of life. Design Integrative literature review. Data sources Five electronic databases (2001–2011): Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. The search yielded a total of 576 hits, 331 titles and abstracts were screened, 42 papers were retrieved and reviewed and 23 articles were included. Results Analysis reveals an overarching theme of uncertainty in diagnosing dying and two subthemes: (1) ‘characteristics of dying’ involve dying trajectories that incorporate physical, social, spiritual and psychological decline towards death; (2) ‘treatment orientation’ where decision making related to diagnosing dying may remain focused towards biomedical interventions rather than systematic planning for end-of-life care. Conclusions The findings of this review support the explicit recognition of ‘uncertainty in diagnosing dying’ and the need to work with and within this concept. Clinical decision making needs to allow for recovery where that potential exists, but equally there is the need to avoid futile interventions. PMID:24780536

  10. The hospice: Humane care for the dying.

    PubMed

    Franco, V W

    1983-09-01

    The hospice movement arose as a reaction to the dehumanizing atmosphere of acute-care hospitals, where excessive utilization of life support equipment deprived dying patients of a meaningful vision of their destiny. Respecting the spiritual quest of the terminally ill for wholeness and dignity, the hospice concept prescribes the rendering of compassionate and pastoral care by a benevolent community of family, health care staff, friends, and clergy. Approximately 800 hospice programs are currently evolving in the United States. St. Mary's (formerly "Hillhaven") Hospice in Tucson, Arizona, offers the most comprehensive program of services, including home care, inpatient care, and artistic media through which the dying express their creativity. Numerous demonstration projects funded by several government agencies, principally the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), are expected to result in the legislative actions eliminating barriers to reimbursement of the cost of hospice services by Medicare, Medicaid, and other third-party payers. Existential analysis reveals the value of religion and spiritual support in enabling the dying to banish anxiety and muster the hope requisite for fully appreciating the authentic meaning of their destiny.

  11. The hospice: Humane care for the dying.

    PubMed

    Franco, V W

    1985-03-01

    The hospice movement arose as a reaction to the dehumanizing atmosphere of acute-care hospitals, where excessive utilization of life support equipment deprived dying patients of a meaningful vision of their destiny. Respecting the spiritual quest of the terminally ill for wholeness and dignity, the hospice concept prescribes the rendering of compassionate and pastoral care by a benevolent community of family, health care staff, friends, and clergy. Approximately 800 hospice programs are currently evolving in the United States. St. Mary's (formerly "Hillhaven") Hospice in Tucson, Arizona, offers the most comprehensive program of services, including home care, inpatient care, and artistic media through which the dying express their creativity. Numerous demonstration projects funded by several government agencies, principally the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), are expected to result in legislative actions eliminating barriers to reimbursement of the cost of hospice services by Medicare, Medicaid, and other third-party payers. Existential analysis reveals the value of religion and spiritual support in enabling the dying to banish anxiety and muster the hope requisite for fully appreciating the authentic meaning of their destiny.

  12. Parents dying of cancer and their children.

    PubMed

    Beale, Estela A; Sivesind, Debra; Bruera, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    We reviewed our experience with 28 consecutive children referred for assessment and intervention. These were the children of patients with terminal cancer referred to the Palliative Care and Symptom Control Service. In all cases the dying parent was a biological parent. Eleven parameters were assessed in each of 29 children and their incidence was calculated. The children and their parents were seen in a semistructured interview, together as well as separately. The parameters were: seeking reassurance (82), becoming a caretaker (79), inability to separate from parent (79), anger about feeling abandoned (68), despair (57), guilt (54), discipline problems, aggressive behavior (46), denial (39), blame of others (21), and fear for the child's own health (18). Our results suggest that children with dying parents manifest significant distress as well as a greater understanding of their parent's illness than is usually suspected. Timely intervention by a child psychiatrist or other mental health professional with proven competence in working with children can help children to better cope with the death and dying of their parent and ameliorate the process of bereavement following the parent's death. Because of our small sample, we cannot generalize about all of the findings. Further research is required to characterize the level of distress in the children and the long-term impact in their overall adjustment to life.

  13. Caring Science Conscious Dying: An Emerging Metaparadigm.

    PubMed

    Rosa, William; Estes, Tarron; Watson, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Caring science is an extant theory of human relationship, guiding the profession of nursing with the understanding and application of a moral-ethical praxis that promotes, protects, and provides human dignity throughout the life continuum. Over the past 30 or more years, caring science has transformed nursing by calling for a heightened ethical perspective of human dignity in how nurses practice, educate, research, and evolve the profession. Conscious dying is a framework rooted in a human caring ontology, which strives to deepen the nurse healer's awareness in tending to a patient's dying and death, returning death to its sacred place in the cycle of life. Reflective inventories are self-reflection tools that have been used to encourage nurses' personal growth and development and may be utilized in individual or group settings. The purpose herein is to introduce an emerging metaparadigm that links self to system, interweaving and integrating the teachings of caring science and conscious dying through the use of reflective inventories for both the individual nurse and collective of nursing.

  14. Killing, letting die, and withdrawing aid.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    One of the aims of this article is to contribute to the identification of the empirical criteria governing the use of the concepts of killing and letting die. I will not attempt a comprehensive analysis of the concepts but will limit the inquiry to certain problematic cases -- namely, cases involving the removal or withdrawal of life-supporting aid or protection. The analysis of these cases will, however, shed light on the criteria for distinguishing killing and letting die in other cases as well. My overall aims in the article are partly constructive and partly skeptical. I hope to advance our understanding of the nature of the distinction between killing and letting die. This, I believe, will enable us to defend the moral relevance of the distinction against certain objections -- in particular, objections that claim that the distinction fails to coincide with commonsense moral intuitions. Yet I will suggest that, as we get clearer about the nature of the distinction and the sources of its intuitive appeal, it may seem that the intuitions it supports are not so well grounded as one could wish.

  15. Oxidative degradation of industrial wastewater using spray deposited TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 bilayered thin films.

    PubMed

    Mahadik, M A; Shinde, S S; Pathan, H M; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2014-12-01

    The Fe2O3, Au:Fe2O3, TiO2/Fe2O3 and TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin films are successfully prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique at an optimised substrate temperature of 400 °C and 470 °C, respectively onto amorphous and F:SnO2 coated glass substrates. The effect of TiO2 layer onto photoelectrochemical (PEC), structural, optical and morphological properties of Fe2O3, Au:Fe2O3, TiO2/Fe2O3 and TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin films is studied. The PEC characterization shows that, maximum values of short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are (Isc = 185 μA and Voc = 450 mV) are at 38 nm thickness of TiO2. Deposited films are polycrystalline with a rhombohedral and anatase crystal structure having (104) preferred orientation. SEM and AFM images show deposited thin films are compact and uniform with seed like grains. The photocatalytic activities of the large surface area (64 cm(2)) TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin film photocatalysts were evaluated by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of industrial wastewater under sunlight light irradiation. The results show that the TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin film photocatalyst exhibited about 87% and 94% degradation of pollutant in sugarcane and textile industrial wastewater, respectively. The significant reduction in COD and BOD values from 95 mg/L to 13 mg/L and 75 mg/L to 11 mg/L, respectively was also observed.

  16. AUF1 and HuR: possible implications of mRNA stability in thyroid function and disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract RNA-binding proteins may regulate every aspect of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA trafficking, stability and translation of many genes. The dynamic association of these proteins with RNA defines the lifetime, cellular localization, processing and the rate at which a specific mRNA is translated. One of the pathways involved in regulating of mRNA stability is mediated by adenylate uridylate-rich element (ARE) binding proteins. These proteins are involved in processes of apoptosis, tumorigenesis and development. Out of many ARE-binding proteins, two of them AUF1 and HuR were studied most extensively and reported to regulate the mRNA stability in vivo. Our previously published data demonstrate that both proteins are involved in thyroid carcinogenesis. Several other reports postulate that mRNA binding proteins may participate in thyroid hormone actions. However, until now, exacts mechanisms and the possible role of post-transcriptional regulation and especially the role of AUF1 and HuR in those processes remain not fully understood. In this study we shortly review the possible function of both proteins in relation to development and various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including thyroid function and disorders. PMID:21835052

  17. Neuronal ELAVL proteins utilize AUF-1 as a co-partner to induce neuron-specific alternative splicing of APP

    PubMed Central

    Fragkouli, Apostolia; Koukouraki, Pelagia; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D.; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G.; Doxakis, Epaminondas

    2017-01-01

    Aβ peptide that accumulates in Alzheimer’s disease brain, derives from proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) that exists in three main isoforms derived by alternative splicing. The isoform APP695, lacking exons 7 and 8, is predominately expressed in neurons and abnormal neuronal splicing of APP has been observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we demonstrate that expression of the neuronal members of the ELAVL protein family (nELAVLs) correlate with APP695 levels in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we provide evidence that nELAVLs regulate the production of APP695; by using a series of reporters we show that concurrent binding of nELAVLs to sequences located both upstream and downstream of exon 7 is required for its skipping, whereas nELAVL-binding to a highly conserved U-rich sequence upstream of exon 8, is sufficient for its exclusion. Finally, we report that nELAVLs block APP exon 7 or 8 definition by reducing the binding of the essential splicing factor U2AF65, an effect facilitated by the concurrent binding of AUF-1. Our study provides new insights into the regulation of APP pre-mRNA processing, supports the role for nELAVLs as neuron-specific splicing regulators and reveals a novel function of AUF1 in alternative splicing. PMID:28291226

  18. Numerical simulation and experiment on multilayer stagger-split die.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Mingzhe; Han, Qigang; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Bolong; Sui, Zhou

    2013-05-01

    A novel ultra-high pressure device, multilayer stagger-split die, has been constructed based on the principle of "dividing dies before cracking." Multilayer stagger-split die includes an encircling ring and multilayer assemblages, and the mating surfaces of the multilayer assemblages are mutually staggered between adjacent layers. In this paper, we investigated the stressing features of this structure through finite element techniques, and the results were compared with those of the belt type die and single split die. The contrast experiments were also carried out to test the bearing pressure performance of multilayer stagger-split die. It is concluded that the stress distributions are reasonable and the materials are utilized effectively for multilayer stagger-split die. And experiments indicate that the multilayer stagger-split die can bear the greatest pressure.

  19. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  20. Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164254.html Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study Slight differences in death rates were possibly ... likely to die if they are treated during weeks that inspectors are checking on the staff, a ...

  1. p16( INK4a) positively regulates cyclin D1 and E2F1 through negative control of AUF1.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Colak, Dilek; Al-Saif, Maher; Al-Bakheet, Albandary; Hendrayani, Siti-Faujiah; Al-Yousef, Nujoud; Kaya, Namik; Khabar, Khalid S; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2011-01-01

    The cyclin-D/CDK4,6/p16(INK4a)/pRB/E2F pathway, a key regulator of the critical G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle, is universally disrupted in human cancer. However, the precise function of the different members of this pathway and their functional interplay are still not well defined. We have shown here that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) protein positively controls the expression of cyclin D1 and E2F1 in both human and mouse cells. p16(INK4a) stabilizes the mRNAs of the corresponding genes through negative regulation of the mRNA decay-promoting AUF1 protein. Immunoprecipitation of AUF1-associated RNAs followed by RT-PCR indicated that endogenous AUF1 binds to the cyclin D1 and E2F1 mRNAs. Furthermore, AUF1 down-regulation increased the expression levels of these genes, while concurrent silencing of AUF1 and p16(INK4a), using specific siRNAs, restored normal expression of both cyclinD1 and E2F1. Besides, we have shown the presence of functional AU-rich elements in the E2F1 3'UTR, which contributed to p16/AUF1-mediated regulation of E2F1 post-transcriptional events in vivo. Importantly, genome-wide gene expression microarray analysis revealed the presence of a large number of genes differentially expressed in a p16(INK4a) -dependent manner, and several of these genes are also members of the AUF1 and E2F1 regulons. We also present evidence that E2F1 mediates p16-dependent regulation of several pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, and the consequent induction of spontaneous as well as doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These findings show that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16( INK4a) is also a modulator of transcription and apoptosis through controlling the expression of two major transcription regulators, AUF1 and E2F1.

  2. Interaction of Several Dies on an Elastic Half-Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argatov, I. I.

    2003-09-01

    A contact problem is solved for several rigid dies on an elastic half-space. Relationships between the generalized loads and generalized displacements of a large number of spaced dies are established. The interaction between flat-based dies is described in terms of their capacity characteristics. The general solution is constructed on the basis of Mossakovski's theorem. Explicit formulas are derived for a system of elliptic dies

  3. Impact of Temperature on Cooling Structural Variation of Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesova, Marianna; Czan, Andrej

    2014-12-01

    The article is focused on the issue of die forging in the automotive industry. The cooling effect of temperature on the structure of forged die are under review. In the article, there is elaborated the analysis of theoretical knowledge in the field, focusing on die forging and experimentally proven effect of the cooling rate on the final structure of forged dies made of hypoeutectic carbon steel C56E2.

  4. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  5. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  6. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  7. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  8. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  9. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  10. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  11. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  12. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  13. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  14. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  15. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  16. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  17. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  18. Die and telescoping punch form convolutions in thin diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Die and punch set forms convolutions in thin dished metal diaphragm without stretching the metal too thin at sharp curvatures. The die corresponds to the metal shape to be formed, and the punch consists of elements that progressively slide against one another under the restraint of a compressed-air cushion to mate with the die.

  19. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  20. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  1. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  2. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  3. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  4. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  5. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  6. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  7. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  8. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  9. Differentiating suicide decedents who died using firearms from those who died using other methods.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Joye C

    2017-02-22

    Studies have documented a link between gun ownership and suicide, but little is known about characteristics of those most likely to use a gun in a suicide attempt rather than alternative methods. We examined which factors differentiate suicide decedents who died using a gun from those who died by other methods. We further examined whether such findings are consistent within the subcomponent of our larger sample comprised entirely of gun owning suicide decedents. Data reflect 267 suicide decedents, with data provided by individuals who identified as having lost someone to suicide (loss survivors). Within the full sample, a higher proportion of gun-owning and male suicide decedents died by firearm. Further, individuals who had previously discussed suicide or engaged in one or more non-lethal suicide attempts were less likely to die by suicide using a gun. Within the subsample of gun owning suicide decedents, a greater proportion of decedents who stored guns at home and in unsecure locations died from self-inflected gunshot wounds. These findings add clarity to the relationship between firearm ownership and death by suicide at the individual level. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the notion that means safety implementation may represent a vital suicide prevention tool.

