Science.gov

Sample records for die gantz histori

  1. HUBBLE PROBES THE COMPLEX HISTORY OF A DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The dynamical effects of two stars orbiting one another most easily explains the intricate structures, which are much more complicated than features seen in most planetary nebulae. (The two stars are too close together to be individually resolved by Hubble, and instead, appear as a single point of light at the center of the nebula.) According to this model, a fast 'stellar wind' of gas blown off the central star created the elongated shell of dense, glowing gas. This structure is embedded inside two larger lobes of gas blown off the star at an earlier phase. These lobes are 'pinched' by a ring of denser gas, presumably ejected along the orbital plane of the binary companion. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light-years away in the

  2. Music for the dying: a personal account of the new field of music-thanatology--history, theories, and clinical narratives.

    PubMed

    Schroeder-Sheker, T

    1994-03-01

    Music-thanatology is a palliative medical modality employing prescriptive music to tend the complex physical and spiritual needs of the dying. "Infirmary music" was an intimate expression of French monastic medicine in 11th-century Cluny and anticipated the holism of both the hospice and palliative medical movements by almost 800 years. Although no longer an expression of any institutional religious identity, music-thanatology is nevertheless concerned with the possibility of a blessed death and the gift that conscious dying can bring to the fullness of life. Music-thanatology interns seek to integrate and model these contemplative and clinical values in daily practice: 18 interns deliver prescriptive music in bedside vigils serving the dying in home, hospital, and hospice settings with great effectiveness in oncology, respiratory illnesses, the slow degenerative diseases, and AIDS. This article is submitted to nurses to serve as an introduction to the field of music-thanatology, providing readers with a brief history, meaningful clinical narratives, some of the musical theories involved, research concerns (archival and medical), and milestones to be addressed for the future implementation of music-thanatology in hospitals and hospices and communities across the nation.

  3. Spatially resolved spectra of the 'teacup' active galactic nucleus: tracing the history of a dying quasar

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, J. P.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Fischer, T. C.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Keel, W. C.; Rafter, S.; Bennert, V. N.; Schawinski, K.

    2014-09-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Galaxy Zoo project has revealed a number of spectacular galaxies possessing extended emission-line regions (EELRs), the most famous being Hanny's Voorwerp galaxy. We present another EELR object discovered in the SDSS endeavor: the Teacup active galactic nucleus (AGN). Nicknamed for its EELR, which has a 'handle'-like structure protruding 15 kpc into the northeast quadrant of the galaxy. We analyze the physical conditions of this galaxy with long-slit, ground-based spectroscopy from the Lowell, Lick, and KPNO observatories. With the Lowell 1.8 m Perkin's telescope we took multiple observations at different offset positions, allowing us to recover spatially resolved spectra across the galaxy. Line diagnostics indicate the ionized gas is photoionized primarily by the AGN. Additionally we are able to derive the hydrogen density from the [S II] λ6716/λ6731 ratio. We generated two-component photoionization models for each spatially resolved Lowell spectrum. These models allow us to calculate the AGN bolometric luminosity seen by the gas at different radii from the nuclear center of the Teacup. Our results show a drop in bolometric luminosity by more than two orders of magnitude from the EELR to the nucleus, suggesting that the AGN has decreased in luminosity by this amount in a continuous fashion over 46,000 yr, supporting the case for a dying AGN in this galaxy independent of any IR based evidence. We demonstrate that spatially resolved photoionization modeling could be applied to EELRs to investigate long timescale variability.

  4. Live fast die young life history in females: evolutionary trade-off between early life mating and lifespan in female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Laura M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental to life history theory. Sexual selection is expected to favour a ‘live fast die young’ life history pattern in males due to increased risk of extrinsic mortality associated with obtaining mates. Sexual conflict may also drive a genetic trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in females. We found significant additive genetic variance in longevity independent of lifetime mating frequency, and in early life mating frequency. There was significant negative genetic covariance between these traits indicating that females from families characterized by high levels of multiple mating early in life die sooner than females that engage in less intense early life mating. Thus, despite heritable variation in both traits, their independent evolution is constrained by an evolutionary trade-off. Our findings indicate that, in addition to the well-known male-driven direct costs of mating on female lifespan (mediated by male harassment and harmful effects of seminal fluids), females with a genetic propensity to mate multiply live shorter lives. We discuss the potential role of sexual conflict in driving the evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in Drosophila. More generally, our data show that, like males, females can exhibit a live fast die young life history strategy. PMID:26482533

  5. The Perils of Ignoring History: Big Tobacco Played Dirty and Millions Died. How Similar Is Big Food?

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Kelly D; Warner, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    Context: In 1954 the tobacco industry paid to publish the “Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers” in hundreds of U.S. newspapers. It stated that the public's health was the industry's concern above all others and promised a variety of good-faith changes. What followed were decades of deceit and actions that cost millions of lives. In the hope that the food history will be written differently, this article both highlights important lessons that can be learned from the tobacco experience and recommends actions for the food industry. Methods: A review and analysis of empirical and historical evidence pertaining to tobacco and food industry practices, messages, and strategies to influence public opinion, legislation and regulation, litigation, and the conduct of science. Findings: The tobacco industry had a playbook, a script, that emphasized personal responsibility, paying scientists who delivered research that instilled doubt, criticizing the “junk” science that found harms associated with smoking, making self-regulatory pledges, lobbying with massive resources to stifle government action, introducing “safer” products, and simultaneously manipulating and denying both the addictive nature of their products and their marketing to children. The script of the food industry is both similar to and different from the tobacco industry script. Conclusions: Food is obviously different from tobacco, and the food industry differs from tobacco companies in important ways, but there also are significant similarities in the actions that these industries have taken in response to concern that their products cause harm. Because obesity is now a major global problem, the world cannot afford a repeat of the tobacco history, in which industry talks about the moral high ground but does not occupy it. PMID:19298423

  6. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  7. Deciding life and death in the courtroom. From Quinlan to Cruzan, Glucksberg, and Vacco--a brief history and analysis of constitutional protection of the 'right to die'.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    1997-11-12

    This article analyzes judicial determinations on the "right to die" from Quinlan to Cruzan, Glucksberg, and Vacco. The body of law known as right-to-die cases extends ordinary treatment refusal doctrine to end-of-life decisions. The courts, having affirmed a right to refuse life-sustaining treatment, held that certain categorical distinctions that had been drawn lacked a rational basis. No rational distinction could be made between competent vs incompetent patients, withholding vs withdrawing treatment, and ordinary vs extraordinary treatment. The courts, however, had persistently affirmed one categorical distinction: between withdrawing life-sustaining treament on the one hand and active euthanasia or physician-assisted dying on the other. In Washington v Glucksberg and Vacco v Quill, the Supreme Court unanimously held that physician-assisted suicide is not a fundamental liberty interest protected by the Constitution. Notably, five members of the Court wrote or joined in concurring opinions that took a more liberal view. The Court powerfully approved aggressive palliation of pain. The Supreme Court, hinting that it would find state legalization of physician-assisted suicide constitutional, invited the nation to pursue an earnest debate on physician assistance in the dying process.

  8. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  9. Wege in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  10. Science fiction and the history of the astro-department of Carl Zeiss Jena (German Title: Science Fiction und die Geschichte der Astroabteilung von Carl Zeiss Jena)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Hans G.

    This contribution uses the literary form of science fiction in retrospect, in order to display the initial conditions given in the run-up of the founding of the astro-department of the Zeiss factory. Written minutes (supposedly found during restoration works in the people's house in Jena) introduce the participants of a sort of founding party of the main actors Ernst Abbe, Otto Schott, Siegfried Czapski, Hans Harting, Albert König, Franz Meyer and Walter Villiger. Their contributions to the discussion yield a market analysis, based on the past development of the technology of astronomical instruments, the international competitors' state of the art, and the assessment of the future development in astronomy and especially of astrophysics. The contribution presents a piece of modern history of the year 1987; it was presented as a talk on May 13 of the same year, when Rolf Riekher celebrated his 65th birthday.

  11. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  12. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  13. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  14. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  15. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  16. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  17. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  18. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  19. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  20. The Angry Dying Patient.

    PubMed

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  1. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  2. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  3. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  4. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  5. Die Kometenmission Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Die Rosetta-Mission ist ein Meilenstein in der Erforschung der Kometen und ihrer Entstehung. Eine der größten üerraschungen war die unregelmäßge hantelförmige Gestalt des Zielkometen 67P/Tschurjumow-Gerassimenko. Er besteht wahrscheinlich aus zwei Einzelkörpern, die durch ihre Schwerkraft aneinander gehalten werden. Seine Oberfläche ist sehr rau und zeigt eine sehr vielf ältige Morphologie, die auf eine Vielzahl von ablaufenden Prozessen hindeutet. Der Kometenkern ist vermutlich auf Gr ößnskalen von mehr als etwa 10 bis 100 Metern homogen, Inhomogenitäten auf kleineren Skalen k nnten f r seine Aktivä t verantwortlich sein. Diese ist auf kleine Gebiete konzentriert, und auch Oberflächenveränderungen, die sich innerhalb von einigen Tagen bis wenigen Wochen abspielen, sind lokal. Im Kometenmaterial wurde eine Vielzahl an organischen Substanzen gemessen, die zum Teil als Schlüsselmoleküle für die Synthese der Grundbausteine des Lebens gelten, wie wir es kennen.

  6. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  7. Investigation of Die Stress Profiles during Powder Compaction using Instrumented Die

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The radial stress profile in a cylindrical die during compaction of titanium (Ti) powder was investigated by experiments. The concept of an instrumented die was extended to design an enhanced instrumented die. Custom-made strain gage pins were used to measure the radial stress during powder compaction. The test fixture was designed to simulate double-action pressing. The measured die stress profile for Ti powder was compared with that for a commercially available iron (Fe) powder. The stress history shows that an appreciable residual stress remains in the die in the radial direction after the axial compaction stress is removed from the powder. Furthermore, the radial stress profile in the die, while under maximum axial compaction stress, is more uniform across the height of the Fe compact than that of the Ti compact. In addition, the residual stress profile in the die in the radial direction reduces symmetrically in both directions beyond the height of the compact for both powders. Finally, the Ti powder shows a significantly higher frictional coefficient at the maximum axial compaction stress, and consequently a higher maximum axial ejection stress than the Fe powder.

  8. When a Baby Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Martha Jo; And Others

    Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…

  9. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have fun with. That absence leaves a big hole in our lives. Maybe you had a pet that died . Remember the first few times you walked into the house after your dog or cat was gone? It was strange not to have ...

  10. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  11. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A What's in this article? When — and How — Does It Happen? Where Do Dead People Go? What Does Grieving Mean? What About Me? If I'm Going to Die Someday, What Should I Do Now? en español ...

  12. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  13. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  14. Die kalte Zunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Sören; Müller, Rüdiger

    Gefühlte Temperaturen. Ist ein Null Grad Celsius kalter Metallstab eigentlich kälter als ein Holzstab mit der selben Temperatur? Rein physikalisch gesehen natürlich nicht, aber wenn wir beide Stäbe anfassen, kommt uns der Metallstab deutlich kälter vor. Und wer kennt nicht die Szene aus dem Film Dumm und Dümmer in der Harry mit seiner Zunge am Metallrahmen des Skilifts hängen bleibt.Würde das auch passieren, wenn man an einem eiskalten Stück Holz lecken würde? Wohl kaum, doch woran liegt das eigentlich? Unterschiedliche Materialien haben verschiedene Fähigkeiten, Wärme zu übertragen und zu leiten. So transportiert Metall die von der Zunge ausgehende Wärme sehr schnell weiter und verändert seine Temperatur kaum, während die Zunge abkühlt. Holz hingegen leitet Wärme fast gar nicht und daher wird der Teil, der von der Zunge berührt wird, aufgewärmt.

  15. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  16. Designing a Die for Hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Radu

    2016-12-01

    Designing a die is in every application field an intensive process of bringing together know how from design, testing and every-day use from previous dies with the new application requirements. Contribution deals with a knowledge oriented, modular and feature integrated computer aided design system for die development. This paper describes the concepts behind designing a hydroforming die for sheet metal forming, with easy application-use in small workshops for testing hydroforming capabilities of different materials.

  17. Dying with dignity.

    PubMed

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  19. Where people die.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources. PMID:515338

  20. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  1. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  2. Die Milchstraße.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, N.; Couper, H.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, from the English original "The guide to the Galaxy", published in 1994 (see Abstr. 61.003.065). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung unserer Galaxis. 2. Die Lokale Gruppe. 3. Die Geographie der Galaxis. 4. Der Perseus-Arm. 5. Der Orion-Arm. 6. Unsere lokale Nachbarschaft: ein typischer Winkel der Galaxis. 7. Der Sagittarius-Arm: innerhalb der Sonnenumlaufbahn. 8. Das Zentrum der Galaxis.

  3. The master and the telescopes - the interplay between astronomy and optics in history (German Title: Der Meister und die Fernrohre - Das Wechselspiel zwischen Astronomie und Optik in der Geschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen; Keil, Inge

    The use of the telescope for astronomical observations since 1609 was one of the milestones in the celestial research. The contributions in this volume present new insights into the invention of the telescope and its relations to reading stones and spectacles, present investigations of special telescope types of early manufacturers, and analyze the telescopes of some historical observatories and the investigations carried out with them. Other contributions deal with the pictorial appearance of telescopes in baroque art, the connection of telescopes with photography, as well as the development of reflectors in the 20th century. The volume is dedicated to Rolf Riekher, an internationally established specialist ior the history of the telescope, on the occasion of his 85th birthday.

  4. I Could Have Died Laughing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael Forrest; Smith, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Notes that caregivers of the dying would do well to consider the prescriptive power of humor when confronting the challenges of healthy care for the terminally ill. Addresses laughter as the best medicine not only for the dying person but also for family and principal caregivers. Includes examples of therapeutic use of humor with the terminally…

  5. Adapt or die?

    PubMed

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  6. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  7. Dying: A universal human experience?

    PubMed

    Bregman, L

    1989-03-01

    This paper explores the question, "Is there a universal psychological experience suffered by all dying persons?" a question to which the popular theory of Kübler-Ross presupposes an affirmative answer. Our answer takes three steps: first, a comparison between the Kübler-Ross model of dying and that of the late medievalBook of the Craft of Dying centered upon the five Kübler-Ross "stages"; second, a philosophical critique of the terms of this comparison; and third, a revised look at the alleged similarities between the two models, providing a deeper look at the moral and spiritual assumptions behind each.

  8. Die Sonne, Stern unserer Erde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Ehlers, A.

    Dieses reich bebilderte Buch gibt eine Einführung in die Physik der Sonne und ihre Bedeutung für die Erde. Gestützt auf neueste Forschungsergebnisse aus Radioteleskop- und Satellitenbeobachtungen beschreibt der Autor die gewaltigen atomenergetischen Prozesse der Sonne, ihren geheimnisvollen Neutrinofluß, ihre seismischen Aktivitäten, Magnetfelder und Sonnenflecke, Korona, Sonnenausbrüche und Protuberanzen, den Sonnenwind, und die außerordentlich wichtige und vielfältige Bedeutung des Sonnenlichts, das Leben auf der Erde entstehen läßt und es auch gefährdet. Gut verständlich und in ansprechender Sprache geschrieben ist es ein wunderbares Buch für den Leser populärwissenschaftlicher Literatur, ein wertvolles Geschenk für Studenten der Astronomie und verwandter Disziplinen sowie Amateurastronomen.

  9. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  10. Is "healthy dying" a paradox? revisiting an early Kastenbaum challenge.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, Allan

    This article is a review of Robert Kastenbaum's 1979 essay entitled "Healthy dying: A paradoxical quest continues." It begins with a summary of the arguments and challenges in the original essay. This is followed by an evaluation of his original claims in the light of contemporary insights in modern public health history and empirical studies of near-death experiences and death bed visions. The recent development of health promotion in palliative care is described in relation to these developments and Kastenbaum's early question about the paradoxical quest for health while dying is again posed against this background. Given our modern understanding of "health" in current global health policy and debates, it is argued that "healthy dying" is no paradox. Instead, the pursuit of health at the end of life represents a realistic modern desire to compress morbidity, minimize unnecessary suffering, and enhance quality of life at this time.

  11. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  12. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  13. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  14. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  15. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  16. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  17. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  18. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed

    Frost, Thomas D G; Sinha, Devan; Gilbert, Barnabas J

    2014-01-15

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion "This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying". This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework.

  19. Guide for extrusion dies eliminates straightening operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.; Hoover, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent distortion of extruded metal, a guidance assembly is aligned with the die. As the metal emerges from the extrusion dies, it passes directly into the receiver and straightening tube system, and the completed extrusion is withdrawn.

  20. Intellectual History, Social History, Cultural History...and Our History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1990-01-01

    Defines and explores the links among intellectual, social, and cultural history. Warns that an adequate foundation must be laid in the economic and institutional social history of mass media before communication historians jump into cultural history. (SR)

  1. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  2. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  3. The medical history and death of Mozart.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J S

    1991-10-01

    The medical history and final illness of Mozart are reviewed in the light of information provided by the letters of the composer and his family. Early in his life there is no doubt that he suffered from a series of infective diseases which were common in 18th century Europe, and died of an acute epidemic illness. There is no clinical evidence for the widespread belief that his last years were dogged by chronic disease and that he died in renal failure.

  4. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  5. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C [Tucson, AZ; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Clews, Peggy J [Tijeras, NM; Baker, Michael S [Albuquerque, NM; De Boer, Maarten P [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  6. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  7. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  8. Community History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  9. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  10. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  11. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  12. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  13. Death and Dying: Issues for Educational Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore, Myers, Jane E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on death orientations, the dying process, and bereavement, with a major focus on the elderly. Suggests that relevant knowledge about death and dying are important for gerontological practitioners and proposes that death-related content be systematically integrated into academic curricula at the preservice and inservice levels.…

  14. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  15. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  16. Robert Newton Peck and Shaker Beliefs: A Day the Truth Would Die.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Raises issues about the obligation of an author to depict ethnic or religious groups such as the Shakers in accurate terms. Takes issues with Robert Newton Peck's "A Day No Pigs Would Die," charging that it presents an almost libelous picture of the Shakers. Reviews Shaker history and culture. (TB)

  17. Sentenced to Die: Capital Punishment and the Eighth Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Mary

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the three-part videotape "Sentenced to Die." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Eighth Amendment; (2) examine the controversy surrounding the death penalty; (3) compare and contrast differing viewpoints on capital punishment; and (4)…

  18. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  19. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  20. Is there a moral duty to die?

    PubMed

    Corlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.

  1. House of Lords debates assisted dying (again).

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Lord Joffe's Patient (Assisted Dying) Bill (see Bulletin 187) had its Second Reading on 6 June. The debate was lively, informed and inevitably somewhat polarised. However, some common themes emerged and are outlined below.

  2. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  3. Thick film silicon growth techniques. [die materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research which was directed toward finding an improved die material is reported. Wetting experiments were conducted with various materials to determine their compatibility with silicon. Work has also continued toward the development of quartz as a die material as new techniques have provided more optimistic results than observed in the past. As a result of the thermal modification previously described, improvements in growth stability have contributed to an increase in ribbon quality.

  4. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  5. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  6. Living until we die: reflections on the dying person's spiritual agenda.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Herbert

    2006-03-01

    The spiritual agenda for the dying presumes a willingness to face the reality of imminent death. It also depends on support from caregivers who will encourage whatever agency is possible for the one who is dying. The spiritual practices that will enhance agency for the dying include remembering, thanking, relinquishing, waiting, and trusting. The absence of abandonment and the dependable presence of caregivers are essential to create communities and relationships in which hope can be found and sustained.

  7. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  8. Thermal Modelling In Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasgado, M. T. Alonso; Davey, K.; Watari, H.

    2004-06-01

    The pressure die casting process is cyclic and the temperature levels in the die are principally dictated by the total energy received from the casting. It is thus extremely important that any solidification model for the casting is able to predict energy extraction rates to a high degree of accuracy. In this paper an efficient three dimensional hybrid thermal model for the pressure die casting process is described. The finite element method (FEM) is used for modelling heat transfer in the casting, coupled to a boundary element (BE) model for the die. The FEM can efficiently account for the non-linearity introduced by the release of latent heat on solidification, whereas the BEM is ideally suited for modelling linear heat conduction in the die, as surface temperatures are of principal importance. The FE formulation for the casting is based on a control volume capacitance method, which is shown to provide high accuracy and stability. This method is similar to the apparent and effective heat capacitance methods, which are popular approaches used where conduction predominates over other heat transfer mechanisms. These methods involve the specification of element or nodal capacitances to accommodate for the release of latent heat. Unfortunately they suffer from a major drawback in that energy is not correctly transported through elements and so providing a source of inaccuracy. The control volume capacitance method allows for the transport of mass arising from volumetric shrinkage and ensures that energy is correctly transported. The BE model caters for surface phenomena such as boiling in the cooling channels, which is important, as this effectively controls the manner in which energy is extracted. The die temperature is decomposed into two components, one a steady-state part and the other a time-dependent perturbation. This approach enables the transient die temperatures to be calculated in an efficient way, since only die surfaces close to the die cavity are

  9. Compassionate community networks: supporting home dying.

    PubMed

    Abel, Julian; Bowra, Jon; Walter, Tony; Howarth, Glennys

    2011-09-01

    How may communities be mobilised to help someone dying at home? This conceptual article outlines the thinking behind an innovative compassionate community project being developed at Weston-super-Mare, UK. In this project, a health professional mentors the dying person and their carer to identify and match: (a) the tasks that need to be done and (b) the members of their social network who might help with these tasks. Network members may subsequently join a local volunteer force to assist others who are network poor. Performing practical tasks may be more acceptable to some family, friends and neighbours than having to engage in a conversation about dying, and provides a familiarity with dying that is often lacking in modern societies, so in this model, behavioural change precedes attitudinal change. The scheme rejects a service delivery model of care in favour of a community development model, but differs from community development schemes in which the mentor is a volunteer rather than a health professional, and also from those approaches that strive to build community capacity before any one individual dying person is helped. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. There is a need for evaluation of this and similar schemes, and for basic research into naturally occurring resource mobilisation at the end of life.

  10. Electro-Hydraulic Forming of Sheet Metals: Free-forming vs. Conical-die Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.; Soulami, Ayoub; Ahzi, Said

    2012-05-01

    This work builds upon our recent advances in quantifying high-rate deformation behavior of sheet metals, during electro-hydraulic forming (EHF), using high-speed imaging and digital image correlation techniques. Following recent publication of an earlier manuscript, resulting from this project, in the Journal of Materials Processing Technology, this manuscript further details our results and compares forming behavior when the process is carried out inside an open-die or a conical die. It is anticipated that quantitative information of the sheet deformation history, made possible by the experimental technique developed in this work, will improve our understanding on the roles of strain-rate and sheet-die interactions in enhancing the sheet metal formability during high-rate forming. This knowledge will be beneficial to the automotive industry and enable them to fabricate light-weight sheet parts out of Al and advanced high strength steels.

  11. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  12. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  13. CAE Based Die Face Engineering Development to Contribute to the Revitalization of the Tool & Die Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing C.; St. Pierre, Shawn; He, Jeanne; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin C.

    2005-08-01

    Over the past two decades, the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have emerged as one of the most important engineering tools in various industries, due to its flexibility and accuracy in prediction. Nowadays, CAE tools are widely used in the sheet metal forming industry to predict the forming feasibility of a wide variety of complex components, ranging from aerospace and automotive components to household products. As the demand of CAE based formability accelerates, the need for a robust and streamlined die face engineering tool becomes more crucial, especially in the early stage when the tooling layout is not available, but a product design decision must be made. Ability to generate blank, binder and addendum surfaces with an appropriate layout of Drawbead, Punch Opening Line, Trim Line are the primary features and functions of a CAE based die face engineering tool. Once the die face layout is ready, a formability study should be followed to verify the die face layout is adequate to produce a formable part. If successful, the established die face surface should be exported back to the CAD/CAM environment to speed up the tooling and manufacturing design process with confidence that this particular part is formable with this given die face. With a CAE tool as described above, the tool & die industry will be greatly impacted as the processes will enable the bypass of hardware try-out and shorten the overall vehicle production timing. The trend has shown that OEMs and first tiers will source to low cost producers in the world which will have a negative impact to the traditional tool & die makers in the developed countries. CAE based tool as described should be adopted, along with many other solutions, in order to maintain efficiency of producing high quality product and meeting time-to-market requirements. This paper will describe how a CAE based die face engineering (DFE) tool could be further developed to enable the traditional tool & die makers to meet the

  14. Die Arbeitsunfähigkeit in der Statistik der GKV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Klaus

    Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt anhand der Statistiken des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit (BMG) einen Überblick über die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsdaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenkassen (GKV). Zunächst werden die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsstatistiken der Krankenkassen und die Erfassung der Arbeitsunfähigkeit erläutert. Hiernach wird auf die Entwicklung der Fehlzeiten auf GKV-Ebene eingegangen. Ebenfalls wird Bezug auf die Unterschiede der Fehlzeiten zwischen den verschiedenen Kassen genommen.