  10. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  11. WA30 The dying well community charter and dying matters: a united kingdom (uk) approach to public health and dying.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nuzhat; Chapman, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The Dying Matters Coalition, set up following the UK Government's End of Life Care Strategy in 2008, is led by the NCPC (UK umbrella organisation). Dying Matters supports changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards dying, death and bereavement, and through this to make 'living and dying well' the norm. The Coalition has over 30,000 members, and encourages people to talk to friends and family about their end of life wishes, including how they would like to be cared for, where they want to die and their funeral plans. The Dying Well Community Charter is an innovative approach to community development work, working with Pathfinder areas to pilot this approach, rather than encouraging health and social care services to "do" end of life care "to" people, to encourage them to work with community leaders to make end of life care everyone's responsibility. Participants will discover what has worked in the UK, including many low resource options, and a community development approach to palliative care. We worked with 8 Pathfinder communities to ask them to pilot the Dying Well Community Charter approach. Dying Matters was the first national awareness and behaviour change campaign around death, dying and bereavement. Dying Matters has over 30,000 members. Outcome of the Charter work is unknown, but more will be known by the time of the conference. How communities can come together for better death, dying and bereavement. That death and dying are not subjects that need to be avoided, and can be engaged with for better outcomes. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Dying with dignity: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemati, Zeinab; Ashouri, Elaheh; AllahBakhshian, Maryam; Pourfarzad, Zahra; Shirani, Farimah; Safazadeh, Shima; Ziyaei, Marziyeh; Varzeshnejad, Maryam; Hashemi, Maryam; Taleghani, Fariba

    2016-05-01

    This article is a report of an analysis of the concept of dying with dignity. Dignity is an important component of providing care for dying patients and their families. Nevertheless, given that this concept is poorly defined, concept analysis is one of the best ways to define and clarify the concept of death with dignity with the aim to enhance its application in clinical practice, research and education. A search of multiple nursing and social sciences databases was undertaken, including Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, ProQuest, Scopus, Medline, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Noormage, Cinahl, Magiran, PsycINFO and SID. After an extensive review of the literature from 1998-2014, about 14 related articles were included in the study. Based on these articles, the applications, attributes and experimental results of and references to death with dignity were recorded. Based on this analysis, the most important attributes of this concept included respect for privacy, respect, spiritual peace and hope. The antecedents of this concept included consideration of moral values during caregiving, preservation of human dignity as a patient right and professional ethics, and belief in the dignity of self and others, consideration of culture in providing end-of-life care. The consequences of this concept included a sense of peace in the patient and their family, peaceful death and provision of patient privacy and comfort. The concept of patient dignity has been referred to in many contexts. However, considering the dignity of dying patients commensurate with their culture is the most important component of care provided by nurses to facilitate a peaceful death. Respecting the dignity of the patient results in the reduction of her/his suffering and prepares her/him for a comfortable death. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dying cancer patients talk about euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N

    2008-08-01

    Within developed nations, there is increasing public debate about and apparent endorsement of the appropriateness of euthanasia as an autonomous choice to die in the face of intolerable suffering. Surveys report socio-demographic differences in rates of acceptance of euthanasia, but there is little in-depth analysis of how euthanasia is understood and positioned within the social and moral lives of individuals, particularly those who might be considered suitable candidates-for example, terminally-ill cancer patients. During discussions with 28 such patients in Australia regarding medical decisions at the end of life, euthanasia was raised by 13 patients, with the others specifically asked about it. Twenty-four patients spoke positively of euthanasia, 19 of these voicing some concerns. None identified euthanasia as a currently favoured option. Four were completely against it. Endorsement for euthanasia was in the context of a hypothetical future or for a hypothetical other person, or temporally associated with acute pain. Arguments supporting euthanasia framed the issue as a matter of freedom of choice, as preserving dignity in death, and as curbing intolerable pain and suffering, both of the patient and of those around them. A common analogy featured was that of euthanising a dog. These arguments were typically presented as self-evident justification for euthanasia, construed as an appropriate choice to die, with opposers positioned as morally inferior or ignorant. The difficulties of ensuring 'choice' and the moral connotations of 'choosing to die,' however, worked to problematise the appropriateness of euthanising specific individuals. We recommend further empirical investigation of the moral and social meanings associated with euthanasia.

  14. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: who dies, and why?

    PubMed

    Lantigua, Hector; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Schmidt, J Michael; Lee, Kiwon; Badjatia, Neeraj; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E Sander; Mayer, Stephan A

    2015-08-31

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Causes and mechanisms of in-hospital death after SAH in the modern era of neurocritical care remain incompletely understood. We studied 1200 consecutive SAH patients prospectively enrolled in the Columbia University SAH Outcomes Project between July 1996 and January 2009. Analysis was performed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality was 18% (216/1200): 3% for Hunt-Hess grade 1 or 2, 9% for grade 3, 24% for grade 4, and 71% for grade 5. The most common adjudicated primary causes of death or neurological devastation leading to withdrawal of support were direct effects of the primary hemorrhage (55%), aneurysm rebleeding (17%), and medical complications (15%). Among those who died, brain death was declared in 42%, 50% were do-not-resuscitate at the time of cardiac death (86% of whom had life support actively withdrawn), and 8% died despite full support. Admission predictors of mortality were age, loss of consciousness at ictus, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, large aneurysm size, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) physiologic subscore, and Modified Fisher Scale score. Hospital complications that further increased the risk of dying in multivariable analysis included rebleeding, global cerebral edema, hypernatremia, clinical signs of brain stem herniation, hypotension of less than 90 mm Hg treated with pressors, pulmonary edema, myocardial ischemia, and hepatic failure. Delayed cerebral ischemia, defined as deterioration or infarction from vasospasm, did not predict mortality. Strategies directed toward minimizing early brain injury and aneurysm rebleeding, along with prevention and treatment of medical complication, hold the best promise for further reducing mortality after SAH.

  15. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  16. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  17. Do imaginary companions die? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kastenbaum, Robert; Fox, Lynn

    Adults in this exploratory study usually recalled that their childhood imaginary companions faded away or were dismissed as other options for social interaction became more appealing. However, eight participants reported that their IC had died. Analysis of these deaths offers a glimpse of the child's talent for transitional thought processes that navigate between the emerging constraints of logic and the continuing appeal of fantasy. It is suggested that young children are testing the limits and possibilities of what it means to be "real" at the same time they are trying to puzzle out "alive" and "dead."

  18. Implementing California's Law on Assisted Dying.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ruchika

    2017-03-01

    On October 5, 2015, Governor Jerry Brown approved bill ABX2 15, the End of Life Option Act, making California the fifth state in the country to allow physician-assisted dying. The law was modeled after Oregon's 1997 Death with Dignity Act. When the legislative special session ended on March 10, 2016, California health care providers had only ninety days to respond to the state mandate before the law would take effect, on June 9, 2016. Experience with the law so far suggests several challenges with implementation.

  19. Method and apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darter, John L.

    1986-06-01

    The invention comprises an apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions which utilizes die blocks of low melting temperature metallic material. The die blocks are formed in an adjustable mold which comprises a mold box, a pivotable dam within the mold box and blocking means for locking the pivotable dam member in a desired angular position. Once a desired die block angle is ascertained for a particular joggle, the pivotable member of the mold box is adjusted to produce the desired angle in the die casting made in the mold box.

  20. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  1. Die swell as an objective in the design of polymer extrusion dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegbert, Roland; Behr, Marek; Elgeti, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on developing a suitable objective function for the inverse form of profile extrusion die design. First, the problem is motivated by introducing the extrusion die design process. After describing how Computer Aided Engineering enhances the traditional design process, a set of applicable objective functions is introduced. The main criteria for identifying the most suitable are computational applicability, robustness and smoothness of the functional. After discussing the results of several simulations, an objective function is proposed for the implementation in an existing optimization framework utilizing parameter-based optimization.

  2. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    PubMed

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. DIE Deflection Modeling: Empirical Validation and Tech Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2003-05-28

    This report summarizes computer modeling work that was designed to help understand how the die casting die and machine contribute to parting plane separation during operation. Techniques developed in earlier research (8) were applied to complete a large computational experiment that systematically explored the relationship between the stiffness of the machine platens and key dimensional and structural variables (platen area covered, die thickness, platen thickness, thickness of insert and the location of the die with respect to the platen) describing the die/machine system. The results consistently show that there are many significant interactions among the variables and it is the interactions, more than the individual variables themselves, which determine the performance of the machine/die system. That said, the results consistently show that it is the stiffness of the machine platens that has the largest single impact on die separation.

  4. Bi-functional Au/FeS (Au/Co3O4) composite for in situ SERS monitoring and degradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuzhen; Cai, Qian; Lu, Kailing; Liao, Fan; Shao, Mingwang

    2016-01-01

    The bi-functional Au/FeS (Au/Co3O4) composite was fabricated by in situ reducing Au nanoparticles onto the surface of FeS (Co3O4). The as-prepared FeS possessed a multi-structure composed of plenty of nanoplates, which were coated by Au nanoparticles with an average size of 47.5 nm. While the Co3O4 showed a thin hexagonal sheet containing Au nanoparticles on its surface with an average size of 79.0 nm. Both the as-prepared Au/FeS and Au/Co3O4 composites exhibited excellent SERS performance, capable of enhancing the Raman signals of R6G molecules with the enhancement factor up to 1.81 × 106 and 7.60 × 104, respectively. Moreover, Au/FeS (Au/Co3O4) composite also has been verified to have intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, which could decompose H2O2 into hydroxyl radicals and then degrade organic pollutants into small molecules. Therefore, SERS can be used to real-time and in situ monitoring the degradation process of R6G molecules, employing the Au/FeS (Au/Co3O4) composite both as SERS substrate and catalyst.

  5. [The debate about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Armando; Solar, Sebastián

    2005-05-01

    The Right to Die is a debatable issue and some basic notions need to be clarified to discuss it. Death needs to be recognized as part of human life. The goal of medicine is to avoid pain and alleviate suffering, to prevent premature death and when this is not possible, to let it occur peacefully. The concept of euthanasia is unclear, which increases the confusion on end-of-life topics. The term euthanasia should be used only when referring to medical acts performed to produce the patient's death, with the intention of terminating his/her suffering. It is what is usually called "active" euthanasia, which can be voluntary or involuntary. It is essential to understand the difference between producing and allowing death. This will permit timely decisions about limiting or withdrawing treatments, that can be disproportionate or that are only prolonging suffering. Limiting treatments does not mean to abandon the patient but rather to redefine his needs, such as pain treatment, prevention of complications, and relief of suffering. The ethic rationale for these decisions is the respect to the dignity of human life, and the estimation of proportionality or futility of each treatment. The physician's duty with the patient at the end of his life is to assist him in dying according to his values and to minimize his distress.

  6. Dying, mourning, and spirituality: a psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Marrone, R

    1999-09-01

    Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled.

  7. The dying child and surviving family members.

    PubMed

    Shrier, D K

    1980-12-01

    This overview of death and dying focuses on the dying child and surviving family members. Children's concepts of death at different developmental stages are reviewed. These range from an inability to distinguish death from other forms of separation prior to age 3, through partial concepts of death until, by age 10 to 15 years, children are able to conceptualize death as universal, inevitable and final. The importance of adults assisting in the child's growing comprehension of death is stressed. The stages of grief and mourning, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, are reviewed from the perspective of the child and family: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Recognition is given to the variations in coping styles among different family members. The special circumstances related to the death of an infant and the impact of the death of a child on the surviving siblings are discussed. Specific helpful interventions to assist families in coping with mourning are described. The death of a child remains one of the most painful and difficult events for a family and its physician to accept.

  8. Dying or living?: The double bind.

    PubMed

    Longhofer, J

    1980-06-01

    Describing the behaviors of terminally ill patients, their families and those charged with their care has received considerable attention during the past decade. This study of comprehensive cancer treatment and research facility indicates that the prevailing theory is limited to explanation at the intra-psychic level. In her work with hundreds of terminal cases, Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross found that patients typically progress through five stages: 1) denial, 2) anger, 3) bargaining, 4) depression, and 5) acceptance. She concludes that the majority of her patients die in a stage of acceptance--a state of equanimity. Recently, scholars have claimed that this five stage scheme has limited applicability and may in fact contribute to the formalization of a dying person's behavior. This preliminary report proposes that the stage theory, if it has any descriptive validity, becomes meaningful only when used to describe behaviors occurring among patients, families, and medical practitioners. A plausible explanation of these behaviors is accomplished by examination of communication patterns containing the structure of paradox or double bind. Patients are forced to perceive realities about their physical conditions not as they appear to them, but as they are defined by those in their environment. This paper explores these communication patterns in relation to the structure of social relationships and the specific contents of messages being transmitted and received.

  9. Death and dying: what the patient wants.

    PubMed

    Balducci, L

    2012-04-01

    A good death and a death with dignity may be achieved when death is congruent with the personal values of the patient. It behooves the practitioner to recognize these values and to cater to them. This paper describes effective communication with the dying person, and the partnership of treatment team, patient and family in face of the patient death. To identify and define the patient wishes it is necessary to learn how to interpret the patient's non verbal as often patients are unable to formulate the questions they wish to ask concerning their passing. These difficulties stem from several cultural factors including concern about disturbing the practitioner. It is the treatment team's responsibility to facilitate this discussion. A good death is achieved when symptoms are controlled and when patients and family recognize death as a unique living experience to be treasured as any other living experience. A death with dignity brings healing, that is always possible even when cure is out of reach. Patient's and practitioner's values may be at odd in face of controversial issues including euthanasia, assisted suicide and terminal sedation. Though he/she should not be compelled to execute these requests, the practitioner should be able to entertain an open discussion with the patient concerning these issues. Open communication and reflective listening even in presence of disagreements are the venue of healing. The study of death and dying requires novel approaches including personal narrative and qualitative research to complement traditional research instrument, such as questionnaire that cannot embrace the whole human dimension.

  10. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  11. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  12. Caregivers in Death, Dying, and Bereavement Situations: International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    This document examines issues related to the work of both formal and informal caregivers as they are involved in caring for dying and/or bereaved individuals. The examination is organized around five central questions: what brings individuals to this work?; what enables them to develop effective caregiving relationships?; what sustains them in…

  13. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.Allen; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Choudhury, Aswin K.; Dedhia, Sanjay

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects or problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  14. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies on agglomeration phenomena of ultrathin Au/Fe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiko, Masao; Koo, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Min; Ha, Jae-Geun

    2012-05-15

    The agglomeration phenomena of a few nanometer thick Au/Fe bilayers, grown on an MgO(100) substrate, were studied by using atomic force microscopy and x ray diffraction (XRD). The authors found that the insertion of an Fe ultrathin layer between an MgO(100) substrate and a 4 nm thick Au layer promotes the agglomeration process of the Au layer, in which the bilayer structure changes into large Fe/Au islands of {approx}200 nm in diameter. In addition, XRD results revealed that the Au in the agglomerated islands has only a (111)-crystallographic orientation, presumably caused by reducing the large surface energy of Au on the MgO(001) substrate. These findings are quite different from cases in which structural stabilization is achieved by inserting an Fe seeding layer of a few nanometers on an MgO(001) substrate.