  15. Bulletproof History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. (CFR)

  16. Arguing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    The history of science illustrates some exciting--and sometimes controversial--moments. Unfortunately, textbooks tend to focus on results in a scientific discipline and only occasionally showcase an interesting historical vignette, telling the story behind those results. Although required studies may leave teachers little classroom time for…

  17. Making History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shein, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Jennifer Dorman was in a fix. Teaching ninth-grade US history at Holicong Middle School in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Dorman wanted to tap into her students' interest in creating "something of value not just for their teachers, but something they could share with other students and people." But that required something a conventional paper-based…

  18. Sensitivity analysis based preform die shape design using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Hufi, R.; Hutter, A.; Grandhi, R. V.

    1997-06-01

    This paper uses a finite element-based sensitivity analysis method to design the preform die shape for metal forming processes. The sensitivity analysis was developed using the rigid visco-plastic finite element method. The preform die shapes are represented by cubic B-spline curves. The control points or coefficients of the B-spline are used as the design variables. The optimization problem is to minimize the difference between the realized and the desired final forging shapes. The sensitivity analysis includes the sensitivities of the objective function, nodal coordinates, and nodal velocities with respect to the design variables. The remeshing procedure and the interpolation/transfer of the history/dependent parameters are considered. An adjustment of the volume loss resulting from the finite element analysis is used to make the workpiece volume consistent in each optimization iteration and improve the optimization convergence. In addition, a technique for dealing with fold-over defects during the forming simulation is employed in order to continue the optimization procedures of the preform die shape design. The method developed in this paper is used to design the preform die shape for both plane strain and axisymmetric deformations with shaped cavities. The analysis shows that satisfactory final forging shapes are obtained using the optimized preform die shapes.

  19. Effect of Die Strength and Work Piece Strength on the Wear of Hot Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the strength ratio extracted from an Archard model for wear is used to describe the wear rates expected in hot forging dies. In the current study, the strength ratio is the strength of the hot forging die to the strength of the work piece. Three hot forging die steels are evaluated. The three die steels are FX, 2714, and WF. To determine the strength of the forging die, a continuous function has been developed that describes the yield strength of three die steels for temperatures from 600 to 700 °C and for times up to 20 h (i.e., tempering times of up to 20 h). The work piece material is assumed to be AISI 1045. Based on the analysis, the wear resistance of WF should be superior and FX should be slightly better than 2714. Decreasing the forging temperature increases the strength ratio, because the strength of the die surface increases faster than the flow strength of AISI 1045. The increase in the strength ratio indicates a decrease in the expected wear rate.

  20. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  1. A profile of silicosis cases who died.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H

    1982-01-01

    Silicosis cases which had been notified by doctors and confirmed after investigations were followed up by the Industrial Health Division. Up to August 1981, a total of 313 persons were confirmed as having the disease. Of these, 59 had died. The majority of these 59 persons had had their silica exposure in the granite quarries. 13 had been exposed to "rubber powder" which contained a high percentage of free silica. 52 of those who died were male, and their average age at death was 60.87 years. This did not appear to be significantly shorter than their life expectancy of 65.1 years. But the average age of death for the 7 women was 58.86 years, which was much shorter than their life expectancy of 70 years. Many of the men died from causes unrelated to silicosis. But 6 of the 7 women had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) and they apparently died of the disease or complications arising from it.

  2. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  3. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  4. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  5. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  6. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  7. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  8. Counseling Older Persons: Careers, Retirement, Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinick, Daniel

    The focus of this monograph is on three areas of counseling with older clients: career counseling, retirement counseling, and counseling regarding death and dying. The portion on career counseling includes reasons older persons change careers, obstacles they are likely to face when seeking employment, myths surrounding the employability of older…

  9. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  10. [Companionship for women dying of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, E

    1999-01-01

    This report reflects the experience of accompanying HIV-infected women during the process of dying using their curriculi vitae as examples of different modes of dealing with fatal illness. The text contains paintings of past and contemporary art concerning death and eros and poetry as a form of therapy.

  11. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  12. River history.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems.

  13. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  14. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed Central

    Mermann, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377

  15. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  16. Clayton's compromises and the assisted dying debate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Richard Huxtable has recently argued that while assisted dying has been both repeatedly condemned and commended, a compromise resolution is possible. Following critique of other purported solutions, he argues for a new legal offence of "compassionate killing" as a plausible compromise between supporters and opponents of legalised assisted dying, because it offers something of significance to both sides. However, it turns out that "compassionate killing" would leave both sides with insufficient net benefit for the proposal to qualify as a compromise between them. By analogy with another apparently intractable bioethical debate, concerning destructive embryo research, this column rejects Huxtable's solution as another "Clayton's compromise". True compromise is not possible in bioethical debates involving divisions over deeply held values and world views. Resolving such debates inevitably involves the substitution of one dominant world view with another.

  17. Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164254.html Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study Slight differences in death rates were possibly ... likely to die if they are treated during weeks that inspectors are checking on the staff, a ...

  18. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  19. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Webster defines history as "a chronological record of significant events." In wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step in establishing a diagnosis. You can greatly assist the diagnostic process by providing a thorough history with specimens yo submit. This information is also of value in understanding the natural history of disease outbreaks, and is difficult if not impossible to obtain after the event has occurred. Detailed field observations during the course of a die-off and investigation of significant events preceding it also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. Remember, the most helpful information is that which obtained at the time of the event by a sensitive and aware observer.

  20. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  1. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  2. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  3. Die and telescoping punch form convolutions in thin diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Die and punch set forms convolutions in thin dished metal diaphragm without stretching the metal too thin at sharp curvatures. The die corresponds to the metal shape to be formed, and the punch consists of elements that progressively slide against one another under the restraint of a compressed-air cushion to mate with the die.

  4. 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies Print A A ... Here are 5 ideas that might help you cope when someone you love has died: Join in ...

  5. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  6. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  7. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  8. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  9. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  10. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  11. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  12. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  13. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  14. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  15. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  16. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  17. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  18. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  19. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  20. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  1. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  2. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  3. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  4. Cygnus History

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Henderson, Raymond E. Gignac, Douglas E. Good, Mark D. Hansen, Charles V. Mitton; Daniel S. Nelson, Eugene C. Ormond; Steve R. Cordova, Isidro Molina; John R. Smith, Evan A. Rose

    2009-07-02

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders).

  5. Differentiating suicide decedents who died using firearms from those who died using other methods.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Joye C

    2017-02-22

    Studies have documented a link between gun ownership and suicide, but little is known about characteristics of those most likely to use a gun in a suicide attempt rather than alternative methods. We examined which factors differentiate suicide decedents who died using a gun from those who died by other methods. We further examined whether such findings are consistent within the subcomponent of our larger sample comprised entirely of gun owning suicide decedents. Data reflect 267 suicide decedents, with data provided by individuals who identified as having lost someone to suicide (loss survivors). Within the full sample, a higher proportion of gun-owning and male suicide decedents died by firearm. Further, individuals who had previously discussed suicide or engaged in one or more non-lethal suicide attempts were less likely to die by suicide using a gun. Within the subsample of gun owning suicide decedents, a greater proportion of decedents who stored guns at home and in unsecure locations died from self-inflected gunshot wounds. These findings add clarity to the relationship between firearm ownership and death by suicide at the individual level. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the notion that means safety implementation may represent a vital suicide prevention tool.

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  7. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  8. Method and apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darter, John L.

    1986-06-01

    The invention comprises an apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions which utilizes die blocks of low melting temperature metallic material. The die blocks are formed in an adjustable mold which comprises a mold box, a pivotable dam within the mold box and blocking means for locking the pivotable dam member in a desired angular position. Once a desired die block angle is ascertained for a particular joggle, the pivotable member of the mold box is adjusted to produce the desired angle in the die casting made in the mold box.

  9. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  10. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  11. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  12. Dying cancer patients talk about euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N

    2008-08-01

    Within developed nations, there is increasing public debate about and apparent endorsement of the appropriateness of euthanasia as an autonomous choice to die in the face of intolerable suffering. Surveys report socio-demographic differences in rates of acceptance of euthanasia, but there is little in-depth analysis of how euthanasia is understood and positioned within the social and moral lives of individuals, particularly those who might be considered suitable candidates-for example, terminally-ill cancer patients. During discussions with 28 such patients in Australia regarding medical decisions at the end of life, euthanasia was raised by 13 patients, with the others specifically asked about it. Twenty-four patients spoke positively of euthanasia, 19 of these voicing some concerns. None identified euthanasia as a currently favoured option. Four were completely against it. Endorsement for euthanasia was in the context of a hypothetical future or for a hypothetical other person, or temporally associated with acute pain. Arguments supporting euthanasia framed the issue as a matter of freedom of choice, as preserving dignity in death, and as curbing intolerable pain and suffering, both of the patient and of those around them. A common analogy featured was that of euthanising a dog. These arguments were typically presented as self-evident justification for euthanasia, construed as an appropriate choice to die, with opposers positioned as morally inferior or ignorant. The difficulties of ensuring 'choice' and the moral connotations of 'choosing to die,' however, worked to problematise the appropriateness of euthanising specific individuals. We recommend further empirical investigation of the moral and social meanings associated with euthanasia.

  13. Implementing California's Law on Assisted Dying.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ruchika

    2017-03-01

    On October 5, 2015, Governor Jerry Brown approved bill ABX2 15, the End of Life Option Act, making California the fifth state in the country to allow physician-assisted dying. The law was modeled after Oregon's 1997 Death with Dignity Act. When the legislative special session ended on March 10, 2016, California health care providers had only ninety days to respond to the state mandate before the law would take effect, on June 9, 2016. Experience with the law so far suggests several challenges with implementation.

  14. Do imaginary companions die? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kastenbaum, Robert; Fox, Lynn

    Adults in this exploratory study usually recalled that their childhood imaginary companions faded away or were dismissed as other options for social interaction became more appealing. However, eight participants reported that their IC had died. Analysis of these deaths offers a glimpse of the child's talent for transitional thought processes that navigate between the emerging constraints of logic and the continuing appeal of fantasy. It is suggested that young children are testing the limits and possibilities of what it means to be "real" at the same time they are trying to puzzle out "alive" and "dead."

  15. Die Schokoladen-Diät

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    Schlankheitskuren sind einerseits ein soziales Phänomen, aber auch ein großer Zweig der Nahrungsmittelindustrie. Die Industrie bietet dabei verschiedene Produkte an, wie Diätlebensmittel, Nahrungsergänzungsmittel, Sportkleidung und -ausrüstung, Übungsvideos und -bücher, usw. Allerdings ist es bekanntermaßen sehr schwer, das einmal erreichte Wunschgewicht auch langfristig zu halten. Häufig tritt dabei der so genannte Jojo-Effekt auf, so dass man schließlich nach der Diät mehr wiegt als vorher.

  16. Die swell as an objective in the design of polymer extrusion dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegbert, Roland; Behr, Marek; Elgeti, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on developing a suitable objective function for the inverse form of profile extrusion die design. First, the problem is motivated by introducing the extrusion die design process. After describing how Computer Aided Engineering enhances the traditional design process, a set of applicable objective functions is introduced. The main criteria for identifying the most suitable are computational applicability, robustness and smoothness of the functional. After discussing the results of several simulations, an objective function is proposed for the implementation in an existing optimization framework utilizing parameter-based optimization.

  17. DIE Deflection Modeling: Empirical Validation and Tech Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2003-05-28

    This report summarizes computer modeling work that was designed to help understand how the die casting die and machine contribute to parting plane separation during operation. Techniques developed in earlier research (8) were applied to complete a large computational experiment that systematically explored the relationship between the stiffness of the machine platens and key dimensional and structural variables (platen area covered, die thickness, platen thickness, thickness of insert and the location of the die with respect to the platen) describing the die/machine system. The results consistently show that there are many significant interactions among the variables and it is the interactions, more than the individual variables themselves, which determine the performance of the machine/die system. That said, the results consistently show that it is the stiffness of the machine platens that has the largest single impact on die separation.