  15. Use of aerosol route to fabricate positively charged Au/Fe3O4 Janus nanoparticles as multifunctional nanoplatforms

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-01-01

    Gold (Au)-decorated iron oxide (Fe3O4), Au/Fe3O4, Janus nanoparticles were fabricated via the continuous route for aerosol Au incorporation with Fe3O4 domains synthesized in an aqueous medium as multifunctional nanoplatforms. The fabricated nanoparticles were subsequently exposed to 185-nm UV light to generate positive charges on Au surfaces, and their activities were tested in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, gene-delivery and photothermal therapy. No additional polymeric coatings of the Janus particles also had a unique ability to suppress inflammatory responses in macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide, which may be due to the absence of amine groups. PMID:27713519

  16. [From absolute necessity of dying to preventive planning of dying? The change of social and medicine debates on dying in the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Jordan, I

    2010-04-01

    International euthanasia debates focussing on "autonomous dying" in the 1980s corresponded with a general change in the health-care system: availability of new technical means with an analogous medical-ethic understanding of human suffering and dying. This change is part of a general development from "passive health consumption" to "active prevention" in our society.

  17. The dying role: its relevance to improved patient care.

    PubMed

    Noyes, R; Clancy, J

    1977-02-01

    Society is failing to meet the obligation it has to its dying members. Persons with terminal illnesses suffer isolation and neglect in hospitals, receive overzealous treatment by physicians, and are kept in ignorance of their situation by families and medical personnel. Evidence for these statements has come from observers of the medical care system and from dying patients themselves (Kübler-Ross, 1969; Reynolds and Kalish, 1974; Sudnow, 1967); In the nineteenth century it was common for persons to die in the familiar environs of their homes, surrounded by grieving families from whom they parted in a meaningful manner (Blauner, 1966). Dying persons of today no longer fill a well-defined social role. Instead, the distinction between the roles of sick and dying persons has been lost and, in the resulting confusion, the care of dying people has suffered. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between the dying and sick roles, identify the signs of existing role confusion, suggest ways in which this confusion may be corrected, and show how reestablishment of the dying role can result in improved care of dying people. The important part physicians play in defining sick and dying roles will be emphasized.

  18. The Dying Role: Its Relevance to Improved Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Russell; Clancy, John

    2016-01-01

    SOCIETY is failing to meet the obligation it has to its dying members. Persons with terminal illnesses suffer isolation and neglect in hospitals, receive overzealous treatment by physicians, and are kept in ignorance of their situation by families and medical personnel. Evidence for these statements has come from observers of the medical care system and from dying patients themselves (Kübler-Ross, 1969; Reynolds and Kalish, 1974; Sudnow, 1967). In the nineteenth century it was common for persons to die in the familiar environs of their homes, surrounded by grieving families from whom they parted in a meaningful manner (Blauner, 1966). Dying persons of today no longer fill a well-defined social role. Instead, the distinction between the roles of sick and dying persons has been lost and, in the resulting confusion, the care of dying people has suffered. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between the dying and sick roles, identify the signs of existing role confusion, suggest ways in which this confusion may be corrected, and show how reestablishment of the dying role can result in improved care of dying people. The important part physicians play in defining sick and dying roles will be emphasized.

  19. Necroptosis: A new way of dying?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Britt

    2016-09-01

    This review embarks upon a cell death journey from the discovery of apoptosis and necrosis through to the coalescence of these: necroptosis. The mechanisms of 2 emerging necrotic cell death pathways, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, will be explored before delving into apoptotic and necroptotic signaling cascades, highlighting the complex interplay between molecular players. The involvement of the ripoptosome, interferon signaling and DNA damage in necroptosis will be discussed briefly. The major focus is on necroptosis initiation by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and its cognate receptor TNFR1, caspase-independent RIP1/RIP3/MLKL necrosome activation and cell death propagation by damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release. Finally, the implications of a complex cell death signaling network will be revealed in the context of cancer biology and therapy. The clinical contribution of the discovery of necroptosis as an unequivocally new way of dying is monumental and could drastically alter cancer therapy strategies in the future.

  20. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  1. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, D M

    1999-01-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide. PMID:10635498

  2. Paradoxical contributions of EEG during protracted dying.

    PubMed

    Spudis, E V; Penry, J K; Link, A S

    1984-02-01

    Estimates of the potential for recovery from severe brain damage have become more accurate as EEG and imaging techniques evolve. When all modern electrical criteria for brain death are satisfied, useful recovery is probably impossible. Many patients who have no reasonable chance of returning to a cognitive, sapient, or useful state may be nurtured throughout a prolonged final illness primarily because of brain waves that fluctuate in the 2- to 5-microV range. The incidence of such protracted dying is unknown. We illustrate diffuse low-amplitude wave forms and regional fragments recorded from a 27-year-old woman maintained on a respirator for six months after loss of brain-stem reflexes. Considering the limited noise-signal ratio of modern equipment, popular EEG criteria for death may be prematurely rigid, prolonging death in tragic circumstances.

  3. Hubble's View of a Dying Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A recent image of a dying star containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. The image of protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306 (in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog) was taken on Dec. 15, 2001, by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, onboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It is one of the best images yet to capture a fleeting period at the end of a Sun-like star's life, called the protoplanetary nebula phase.

    This phase, which looks like a beautiful cloud of glowing gas lit up by ultraviolet light from the star's core, results when a star evolves into a bloated red giant and sheds its outer layers. 'Protoplanetary nebulas are rare objects with short lifetimes,' said JPL astrophysicist Dr. Raghvendra Sahai. 'It has generally been very difficult to obtain images of such objects in which their structure can be resolved in detail.'

    This image is particularly important because it contains a series of what Sahai and his colleagues call 'knotty jets,' blob-like objects emerging along roughly straight lines from the center of the cigar-shaped, bipolar nebula (See insets). There are various theories about what may produce such jets, though it is hard to prove their existence due to their short-lived, episodic nature. Detailed multi-wavelength studies of these nebulas with NASA's Great Observatories are being carried out to understand the nature and origin of these enigmatic jets, and how they may be sculpting shrouds of dying stars into exotic shapes. The Hubble Space Telescope is one of NASA's Great Observatories.

  4. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period. PMID:26539979

  5. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David; Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A

    2016-03-01

    More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period.

  6. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  7. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  8. Death and dying anxiety among bereaved and nonbereaved elderly parents.

    PubMed

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-08-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying anxiety scores than nonbereaved parents, but there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in death anxiety. Religiosity was unrelated to death and dying anxiety. Dying anxiety was higher among bereaved mothers than bereaved fathers. Death and dying anxiety were not associated with the length of time since the loss of the child or the nature of the child's death. Results are discussed in light of the difficulties that bereaved parents experience after the loss of their child. Implications for theory, for health and welfare professionals, and for policy are suggested.

  9. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  10. Rahmen, Herausforderungen und Visionen für die Unternehmensorganisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westkämper, Engelbert; Seidel, Bernhard; Bruhn, Manfred; Bahke, Torsten; Klotz, Ulrich; Buck, Hartmut

    Die Produktion trägt entscheidend zur gesamten Wertschöpfung des Landes mit mehr als einem Drittel aller Beschäftigten bei. Die direkte Wertschöpfung ist dabei für ein rohstoff- und energiearmes Land allein durch Veredelung und technisches Know-how sowie durch die Herstellung von Produkten für den Binnen- und Weltmarkt möglich.

  11. Thermal Hotspots in CPU Die and It's Future Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Fu-Yuan

    Owing to the increasing core frequency and chip integration and the limited die dimension, the power densities in CPU chip have been increasing fastly. The high temperature on chip resulted by power densities threats the processor's performance and chip's reliability. This paper analyzed the thermal hotspots in die and their properties. A new architecture of function units in die - - hot units distributed architecture is suggested to cope with the problems of high power densities for future processor chip.

  12. The duty to die and the burdensomeness of living.

    PubMed

    Cholbi, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the question of whether the arguments for a duty to die given by John Hardwig, the most prominent philosophical advocate of such a duty, are sound. Hardwig believes that the duty to die is relatively widespread among those with burdensome illnesses, dependencies, or medical conditions. I argue that although there are rare circumstances in which individuals have a duty to die, the situations Hardwig describes are not among these. After reconstructing Hardwig's argument for such a duty, highlighting his central premise that ill, dependent, or aged individuals can impose unfair burdens upon others by continuing to live, I clarify precisely what Hardwig intends by his thesis that many of us have a duty to die. I then show that an important disanalogy exists between an uncontroversial example in which an individual has a duty to die and the situations in which Hardwig proposes individuals have a duty to die. More specifically, in situations where a duty to die exists, an individual's having a duty to die logically implies that those she burdens have a right to kill that individual in self-defense. I then suggest that the burdens that ill, dependent, or aged individuals impose on their families, loved ones, or caregivers do not constitute the kind of threat that warrants the latter killing the former in self-defense. Hence, the duty to die is much rarer than Hardwig supposes.

  13. Nursing experience and the care of dying patients.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Karen S; Otten, Cecilia; Stephens, Elizabeth

    2005-01-19

    To examine relationships among demographic variables and nurses attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients. Descriptive and correlational. Two metropolitan hospitals in Detroit, MI. 58 RNs practicing in oncology and medical/surgical nursing. The majority was female and white, with a mean age of 41 years. Completed survey of three measurement tools: a demographic survey, Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale, and Death Attitude Profile Revised (DAP-R) Scale. Of 60 surveys distributed, 58 were completed and returned. Past experiences (level of education and death training), personal experiences (age, race, religion, and attitudes toward death), professional experiences (months or years of nursing experience and the percentage of time spent in contact with terminally ill or dying patients), and attitudes toward caring for dying patients. Most respondents demonstrated a positive attitude about caring for dying patients. Nurses who reported spending a higher percentage of time in contact with terminally ill or dying patients reported more positive attitudes. No significant relationship was found between nurses attitudes toward death and nurses attitudes about caring for dying patients. Statistically significant relationships were found among certain demographic variables, DAP-R subscales, and FATCOD Scale. Regardless of how the nurses felt about death, providing professional and quality care to dying patients and their families was salient. Developing continuing education programs that teach effective coping strategies to prevent death anxiety and identifying barriers that can make caring for dying patients difficult may make the journey from novice to expert nurse a gratifying and rewarding experience.

  14. MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL SHOWING INSCRIPTION ON FRONT ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  15. Assisted dying - should the UK change its stance?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel; Raphael, Claire E; Vassiliou, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    Along with an increasing interest in assisted dying by many European and North American countries, some of which have already modified their existing laws to accommodate this, the interest in assisted dying in the UK has increased once again following Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. Drawing on examples from countries where similar assisted dying laws are already in place, this article analyses and contextualises the proposed bill and discusses its potential pitfalls and benefits for the UK. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all.

  17. ["When the soul is depleted, the body dies". Dying and death on the island Nias/Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Klasen, H

    1993-11-01

    In our society death and dying are largely displaced from everyday experiences. Since old rites and traditions seem antiquated and new behavioral patterns haven't yet developed, interaction with dying persons is ruled by helplessness and speechlessness. This article describes death and dying on the islands of Nias/Indonesia, where a big celebration is held before someone is dying. Relatives keep close physical contact to the dying person. Rites and Customs finally help the bereaved to structure their time of mourning and to express their grief in a socially accepted way. Thus the adat (custom, tradition) is not only supporting the dying person, but also helps the survivors to cope with their loss.

  18. L-connect routing of die surface pads to the die edge for stacking in a 3D array

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips and method of routing the interface pads from the face of the chip or die to one or more sidewall surfaces of the die. The interconnection is routed from the face of the die to one or more edges of the die, then routed over the edge of the die and onto the side surface. A new pad is then formed on the sidewall surface, which allows multiple die or chips to be stacked in a three-dimensional array, while enabling follow-on signal routing from the sidewall pads. The routing of the interconnects and formation of the sidewall pads can be carried out in an L-connect or L-shaped routing configuration, using a metalization process such as laser pantography.

  19. Remote thermal neutron die-away measurements to improve Differential Die-Away Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Kelly A.; Vujic, Jasmina; Gozani, Tsahi

    2007-08-01

    Differential Die-away Analysis (DDAA) is a very effective detection technique of special nuclear material (SNM). It is based on the detection of fast fission neutrons that decay with a time constant characteristic of the thermal neutron that created them. The presence of fast neutrons with this slow die-away time is a positive, sensitive indication of the presence of SNM in the inspected cargo. The thermal decay time of an inspected medium is not known before a DDAA measurement is taken. The choice of when, from the end of a neutron pulse, data are to be acquired must be taken conservatively. If the thermal decay time of an inspected medium can be determined, a priori, then a better estimate of the expected time of separation between the intrinsic detector signal and the fission signal can be achieved. With a better estimate of this time, the choice of times after the end of the pulse to perform signal integration can be optimized. A more optimal choice for this time will result in higher detection sensitivity. This paper describes a method of remotely assessing the thermal die-away properties of an interrogated cargo, and grossly characterizes the class of material being inspected in terms of neutron attenuation and moderation properties.

  20. Die Casting Part Distortion: Prediction and Attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Dr, R. Allen Miller

    2002-02-12

    The goal of this research was to predict the part deformation and residual stresses after ejection from the die and cooling to room temperature. A finite element model was built to achieve this goal and several modeling techniques were investigated throughout this research. Die-casting is a very complex process and the researchers are faced with a large number of hard to solve physical problems when modeling the process. Several assumptions are made in our simulation model. The first significant assumption is the instantaneous cavity filling. This means that the cavity filling stage is not considered in our model. Considering the cavity filling stage increases the modeling complexity as a result of different flow patterns. expected in the shot sleeve, gate, runner and different cavity features. The flow of gas from the cavity through the vents is another problem that is ignored in our model as a result of this assumption. Our second assumption is that the cast metal has uniform temperature distribution inside the cavity, at the starting point of simulation. This temperature is assumed to be over liquidus limit, i.e. the solid fraction is 0.0% of the cast metal. The third assumption is due to ABAQUS (commercial software used in this research) limitations. ABAQUS cannot deal with multi-phase models; therefore we use solid elements to define the casting instead of multi-phase (liquid/solid) elements. Liquid elements can carry the hydrostatic pressure from the shot sleeve and apply it on the cavity surfaces, while the solid elements do not have this capability. To compensate for this assumption we add the cavity pressure as a boundary condition and apply it on the cavity surface separately from the part. Another issue with this assumption is that, liquid casting can follow the cavity shape when it distorts. With the use of solid elements to represent the casting during its liquid state, it loses this capability to follow the cavity. Several techniques were tested to

  1. Regional ontogeny of New England salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    Coastal areas are among the world's most productive and highly affected ecosystems. Centuries of human activity on coastlines have led to overexploitation of marine predators, which in turn has led to cascading ecosystem-level effects. Human effects and approaches to mediating them, however, differ regionally due to gradients in biotic and abiotic factors. Salt marsh die-off on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), triggered by a recreational-fishing-induced trophic cascade that has released herbivorous crabs from predator control, has been ongoing since 1976. Similar salt marsh die-offs have been reported in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.), but the driving mechanism of these die-offs has not been examined. We used field experiments to assess trophic interactions and historical reconstructions of 24 New England marshes to test the hypotheses that recreational fishing and predator depletion are a regional trigger of salt marsh die-off in New England and that die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are more recent than those on Cape Cod. Predator depletion was the general trigger of marsh die-off and explained differences in herbivorous crab abundance and the severity of die-off across regions. Die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are following a trajectory similar to die-off on Cape Cod, but are approximately 20 years behind those on Cape Cod. As a result, die-off currently affects 31.2% (SE 2.2) of low-marsh areas in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay, less than half the severity of die-off on Cape Cod. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that recreational fishing is an increasing threat to coastal ecosystems and that studying the effects of human activity at regional scales can provide insight into local effects and aid in early detection and potential remediation. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. The right to die: beyond academia.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Carole

    2016-03-01

    The world's first legal euthanasia death occurred in the Australian City of Darwin on Sunday 22 September 1996 when Bob Dent ended his life under the Northern Territory's short-lived Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995. Dent's death intensified argument about euthanasia in Australia, transforming the debate from a textbook discussion in social ethics into a vigorous and divisive social dispute. The day before he ended his life, Dent dictated a letter, written down by his wife. This description of his experience with terminal illness is graphic-the letter, his last effort to bring the plight of those living with terminal illness to public consciousness. In this paper I outline issues from the perspective of those, who like Bob Dent, the choice to die with dignity is personal and urgent. Rather than approach the issue purely from the theoretical, academic debate therefore, I present aspects that are largely unknown unless the experience of life-denying symptoms becomes real. From these aspects, dilemmas and consequences emerge that are not framed through the academic debate and in this way, I argue for the possibility of a framework that could change the law.