  18. Numerical Validation of an Optimized Cooling System for Hot Stamping Die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, A.; Abidin, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. S. N.; Senin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical analysis of hot stamping process is very complex mainly due to thermomechanical processes involved. Many variables such as heat transfer coefficient, density, young modulus and other thermal parameters are temperature and pressure dependent. The paper presents results of CFD analysis on the near optimized cooling system of hot stamping die for automotive structural part. By using actual parameters obtained from the industry production line, this research is aimed at comparing the performance of actual cooling system with the results obtained by CFD simulation using commercial software. The die and blank were modelled as 3D volume mesh in a closed position thus ignoring blank history data prior to stamping operation. Temperature distribution representing hardness of the simulated final part is an agreement with the QA data of the actual part thus showing viability of this method to be used in cooling system design

  19. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  20. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  1. The dying child and surviving family members.

    PubMed

    Shrier, D K

    1980-12-01

    This overview of death and dying focuses on the dying child and surviving family members. Children's concepts of death at different developmental stages are reviewed. These range from an inability to distinguish death from other forms of separation prior to age 3, through partial concepts of death until, by age 10 to 15 years, children are able to conceptualize death as universal, inevitable and final. The importance of adults assisting in the child's growing comprehension of death is stressed. The stages of grief and mourning, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, are reviewed from the perspective of the child and family: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Recognition is given to the variations in coping styles among different family members. The special circumstances related to the death of an infant and the impact of the death of a child on the surviving siblings are discussed. Specific helpful interventions to assist families in coping with mourning are described. The death of a child remains one of the most painful and difficult events for a family and its physician to accept.

  2. Dying or living?: The double bind.

    PubMed

    Longhofer, J

    1980-06-01

    Describing the behaviors of terminally ill patients, their families and those charged with their care has received considerable attention during the past decade. This study of comprehensive cancer treatment and research facility indicates that the prevailing theory is limited to explanation at the intra-psychic level. In her work with hundreds of terminal cases, Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross found that patients typically progress through five stages: 1) denial, 2) anger, 3) bargaining, 4) depression, and 5) acceptance. She concludes that the majority of her patients die in a stage of acceptance--a state of equanimity. Recently, scholars have claimed that this five stage scheme has limited applicability and may in fact contribute to the formalization of a dying person's behavior. This preliminary report proposes that the stage theory, if it has any descriptive validity, becomes meaningful only when used to describe behaviors occurring among patients, families, and medical practitioners. A plausible explanation of these behaviors is accomplished by examination of communication patterns containing the structure of paradox or double bind. Patients are forced to perceive realities about their physical conditions not as they appear to them, but as they are defined by those in their environment. This paper explores these communication patterns in relation to the structure of social relationships and the specific contents of messages being transmitted and received.

  3. [The debate about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Armando; Solar, Sebastián

    2005-05-01

    The Right to Die is a debatable issue and some basic notions need to be clarified to discuss it. Death needs to be recognized as part of human life. The goal of medicine is to avoid pain and alleviate suffering, to prevent premature death and when this is not possible, to let it occur peacefully. The concept of euthanasia is unclear, which increases the confusion on end-of-life topics. The term euthanasia should be used only when referring to medical acts performed to produce the patient's death, with the intention of terminating his/her suffering. It is what is usually called "active" euthanasia, which can be voluntary or involuntary. It is essential to understand the difference between producing and allowing death. This will permit timely decisions about limiting or withdrawing treatments, that can be disproportionate or that are only prolonging suffering. Limiting treatments does not mean to abandon the patient but rather to redefine his needs, such as pain treatment, prevention of complications, and relief of suffering. The ethic rationale for these decisions is the respect to the dignity of human life, and the estimation of proportionality or futility of each treatment. The physician's duty with the patient at the end of his life is to assist him in dying according to his values and to minimize his distress.

  4. Dying, mourning, and spirituality: a psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Marrone, R

    1999-09-01

    Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled.

  5. Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, B A; Gates-Williams, J

    1995-01-01

    Experiences of illness and death, as well as beliefs about the appropriate role of healers, are profoundly influenced by patients' cultural background. As the United States becomes increasingly diverse, cultural difference is a central feature of many clinical interactions. Knowledge about how patients experience and express pain, maintain hope in the face of a poor prognosis, and respond to grief and loss will aid health care professionals. Many patients' or families' beliefs about appropriate end-of-life care are easily accommodated in routine clinical practice. Desires about the care of the body after death, for example, generally do not threaten deeply held values of medical science. Because expected deaths are increasingly the result of explicit negotiation about limiting or discontinuing therapies, however, the likelihood of serious moral disputes and overt conflict increases. We suggest a way to assess cultural variation in end-of-life care, arguing that culture is only meaningful when interpreted in the context of a patient's unique history, family constellation, and socioeconomic status. Efforts to use racial or ethnic background as simplistic, straightforward predictors of beliefs or behavior will lead to harmful stereotyping of patients and culturally insensitive care for the dying. PMID:7571587

  6. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.Allen; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Choudhury, Aswin K.; Dedhia, Sanjay

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects or problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  7. [From absolute necessity of dying to preventive planning of dying? The change of social and medicine debates on dying in the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Jordan, I

    2010-04-01

    International euthanasia debates focussing on "autonomous dying" in the 1980s corresponded with a general change in the health-care system: availability of new technical means with an analogous medical-ethic understanding of human suffering and dying. This change is part of a general development from "passive health consumption" to "active prevention" in our society.

  8. [Medical history of Martin Luther].

    PubMed

    Takigami, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Martin Luther achieved great success in religious reformation, though he was said to have suffered from many kinds of diseases during his lifetime. Unfortunately, however, his medical history has never been reported in Japan. Since the second half of his thirties, he was suffering from severe constipation, causing hemorrhoids and anal prolapse. At the beginning of his forties he had vertigo, tinnitis and headaches, which were the signs of chronic purlent otitis media and ended in left otorrhea and pyorrhea of the left mastoiditis. Nearly at the same time, he started to suffer from anginal pain, colic and dysuria due to urinary uric acid stones, gout and left leg ulcer, which were all caused by metabolic syndromes. The last 1/3 of his life was affected by the shadow of diseases, and his religious activities were frequently disturbed. He died from myocardial infarction at the age 63, in February 1546.

  9. The dying role: its relevance to improved patient care.

    PubMed

    Noyes, R; Clancy, J

    1977-02-01

    Society is failing to meet the obligation it has to its dying members. Persons with terminal illnesses suffer isolation and neglect in hospitals, receive overzealous treatment by physicians, and are kept in ignorance of their situation by families and medical personnel. Evidence for these statements has come from observers of the medical care system and from dying patients themselves (Kübler-Ross, 1969; Reynolds and Kalish, 1974; Sudnow, 1967); In the nineteenth century it was common for persons to die in the familiar environs of their homes, surrounded by grieving families from whom they parted in a meaningful manner (Blauner, 1966). Dying persons of today no longer fill a well-defined social role. Instead, the distinction between the roles of sick and dying persons has been lost and, in the resulting confusion, the care of dying people has suffered. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between the dying and sick roles, identify the signs of existing role confusion, suggest ways in which this confusion may be corrected, and show how reestablishment of the dying role can result in improved care of dying people. The important part physicians play in defining sick and dying roles will be emphasized.

  10. The Dying Role: Its Relevance to Improved Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Russell; Clancy, John

    2016-01-01

    SOCIETY is failing to meet the obligation it has to its dying members. Persons with terminal illnesses suffer isolation and neglect in hospitals, receive overzealous treatment by physicians, and are kept in ignorance of their situation by families and medical personnel. Evidence for these statements has come from observers of the medical care system and from dying patients themselves (Kübler-Ross, 1969; Reynolds and Kalish, 1974; Sudnow, 1967). In the nineteenth century it was common for persons to die in the familiar environs of their homes, surrounded by grieving families from whom they parted in a meaningful manner (Blauner, 1966). Dying persons of today no longer fill a well-defined social role. Instead, the distinction between the roles of sick and dying persons has been lost and, in the resulting confusion, the care of dying people has suffered. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between the dying and sick roles, identify the signs of existing role confusion, suggest ways in which this confusion may be corrected, and show how reestablishment of the dying role can result in improved care of dying people. The important part physicians play in defining sick and dying roles will be emphasized.

  11. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  12. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dethloff, Henry C.

    2001-01-01

    The KSC History Project focuses on archival research and oral history interviews on the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Related projects include the preparation of a precis and chapter outline for a proposed book-length narrative history, a bibliography of key primary and secondary resources, a brief monograph overview of the history of KSC, and a monograph on the history of safety at the Center. Finally, there is work on the development of a web page and a personal history data base associated with the oral history project. The KSC History Project has been a joint endeavor between Henry C. Dethloff and Dr. Noble Lee Snaples, Jr.

  13. Necroptosis: A new way of dying?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Britt

    2016-09-01

    This review embarks upon a cell death journey from the discovery of apoptosis and necrosis through to the coalescence of these: necroptosis. The mechanisms of 2 emerging necrotic cell death pathways, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, will be explored before delving into apoptotic and necroptotic signaling cascades, highlighting the complex interplay between molecular players. The involvement of the ripoptosome, interferon signaling and DNA damage in necroptosis will be discussed briefly. The major focus is on necroptosis initiation by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and its cognate receptor TNFR1, caspase-independent RIP1/RIP3/MLKL necrosome activation and cell death propagation by damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release. Finally, the implications of a complex cell death signaling network will be revealed in the context of cancer biology and therapy. The clinical contribution of the discovery of necroptosis as an unequivocally new way of dying is monumental and could drastically alter cancer therapy strategies in the future.

  14. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  15. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, D M

    1999-01-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide. PMID:10635498

  16. Paradoxical contributions of EEG during protracted dying.

    PubMed

    Spudis, E V; Penry, J K; Link, A S

    1984-02-01

    Estimates of the potential for recovery from severe brain damage have become more accurate as EEG and imaging techniques evolve. When all modern electrical criteria for brain death are satisfied, useful recovery is probably impossible. Many patients who have no reasonable chance of returning to a cognitive, sapient, or useful state may be nurtured throughout a prolonged final illness primarily because of brain waves that fluctuate in the 2- to 5-microV range. The incidence of such protracted dying is unknown. We illustrate diffuse low-amplitude wave forms and regional fragments recorded from a 27-year-old woman maintained on a respirator for six months after loss of brain-stem reflexes. Considering the limited noise-signal ratio of modern equipment, popular EEG criteria for death may be prematurely rigid, prolonging death in tragic circumstances.

  17. Death and dying anxiety among bereaved and nonbereaved elderly parents.

    PubMed

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-08-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying anxiety scores than nonbereaved parents, but there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in death anxiety. Religiosity was unrelated to death and dying anxiety. Dying anxiety was higher among bereaved mothers than bereaved fathers. Death and dying anxiety were not associated with the length of time since the loss of the child or the nature of the child's death. Results are discussed in light of the difficulties that bereaved parents experience after the loss of their child. Implications for theory, for health and welfare professionals, and for policy are suggested.

  18. Celebrate Women's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  19. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period. PMID:26539979

  20. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  1. Thermal Hotspots in CPU Die and It's Future Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Fu-Yuan

    Owing to the increasing core frequency and chip integration and the limited die dimension, the power densities in CPU chip have been increasing fastly. The high temperature on chip resulted by power densities threats the processor's performance and chip's reliability. This paper analyzed the thermal hotspots in die and their properties. A new architecture of function units in die - - hot units distributed architecture is suggested to cope with the problems of high power densities for future processor chip.

  2. Stories That Must Not Die. Volume Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvageau, Juan

    Local history and legends of spirits appear often in this bilingual Spanish and English collection of 10 Southwest traditional tales, intended to promote interest in bilingual/bicultural programs and to preserve the colorful folklore of the area. Black and white drawings accompany the stories which deal with animals ("A Parrot for…

  3. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms in persons with schizophrenia who died by suicide compared to other means of death.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Deanna L; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Feldman, Stephanie M; Yu, Yang; Conley, Robert R

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this report is to compare the psychiatric symptomatology of individuals with schizophrenia who have died by suicide to those who have died by other means of death. This study includes individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia whose families donated their brain tissue to the Maryland Brain Collection between September 1989 and August 1998. The psychological autopsy method was used to assess the deceased individual's demographic and clinical characteristics, psychiatric symptoms and history of suicidal thoughts and attempts. Ninety-seven individuals with schizophrenia were identified for this study. Fifteen had committed suicide, while the remaining 82 died from other causes. Thoughts of suicide and previous suicide attempts were more frequent among the group that died from suicide (93% compared to 26%) (p < 0.0001). Suicide victims had a higher rate of depressive symptoms and were twice as likely to have a depressed mood. The incidence of thoughts of dying was 60% compared to 20% in those who did not commit suicide (p = 0.002). Loss of interest was reported to occur in 20% in the suicide group compared to 4% in the group of individuals that died from other causes (p = 0.05). Victims of suicide also had higher rates of positive symptoms throughout their lifetime including thought control, flight of ideas, and loose associations. Suicide is one of the leading cause of premature death in individuals with schizophrenia and identification of risk factors is of great importance. Individuals who die by suicide experience higher rates of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts and positive symptoms during their life.