  3. NICMOS PEERS INTO HEART OF DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Egg Nebula, also known as CRL 2688, is shown on the left as it appears in visible light with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and on the right as it appears in infrared light with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Since infrared light is invisible to humans, the NICMOS image has been assigned colors to distinguish different wavelengths: blue corresponds to starlight reflected by dust particles, and red corresponds to heat radiation emitted by hot molecular hydrogen. Objects like the Egg Nebula are helping astronomers understand how stars like our Sun expel carbon and nitrogen -- elements crucial for life -- into space. Studies on the Egg Nebula show that these dying stars eject matter at high speeds along a preferred axis and may even have multiple jet-like outflows. The signature of the collision between this fast-moving material and the slower outflowing shells is the glow of hydrogen molecules captured in the NICMOS image. The distance between the tip of each jet is approximately 200 times the diameter of our solar system (out to Pluto's orbit). Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Dean Hines (University of Arizona); Raghvendra Sahai (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); NICMOS Instrument Definition Team; and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  4. Transient Heat Conduction Simulation around Microprocessor Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Koji

    This paper explains about fundamental formula of calculating power consumption of CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) devices and its voltage and temperature dependency, then introduces equation for estimating power consumption of the microprocessor for notebook PC (Personal Computer). The equation is applied to heat conduction simulation with simplified thermal model and evaluates in sub-millisecond time step calculation. In addition, the microprocessor has two major heat conduction paths; one is from the top of the silicon die via thermal solution and the other is from package substrate and pins via PGA (Pin Grid Array) socket. Even though the dominant factor of heat conduction is the former path, the latter path - from package substrate and pins - plays an important role in transient heat conduction behavior. Therefore, this paper tries to focus the path from package substrate and pins, and to investigate more accurate method of estimating heat conduction paths of the microprocessor. Also, cooling performance expression of heatsink fan is one of key points to assure result with practical accuracy, while finer expression requires more computation resources which results in longer computation time. Then, this paper discusses the expression to minimize computation workload with a practical accuracy of the result.

  5. Faster, Less Expensive Dies Using RSP Tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knirsch, James R.

    2007-08-01

    RSP Tooling is an indirect spray form additive process that can produce production tooling for virtually any forming process and from virtually any metal. In the past 24 months a significant amount of research and development has been performed. This resulted in an increase in the basic metallurgical understanding of what transpires during the rapid solidification of the metal, significant improvements in the production machine up time, ceramic developments that have improved finish, process changes that have resulted in a shorter lead time for tool delivery, and the testing of many new alloys. RSP stands for Rapid Solidification Process and is the key to the superior metallurgical properties that result from the technology. Most metals that are sprayed in the process leave the machine with the same physical properties as the same metal normally achieves through heat treatment and in some cases the properties are superior. Many new applications are being pursued including INVAR tools for aerospace composite materials, and bimetallic tools made from tool steel and beryllium copper for die casting and plastic injection molding. Recent feasibility studies have been performed with tremendous success.

  6. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-06

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional.

  7. Catholic theology and the "right to die".

    PubMed

    Coleman, G D

    1985-03-01

    Catholic moral theology teaches that life is sacred but not absolute. Because life and all activities are subordinated to spiritual ends, it is moral to allow oneself to die when efforts to prolong life will bring no significant benefit and may even make it more difficult to finish life in peace, composure, and union with God. This is not the moral equivalent of suicide, but rather an acceptance of the human condition. In making such a decision, the distinction between morally ordinary and extraordinary means is crucial and based on the patient's total good. Ordinary means are those which offer a reasonable hope of benefit without excessive expense, pain, or other inconvenience. Extraordinary means are those which cannot be obtained without excessive burden or which, if used, would not offer a reasonable hope of benefit. Whether a medical procedure is standard or experimental does not, from a moral viewpoint, affect whether it is ordinary or extraordinary. In Catholic teaching, the patient has the paramount right to decide whether life-preserving measures will be used. If the patient is unable to make this decision, then the family should make it as the patient's representative.

  8. Sonnet XXX: Love, dignity, and dying.

    PubMed

    Ely, E Wesley

    2016-05-01

    All of us in medicine who care for patients who are chronically critically ill, dying of incurable illnesses, will be faced with discussions about the value of their lives and about the appropriateness of ongoing supportive care. Such discussions are good and true, and they must always be done within the context of the sanctity of every human life and the promise of God that we are His children, each and every one of us. In this article, I explore the end-of-life path of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the courageous faith that she demonstrated in the face of her illness. I explore with you, the reader, the hard-core conversations that took place at her bedside and their meaning in light of Catholic moral teaching. This story is not meant to indicate that we should always do all interventions at all times for all patients. That would be a teaching counter to Evangelium vitae. This story is meant to help you think through the path of your patients and of you as a physician or other type of healthcare professional in serving your patients. Primum non nocere. Ad majorem Dei gloriam.

  9. [To die alone, a big city problem?].

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Larsen, D F; Rosdahl, N

    2001-05-28

    The question whether being found dead is a problem related to living in a big city was examined by using death certificates from a 3-month period in 1994. The rates of persons found dead were higher for both sexes in the City of Copenhagen than in the rural County of Storstrøm. The age distribution showed that the rate increased with advancing age. The vast majority were found dead in their own home, although the rate was higher in Copenhagen than in Storstrøm. Whereas the manner of death was natural for the majority of cases in both areas, more deaths with an uncertain manner of death were recorded in Copenhagen than in Storstrøm (32% vs 9%). In general, suicide or accident was more often reported in those found dead in the County of Storstrøm than in those in Copenhagen. The cause of death was unknown in 46% of deaths in Copenhagen where 16% had died from external causes, proportions that were 58% and 21%, respectively, in Storstrøm. The rate of legal autopsies was higher in subjects with an uncertain manner of death than in the rest, and was also associated with an age below 40 years. We conclude that being found dead is related to living in a big city, although the reason(s) for this remains unidentified.

  10. Optoelektronik Infrarotlicht für die Faseroptik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drach, Volker

    2003-07-01

    Die Eigenschaften der kondensierten Materie sind durch die elektronische Bandstruktur bestimmt. Daher sind sie in Raumladungszonen an Oberflächen abhängig von der Ladungsdichte. Ein Team des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe machte sich nun diesen Effekt zu Nutze und induzierte in metallischen Nanostrukturen durch eine elektrische Spannung reversible Änderungen der makroskopischen Eigenschaften [1].

  11. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  12. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  13. Personality Correlates of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Examined personality dimensions of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale compared to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire in a study of 88 students. Findings supported the validity of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale and its independence of social desirability. (JAC)

  14. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  15. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  16. Can We Humanize Dying in the General Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen

    This paper reviews the literature on the behavior and attitudes of medical-nursing personnel toward the dying person and illustrates the frequent conflict between hospital staff and the needs of dying. Inner perturbation stemming from feelings of vicarious suffering, vicarious disintegration, or personal anxiety about death, education deficiencies…

  17. Characterization of die drool sample produced by HDPE melt extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    In this work, flow induced molecular weight fractionation experiment was performed for HDPE polymer on specially designed laboratory extrusion setup. Die drool sample, accumulated at the die exit face, together with virgin pellets were consequently characterized experimentally by gel permeable chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry and rheology as well as theoretically by recently proposed generalized Newtonian model.

  18. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  19. Potato Early Dying: Molecular Perspectives on Pathogenicity and Host Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato early dying has not received the reputation of being a particularly devastating disease of potato. However, the interaction between the vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae and the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans to form the early dying complex makes studying this disease very in...

  20. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  1. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  2. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  3. 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies Print A A A en español 5 ideas para superar la muerte de un ser ...

  4. Living and Dying: A Window on (Christian) Children's Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Faith and beliefs about living and dying are fundamental constituents of spiritual development. However, children are seldom asked to talk about their experiences of life and death. This article has a twofold purpose. It first describes children's expressions on living and dying, as heard during a newly developed programme which encourages…

  5. Thoughts about Death and Dying in an African Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijana, E. W. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward death and dying among 163 Xhosa-speaking children and adults in South Africa. Found age, gender, belief in life after death, educational level, and exposure to death and dying were critical factors in formation of attitudes. Findings were similar to those from previous studies in African and western societies. (Author/NB)

  6. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Billet/Die Interface and Measures to Relieve Thermal Stress for Hot Forging Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baoshan; Wang, Leigang; Geng, Zhe; Huang, Yao

    2017-07-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) shows the heat transfer capacity at the billet/die interface during the hot forming process, which affects the temperature gradient in the die that may potentially induce high thermal stress. Consequently, this determines the service life of the die. In this paper, a set of experimental equipments were used to identify the IHTC and the upsetting test of superalloy Inconel718 (GH4169) was carried out on the hot flat die to evaluate the IHTC characteristics after the billet heating and die preheating temperature, holding time, and billet deformation rate. The results indicated that the billet heating temperature has a minimal role in IHTC but the other components have a great impact on IHTC. Among them, the billet deformation rate has influenced the IHTC the most. In the die preheating temperature ranging from 150°C to 400°C, it was found that the preheating temperature was proportional to IHTC. A high preheating temperature that leads to a high IHTC was found unfavorable in relieving the die surface thermal stress, and also weakened the die hardness and strength. The IHTC declined with the increase in the holding time as a result of the billet oxidation. Based on these findings, the composite ceramic and polymetallic heat-resistant coatings on the die surface were prepared, respectively, to relieve the thermal stress of die surface by reducing IHTC. It showed that both of the treated dies could effectively reduce the IHTC, blocking the transferred heat from the hot billet and making it applicable to the different hot forging events.

  7. How is death and dying addressed in introductory psychology textbooks?

    PubMed

    Coppola, K M; Strohmetz, David B

    2002-10-01

    Although psychologists have conducted a great deal of research on death and dying, little is known about how topics related to death and dying are introduced in psychology courses. We analyzed the amount and breadth of coverage given to topics related to death and dying in 28 introductory psychology textbooks published between 1995 and 2000. We coded for number of words included, the types of topics discussed, and authors cited. All textbooks included some information about death and dying, most frequently, suicide. Little consistency was found in references cited. We recommend that future textbooks include information to help students explore their own death attitudes, as well as providing more theory and empirical research findings on aspects of death and dying.

  8. Will the UK Supreme Court allow assisted dying?

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    MPs overwhelmingly voted against passing the Assisted Dying Bill into law in September 2015. The Bill was defeated by a majority of 212, despite the heartfelt pleas of many MPs to pass it into law. The size of the defeat means that it is unlikely that Parliament will consider a similar law for many years. Yet many considered the Bill their last opportunity to make assisted dying lawful. There is, however, one further possible way assisted dying could become lawful in the UK--and that would be where the Supreme Court allowed it. In this article, the author reviews the Supreme Court's decision in R (on the application of Nicklinson v Ministry of Justice [2014] and considers how likely it is that the Supreme Court will now sanction assisted dying following Parliament's refusal to enact an assisted dying law.

  9. Including die and press deformations in sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Sigvant, Mats; Kao-Walter, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis, in Abaqus, of a stamping die and subsequent morphing of the tool surfaces in AutoForm were performed to improve a sheet metal forming simulation. First, the tool surfaces of the XC90 rear door inner were scanned. They were not matching when the die was unloaded and could therefore not give any satisfying results in sheet metal forming simulations. Scanned surface geometries were then added to a structural FE-model of the complete stamping die and some influential parts of the production press. The structural FE- model was analysed with Abaqus to obtain the structural deformations of the die. The calculated surface shapes were then transferred to AutoForm where a forming simulation was performed. Results from the different sheet metal forming simulations were compared to measured draw in curves and showed a substantial increase in accuracy and ability to analyse dies in running production when the morphed surfaces were used.

  10. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  11. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-07-05

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit.

  12. p16(INK4A) induces senescence and inhibits EMT through microRNA-141/microRNA-146b-5p-dependent repression of AUF1.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2017-03-01

    Senescence and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes are under the control of common tumor suppressor proteins, EMT transcription factors, and microRNAs. However, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the functional link between senescence and EMT are still elusive. We have shown here that p16(INK4A) -related induction of senescence is mediated through miR-141 and miR-146b-5p. These two microRNAs are up-regulated in aging human fibroblast and epithelial cells. Furthermore, miR-141 and miR146b-5p trigger cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induce senescence in primary human fibroblasts and breast cancer cells in the presence and absence of p16(INK4A) . Like p16(INK4A) -induced senescence, miR-141/miR146b-5p-related senescence is not associated with secretory phenotype, and is mediated through the RNA binding protein AUF1. We have further demonstrated that p16(INK4A) and its downstream miRNA targets inhibit EMT through suppressing the EMT inducer ZEB1 in an AUF1-dependent manner. Indeed, AUF1 binds the mRNA of this gene leading to increase in its level. These results indicate that p16(INK4A) controls both senescence and EMT through repressing EMT-related transcription factor via miR-141/miR146b-5p and their target AUF1. This sheds more light on the molecular basis of the tumor suppressive functions of p16(INK4A) , which represses both the proliferative and the migratory/invasive capacities of cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Estimating the spatial distribution of acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) and associated risk factors using emergency call data in India. A symptom-based approach for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kauhl, Boris; Pilot, Eva; Rao, Ramana; Gruebner, Oliver; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The System for Early-warning based on Emergency Data (SEED) is a pilot project to evaluate the use of emergency call data with the main complaint acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) for syndromic surveillance in India. While spatio-temporal methods provide signals to detect potential disease outbreaks, additional information about socio-ecological exposure factors and the main population at risk is necessary for evidence-based public health interventions and future preparedness strategies. The goal of this study is to investigate whether a spatial epidemiological analysis at the ecological level provides information on urban-rural inequalities, socio-ecological exposure factors and the main population at risk for AUF. Our results displayed higher risks in rural areas with strong local variation. Household industries and proximity to forests were the main socio-ecological exposure factors and scheduled tribes were the main population at risk for AUF. These results provide additional information for syndromic surveillance and could be used for evidence-based public health interventions and future preparedness strategies.