  4. L-connect routing of die surface pads to the die edge for stacking in a 3D array

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips and method of routing the interface pads from the face of the chip or die to one or more sidewall surfaces of the die. The interconnection is routed from the face of the die to one or more edges of the die, then routed over the edge of the die and onto the side surface. A new pad is then formed on the sidewall surface, which allows multiple die or chips to be stacked in a three-dimensional array, while enabling follow-on signal routing from the sidewall pads. The routing of the interconnects and formation of the sidewall pads can be carried out in an L-connect or L-shaped routing configuration, using a metalization process such as laser pantography.

  5. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all.

  6. Remote thermal neutron die-away measurements to improve Differential Die-Away Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Kelly A.; Vujic, Jasmina; Gozani, Tsahi

    2007-08-01

    Differential Die-away Analysis (DDAA) is a very effective detection technique of special nuclear material (SNM). It is based on the detection of fast fission neutrons that decay with a time constant characteristic of the thermal neutron that created them. The presence of fast neutrons with this slow die-away time is a positive, sensitive indication of the presence of SNM in the inspected cargo. The thermal decay time of an inspected medium is not known before a DDAA measurement is taken. The choice of when, from the end of a neutron pulse, data are to be acquired must be taken conservatively. If the thermal decay time of an inspected medium can be determined, a priori, then a better estimate of the expected time of separation between the intrinsic detector signal and the fission signal can be achieved. With a better estimate of this time, the choice of times after the end of the pulse to perform signal integration can be optimized. A more optimal choice for this time will result in higher detection sensitivity. This paper describes a method of remotely assessing the thermal die-away properties of an interrogated cargo, and grossly characterizes the class of material being inspected in terms of neutron attenuation and moderation properties.

  7. Regional ontogeny of New England salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    Coastal areas are among the world's most productive and highly affected ecosystems. Centuries of human activity on coastlines have led to overexploitation of marine predators, which in turn has led to cascading ecosystem-level effects. Human effects and approaches to mediating them, however, differ regionally due to gradients in biotic and abiotic factors. Salt marsh die-off on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), triggered by a recreational-fishing-induced trophic cascade that has released herbivorous crabs from predator control, has been ongoing since 1976. Similar salt marsh die-offs have been reported in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.), but the driving mechanism of these die-offs has not been examined. We used field experiments to assess trophic interactions and historical reconstructions of 24 New England marshes to test the hypotheses that recreational fishing and predator depletion are a regional trigger of salt marsh die-off in New England and that die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are more recent than those on Cape Cod. Predator depletion was the general trigger of marsh die-off and explained differences in herbivorous crab abundance and the severity of die-off across regions. Die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are following a trajectory similar to die-off on Cape Cod, but are approximately 20 years behind those on Cape Cod. As a result, die-off currently affects 31.2% (SE 2.2) of low-marsh areas in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay, less than half the severity of die-off on Cape Cod. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that recreational fishing is an increasing threat to coastal ecosystems and that studying the effects of human activity at regional scales can provide insight into local effects and aid in early detection and potential remediation.

  8. A Speculative History of DNA: What If Oswald Avery Had Died in 1934?

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This speculative Essay explores the consequences of the imagined premature death of Oswald Avery, who in 1944 provided evidence that genes are made of DNA. Four imaginary alternate routes to the genetic function of DNA are outlined, each of which highlights different aspects of the actual process of discovery. PMID:28006030

  9. Looking at: Competency-Based Teacher Education, Public Doublespeak, Oral History, Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, CO.

    Four issues of a current awareness bulletin published occasionally by the ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies for use by elementary and secondary social studies teachers are combined in this document. The first issue deals with the application of competency-based curriculum to teacher education, focusing on teacher growth and evidence of pupil…

  10. A Speculative History of DNA: What If Oswald Avery Had Died in 1934?

    PubMed

    Cobb, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    This speculative Essay explores the consequences of the imagined premature death of Oswald Avery, who in 1944 provided evidence that genes are made of DNA. Four imaginary alternate routes to the genetic function of DNA are outlined, each of which highlights different aspects of the actual process of discovery.

  11. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  12. Potato Early Dying: Molecular Perspectives on Pathogenicity and Host Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato early dying has not received the reputation of being a particularly devastating disease of potato. However, the interaction between the vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae and the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans to form the early dying complex makes studying this disease very in...

  13. Can We Humanize Dying in the General Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen

    This paper reviews the literature on the behavior and attitudes of medical-nursing personnel toward the dying person and illustrates the frequent conflict between hospital staff and the needs of dying. Inner perturbation stemming from feelings of vicarious suffering, vicarious disintegration, or personal anxiety about death, education deficiencies…

  14. Optoelektronik Infrarotlicht für die Faseroptik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drach, Volker

    2003-07-01

    Die Eigenschaften der kondensierten Materie sind durch die elektronische Bandstruktur bestimmt. Daher sind sie in Raumladungszonen an Oberflächen abhängig von der Ladungsdichte. Ein Team des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe machte sich nun diesen Effekt zu Nutze und induzierte in metallischen Nanostrukturen durch eine elektrische Spannung reversible Änderungen der makroskopischen Eigenschaften [1].

  15. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  16. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  17. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  18. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  19. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  20. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-06

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional.

  1. Sonnet XXX: Love, dignity, and dying.

    PubMed

    Ely, E Wesley

    2016-05-01

    All of us in medicine who care for patients who are chronically critically ill, dying of incurable illnesses, will be faced with discussions about the value of their lives and about the appropriateness of ongoing supportive care. Such discussions are good and true, and they must always be done within the context of the sanctity of every human life and the promise of God that we are His children, each and every one of us. In this article, I explore the end-of-life path of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the courageous faith that she demonstrated in the face of her illness. I explore with you, the reader, the hard-core conversations that took place at her bedside and their meaning in light of Catholic moral teaching. This story is not meant to indicate that we should always do all interventions at all times for all patients. That would be a teaching counter to Evangelium vitae. This story is meant to help you think through the path of your patients and of you as a physician or other type of healthcare professional in serving your patients. Primum non nocere. Ad majorem Dei gloriam.

  2. NICMOS PEERS INTO HEART OF DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Egg Nebula, also known as CRL 2688, is shown on the left as it appears in visible light with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and on the right as it appears in infrared light with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Since infrared light is invisible to humans, the NICMOS image has been assigned colors to distinguish different wavelengths: blue corresponds to starlight reflected by dust particles, and red corresponds to heat radiation emitted by hot molecular hydrogen. Objects like the Egg Nebula are helping astronomers understand how stars like our Sun expel carbon and nitrogen -- elements crucial for life -- into space. Studies on the Egg Nebula show that these dying stars eject matter at high speeds along a preferred axis and may even have multiple jet-like outflows. The signature of the collision between this fast-moving material and the slower outflowing shells is the glow of hydrogen molecules captured in the NICMOS image. The distance between the tip of each jet is approximately 200 times the diameter of our solar system (out to Pluto's orbit). Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Dean Hines (University of Arizona); Raghvendra Sahai (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); NICMOS Instrument Definition Team; and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  3. The right to die: beyond academia.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Carole

    2016-03-01

    The world's first legal euthanasia death occurred in the Australian City of Darwin on Sunday 22 September 1996 when Bob Dent ended his life under the Northern Territory's short-lived Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995. Dent's death intensified argument about euthanasia in Australia, transforming the debate from a textbook discussion in social ethics into a vigorous and divisive social dispute. The day before he ended his life, Dent dictated a letter, written down by his wife. This description of his experience with terminal illness is graphic-the letter, his last effort to bring the plight of those living with terminal illness to public consciousness. In this paper I outline issues from the perspective of those, who like Bob Dent, the choice to die with dignity is personal and urgent. Rather than approach the issue purely from the theoretical, academic debate therefore, I present aspects that are largely unknown unless the experience of life-denying symptoms becomes real. From these aspects, dilemmas and consequences emerge that are not framed through the academic debate and in this way, I argue for the possibility of a framework that could change the law.

  4. Catholic theology and the "right to die".

    PubMed

    Coleman, G D

    1985-03-01

    Catholic moral theology teaches that life is sacred but not absolute. Because life and all activities are subordinated to spiritual ends, it is moral to allow oneself to die when efforts to prolong life will bring no significant benefit and may even make it more difficult to finish life in peace, composure, and union with God. This is not the moral equivalent of suicide, but rather an acceptance of the human condition. In making such a decision, the distinction between morally ordinary and extraordinary means is crucial and based on the patient's total good. Ordinary means are those which offer a reasonable hope of benefit without excessive expense, pain, or other inconvenience. Extraordinary means are those which cannot be obtained without excessive burden or which, if used, would not offer a reasonable hope of benefit. Whether a medical procedure is standard or experimental does not, from a moral viewpoint, affect whether it is ordinary or extraordinary. In Catholic teaching, the patient has the paramount right to decide whether life-preserving measures will be used. If the patient is unable to make this decision, then the family should make it as the patient's representative.

  5. [To die alone, a big city problem?].

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Larsen, D F; Rosdahl, N

    2001-05-28

    The question whether being found dead is a problem related to living in a big city was examined by using death certificates from a 3-month period in 1994. The rates of persons found dead were higher for both sexes in the City of Copenhagen than in the rural County of Storstrøm. The age distribution showed that the rate increased with advancing age. The vast majority were found dead in their own home, although the rate was higher in Copenhagen than in Storstrøm. Whereas the manner of death was natural for the majority of cases in both areas, more deaths with an uncertain manner of death were recorded in Copenhagen than in Storstrøm (32% vs 9%). In general, suicide or accident was more often reported in those found dead in the County of Storstrøm than in those in Copenhagen. The cause of death was unknown in 46% of deaths in Copenhagen where 16% had died from external causes, proportions that were 58% and 21%, respectively, in Storstrøm. The rate of legal autopsies was higher in subjects with an uncertain manner of death than in the rest, and was also associated with an age below 40 years. We conclude that being found dead is related to living in a big city, although the reason(s) for this remains unidentified.

  6. Including die and press deformations in sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Sigvant, Mats; Kao-Walter, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis, in Abaqus, of a stamping die and subsequent morphing of the tool surfaces in AutoForm were performed to improve a sheet metal forming simulation. First, the tool surfaces of the XC90 rear door inner were scanned. They were not matching when the die was unloaded and could therefore not give any satisfying results in sheet metal forming simulations. Scanned surface geometries were then added to a structural FE-model of the complete stamping die and some influential parts of the production press. The structural FE- model was analysed with Abaqus to obtain the structural deformations of the die. The calculated surface shapes were then transferred to AutoForm where a forming simulation was performed. Results from the different sheet metal forming simulations were compared to measured draw in curves and showed a substantial increase in accuracy and ability to analyse dies in running production when the morphed surfaces were used.

  7. What Is Literary "History"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the meaning of the word "history" as used in the common phrase "literary history" by critics and scholars. Asserts the differences between historical scholarship and literary history. Argues that the grounding activity of literary history is insulated from the relativism insisted upon by poststructuralist theorizing.…

  8. Let History Reign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Spanish River High School is one of 40 U.S. History Schools and 21 affiliates around the country that get resources and academic support from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. The schools require participating students to take a U.S. history course each year, in addition to any requisites in world history and other subjects. The…

  9. Microforms and Sport History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  10. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  11. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    % in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  12. Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Quanyou Zhou

    2002-01-30

    An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.

  13. [Why do Hungarian men die early?].

    PubMed

    Kopp, Mária; Skrabski, Arpád

    2009-09-01

    The mortality rate for 40- 69-year-old men was 12.2/thousand males of corresponding age in 1960 and 16.2 in 2005: it increased by 33%, while among 40- 69-year-old women it decreased from 9.6 0/thousand females of corresponding age to 7.8. The aim of the present follow up study was to analyze which psychosocial risk factors might explain the high premature mortality rates among Hungarian men. Participants in the Hungarostudy 2002 study, a nationally representative sample, 1130 men and 1529 women were contacted again in the follow up study in 2006, who in 2002 were between the age of 40-69 years. By 2006, 99 men (8.8%) and 53 women (3.5%) died in this age group. Socio-economic, psychosocial and work-related measures, self-rated health, chronic disorders, depressive symptoms (BDI), WHO well-being, negative affect, self-efficacy, meaning in life and health behavioral factors were included in the analysis. After adjustment according to smoking, alcohol abuse, BMI, education and age, a number of variables were significant predictors of mortality only in men: low education, low subjective social status, low personal and family income, insecurity of work, no control in work, severe depression, no meaning in life, low social support from spouse, low social support from child. Socio-economic and work related risk factors predicted only male premature death. Among women dissatisfaction with personal relations was the most important risk factor. Among men depression seems to mediate between these chronic stress factors and premature death.

  14. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  15. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  16. Compaction die for forming a solid annulus on a right circular cylinder. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Harlow, J.L.

    1981-09-14

    A compacting die is disclosed wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  17. Integrating Women's History and Regular History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filene, Peter G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university course which synthesizes women's history with traditional history. The four-part curricular sequence comprises the socioeconomic situation; occupations, including housework and how and whether women were employed; values, ideas, and images; and politics, including movements such as suffragism, birth control, and temperance.…

  18. Understandings of death and dying for people of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiung-yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-02-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period, Chinese people have integrated these philosophies and religions to form the basis of their culture and traditions. Although they agree that death is a natural part of the life span, a unique belief about death and dying has emerged among the Chinese from this integration. From this, the people find a significant definition of death and dying.

  19. Physikgeschichte Die Anfänge des Physik-Nobelpreises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2003-09-01

    Durch Absorption von zwei Laserstrahlen mit unterschiedlichen Wellenlängen können in Halbleitern makroskopische Ströme erzeugt werden. Die Ausbreitungsrichtung der Elektronen und insbesondere die Ausrichtung ihrer Spins lassen sich über die relative Phase der beiden Laserfelder kohärent kontrollieren, wie kürzlich zwei Gruppen an den Universitäten von Marburg und Iowa demonstrierten [1, 2]. Genutzt wird bei diesem Experiment der Effekt der Quanteninterferenz zur Erzeugung von elektrischen Spinströmen.

  20. An Examination of United States Air Force Suicide Decedents Based on Documented Suicide Attempt Histories.

    PubMed

    Kochanski-Ruscio, Kristen; Nademin, Elicia; Perera, Kanchana; LaCroix, Jessica M; Baer, Margaret; Hassen, Helena O; Englert, Maj David; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2016-09-26

    In this study, we compared United States military decedents who died by suicide on their first attempt with decedents who had made multiple attempts. Death investigation files for 217 United States Air Force (USAF) personnel who died by suicide between 1996 and 2006 were coded for demographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric characteristics. Among USAF suicide decedents, 77% died by suicide on their first attempt and 23% had a documented history of at least one prior attempt. Decedents with a history of prior attempts were more likely to have an interpersonal stressor within 3 months of death and were twice as likely to have a documented Axis I diagnosis. There were few differences between military suicide decedents based on history of prior attempts. Further research is needed to inform military suicide prevention endeavors.

  1. Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Simeonov, D; Smith, A

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  2. Characterization of Spray Lubricants for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-01-01

    During the die casting process, lubricants are sprayed in order to cool the dies and facilitate the ejection of the casting. The cooling effects of the die lubricant were investigated using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), heat flux sensors (HFS), and infrared imaging. The evolution of the heat flux and pictures taken using a high speed infrared camera revealed that lubricant application was a transient process. The short time response of the HFS allows the monitoring and data acquisition of the surface temperature and heat flux without additional data processing. A similar set of experiments was performed with deionized water in order to assess the lubricant effect. The high heat flux obtained at 300 C was attributed to the wetting and absorbant properties of the lubricant. Pictures of the spray cone and lubricant flow on the die were also used to explain the heat flux evolution.

  3. Warum Normen für die Instandhaltung?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschuschke, Werner E.

    Viele kennen Normen wie Konstruktionsnormen, in denen z. B. der Außendurchmesser, die Steigung, der Flankenwinkel und andere Maße eines Gewindes festgelegt sind. Es gibt Prüfnormen aber auch Normen eines Managementsystems wie des Qualitätsmanagements in der DIN-EN-ISO-9000-Familie. Aber warum Normen für die Instandhaltung? Begonnen hat es mit der DIN 31051, die 1985 veröffentlicht wurde. Es war die erste Instandhaltungsnorm weltweit und sie wurde von der Schweiz und Österreich übernommen. In ihr sind Begriffe der Instandhaltung, Grundlagen zum Abnutzungsprozess und Aktivitäten der Instandhaltung beschrieben. Es wurde der Begriff Instandsetzung statt Reparatur publiziert: Nicht mehr Flickschustern sondern einen funktionsfähigen Anlagenzustand möglichst erhalten.

  4. 8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT

  5. Method and Apparatus for Die Forming Metal Sheets and Extrusions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of a variety of die blocks for introducing a variety of angled joggles in the metal sheets and extrusions. Relatively low melting temperature material is used for the castings. Keywords: Patents; Aircraft parts. (kt)

  6. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  7. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

  8. Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2010-09-01

    This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

  9. Environmental and Personality Similarities in Case Histories of Suicide and Self-Poisoning by Children under Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Billie F.; Haizlip, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on suicide in latency age children is reviewed and case histories of two nine-year-old children who suicided by shooting themselves and one seven-year-old who died by self-poisoning are presented. Similarities in environmental and family histories and in personality variables are discussed. (Author/BL)

  10. Die Anfaenge der Melker Bibliothek - Neue Erkenntnisse zu Handschriften und Fragmenten aus der Zeit vor 1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Christine; Haidinger, Alois

    1996-04-01

    Shortly after Benedictine monks started monastic life in Melk in 1089 the scriptorium was flourishing under abbot Erchenfried (1121-1164). Noteworthy is Cod. 391, a manuscript written in its main part in 1123, but used by the monks as a yearbook with handwritten entries up to the 16th century. This manuscript was also an important source for the publication which dealt with the history of the scriptorium in 12th century. By examining the entries in this book the period of the activity of at least three unknwon writers in this era could be identified. It was the first time that not only the intact volumes but also the manuscripts preserved as fragments in the binding were examined. At the beginning of th 13th century the number of books held in the collection according to the result of this examination was 68. Another remarkable point of the exhibition and of the publication refering to the exhibition was Cod. 412, the oldest manuscript of the monastery, written in early 9th century and containing texts on natural sciences and astronomy by Venerable Bede. Three copies of this manuscript were done during 12th century, one of them probably in Melk, all of them with nearly identical consistency except the catalogue of signs of the zodiac which was ascribed erroneously to Venerable Bede in the Middle Ages: Vatican, Cod. Vat. lat. 643, Zwettl, Cod. 296 (copy of the Vatican manuscript), Klosterneuburg, Cod. 685 (copy of the Zwettl manuscript done in Klosterneuburg). Kurz nach Einführung der Benediktiner in Melk im Jahr 1089 erlebte das Melker Skriptorium unter Abt Erchenfried (1121-1163) seine erste Blüte. Hervorzuheben ist eine im Jahr 1123 angelegte Chronik, die bis in das 16. Jahrhundert durch Annaleneintragungen und andere wichtige Texte zur Geschichte des Klosters ergänzt wurde (Cod. 391). Diese Handschrift ist zugleich eine der wichtigsten Quellen zur Geschichte des Melker Skriptoriums im 12. Jahrhundert, dem sich die Publikation widmet. Mit Hilfe einer genaueren

  11. Cost analysis of medical assistance in dying in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, Aaron J.; Manns, Braden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The legalization of medical assistance in dying will affect health care spending in Canada. Our aim was to determine the potential costs and savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. METHODS: Using published data from the Netherlands and Belgium, where medically assisted death is legal, we estimated that medical assistance in dying will account for 1%–4% of all deaths; 80% of patients will have cancer; 50% of patients will be aged 60–80 years; 55% will be men; 60% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 month; and 40% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 week. We combined current mortality data for the Canadian population with recent end-of-life cost data to calculate a predicted range of savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. We also estimated the direct costs associated with offering medically assisted death, including physician consultations and drug costs. RESULTS: Medical assistance in dying could reduce annual health care spending across Canada by between $34.7 million and $138.8 million, exceeding the $1.5–$14.8 million in direct costs associated with its implementation. In sensitivity analyses, we noted that even if the potential savings are overestimated and costs underestimated, the implementation of mdedical assistance in dying will likely remain at least cost neutral. INTERPRETATION: Providing medical assistance in dying in Canada should not result in any excess financial burden to the health care system, and could result in substantial savings. Additional data on patients who choose medical assistance in dying in Canada should be collected to enable more precise estimates of the impact of medically assisted death on health care spending and to enable further economic evaluation. PMID:28246154

  12. Consortia for Known Good Die (KGD). Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    were being actively developed for test and bum-in of bare die or minimally packaged die. The companies plan to make the technology available to the...lifetime (up to the consensus single best technology for making temporary 1000 cycle limit) reducing cost. Cost impact of caner probe contact to...model and develop the system specification for Im oe _ side 40O extensions to make this a useful tool for industrial users 2 CPU 10 mm on each side 2001

  13. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  14. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snaples, Lee

    2001-01-01

    The project is a joint endeavor between Dr. Henry Dethloff and myself and is producing a number of products related to KSC history. This report is a summary of those projects. First, there is an overview monograph covering KSC history. Second, there is a chapter outline for an eventual book-length history. Third, there is monograph on safety at KSC. Finally, there is a web page and database dedicated to the KSC oral history project.

  15. Life-history data.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-07-15

    Life-history data are quantitative, retrospective and autobiographical data collected through event-history calendars. By mimicking the structure of our memories, these instruments can gather reliable information on different dimensions of the lifecourse. Life-history data enable the duration, timing and ordering of events to be brought to the foreground of analysis. Extending the scope of lifecourse research, life-history data make it possible to examine the long-term effects of past policies with more precision and detail.

  16. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  17. Herbivory drives the spread of salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Bevil, Matthew C; Crotty, Sinead M

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh die-off is a Western Atlantic conservation problem that has recently spread into Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. It has been hypothesized to be driven by: 1) eutrophication decreasing plant investment into belowground biomass causing plant collapse, 2) boat wakes eroding creek banks, 3) pollution or disease affecting plant health, 4) substrate hardness controlling herbivorous crab distributions and 5) trophic dysfunction releasing herbivorous crabs from predator control. To distinguish between these hypotheses we quantified these variables at 14 Narragansett Bay salt marshes where die-off intensity ranged from <5% to nearly 98%. Nitrogen availability, wave intensity and plant growth did not explain any variation in die-off. Herbivory explained 73% of inter-site variation in die-off and predator control of herbivores and substrate hardness also varied significantly with die-off. This suggests that salt marsh die-off is being largely driven by intense herbivory via the release of herbivorous crabs from predator control. Our results and those from other marsh systems suggest that consumer control may not simply be a factor to consider in marsh conservation, but with widespread predator depletion impacting near shore habitats globally, trophic dysfunction and runaway consumption may be the largest and most urgent management challenge for salt marsh conservation.

  18. SiC Die Attach for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevin-Bazin, A.; Lacroix, F.; Barbot, J.-F.

    2013-11-01

    Eutectic solders AuIn19 and AuGe12 and nanosilver paste were investigated for SiC die attach in high-temperature (300°C) applications. The soldering or sintering conditions were optimized through die shear tests performed at room temperature. In particular, application of static pressure (3.5 MPa) during sintering resulted in greatly improved mechanical behavior of the nanosilver-based joint. Microstructural study of the eutectic solders showed formation of Au-rich grains in AuGe die attach and significant diffusion of Au and In through the Ni layer in AuIn19 die attach, which could lead to formation of intermetallic compounds. Die shear tests versus temperature showed that the behaviors of the studied die attaches are different; nevertheless they present suitable shear strengths required for high-temperature applications. The mechanical behavior of joints under various levels of thermal and mechanical stress was also studied. Creep experiments were carried out on the eutectic solders to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the complete module; only one creep mechanism was observed in the working range.