  14. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    % in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  15. [Why do Hungarian men die early?].

    PubMed

    Kopp, Mária; Skrabski, Arpád

    2009-09-01

    The mortality rate for 40- 69-year-old men was 12.2/thousand males of corresponding age in 1960 and 16.2 in 2005: it increased by 33%, while among 40- 69-year-old women it decreased from 9.6 0/thousand females of corresponding age to 7.8. The aim of the present follow up study was to analyze which psychosocial risk factors might explain the high premature mortality rates among Hungarian men. Participants in the Hungarostudy 2002 study, a nationally representative sample, 1130 men and 1529 women were contacted again in the follow up study in 2006, who in 2002 were between the age of 40-69 years. By 2006, 99 men (8.8%) and 53 women (3.5%) died in this age group. Socio-economic, psychosocial and work-related measures, self-rated health, chronic disorders, depressive symptoms (BDI), WHO well-being, negative affect, self-efficacy, meaning in life and health behavioral factors were included in the analysis. After adjustment according to smoking, alcohol abuse, BMI, education and age, a number of variables were significant predictors of mortality only in men: low education, low subjective social status, low personal and family income, insecurity of work, no control in work, severe depression, no meaning in life, low social support from spouse, low social support from child. Socio-economic and work related risk factors predicted only male premature death. Among women dissatisfaction with personal relations was the most important risk factor. Among men depression seems to mediate between these chronic stress factors and premature death.

  16. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  17. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  18. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  19. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles induced by the charge transfer from gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Bauer, John C.; Gai, Zheng; Marques, Carlos; Aronson, Meigan C.; Teng, Xiaowei; Su, Dong; Stanic, Vesna; Urban, Volker S.; Beyer, Kevin A.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the origin of the exchange bias effect in the Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles in two samples with different sizes of the Au seed nanoparticles (4.1 and 2.7 nm) and same size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (9.8 nm). The magnetization, small-angle neutron-scattering, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscope measurements determined the antiferromagnetic FeO wüstite phase within Fe3O4 nanoparticles, originating at the interface with the Au nanoparticles. The interface between antiferromagnetic FeO and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 is giving rise to the exchange bias effect. The strength of the exchange bias fields depends on the interfacial area and lattice mismatch between both phases. We propose that the charge transfer from the Au nanoparticles is responsible for a partial reduction of the Fe3O4 into the FeO phase at the interface with Au nanoparticles. The Au-O bonds are formed, presumably across the interface to accommodate an excess of oxygen released during the reduction of magnetite.

  20. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles induced by the charge transfer from gold

    DOE PAGES

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Bauer, John C; Gai, Zheng; ...

    2015-08-10

    We have studied the origin of the exchange bias effect in the Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles in two samples with different sizes of the Au seed nanoparticles (4.1 and 2.7 nm) and same size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (9.8 nm). The magnetization, small-angle neutron scattering, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscope measurements determined the antiferromagnetic FeO wüstite phase within Fe3O4 nanoparticles, originating at the interface with the Au nanoparticles. The interface between antiferromagnetic FeO and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 is giving rise to the exchange bias effect. The strength of the exchange bias fields depends on the interfacial area and lattice mismatchmore » between both phases. We propose that the charge transfer from the Au nanoparticles is responsible for a partial reduction of the Fe3O4 into FeO phase at the interface with Au nanoparticles. The Au-O bonds are formed across the interface to accommodate an excess of oxygen released during the reduction of magnetite.« less

  1. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles induced by the charge transfer from gold

    SciTech Connect

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Bauer, John C.; Gai, Zheng; Marques, Carlos; Aronson, Meigan C.; Teng, Xiaowei; Su, Dong; Stanic, Vesna; Urban, Volker S.; Beyer, Kevin A.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-08-10

    We have studied the origin of the exchange bias effect in the Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles in two samples with different sizes of the Au seed nanoparticles (4.1 and 2.7 nm) and same size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (9.8 nm). The magnetization, small-angle neutron-scattering, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscope measurements determined the antiferromagnetic FeO wustite phase within Fe3O4 nanoparticles, originating at the interface with the Au nanoparticles. The interface between antiferromagnetic FeO and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 is giving rise to the exchange bias effect. The strength of the exchange bias fields depends on the interfacial area and lattice mismatch between both phases. We propose that the charge transfer from the Au nanoparticles is responsible for a partial reduction of the Fe3O4 into the FeO phase at the interface with Au nanoparticles. The Au-O bonds are formed, presumably across the interface to accommodate an excess of oxygen released during the reduction of magnetite

  2. Anomalous random correlations of force constants on the lattice dynamical properties of disordered Au-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangsabanik, Jiban; Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Johnson, D. D.; Alam, Aftab

    2017-09-01

    Gold iron (Au-Fe) alloys are of immense interest due to their biocompatibility, anomalous Hall conductivity, and applications in various medical treatments. However, irrespective of the method of preparation, they often exhibit a high level of disorder with properties sensitive to the thermal or magnetic annealing temperatures. We calculate the lattice dynamical properties of Au1 -xFex alloys using density functional theory methods where, being multisite properties, reliable interatomic force constant (IFC) calculations in disordered alloys remain a challenge. We follow a twofold approach: (1) an accurate IFC calculation in an environment with nominally zero chemical pair correlations to mimic the homogeneously disordered alloy and (2) a configurational averaging for the desired phonon properties (e.g., dispersion, density of states, and entropy). We find an anomalous change in the IFC's and phonon dispersion (split bands) near x =0.19 , which is attributed to the local stiffening of the Au-Au bonds when Au is in the vicinity of Fe. Other results based on mechanical and thermophysical properties reflect a similar anomaly: Phonon entropy, e.g., becomes negative below x =0.19 , suggesting a tendency for chemical unmixing, reflecting the onset of a miscibility gap in the phase diagram. Our results match fairly well with reported data wherever available.

  3. Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization using Au/Fe3O4 magnetic composites combined with silver enhancement.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-Hui; Li, Jin-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    A novel method is described for the highly effective amplifying electrochemical response of DNA based on oligonucleotides functionalized with Au/Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposites by the aid of silver (Ag) enhancement. Via electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly, the prepared Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles form nano-clusters coated with a bilayer composed of polystyrene sulfonate sodium salt (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), which are in favor of adsorbing lots of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the surface. The application of magnetic Fe(3)O(4) made the procedures much more simple, convenient and feasible. The resulting composites were then used as labels via the Au-S bond for the DNA hybridization, followed by catalytic deposition of silver on the gold tags. Such an assay is then combined with a sensitive anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) measurement of multiple silver nanoparticle tracers. A 27-mer sequence DNA target is detected at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode with a detection limit down to ca. 100 aM, which is 800 times lower than that obtained using gold nanoparticles only as labels in the control experiments. This Fe(3)O(4)/PSS/PDDA/Au composite offers a great promising future for the ultrasensitive detection of other biorecognition events.

  4. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  5. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thulesius, Hans O; Scott, Helen; Helgesson, Gert; Lynöe, Niels

    2013-03-13

    Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was "what is going on in the field of dying today?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient's death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on "gut feelings" - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North

  6. Where the elderly die: the influence of socio-demographic factors and cause of death on people dying at home.

    PubMed

    Beng, Arthur K L; Fong, Chee Weng; Shum, Eugene; Goh, Cynthia R; Goh, Kee Tai; Chew, Suok Kai

    2009-08-01

    The place of death of the elderly has implications on the overall healthcare delivery system. The aim of this study is to describe where deaths of elderly occur in Singapore and to determine the association of socio-demographic characteristics and the causes of death on dying at home. Data of 10,399 Singapore resident decedents aged 65 years and above in 2006 were obtained from the national Registry of Births and Deaths. Distributions of socio-demographic characteristics and causes of death by place of death were analysed, and associations between socio-demographic characteristics and home death for major causes of death were assessed by logistic regression models controlling for age, gender and ethnic group. Most elderly deaths occurred in hospitals (57%), followed by deaths at home (31%). The proportion of deaths at home increased with age while deaths in hospital declined with age. Significantly more elderly women died at home compared to men. Malay elderly had the highest proportion of home deaths (49%), and the lowest proportion of hospital deaths (47%). Elderly persons who died from stroke were most likely to die at home [odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-3.3] while those who died from lung and respiratory system diseases were less likely to die at home (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.8). Elderly people in Singapore die mainly in hospitals. About a third of them die at home. The proportion of decedents dying at home increased with age. Home deaths among the elderly are most likely in those aged 85 years and above, females, Malays, and those who die of stroke.

  7. Fear of dying and inflammation following acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Molloy, Gerard J; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Wikman, Anna; Randall, Gemma; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Many patients are afraid of dying during acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but the origins and biological correlates of these emotional responses are poorly understood. This study evaluated the prevalence of fear of dying, associations with inflammatory responses during ACS, and later heart rate variability (HRV) and cortisol secretion. Two hundred and eight patients admitted with clinically verified ACS rated their fear of dying on interview in hospital. Plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α was recorded on admission, and HRV and salivary cortisol were assessed 3 weeks later. Intense distress and fear of dying was experienced by 21.7%, with moderate levels in 66.1% patients. Fear of dying was more common in younger, lower socioeconomic status, and unmarried patients. It was positively associated with plasma TNFα on admission after controlling for sociodemographic factors, clinical risk, and pain intensity (adjusted odds = 4.67, 95% C.I. 1.66-12.65). TNFα was associated with reduced HRV 3 weeks later, adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors and medication (P = 0.019), while fear of dying was associated with reduced cortisol output (P = 0.004). Intense distress and fear of dying and heightened inflammation may be related manifestations of an acute biobehavioural response to severe cardiac injury, and have implications for prognostically significant biological risk processes.

  8. Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Quanyou Zhou

    2002-01-30

    An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.

  9. Compaction die for forming a solid annulus on a right circular cylinder. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Harlow, J.L.

    1981-09-14

    A compacting die is disclosed wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  10. Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Simeonov, D; Smith, A

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  11. Physikgeschichte Die Anfänge des Physik-Nobelpreises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2003-09-01

    Durch Absorption von zwei Laserstrahlen mit unterschiedlichen Wellenlängen können in Halbleitern makroskopische Ströme erzeugt werden. Die Ausbreitungsrichtung der Elektronen und insbesondere die Ausrichtung ihrer Spins lassen sich über die relative Phase der beiden Laserfelder kohärent kontrollieren, wie kürzlich zwei Gruppen an den Universitäten von Marburg und Iowa demonstrierten [1, 2]. Genutzt wird bei diesem Experiment der Effekt der Quanteninterferenz zur Erzeugung von elektrischen Spinströmen.

  12. Understandings of death and dying for people of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiung-yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-02-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period, Chinese people have integrated these philosophies and religions to form the basis of their culture and traditions. Although they agree that death is a natural part of the life span, a unique belief about death and dying has emerged among the Chinese from this integration. From this, the people find a significant definition of death and dying.

  13. Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder and assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-08-01

    Competent patients suffering from treatment-resistant depressive disorder should be treated no different in the context of assisted dying to other patients suffering from chronic conditions that render their lives permanently not worth living to them. Jurisdictions that are considering, or that have, decriminalised assisted dying are discriminating unfairly against patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression if they exclude such patients from the class of citizens entitled to receive assistance in dying. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Die Lorentz-Transformation als Ausdruck der Superposition gegenläufiger Raum-Zeit-Beziehungen, Preisgabe des Relativitätsprinzips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renninger, M.

    Jegliche Erhöhung der Eigenenergie eines mit einer Uhr ausgestatteten Objekts, E = E - E0 (wobei E0 die Ruhenergie) ist verbunden mit einer Erhöhung seiner Zeitablaufgeschwindigkeit, t/t0 = E/E0 (EINSTEIN 1907). Faktische Beobachtung dieses beschleunigenden Einflusses auf die Ganggeschwindigkeit jeder an der Energieerhöhung teilhabenden Uhr ist auf denjenigen durch Erhöhung der potentiellen Energie beschränkt. Energieerhöhung in Form von kinetischer Energie ist im Gegenteil mit einer Verlangsamung des Zeitgangs verbunden, einer Verlangsamung von genau demselben, d.h. invers gleich großen, durch die Lorentz-Transformation bestimmten Betrag , dem Betrag der relativistischen Zeitdilatation, des Transversalen Dopplereffekts. Die Lorentz-Transformation ist eine ausschließlich kinematische Aussage, ohne Beziehung zu der mit jeder Bewegung verbundenen Energieerhöhung.Anbetrachts des Fehlens jedes vernünftigen Grunds, warum der zeitbeschleunigende Einfluß von Energieerhöhung im Fall von kinetischer Energie fehlen sollte, erscheint seine Berücksichtigung unerläßlich. Der faktische, den Zeitgang verlangsamende Effekt muß daher als eine Superposition des gangbeschleunigenden Energieeffekts und eines invers doppelt so großen kinematischen Effekts (1 - v2/c2) angesetzt werden.Es werden modifizierte Transformationsgleichungen hergeleitet, die dieser Forderung nach Unterteilung der tatsächlichen Raum-Zeit-Beziehungen Rechnung tragen, deren integrale Form jedoch identisch ist mit der klassischen Lorentz-Transformation, dann, wenn ausschließlich kinetische Energie ins Spiel kommt.Natürlich steht diese Unterteilung des Sinngehalts der Transformationsgleichungen im Widerspruch zum Relativitätsprinzip, sie setzt die Existenz eines in bezug auf das Universum absolut ruhenden Systems voraus. Eine Reihe von Argumenten wird vorgebracht, welche die Vorstellung von einem solchen Absolut-System faszinierender erscheinen lassen als die geläufige von der Gleichwertigkeit

  15. Einführung in die Renaturierungsökologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, Stefan; Wiegleb, Gerhard; Rosenthal, Gert

    Durch die übernutzung der Naturressourcen sind heute weltweit viele natürliche wie auch durch Kultur entstandene ökosysteme und Landschaften in ihren Funktionen und Leistungen stark beeinträchtigt oder sogar völlig zerstört. Bereits vor mehr als einem Jahrzehnt konstatierte (1995), dass ca. 45 % der terrestrischen Landoberfläche nur eine reduzierte Kapazität für die zukünftige Landnutzung haben. Als Grund hob er eine in der Vergangenheit nicht nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung hervor. Mit einer gezielten Renaturierung der betroffenen ökosysteme soll dieser Trend umgekehrt werden (Harris und van Diggelen 2006). Vor diesem Hintergrund ist die ökosystemrenaturierung (ecological restoration) wichtiger Bestandteil der Planungs- und Naturschutzpraxis in Mitteleuropa und die Renaturierungsökologie (restoration ecology) zu einer eigenen wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsrichtung geworden.

  16. Warum Normen für die Instandhaltung?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschuschke, Werner E.

    Viele kennen Normen wie Konstruktionsnormen, in denen z. B. der Außendurchmesser, die Steigung, der Flankenwinkel und andere Maße eines Gewindes festgelegt sind. Es gibt Prüfnormen aber auch Normen eines Managementsystems wie des Qualitätsmanagements in der DIN-EN-ISO-9000-Familie. Aber warum Normen für die Instandhaltung? Begonnen hat es mit der DIN 31051, die 1985 veröffentlicht wurde. Es war die erste Instandhaltungsnorm weltweit und sie wurde von der Schweiz und Österreich übernommen. In ihr sind Begriffe der Instandhaltung, Grundlagen zum Abnutzungsprozess und Aktivitäten der Instandhaltung beschrieben. Es wurde der Begriff Instandsetzung statt Reparatur publiziert: Nicht mehr Flickschustern sondern einen funktionsfähigen Anlagenzustand möglichst erhalten.

  17. Injury patterns in patients who "talk and die".

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Kemp, S; Kullas, K; Hitos, K; Dexter, M A

    2013-12-01

    Despite advances in the quality of and access to cerebral imaging, patients with mild head injuries still deteriorate and die in neurotrauma units. The term "talk and die" was first used by Reilly et al. to describe a subset of patients with head injuries who died following what was initially thought to be only a mild traumatic brain injury. A retrospective review of a database from a major Australian trauma center was performed to identify 25 patients who met the "talk and die" criteria between January 2000 and December 2009. The medical records of these patients and their imaging studies were analyzed to identify potentially preventable factors and injury patterns in this group of patients. The factors analyzed included age, modality of injury, therapeutic narcotic usage, seizures, and hyponatremia. Two groups of patients are described herein based on intracranial pathology, with statistically significant differences in age, mechanism, and coagulopathy identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

  19. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  20. FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, WITH HEADSTONES IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  1. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  2. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  3. Haven Peck's Legacy in "A Day No Pigs Would Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartvigsen, M. Kip; Hartvigsen, Christen Brog

    1985-01-01

    Reviews Robert Newton Peck's "A Day No Pigs Would Die," pointing out the values of a courageous display of duty to others and to tasks at hand, and a vision that appreciates the natural order of life. (EL)

  4. Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2010-09-01

    This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

  5. Laser and focused ion beam combined machining for micro dies.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Okazaki, W; Uchida, T

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a laser and focused ion beam (FIB) compound process for press mold dies of a micro lens array (MLA) and a micro needle array (MNA) in a glassy carbon (GC). The press mold die of the MLA was roughly fabricated by UV-YAG laser. After this process, we finished this surface by scanning FIB. As a result, higher accuracy and good roughness of surface profile can be realized. An optical glass is used to confirm the shape of lens. Moreover, we fabricated 6 × 6 through-holes in the GC by the spiral drilling in addition to the focus position movement of the UV laser for press mold die of the MNA. After the FIB process, we were able to make the needle die of surface and hole wall roughness less than 0.9 μm. A silicon rubber is used to confirm the shape of the holes.

  6. 8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT

  7. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  8. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

  9. Method and Apparatus for Die Forming Metal Sheets and Extrusions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of a variety of die blocks for introducing a variety of angled joggles in the metal sheets and extrusions. Relatively low melting temperature material is used for the castings. Keywords: Patents; Aircraft parts. (kt)

  10. Characterization of Spray Lubricants for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-01-01

    During the die casting process, lubricants are sprayed in order to cool the dies and facilitate the ejection of the casting. The cooling effects of the die lubricant were investigated using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), heat flux sensors (HFS), and infrared imaging. The evolution of the heat flux and pictures taken using a high speed infrared camera revealed that lubricant application was a transient process. The short time response of the HFS allows the monitoring and data acquisition of the surface temperature and heat flux without additional data processing. A similar set of experiments was performed with deionized water in order to assess the lubricant effect. The high heat flux obtained at 300 C was attributed to the wetting and absorbant properties of the lubricant. Pictures of the spray cone and lubricant flow on the die were also used to explain the heat flux evolution.

  11. Kongenitale Chagas. Einfluss einer Trypanosoma Cruzi-Infektion auf die Embryonalentwicklung bei Traechtigen Maeusen (Congenital Chagas Diseases. Effect of ’Trypanosoma cruzi’ Infection on Embryogeny in Gravid Mice),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Congenital Chagas’ disease in man and animals entailing abortion , premature delivery and deformation has been reported in the literature, although...the effect of T. cruzi infection on the fetal development of mice has been investigated after inoculating three different strains of T. cruzi in...in either early death or retarded growth of the embryos and fetuses, although trypanosomes were not demonstrable in injured fetuses (however

  12. Auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Weltcurriculum? Zum Grundbildungskonzept von PISA und der Aufgabenzuweisung an die Schule (Towards a World Curriculum? -- The Concept of Basic Education (Literacy) underlying PISA and the tasks allocated to Schooling).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Hans-Werner

    2003-01-01

    Recognizes that the debate on the Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) has been dominated by comparisons of the ranks achieved and by the question of the consequences to be drawn from the results. Discusses the educational concept forming the basis for the investigation and aims of PISA. (CAJ)

  13. Auswirkungen von okonomischem Druck auf die psychosoziale Befindlichkeit von Jugendlichen: Zur Bedeutung von Familienbeziehungen und Schulniveau (The Effect of Economic Pressure on the Psycho-Social Well-Being of Adolescents: The Importance of Family Relations and School Track).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Petra; Boehnke, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness.…

  14. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  15. Consortia for Known Good Die (KGD). Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    were being actively developed for test and bum-in of bare die or minimally packaged die. The companies plan to make the technology available to the...lifetime (up to the consensus single best technology for making temporary 1000 cycle limit) reducing cost. Cost impact of caner probe contact to...model and develop the system specification for Im oe _ side 40O extensions to make this a useful tool for industrial users 2 CPU 10 mm on each side 2001

  16. A discussion on the proposed assisted dying law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Having failed in their attempt to persuade the United Kingdom Supreme Court to allow health professionals to participate in assisting patients to end their lives, the hopes of campaigners now lie with Parliament passing Lord Falconer's private members' Assisted Dying Bill. This article reviews the Supreme Court's decision in R (on the application of Nicklinson) v Ministry of Justice [2014] and considers how likely it is that Parliament will enact an assisted dying law.

  17. Cost analysis of medical assistance in dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Trachtenberg, Aaron J; Manns, Braden

    2017-01-23

    The legalization of medical assistance in dying will affect health care spending in Canada. Our aim was to determine the potential costs and savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. Using published data from the Netherlands and Belgium, where medically assisted death is legal, we estimated that medical assistance in dying will account for 1%-4% of all deaths; 80% of patients will have cancer; 50% of patients will be aged 60-80 years; 55% will be men; 60% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 month; and 40% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 week. We combined current mortality data for the Canadian population with recent end-of-life cost data to calculate a predicted range of savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. We also estimated the direct costs associated with offering medically assisted death, including physician consultations and drug costs. Medical assistance in dying could reduce annual health care spending across Canada by between $34.7 million and $138.8 million, exceeding the $1.5-$14.8 million in direct costs associated with its implementation. In sensitivity analyses, we noted that even if the potential savings are overestimated and costs underestimated, the implementation of mdedical assistance in dying will likely remain at least cost neutral. Providing medical assistance in dying in Canada should not result in any excess financial burden to the health care system, and could result in substantial savings. Additional data on patients who choose medical assistance in dying in Canada should be collected to enable more precise estimates of the impact of medically assisted death on health care spending and to enable further economic evaluation. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  18. Lived experience of caring for dying patients in emergency room.

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Waraporn; Matchim, Yaowarat; Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Locsin, Rozzano C; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Yasuhara, Yuko

    2016-03-01

    Dying often occurs in hospitals and frequently in emergency rooms. Understanding caring for critical and dying patients is necessary for quality nursing. This study described the meaning of nurses' lived experience of caring for critical and dying patients in the emergency rooms. This study was conducted in three emergency rooms of tertiary hospitals in southern Thailand. Twelve nurses met the inclusion criteria: nurses working in emergency room for at least 2 years, and experienced caring for critical and dying patients in an emergency department. Data were collected using in-depth individual interviews. Data transcription and analysis used van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Trustworthiness was established following Lincoln and Guba's criteria. Experiences of caring for critical and dying patients revealed four thematic categories: defying death; no time for palliative care; lacking support for family; and privacy for peaceful deaths. These thematic categories reflected van Manen's four lived worlds of body, time, relations and space. The study described the meaning of the experience of caring for critical and dying patients while supporting the development of nursing knowledge for palliative and end-of-life care in emergent settings. Findings of the study influence nursing policies toward enhancing education of nurses regarding palliative and end-of-life care in emergency settings. These findings can also influence the value of caring-healing environments for critical and dying patients and their families. Policies can focus on practice and education of families particularly about end-of-life care for critical and dying patients. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Cost analysis of medical assistance in dying in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, Aaron J.; Manns, Braden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The legalization of medical assistance in dying will affect health care spending in Canada. Our aim was to determine the potential costs and savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. METHODS: Using published data from the Netherlands and Belgium, where medically assisted death is legal, we estimated that medical assistance in dying will account for 1%–4% of all deaths; 80% of patients will have cancer; 50% of patients will be aged 60–80 years; 55% will be men; 60% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 month; and 40% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 week. We combined current mortality data for the Canadian population with recent end-of-life cost data to calculate a predicted range of savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. We also estimated the direct costs associated with offering medically assisted death, including physician consultations and drug costs. RESULTS: Medical assistance in dying could reduce annual health care spending across Canada by between $34.7 million and $138.8 million, exceeding the $1.5–$14.8 million in direct costs associated with its implementation. In sensitivity analyses, we noted that even if the potential savings are overestimated and costs underestimated, the implementation of mdedical assistance in dying will likely remain at least cost neutral. INTERPRETATION: Providing medical assistance in dying in Canada should not result in any excess financial burden to the health care system, and could result in substantial savings. Additional data on patients who choose medical assistance in dying in Canada should be collected to enable more precise estimates of the impact of medically assisted death on health care spending and to enable further economic evaluation. PMID:28246154

  20. [How to intervene effectively with a dying patient].

    PubMed

    Gagné, F L; Robichaud-Ekstrand, S

    1995-02-01

    Nurses are in a strategic position to meet the needs of the dying patient. However, when confronted with death, nurses often utilize avoidance behaviors, such as: tending to the dying patient only if a technique is required; initiating conversations on casual topics or directing the conversation towards the patient's "health"; requesting consults to avoid talking about dying; and unnecessarily overmedicating the patient. This paper explains the rights and needs of the dying patient and describes associated nursing interventions. For example, the dying patient has the primordial right to choose whether or not to receive treatment. For nurses to intervene effectively, they must learn to manage their own emotions relating to death. A strong theoretical understanding of the dying process must be acquired. They must also develop internal strengths and receive help from various resources. By doing so, nurses reinvest their shared life experiences and apply them to other dying patients continuously refining their conceptual model of loss. Through verbal and non-verbal cues, nurses transmit profound messages to their patients. Some efficient nursing interventions consist of: providing basic care and medications to prevent terminal suffering; offering an attentive and reassuring presence; respecting the contemplative phases; listening for latent messages in conversations; understanding symbolic language; respecting family dynamics; allowing family members to choose physical and psychosocial interventions to improve the patient's comfort; frequently visiting the patient and intensifying their presence; permitting the dying patient to verbalize fears and anxieties; and consistently offering tenderness, empathy, acceptance, warmth and respect. As death nears, scientific and technological aspects of nursing become less important for the patient, and the art of sincere human empathy becomes paramount.

  1. Moral dilemma: to kill or allow to die?

    PubMed

    Cole, J J

    1989-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that while allowing a person to die with care can be morally justified in particular cases, the option of mercy killing can never be morally defended. There is a significant moral difference between these two concepts. Furthermore, the wedge argument, the medical fallibility argument, and the medical care and trust argument provide cogent and convincing reasons for maintaining a legal distinction between mercy killing and letting a person die.

  2. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  3. Dying while living: a critique of allowing-to-die legislation.

    PubMed

    Lappé, M

    1978-12-01

    Several US states are enacting 'right-to-die' laws, in the wake of the Karen Quinlan case. But the way such a law is drafted may cast doubt on a patient's existing common law right to control all aspects of his own treatment; it may give legal sanction to a lower standard of medical care that society at present expects from doctors; and it may lead to conflict between the patient's directive and his doctor's clinical judgement which cannot readily be resolved. The laws themselves are categorised as a) legalising active killing or b) defining rights of patients to control treatment or c) assigning to others the rights to control treatment where the patient is not competent. The California law is discussed critically. The conclusion is that such legislation is not a satisfactory answer to the ethical problem of euthanasia.

  4. Dying while living: a critique of allowing-to-die legislation.

    PubMed Central

    Lappé, M

    1978-01-01

    Several US states are enacting 'right-to-die' laws, in the wake of the Karen Quinlan case. But the way such a law is drafted may cast doubt on a patient's existing common law right to control all aspects of his own treatment; it may give legal sanction to a lower standard of medical care that society at present expects from doctors; and it may lead to conflict between the patient's directive and his doctor's clinical judgement which cannot readily be resolved. The laws themselves are categorised as a) legalising active killing or b) defining rights of patients to control treatment or c) assigning to others the rights to control treatment where the patient is not competent. The California law is discussed critically. The conclusion is that such legislation is not a satisfactory answer to the ethical problem of euthanasia. PMID:739516

  5. Dying with dignity: the good patient versus the good death.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Kathryn; Jacelon, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    Death is a unique experience for each human being, yet there is tremendous societal pressure on a dying person to be a "goodpatient " while trying to experience the "good death. " These pressures shape patient, caregiver, and family choices in end-of-life situations. The purpose of this literature review was twofold: first, to develop an understanding of "dying with dignity" to enhance the end-of-life care received by dying patients, and second, to contribute to a concept analysis of dignity to improve the clarity and consistency of future research related to dignity in aging individuals. Articles pertaining to dying with dignity from the disciplines of nursing, medicine, ethics, psychology, and sociology were reviewed using a matrix method. A dichotomy surrounding dying with dignity emerged from this review. The definition of dignity in dying identifies not only an intrinsic, unconditional quality of human worth, but also the external qualities of physical comfort, autonomy, meaningfulness, usefulness, preparedness, and interpersonal connection. For many elderly individuals, death is a process, rather than a moment in time, resting on a need for balance between the technology of science and the transcendence of spirituality.

  6. Herbivory drives the spread of salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Bevil, Matthew C; Crotty, Sinead M

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh die-off is a Western Atlantic conservation problem that has recently spread into Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. It has been hypothesized to be driven by: 1) eutrophication decreasing plant investment into belowground biomass causing plant collapse, 2) boat wakes eroding creek banks, 3) pollution or disease affecting plant health, 4) substrate hardness controlling herbivorous crab distributions and 5) trophic dysfunction releasing herbivorous crabs from predator control. To distinguish between these hypotheses we quantified these variables at 14 Narragansett Bay salt marshes where die-off intensity ranged from <5% to nearly 98%. Nitrogen availability, wave intensity and plant growth did not explain any variation in die-off. Herbivory explained 73% of inter-site variation in die-off and predator control of herbivores and substrate hardness also varied significantly with die-off. This suggests that salt marsh die-off is being largely driven by intense herbivory via the release of herbivorous crabs from predator control. Our results and those from other marsh systems suggest that consumer control may not simply be a factor to consider in marsh conservation, but with widespread predator depletion impacting near shore habitats globally, trophic dysfunction and runaway consumption may be the largest and most urgent management challenge for salt marsh conservation.