  19. Dying while living: a critique of allowing-to-die legislation.

    PubMed Central

    Lappé, M

    1978-01-01

    Several US states are enacting 'right-to-die' laws, in the wake of the Karen Quinlan case. But the way such a law is drafted may cast doubt on a patient's existing common law right to control all aspects of his own treatment; it may give legal sanction to a lower standard of medical care that society at present expects from doctors; and it may lead to conflict between the patient's directive and his doctor's clinical judgement which cannot readily be resolved. The laws themselves are categorised as a) legalising active killing or b) defining rights of patients to control treatment or c) assigning to others the rights to control treatment where the patient is not competent. The California law is discussed critically. The conclusion is that such legislation is not a satisfactory answer to the ethical problem of euthanasia. PMID:739516

  20. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  1. History of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

  2. Film and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  3. Conducting the Medical History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  4. Who Owns History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with historian Cary Carson of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and author William Styron on the role of history in society. Outlines the once-proposed Disney history theme park near Mannassas, Virginia. Discusses historical interpretation, museums, historical sites, and popular history. (CFR)

  5. Teaching History Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausum, Henry S., Ed.

    The 14 articles included in this collection touch on several aspects of the teaching of history. The articles are: (1) "Observations on University Teaching and Research" (N. Graebner); (2) "Teaching History: A Changing Clientele and an Affirmation of Goals" (E. Burns); (3) "History for Citizens" (W. McNeill); (4)…

  6. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  7. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Cancer.gov

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  8. Life history evolution: successes, limitations, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stearns, Stephen C.

    Life history theory tries to explain how evolution designs organisms to achieve reproductive success. The design is a solution to an ecological problem posed by the environment and subject to constraints intrinsic to the organism. Work on life histories has expanded the role of phenotypes in evolutionary theory, extending the range of predictions from genetic patterns to whole-organism traits directly connected to fitness. Among the questions answered are the following: Why are organisms small or large? Why do they mature early or late? Why do they have few or many offspring? Why do they have a short or a long life? Why must they grow old and die? The classical approach to life histories was optimization; it has had some convincing empirical success. Recently non-equilibrium approaches involving frequency-dependence, density-dependence, evolutionary game theory, adaptive dynamics, and explicit population dynamics have supplanted optimization as the preferred approach. They have not yet had as much empirical success, but there are logical reasons to prefer them, and they may soon extend the impact of life history theory into population dynamics and interspecific interactions in coevolving communities.

  9. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    this is radiation from a SiO maser in the atmosphere of the star. If it would not have been a maser, it would have been far too weak to have been detected. Although we know several hundred masers of this type in the Milky Way, this is the first discovery of a SiO maser in another galaxy than our own . Since then, the observations have been continued in collaboration with Australian astronomers, using radio telescopes at Parkes and Mopra on that continent. A most unusual star When Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund and his colleagues first observed this LMC maser star in 1981 with optical telescopes, they thought that it was a rather normal, cool and not particularly bright star. However, a few years later, the Dutch-British-USA InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revealed its true nature. The IRAS measurements showed that the star radiates most of its light in the form of infrared radiation [4], making it one of the most powerful stars in the LMC; in fact, it emits about half a million times more energy than the Sun. On this occasion, it was given the designation IRAS 04553-6825 , the number indicating its position in the sky. IRAS 04553-6825 is unusual in other ways. It is some fifty times as heavy as our Sun, and it is the biggest known star in the LMC: if it were to take the place of our Sun, it would fill the solar system out to the planet Neptune, thirty times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is rather cool when compared to other stars - although it still has a temperature of about 2,000 C - and it therefore has a very red colour [5]. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 15/96 which demonstrates that while the star is hardly visible in blue light, it shines brightly in red and infrared light. Stars like IRAS 04553-6825 are known as red supergiants. It has been unofficially dubbed `The Monster', and having reached the end of a short and hectic life, it is now dying. The nuclear reactions deep inside are undergoing important changes at

  10. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of six history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These six projects included the completion of Voices From the Cape, historical work co-authored with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, expansion of monograph on Public Affairs into two comprehensive pieces on KSC press operations and KSC visitor operations, the expansion of KSC Historical Concept Maps (Cmap) for history knowledge preservation, the expansion of the KSC oral history program through the administration of an oral history workshop for KSC-based practitioners, and the continued collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, the University of Central Florida and other institutions including the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

  11. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

  12. Surviving death-anxieties in liquid modern times: examining Zygmunt Bauman's cultural theory of death and dying.

    PubMed

    Higo, Masa

    2012-01-01

    Despite his prominence as a leading contemporary social theorist, Zygmunt Bauman's long-term writing on the cultural theory of death and dying has largely been overlooked in the sociological literature of death and dying, particularly in the United States. Bauman uniquely theorizes how we survive death-anxieties today: Contemporary, liquid modern culture has engaged us in ceaseless pursuit of the unattainable consumer sensation of bodily fitness as a way to suppress and thus survive our death-anxieties. Bauman also argues that the prevalence of this cultural formula to survive death-anxieties has simultaneously increased, more than ever before in social history, the volume of individual responsibility for restlessly coping with existential anxieties in the societies of consumers. While unique and insightful, his theoretical argument has a limitation; largely succeeding Freud's classic view of mortality, Bauman's contemporary theory may lead us to neglect potentially important social, cultural, and historical variations in how mortality has been understood.

  13. Datenkompression, Prozessoptimierung, Aerodynamik: Eine Tour Durch die Skalen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    Enorm gestiegene Rechnerkapazitäten ermutigen zu einer immer genaueren Erschließung komplexer Prozesse in Natur- und Ingenieurwissenschaften durch numerische Simulation. Die Mathematik als Schnittstelle zwischen realer und digitaler Welt liefert einerseits die Grundlagen zur Formulierung notwendigerweise vereinfachter Modelle der Realität. Andererseits bietet sie aber auch die methodischen Grundlagen für den Entwurf effizienter Algorithmen, die aus solchen Modellen quantitative Information gewinnen können. Eine zentrale Herausforderung liegt dabei in der Tatsache, dass reale Prozesse meist durch relevante Anteile auf einer riesigen Spannweite von Längenskalen getrieben werden. Die Entwicklung mathematischer Methoden zur Behandlung von Mehrskaligkeit ist daher von wesentlicher Bedeutung. In diesem Artikel wird dies anhand jüngster Entwicklungen in ganz unterschiedlichen Anwendungsbereichen erklärt und illustriert, auch um deutlich zu machen, wieviele "Fliegen“ man mit einer "mathematischen Klappe“ schlagen kann. Insbesondere werden grundlegende, auf Waveletzerlegung beruhende Prinzipien zunächst im Rahmen der Bildkompression und -kodierung auf weitgehend elementare Weise erklärt. Es wird dann aufgezeigt, dass diese Konzepte in ganz ähnlicher Weise bei der Datenanalyse im Zusammenhang mit verfahrenstechnischen Anwendungen, bei großskaligen Optimierungsproblemen der Prozessindustrie sowie bei komplexen Strömungsproblemen wie in aerodynamischen Anwendungen zum Tragen kommen. Stabile Zerlegungen in Anteile unterschiedlicher Längenskalen eröffnen dabei einen Zugang zu adaptiven Lösungskonzepten, die in der Lage sind, automatisch Rechnerresourcen dort zu plazieren, wo sie zu einer ökonomischen Realisierung der gewünschten Lösungsqualität, etwa in Form von Genauigkeitstoleranzen, benötigt werden.

  14. Phagocytosis of dying tumor cells by human peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Britta Janina; Lindau, Dennis; Ripper, Dagmar; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Glatzle, Jörg; Witte, Maria; Beck, Henning; Keppeler, Hildegard; Lauber, Kirsten; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Königsrainer, Alfred

    2011-05-15

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is an advanced form of metastatic disease characterized by cancer cell dissemination onto the peritoneum. It is commonly observed in ovarian and colorectal cancers and is associated with poor patient survival. Novel therapies consist of cytoreductive surgery in combination with intraperitoneal chemotherapy, aiming at tumor cell death induction. The resulting dying tumor cells are considered to be eliminated by professional as well as semi-professional phagocytes. In the present study, we have identified a hitherto unknown type of 'amateur' phagocyte in this environment: human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HMCs). We demonstrate that HMCs engulf corpses of dying ovarian and colorectal cancer cells, as well as other types of apoptotic cells. Flow cytometric, confocal and electron microscopical analyses revealed that HMCs ingest dying cell fragments in a dose- and time-dependent manner and the internalized material subsequently traffics into late phagolysosomes. Regarding the mechanisms of prey cell recognition, our results show that HMCs engulf apoptotic corpses in a serum-dependent and -independent fashion and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that diverse opsonin receptor systems orchestrating dying cell clearance are expressed in HMCs at high levels. Our data strongly suggest that HMCs contribute to dying cell removal in the peritoneum, and future studies will elucidate in what manner this influences tumor cell dissemination and the antitumor immune response.

  15. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  16. History of mathematics and history of science.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  17. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  18. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  19. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  20. Phenomenological study of ICU nurses' experiences caring for dying patients.

    PubMed

    King, Phyllis Ann; Thomas, Sandra P

    2013-11-01

    This existential phenomenological study explored caring for the dying based on the philosophical works of Merleau-Ponty. Fourteen critical care nurses were asked to describe lived experiences of caring for dying patients. An encompassing theme of Promises to Keep emerged, with five subthemes, including the following: (a) promise to be truthful: "Nurses are in the game of reality," (b) promise to provide comfort: "I'll make him comfortable," (c) promise to be an advocate: "Just one more day," (d) "Promise that couldn't be kept," and (e) "Promise to remain connected." The essence of intensive care nurses' lived experience of caring for dying patients is captured in the theme Promises to Keep. Nurses accept the reality of death and express strong commitment to making it as comfortable, peaceful, and dignified as possible, despite critical care unit environments that foster a "paradigm of curing" rather than a "paradigm of caring.".

  1. Optimization of an Extrusion Die for Polymer Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridene, Y. Chahbani; Graebling, D.; Boujelbene, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we used the CFD software PolyFlow to optimize the extrusion process of polystyrene flow. In this process, the flow of the molten polymer through the die can be viewed as a critical step for the material in terms of shear rate, self heating by viscous dissipation and temperature reached. The simulation is focused on the flow and heat transfer in the die to obtain a uniform velocity profile and a uniform temperature profile. The rheological behavior of polymer melt was described by the nonlinear Giesekus model. The dependence of the viscosity has also to be taken into account for a correct description of the flow. The design of the die has been validated by our numerical simulation.

  2. Death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel.

    PubMed

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety was related to gender and education for elderly living in the community, but social support and self-esteem were additional correlates for those living in nursing homes. The results of this study indicate that fostering a sense that one has a supportive social and familial network is important in decreasing death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab people. It would also be beneficial to provide information and knowledge that might relieve some of the anxiety they experience.

  3. Hospice nurses’ emotional challenges in their encounters with the dying

    PubMed Central

    Ingebretsen, Lina Paola; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ emotional challenges when caring for the dying in hospices. The study has a qualitative design, and knowledge was developed through a dialectical exchange between theory and data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses recruited from two hospices in Denmark. Although all of the nurses said that they experienced emotional challenges or felt emotionally touched during their work, the study found a variety of opinions related to the extent to which their emotional reactions should be revealed in their role as a hospice professional. The participants described their emotional challenges as being simultaneously draining and enriching experiences leading to personal and professional growth and development. The study may contribute to increased awareness of emotional challenges for hospice nurses, which involve continuous reflection and balancing between meeting the dying as a human being and meeting the dying as a hospice professional. PMID:27258584

  4. The case for a sociology of dying, death, and bereavement.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Neil; Allan, June; Carverhill, Philip A; Cox, Gerry R; Davies, Betty; Doka, Kenneth; Granek, Leeat; Harris, Darcy; Ho, Andy; Klass, Dennis; Small, Neil; Wittkowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dying, death, and bereavement do not occur in a social vacuum. How individuals and groups experience these phenomena will be largely influenced by the social context in which they occur. To develop an adequate understanding of dying, death, and bereavement we therefore need to incorporate a sociological perspective into our analysis. This article examines why a sociological perspective is necessary and explores various ways in which sociology can be of practical value in both intellectual and professional contexts. A case study comparing psychological and sociological perspectives is offered by way of illustration.

  5. Do people whose names begin with "D" really die young?

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more comprehensive data from the same source does not show a statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity. In addition, data for the years 1960 through 2004 for 6.7 million White, non-Hispanic California decedents do not replicate the claim that D's die young.

  6. Pultrusion dies -- From massive and power hungry to lean and smart

    SciTech Connect

    Awa, T.W.; Price, H.L.

    1996-11-01

    A lean and smart pultrusion die is proposed. The concept arose from a thermal analysis which showed that present dies involve large heat losses balancing large power inputs with temperature excursions being damped by high die mass. As power costs increase and control costs decrease, pultrusion dies may evolve toward low mass, highly insulated dies with a computer for monitoring and control purposes as well as for heat transfer estimates.