  7. SiC Die Attach for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevin-Bazin, A.; Lacroix, F.; Barbot, J.-F.

    2013-11-01

    Eutectic solders AuIn19 and AuGe12 and nanosilver paste were investigated for SiC die attach in high-temperature (300°C) applications. The soldering or sintering conditions were optimized through die shear tests performed at room temperature. In particular, application of static pressure (3.5 MPa) during sintering resulted in greatly improved mechanical behavior of the nanosilver-based joint. Microstructural study of the eutectic solders showed formation of Au-rich grains in AuGe die attach and significant diffusion of Au and In through the Ni layer in AuIn19 die attach, which could lead to formation of intermetallic compounds. Die shear tests versus temperature showed that the behaviors of the studied die attaches are different; nevertheless they present suitable shear strengths required for high-temperature applications. The mechanical behavior of joints under various levels of thermal and mechanical stress was also studied. Creep experiments were carried out on the eutectic solders to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the complete module; only one creep mechanism was observed in the working range.

  8. Study of sintered silver as a die attach material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Falguni Vikram

    Sintered silver has become a viable and attractive alternative to soldering in various applications especially for high power and high temperature needs. The sintering process used till now is mostly pressure assisted which requires specialized equipment in the processing. A pressure-less sintering process which can be incorporated with the existing equipment is highly desired. The primary objective of this study was to analyze how the sintered silver bond formed behaves with different process and material parameters while using pressure-less sintering. Commercially available dual sized sintered silver paste consisting of micron and sub-micron particles has been studied. The sintering parameters: die/substrate metallization (Au/Ag), sintering temperature and sintering atmosphere were varied. Also an aging study at 220°C was done. It was found that the substrate and die metallization and type affected the characteristics of the sintered bond and the die shear strength. Sintering at 250°C in air atmosphere caused a gap layer to form along with the dense silver layer near the gold surfaces. This gap layer resulted in very low die shear strength thus affecting the reliability while nitrogen atmosphere at 250°C produced a different microstructure without a gap formation. With increase in sintering temperature the die shear strength increases for Ag surface die & substrate while it decreases for Au surfaces. Aging at 220°C produced the densified cluster formation that also involved the shrinkage, thereby resulting in an increase in void spacing between those clusters.

  9. Herbivory Drives the Spread of Salt Marsh Die-Off

    PubMed Central

    Bertness, Mark D.; Brisson, Caitlin P.; Bevil, Matthew C.; Crotty, Sinead M.

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh die-off is a Western Atlantic conservation problem that has recently spread into Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. It has been hypothesized to be driven by: 1) eutrophication decreasing plant investment into belowground biomass causing plant collapse, 2) boat wakes eroding creek banks, 3) pollution or disease affecting plant health, 4) substrate hardness controlling herbivorous crab distributions and 5) trophic dysfunction releasing herbivorous crabs from predator control. To distinguish between these hypotheses we quantified these variables at 14 Narragansett Bay salt marshes where die-off intensity ranged from <5% to nearly 98%. Nitrogen availability, wave intensity and plant growth did not explain any variation in die-off. Herbivory explained 73% of inter-site variation in die-off and predator control of herbivores and substrate hardness also varied significantly with die-off. This suggests that salt marsh die-off is being largely driven by intense herbivory via the release of herbivorous crabs from predator control. Our results and those from other marsh systems suggest that consumer control may not simply be a factor to consider in marsh conservation, but with widespread predator depletion impacting near shore habitats globally, trophic dysfunction and runaway consumption may be the largest and most urgent management challenge for salt marsh conservation. PMID:24651837

  10. Organisationsübergreifendes Management von Föderations-Sicherheitsmetadaten auf Basis einer Service-Bus-Architektur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Stephan; Hommel, Wolfgang

    In service-orientierten Architekturen wird die herkömmliche web-service-basierte Punkt-zu-Punkt-Kommunikation zunehmend durch den Einsatz eines Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) abgelöst, der den sicheren und zuverlässigen Nachrichtentransport realisiert. Der Einsatzbereich eines ESB endet jedoch an den Grenzen der ihn einsetzenden Institution. In diesem Artikel analysieren wir aktuelle Herausforderungen bei der organisationsübergreifenden Verwaltung von Sicherheitsmetadaten, zu denen insbesondere Serverzertifikate und Privacy Policies gehören. Als konkretes Szenario wird dabei das Federated Identity Management im Rahmen der deutschen Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI aufgegriffen. Als standardbasierte, einheitliche Lösung, die proprietäre sowie metadatentyp-spezifische Ansätze integriert und den damit verbundenen Administrationsaufwand reduziert, schlagen wir einen organisationsübergreifenden ESB vor, den wir als Federation Service Bus (FedSB) bezeichnen. Wir diskutieren seine technischen Eigenschaften, das zugrunde liegende Kommunikationsmodell und die organisatorischen Schritte zur Einführung.

  11. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    this is radiation from a SiO maser in the atmosphere of the star. If it would not have been a maser, it would have been far too weak to have been detected. Although we know several hundred masers of this type in the Milky Way, this is the first discovery of a SiO maser in another galaxy than our own . Since then, the observations have been continued in collaboration with Australian astronomers, using radio telescopes at Parkes and Mopra on that continent. A most unusual star When Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund and his colleagues first observed this LMC maser star in 1981 with optical telescopes, they thought that it was a rather normal, cool and not particularly bright star. However, a few years later, the Dutch-British-USA InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revealed its true nature. The IRAS measurements showed that the star radiates most of its light in the form of infrared radiation [4], making it one of the most powerful stars in the LMC; in fact, it emits about half a million times more energy than the Sun. On this occasion, it was given the designation IRAS 04553-6825 , the number indicating its position in the sky. IRAS 04553-6825 is unusual in other ways. It is some fifty times as heavy as our Sun, and it is the biggest known star in the LMC: if it were to take the place of our Sun, it would fill the solar system out to the planet Neptune, thirty times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is rather cool when compared to other stars - although it still has a temperature of about 2,000 C - and it therefore has a very red colour [5]. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 15/96 which demonstrates that while the star is hardly visible in blue light, it shines brightly in red and infrared light. Stars like IRAS 04553-6825 are known as red supergiants. It has been unofficially dubbed `The Monster', and having reached the end of a short and hectic life, it is now dying. The nuclear reactions deep inside are undergoing important changes at

  12. Implementation of reflected light die-to-die inspection and ReviewSmart to improve 65nm DRAM mask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Cho, Won Il; Park, Jin Hyung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Cha, Byung Chul; Choi, Seong Woon; Han, Woo Sung; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Nam Wook; Hess, Carl; Ma, Weimin; Kim, David

    2005-11-01

    As the design rule continues to shrink towards 65nm size and beyond the defect criteria are becoming ever more challenging. Pattern fidelity and reticle defects that were once considered as insignificant or nuisance are now becoming significant yield impacting defects. The intent of this study is to utilize the new generation DUV system to compare Die-to-Die Reflected Light inspection and Die-to-Die Transmitted Light Inspection to increase defect detection for optimization of the 65nm node process. In addition, the ReviewSmart will be implemented to help categorically identify systematic tool and process variations and thus allowing user to expedite the learning process to develop a production worthy 65nm node mask process. The learning will be applied to Samsung's pattern inspection strategy, complementing Transmitted Light Inspection, on critical layers of 65 nm node to gain ability to find defects that adversely affect process window.

  13. Drawing a line between killing and letting die: the law, and law reform, on medically assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    1993-01-01

    While much has been written about the professional ethics of physician assisted dying, little is known about where the law draws the line, whether the law is enforced in practice, and how the law should be reformed to reflect changing public opinion and ethical thought. This article addresses these questions and the need for clearer public policy [in the United States] on physician assisted dying.

  14. Attitudes of Older Chinese Patients Toward Death and Dying.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Flaherty, Joseph Henry; Guo, Ju Hong; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Xue Mei; Hu, Xiu Ying

    2017-09-07

    Due to the aging population of China, the need for palliative care will increase. However, one of the barriers to utilization of palliative care is the traditional belief that talking about death and dying is taboo. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent older Chinese patients were willing to answer questions about death and dying by asking them about "fear of death" and their desire to "use advanced life support when dying." Survey questionnaire. Convenience sample (N = 993 hospitalized patients). Only 215 (21.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.2%-27.1%) and 99 (9.9%; 95% CI 4.1%-15.8%) patients did not answer the questions related to "fear of death" and "use of advanced life support when dying," respectively, while 439 (44.2%; 95% CI 38.7%-49.7%) answered "yes" and 339 (34.1%; 95% CI 28.7%-39.6%) answered "no" for "fear of death" and 382 (38.5%; 95% CI 32.6%-44.3%) answered "yes" and 512 (51.6%; 95% CI 45.7%-57.4%) answered "no" for "use of advanced life support when dying." In multinomial logistic regression analysis, fear of death was associated with younger age, lowest level of function, and desire to use advanced life support. The majority of older patients were willing to answer the two questions about death and dying. About one-third of patients were not afraid of death, and older patients were less likely to be afraid of death. More than 50% of patients answered that they would not choose advanced life support when dying. More research in this area is needed to help advance palliative care in China.

  15. Relatives' and staff's experience of patients dying in ICU.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, S M; Psirides, A

    2015-12-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) exist to support patients through acute illness that threatens their life. Although ICUs aim to save life, they are also a place where a significant proportion of patients die with international mortality rates ranging from 15% to 24%. To explore the experience of relatives and staff of patients dying in ICU using qualitative approach. Consecutive patients were identified who were dying in the ICU. The researcher met the families prior to the patient's death. The ICU nurse and doctor most involved were interviewed within 48 h of the death. The families were interviewed 2 weeks later. Interviewees described their experience of the patient's dying and death. Recruitment until data saturation and thematic analysis occurred concurrently. Ten families, nurses and doctors were interviewed in relation to 10 patients. In caring for the patients who are dying in the ICU and their families, nurses practice to their satisfaction with creativity and autonomy, although concerned about continuity of care at handover. Families appreciate kindness and regular sensitive communication. Families would like more contact with the ICU doctors. Limiting access to the patient according to ICU protocol is distressing for relatives. Doctors struggle with decision making, determining prognosis and witnessing the grief of relatives. Some doctors wish to have a greater part in care of the dying patient. Distress among nurses reported in the ICU literature and attributed to disenfranchisement by doctors was not evident. In contrast, some doctors struggle to practice what they value. Adherence to ICU protocols needs flexibility when a patient is dying. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  17. Phagocytosis of dying tumor cells by human peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Britta Janina; Lindau, Dennis; Ripper, Dagmar; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Glatzle, Jörg; Witte, Maria; Beck, Henning; Keppeler, Hildegard; Lauber, Kirsten; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Königsrainer, Alfred

    2011-05-15

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is an advanced form of metastatic disease characterized by cancer cell dissemination onto the peritoneum. It is commonly observed in ovarian and colorectal cancers and is associated with poor patient survival. Novel therapies consist of cytoreductive surgery in combination with intraperitoneal chemotherapy, aiming at tumor cell death induction. The resulting dying tumor cells are considered to be eliminated by professional as well as semi-professional phagocytes. In the present study, we have identified a hitherto unknown type of 'amateur' phagocyte in this environment: human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HMCs). We demonstrate that HMCs engulf corpses of dying ovarian and colorectal cancer cells, as well as other types of apoptotic cells. Flow cytometric, confocal and electron microscopical analyses revealed that HMCs ingest dying cell fragments in a dose- and time-dependent manner and the internalized material subsequently traffics into late phagolysosomes. Regarding the mechanisms of prey cell recognition, our results show that HMCs engulf apoptotic corpses in a serum-dependent and -independent fashion and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that diverse opsonin receptor systems orchestrating dying cell clearance are expressed in HMCs at high levels. Our data strongly suggest that HMCs contribute to dying cell removal in the peritoneum, and future studies will elucidate in what manner this influences tumor cell dissemination and the antitumor immune response.

  18. Death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel.

    PubMed

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety was related to gender and education for elderly living in the community, but social support and self-esteem were additional correlates for those living in nursing homes. The results of this study indicate that fostering a sense that one has a supportive social and familial network is important in decreasing death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab people. It would also be beneficial to provide information and knowledge that might relieve some of the anxiety they experience.

  19. How people die in hospital general wards: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Franco; Di Giulio, Paola; Brunelli, Cinzia; Miccinesi, Guido; Laquintana, Dario

    2005-07-01

    To describe how patients die in hospital, 370 patients (age >18 years; in hospital for>24 hours) who died on the general wards of 40 Italian hospitals were assessed. Differences between patients whose death was expected and patients whose death was unexpected were evaluated. Data on treatments and care in proximity of death were collected after interviewing the nurse responsible for the patient within 72 hours of the patient's death, and from clinical and nursing records. For 58% of patients, death was highly expected. Symptom control was inadequate for the most severely ill patients: 75% experienced at least one "severe" symptom (42% pain and 45% dyspnea). Nurses tended to judge patients' global care as "good" or "very good" (76%), in spite of the persistence of symptoms and the scant use of analgesics. Despite some encouraging signs of sensitivity to end-of-life problems, acute inpatient institutions in Italy still deal inadequately with the needs of dying persons.

  20. Hospice nurses' emotional challenges in their encounters with the dying.

    PubMed

    Ingebretsen, Lina Paola; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' emotional challenges when caring for the dying in hospices. The study has a qualitative design, and knowledge was developed through a dialectical exchange between theory and data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses recruited from two hospices in Denmark. Although all of the nurses said that they experienced emotional challenges or felt emotionally touched during their work, the study found a variety of opinions related to the extent to which their emotional reactions should be revealed in their role as a hospice professional. The participants described their emotional challenges as being simultaneously draining and enriching experiences leading to personal and professional growth and development. The study may contribute to increased awareness of emotional challenges for hospice nurses, which involve continuous reflection and balancing between meeting the dying as a human being and meeting the dying as a hospice professional.

  1. Phenomenological study of ICU nurses' experiences caring for dying patients.

    PubMed

    King, Phyllis Ann; Thomas, Sandra P

    2013-11-01

    This existential phenomenological study explored caring for the dying based on the philosophical works of Merleau-Ponty. Fourteen critical care nurses were asked to describe lived experiences of caring for dying patients. An encompassing theme of Promises to Keep emerged, with five subthemes, including the following: (a) promise to be truthful: "Nurses are in the game of reality," (b) promise to provide comfort: "I'll make him comfortable," (c) promise to be an advocate: "Just one more day," (d) "Promise that couldn't be kept," and (e) "Promise to remain connected." The essence of intensive care nurses' lived experience of caring for dying patients is captured in the theme Promises to Keep. Nurses accept the reality of death and express strong commitment to making it as comfortable, peaceful, and dignified as possible, despite critical care unit environments that foster a "paradigm of curing" rather than a "paradigm of caring.".

  2. Is "healthy dying" a paradox? revisiting an early Kastenbaum challenge.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, Allan

    This article is a review of Robert Kastenbaum's 1979 essay entitled "Healthy dying: A paradoxical quest continues." It begins with a summary of the arguments and challenges in the original essay. This is followed by an evaluation of his original claims in the light of contemporary insights in modern public health history and empirical studies of near-death experiences and death bed visions. The recent development of health promotion in palliative care is described in relation to these developments and Kastenbaum's early question about the paradoxical quest for health while dying is again posed against this background. Given our modern understanding of "health" in current global health policy and debates, it is argued that "healthy dying" is no paradox. Instead, the pursuit of health at the end of life represents a realistic modern desire to compress morbidity, minimize unnecessary suffering, and enhance quality of life at this time.

  3. Hospice nurses’ emotional challenges in their encounters with the dying

    PubMed Central

    Ingebretsen, Lina Paola; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ emotional challenges when caring for the dying in hospices. The study has a qualitative design, and knowledge was developed through a dialectical exchange between theory and data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses recruited from two hospices in Denmark. Although all of the nurses said that they experienced emotional challenges or felt emotionally touched during their work, the study found a variety of opinions related to the extent to which their emotional reactions should be revealed in their role as a hospice professional. The participants described their emotional challenges as being simultaneously draining and enriching experiences leading to personal and professional growth and development. The study may contribute to increased awareness of emotional challenges for hospice nurses, which involve continuous reflection and balancing between meeting the dying as a human being and meeting the dying as a hospice professional. PMID:27258584

  4. Optimization of an Extrusion Die for Polymer Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridene, Y. Chahbani; Graebling, D.; Boujelbene, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we used the CFD software PolyFlow to optimize the extrusion process of polystyrene flow. In this process, the flow of the molten polymer through the die can be viewed as a critical step for the material in terms of shear rate, self heating by viscous dissipation and temperature reached. The simulation is focused on the flow and heat transfer in the die to obtain a uniform velocity profile and a uniform temperature profile. The rheological behavior of polymer melt was described by the nonlinear Giesekus model. The dependence of the viscosity has also to be taken into account for a correct description of the flow. The design of the die has been validated by our numerical simulation.

  5. Physician Burnout and the Calling to Care for the Dying.

    PubMed

    Yoon, John D; Hunt, Natalie B; Ravella, Krishna C; Jun, Christine S; Curlin, Farr A

    2016-01-01

    Physician burnout raises concerns over what sustains physicians' career motivations. We assess whether physicians in end-of-life specialties had higher rates of burnout and/or calling to care for the dying. We also examined whether the patient centeredness of the clinical environment was associated with burnout. In 2010 to 2011, we conducted a national survey of US physicians from multiple specialties. Primary outcomes were a validated single-item measure of burnout or sense of calling to end-of-life care. Primary predictors of burnout (or calling) included clinical specialty, frequency of encounters with dying patients, and patient centeredness of the clinical environments ("My clinical environment prioritizes the need of the patient over maximizing revenue"). Adjusted response rate among eligible respondents was 62% (1156 of 1878). Nearly a quarter of physicians (23%) experienced burnout, and rates were similar across all specialties. Half of the responding physicians (52%) agreed that they felt called to take care of patients who are dying. Burned-out physicians were more likely to report working in profit-centered clinical environments (multivariate odds ratio [OR] of 1.9; confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-2.8) or experiencing emotional exhaustion when caring for the dying (multivariate OR of 2.1; CI: 1.4-3.0). Physicians who identified their work as a calling were more likely to work in end-of-life specialties, to feel emotionally energized when caring for the dying, and to be religious. Physicians from end-of-life specialties not only did not have increased rates of burnout but they were also more likely to report a sense of calling in caring for the dying.

  6. New Zealanders' attitudes toward physician-assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Rae, Nicola; Johnson, Malcolm H; Malpas, Phillipa J

    2015-03-01

    Physician-assisted dying (PAD) is legal in several countries in Europe and some states of the United States. Despite regular societal debate in New Zealand about assisted dying, little is known about what the New Zealand public think about this issue. The present study was the first to examine New Zealanders' attitudes toward assisted dying in the context of various parameters of patient suffering, and as a public policy issue. Stratified random sampling techniques were used to elicit 677 participants from the electoral roll. They completed an anonymous questionnaire asking about the most appropriate medical response to patients who explicitly request assistance in dying, as well as their opinions around legalization of PAD. Overall, 78% felt PAD was the most appropriate response in certain situations while 82% felt it should be legalized. When the patient was suffering from loss of dignity, PAD was considered the most appropriate response to patients' requests for assistance in dying by 75% of respondents; when the patient was suffering from intractable pain, 65% of respondents considered PAD the most appropriate response. Almost 65% of those who wanted PAD to be legalized felt it should only be accessible to those suffering unbearably with little hope of recovery, and 46% felt that the presence of mental illness should be an exclusionary factor. The results have highlighted the high value respondents place on patient autonomy with regards to end-of-life choices; however the choice to hasten death is not a 'right' that should be available to all. RESULTS have clearly shown that New Zealanders believe regulation will play a key role in maintaining compliance with any assisted dying legislation, and in restricting access, so that only patients who are suffering intolerably and hopelessly are able to legally gain medical assistance to end their life.

  7. Living through the end: The phenomenon of dying at home.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Diane N; Hansen, Lissi

    2015-04-01

    To explore the unique lived experiences of one patient who died at home and her family members, and to interpret how dying at home influenced patterns of bereavement for this patient's family. Benner's (1985) interpretive phenomenological approach was employed to get at the embedded nature of the social phenomenon of dying at home, uncovering what may be taken for granted by participants - in this case, during and after the patient's home hospice course. The participants were a 78-year-old female diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis six months prior to death, her husband, and three of her four children. In line with the patient's wish to die at home, she voluntarily forewent food and drink when she no longer wished to watch her body deteriorate and felt that her life had run its course. She informed her family of this plan, and all were supportive. For data collection, separate single in-depth interviews were conducted with the deceased three months prior to death, and after death with three of her four children and her spouse of 60 years. For data analysis, the interview transcripts were coded for paradigm cases, exemplars, and themes. The paradigm case, "The Meaning of Being at Home," revealed that for study participants, remaining home with hospice provided a richly familiar, quiet, and safe environment for being together over time and focusing on relationships. Exemplars included "Driving Her Own Course" and "Not Being a Burden." Salient themes encompassed patient and family characteristics, support, emotions, the value of time, and aspects of the healthcare team. End-of-life care providers need to hold a patient-centered, family-focused view to facilitate patient and family wishes to remain home to die. Investigation into family relationships, from the perspectives of both patient and family members, longitudinally, may enrich understanding and ability and help patients to die at home.

  8. [The special requirements of old age in terms of dying].

    PubMed

    Kruse, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    It is expected that the rising average life expectancy will leave ever more people with chronic progressive diseases of the body and brain. This then means not only having to deal with increasingly longer periods of care, but also possibly distinct neurocognitive disorders in the years prior to death and dying. The aim of this study is to report epidemiological data on the causes of death, as well as on the places of death. In addition, the attitudes and behaviour towards death and dying, as well as the different places of death will be discussed. Expecting support in the process of dying, as well as factors that have a more conducive effect on the internal processing of dying, are mentioned. At the same time, the attitudes and behaviours in respect of the accompaniment of dying people, which can be seen in the staff in clinical inpatient facilities, are addressed. Personal intense grappling with dying and death actually has a positive effect on these behaviours and attitudes. Finally, the contribution turns to the question of to what extent the theory of compression of morbidity may be perceived as valid, especially in view of the rising average life expectancy. It is emphasised that chronic diseases, even when no functional loss is present, place not only great demands on the patient, but also on the care system and financial resources. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that frailty can often cause mental disorders. Specific requirements with a view to the care of people with dementia are given.

  9. Quality of dying and death with cancer in Israel.

    PubMed

    Braun, Michal; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Hales, Sarah; Zimmermann, Camilla; Rydall, Anne; Peretz, Tamar; Rodin, Gary

    2014-07-01

    The quality of dying and death refers to the evaluation of the final days of life and the moment of death with respect to how it is prepared for, faced and experienced by those with a terminal illness. It includes experience in multiple domains: physical, psychological, social, spiritual or existential, the nature of health care, life closure and death preparation, and the circumstances of death. To explore the quality of dying and death in cancer patients in Israel and its relationship to place of death and socio-demographic characteristics of the primary caregivers and the deceased. Retrospective assessment of the quality of dying and death, based on caregiver responses to the Quality of Dying and Death (QODD) questionnaire (overall score ranges from 0 to 100; higher scores reflect better dying and death experiences) 8 to 10 months after the death. Ninety-five caregivers of Jewish cancer patients, most of whom were female spouses or children of the deceased. Mean QODD score was 57.2 (standard deviation [SD]=15), which is in the low-moderate range. Place of death, gender and age of the caregiver, and age of the deceased, were associated with QODD score. This retrospective study in Israel demonstrated that the overall quality of dying and death was regarded as poor by almost half of the caregivers. These findings may reflect the relative lack of specialized palliative care and advance care planning in Israel at the time of this study, which took place between 2006 and 2009. Further research and enhancement of palliative care resources may be needed in Israel and several encouraging recent developments (e.g. staff training and legislation) suggest that such changes are now underway.

  10. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  11. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  12. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  13. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2002-06-01

    Fructosyl-Valin-Histidin-Leucin-Threonin-Prolin (glkPP) als Kompetitor und Affinitätsligand immobilisiert und so eine regenerierfähige Oberfläche geschaffen. Beim Sandwich-Immunoassay wurde im ersten Schritt Gesamt-Hämoglobin an die mit Haptoglobin (Hp) modifizierte Festphase angereichert und im zweiten Schritt der gebundene HbA1c-Anteil nachgewiesen. Für die Konstruktion des HbA1c-Immunosensors wurden Affinitätsmatrizen durch Modifizierung von Cellulose-Dialysemembranen mit glkPP bzw. Hp hergestellt. Grundlegend studiert wurde die Aktivierung der Cellulose-Membranen mit 1,1'-Carbonyldiimidazol (CDI) und 1-Cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridintetrafluoroborat (CDAP) als Aktivierungsagenzien. Eine gerichtete Immobilisierung der Liganden wurde realisiert, indem glkPP über dessen C-Terminus (einzige Carboxylatgruppe) und Hp über dessen periodat-oxidiertem Kohlenhydratrest an die amino- oder hydrazidfunktionalisierte Membranen kovalent gekoppelt wurden. Mit dem Einsatz der glkPP- und Hp-modifizierten Membranen in der elektrochemischen Messzelle war erstmalig der biosensorische Nachweis von HbA1c möglich. Als Transduktor diente eine Pt-Elektrode, an der das von der GOD generierte H2O2 umgesetzt und ein mit der HbA1c-Konzentration korrelierendes Stromsignal erzeugt wurde. Die Immunosensoren zeigten Ansprechzeiten von 3 s. Mit dem Immunosensor auf Basis des indirekt-kompetitiven Testprinzips wurde eine Kalibrationskurve für HbA1c im Bereich von 0,25-30 µg/ml (3,9-465 nM, CV 3-9 %) mit Assayzeiten von 60 min und mit dem Immunosensor im Sandwich-Format eine Kalibrationskurve im Bereich von 0,5-5 µg/ml (7,8-78 nM; 5-50 % HbA1c vom Gesamt-Hb, CV 6-10 %, 3 h) aufgenommen. Hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) is a hemoglobin subtype formed by non-enzymatic reaction of glucose with the N-terminus of the beta-polypeptide chains. As it reflects the glycemic status of diabetics over the preceding 8-12 weeks, the determination of HbA1c has become an established procedure in the management of diabetes

  14. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  15. [Psychosocial aspects of institutional dying in the elderly (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rest, H O

    1979-01-01

    Especially in the elderly dying is less a somatic than a psychosocial act, which results from the relationship of institution, structur, professional staff, and patient. During the psychosocial dying occurs a continual death of identity, integrity, and relationship, which has the origin in station ideologies, insufficient training of the staff, psychiatric injudiciousness, and in the fail in death-contact. During a some years lasting research-work the different connections are inquired and the dangers of an over-subscribed theory of activity are represented.

  16. Do people whose names begin with "D" really die young?

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more comprehensive data from the same source does not show a statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity. In addition, data for the years 1960 through 2004 for 6.7 million White, non-Hispanic California decedents do not replicate the claim that D's die young.

  17. Einsteins Traum. Expeditionen an die Grenzen der Raumzeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    This book is a German translation, by H. Kober, of the English original "Black holes and baby universes and other essays" published in 1993. It is a collection of articles written by the author between 1976 and 1992. Contents: 1. Kindheit. 2. Oxford und Cambridge. 3. Meine Erfahrung mit ALS. 4. Öffentliche Einstellungen zur Wissenschaft. 5. Eine kurze Geschichte der Kurzen Geschichte. 6. Mein Standpunkt. 7. Einsteins Traum. 8. Der Ursprung des Universums. 9. Die Quantenmechanik Schwarzer Löcher. 10. Schwarze Löcher und Baby-Universen. 11. Ist alles vorherbestimmt? 12. Die Zukunft des Universums. 13. Desert Island Discs, ein Interview.

  18. A protection type of flow-guided extrusion die for semi-hollow Al-Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rurong; Yun, Peng; Huang, Cuiting; Huang, Xuemei

    2017-09-01

    A new die structure for the semi-hollow Al-profiles was presented. Through a practical example, the die structure named protection type of flow-guided die was introduced. The composition of the structure and the selection of structure parameters were analyzed in detail. And the method of checking the die strength was introduced. The characteristics of the new structure were simple and easy to process. The practical application shows that the die structure can enhance the strength and prolong the life of the die. It is worth promoting. The purpose is to extend the experience and the new die structure, Provide reliable and valid reference data to the designers.

  19. Innovative Die Material and Lubrication Strategies for Clean and Energy Conserving Forging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rajiv Shivpuri; Sailesh Babu; Lin Yang; Yijun Zhu

    2007-01-08

    The objective of this project was to develop and implement innovative die material and surface coating strategies such as composite dies and lubricated coatings to increase die lives and to reduce environmental pollution. In this project approaches and software were developed for die life optimization and optimal design of lubrication systems for hot forging. In addition, LENS applied nickel-aluminide coatings were developed and validated in the industrial environment for significant improvements in die life.

  20. Pultrusion dies -- From massive and power hungry to lean and smart

    SciTech Connect

    Awa, T.W.; Price, H.L.

    1996-11-01

    A lean and smart pultrusion die is proposed. The concept arose from a thermal analysis which showed that present dies involve large heat losses balancing large power inputs with temperature excursions being damped by high die mass. As power costs increase and control costs decrease, pultrusion dies may evolve toward low mass, highly insulated dies with a computer for monitoring and control purposes as well as for heat transfer estimates.