  7. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-06-14

    SummaryIn wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step toward establishing a diagnosis and aiding agencies with management considerations. The diagnostic process and overall investigation is often greatly expedited by a chronological record accompanying specimens submitted for laboratory evaluation. Knowing where and when the outbreak is taking place, what the environmental conditions and species involved are, and clinical signs in sick animals, along with necropsy findings and diagnostic test results are important for understanding the natural history or epizootiology of disease outbreaks. It becomes increasingly difficult to retrospectively obtain all of the pertinent history as time passes. The most helpful information is that which is obtained at the time of the die-off event by perceptive field biologists and other observers. Significant events preceding morbidity and/or mortality also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. In this chapter, readers will find information regarding what type of information should be recorded, how it should be recorded and why it is relevant to a disease investigation. A thoughtful approach in providing as much information as possible surrounding the situation including about host species and the biotic and abiotic environment, greatly aids in determining the most likely causative agent(s).

  8. Influence of Family History of Cancer on Engagement in Protective Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…

  9. Reflections on the Construction of a Digital Family Oral History and Its Impact on Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londt, Susan Cole

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Family Oral History Pilot (DFOHP) data were collected and catalogued on a private website blog for family members to learn about their grandfather (ALP) who died without telling his own story. This study examined the outcomes and perceptions of the family members who were engaged with the pilot. A self-selected sample of 17 family…

  10. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  11. Teaching and Writing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton

    1970-01-01

    Discusses new approaches to teaching history through publishers' series devoted to case studies on social problems, balanced presentation of the contributions of minorities including women, documentary sources, or different viewpoints, all instead of the traditional predigested, summarized history texts. Address delivered at American Association…

  12. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  13. History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  14. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  15. Women's History Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.

    This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…

  16. Homes in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "The Goldfinch," an Iowa history magazine for children, focuses on issues relating to housing. Articles address such subjects as homelessness, neighborhood history, architecture, and local folklore. One student activity is the "Building Blocks" game that calls upon students to fill in blanks to complete words from…

  17. History Teaching in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vero, Julia, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of five documents defines and explores the role, scope, reforms, and current trends in history teaching in Hungary. Ivan Berend in "Educational Ideas and History," considers whether or not the traditional uses of historical knowledge have become obsolete and examines the value of this knowledge in today's society. Peter…

  18. History and Ecological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Abour H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the main objectives of ecohistory and sources of information for this study. Details five themes that are important for students to know about the history of ecology including the history of Earth, fauna and flora, the human species, human civilization, and changes in the human environment. (CW)

  19. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  20. Re-Righting History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Esmeralda

    1993-01-01

    The traditionally accepted version of the world's story, which ignores achievements and concerns of whole segments of humanity, needs correcting, as a self-determination act of reconstruction and deconstruction by African Americans. Evidence of African presence in the Americas before Columbus and aspects of Canadian history exemplify history that…

  1. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  2. Barriers to Quality Care for Dying Patients in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Crane, Lori A.; Barton, Phoebe Lindsey; Kutner, Jean S.; Kallail, K. James; Westfall, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Barriers to providing optimal palliative care in rural communities are not well understood. Purpose: To identify health care personnel's perceptions of the care provided to dying patients in rural Kansas and Colorado and to identify barriers to providing optimal care. Methods: An anonymous self-administered survey was sent to health care…

  3. Consumer Aspects of Death and Dying. The Forgotten Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, James M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The consumer aspects of death and dying are discussed as part of a comprehensive death education program. Suggested areas to be covered include traditional funeral procedures and costs; alternatives including cremation, body donation, and funeral and memorial societies; and drawing up a will. Some suggested teaching strategies are outlined. (JMF)

  4. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  5. Attitudes of Dental and Medical Students toward Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundin, Robert H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explores attitudes of dental and medical students toward death and dying. Attitudes toward death influencing choice between dental school and medical school are latent. Attitudes of dental and medical students toward death may be differentially affected by their professional experiences. (Author/BEF)

  6. Technological Change in Michigan's Tool and Die Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald N.

    This study was conducted to answer four questions about the tool and die industry in Michigan. These were: (1) What are the current production techniques? (2) To what extent are these industrialists aware of new technologies? (3) What technical and economic factors affect technological change? and (4) To what extent will new technologies replace…

  7. View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith Shop, Boilermakers Department, east side of building 57; during World War II approximately forty women were employed as blacksmith's forging a variety of small tools; these may be the tools they used. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Preventive Therapy with Siblings of a Dying Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Daniel

    A case study of psychiatric intervention for two sisters whose brother is dying of leukemia is presented. The therapeutic technique attempted to deal with the threatened loss by a forthright approach to the reality situation, encouraging "immunizing" discussions, allowance for catharsis without severe regression, emphasis on reality orientation,…

  9. Media constructions of dying alone: a form of 'bad death'.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive

    2004-03-01

    In this study, newspaper accounts of people who die alone are analysed, drawing on a sample of 90 articles in the anglophone press that appeared in October 1999. Dying alone is represented as a fearful fate and a moral affair, often being the outcome of an undesirable personal character, either of the deceased or of onlookers, or involving the failings of society at large. It is frequently portrayed as occurring to people who are either geographically or socially distant from 'home', so that an imagined community of readers is encouraged to contemplate a death alone as the consequence of personal or societal breakdown. A degree of stigmatisation, sometimes of those who die alone, sometimes of those perceived to have caused this event, was evident. The negative evaluation of death alone parallels that found in some traditional societies where a death far from home is considered 'bad'. Dying alone contrasts significantly with the sociable, 'good', confessional deaths of newspaper columnists and other media celebrities facing terminal illness.

  10. Death and Dying as a Controversial Issue in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Robert D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Various perspectives on the inclusion of death education in health education curricula are offered. Discussed are: (1) positive and negative attitudes toward death; (2) teacher competence, qualifications, and skills; (3) religious beliefs about death; (4) Kubler-Ross's Five Stages of Dying; and (5) political implications of teaching about death.…

  11. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  12. Do People Whose Names Begin with "D" Really Die Young?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to…

  13. Where a Cancer Patient Dies: The Effect of Rural Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley; Johnston, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Context: Surveys indicate 50% to 80% of cancer patients would choose to die at home if possible, although far fewer actually do. In Nova Scotia (NS), cancer deaths occurring out-of-hospital increased from 19.8% in 1992 to 30.2% in 1997. The impact of rural residency on this trend has not been studied. Purpose: To determine the association between…

  14. A Simulation Based on Goldratt's Matchstick/Die Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clarence H.

    2007-01-01

    This teaching brief presents a Microsoft® Excel simulation designed to complement and expand upon the well-known matchstick/die game introduced by Goldratt in "The Goal." This simulation performs 100 replications of a 40-period processing run for low, medium, and high levels of process variation and displays the comparative results…

  15. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  16. Dreams of the Dying Patient: An Exploration of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Pamela N.; Hoffmann, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 25 dream reports of individuals in Palliative Care Unit. Content analysis of dream reports supports hypothesis that continuity exists between dreaming and waking experience. Results did not indicate that themes of death and aggression, negative emotion, or infant and child characters were more prevalent among the dying. (Author/NB)

  17. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF... owned by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board....

  18. A Framework for Ethical Decision-Making with Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafer, Barbara H.; Lee, Sandra S.

    The field of death and dying has become an important area for the development of both research and clinical technique. Psychologists in increasing numbers work in hospital and hospice settings, and therapists treat terminally ill patients and/or their families. Greater attention is being paid to the needs and rights of these patients and families,…

  19. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20–25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  20. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E. S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W. A.

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  1. Dying and death in some Roma communities: ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gabriel; Gramma, Rodica; Enache, Angela; Pârvu, Andrada; Ioan, Beatrice; Moisa, Ştefana Maria; Dumitraş, Silvia; Chirita, Radu

    2014-04-01

    The Roma people have specific values, therefore their views and beliefs about illness, dying and death are important to be known for health care providers caring for members of this community. The aim of this qualitative study based on 48 semi-structured interviews with Roma patients and caregivers in communities in two regions of Romania was to examine their selfdescribed behaviors and practices, their experiences and perceptions of illness, dying and death. Five more important themes about the Roma people facing dying and death have been identified: (1) The perception of illness in the community as reason for shame and the isolation that results from this, as well as the tendency for Roma people to take this on in their self image; (2) The importance of the family as the major support for the ill/dying individual, including the social requirement that family gather when someone is ill/dying; (3) The belief that the patient should not be told his/her diagnosis for fear it will harm him/her and that the family should be informed of the diagnosis as the main decision maker regarding medical treatment; (4) The reluctance of the Roma to decide on stopping life prolonging treatment; (5) The view of death as 'impure'. These results can be useful for health care providers working with members of the Roma community. By paying attention to and respecting the Roma patients' values, spirituality, and relationship dynamics, the medical staff can provide the most suitable healthcare by respecting the patients' wishes and expectations.

  2. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information form the voxel model for display to the user.

  3. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  4. Die Tabellen von Ulugh Beg. Die Sternkataloge des Ptolemäus, Ulugh Beg und Tycho Brahe im Vergleich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, Heiner

    2002-09-01

    Im 15. Jahrhundert schuf Ulugh Beg, der Herrscher von Samarkand (1394 - 1449), ein wichtiges Tabellenwerk. Das Kernstück dieses Werks (Zij Ulugh Beg, "Tabellen Ulugh Begs") ist ein Katalog mit 1018 Sternen, ihren Helligkeiten und Positionen. In diesem Bericht werden die Zij Ulugh Beg mit den großen Katalogen von Ptolemäus und Tycho Brahe verglichen.

  5. A DEM contact model for history-dependent powder flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashibon, Adham; Schubert, Raphael; Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten

    2016-11-01

    Die filling is an important part of the powder handling process chain that greatly influences the characteristic structure and properties of the final part. Predictive modelling and simulation of the die-filling process can greatly contribute to the optimization of the part and the whole production procedure, e.g. by predicting the resulting powder compaction structure as a function of filling process parameters. The rheology of powders can be very difficult to model especially if heterogeneous agglomeration or time-dependent consolidation effects occur. We present a new discrete element contact force model that enables modelling complex powder flow characteristics including direct time-dependent consolidation effects and load history-dependent cohesion to describe the filling process of complex, difficult to handle powders. The model is demonstrated for simple flow and an industrial powder flow.

  6. Singing American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  7. Teaching American Environmental History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1974-01-01

    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  8. History and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Diana S.

    2004-01-01

    The history of the computer usage in high school laboratories is discussed. Students learned scientific methods by acknowledging measurement errors, using significant digits, questioning their own results, and without doubts, they benefited from applying skill learned in mathematics classes.

  9. Task 7: Die soldering during host site testing. Final report, January1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, F.E.; Walkington, W.G.

    1998-01-31

    To provide industrial confirmation of laboratory results produced in Task 6 of this project, five industrial trials were organized with cooperative die casters in the USA. Components cast during these trials ranged from functional electronic heat sinks to decorative household plumbing components. Whereas laboratory work indicated that die temperature and draft angle were the most important process factors influencing solder accumulation, it was not possible to vary draft angle on the established production dies used for these trials. Substantial variations in die temperature were realized however and also die surface conditions were varied, confirming the influence of a secondary variable in the laboratory investigation. Substantial evidence from the trials indicated that die surface temperature is the most important factor for controlling solder build up. The surface roughness of the die casting die greatly influenced the number of castings that could be run before solder initially appeared. Development of careful thermal management techniques, now judged to be beyond the capabilities of most US die casters, will be necessary to control incidences of die soldering found in typical production. Thermal control will involve both control of the bulk die temperature through use of thermally controlled cooling lines, and also regulation of surface temperature by well controlled cooling lines, and also regulation of surface temperature by well controlled die spraying (lubrication) techniques. Further research, development and technology transfer to enhance thermal control capabilities of US die casters is recommended.

  10. Creating a family health history

    MedlinePlus

    Family health history; Create a family health history; Family medical history ... Many factors affect your health. These include your: Genes Diet and exercise habits Environment Family members tend to share certain behaviors, genetic traits, and habits. ...

  11. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Creating a Family Health History Why Create a Family Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for ... Click for more information What a Family Health History May Reveal You can use a family health ...

  12. Experimental predator removal causes rapid salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Coverdale, Tyler C; Bevil, Matt C; Crotty, Sinead M; Suglia, Elena R

    2014-07-01

    Salt marsh habitat loss to vegetation die-offs has accelerated throughout the western Atlantic in the last four decades. Recent studies have suggested that eutrophication, pollution and/or disease may contribute to the loss of marsh habitat. In light of recent evidence that predators are important determinants of marsh health in New England, we performed a total predator exclusion experiment. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that predator depletion can cause salt marsh die-off by releasing the herbivorous crab Sesarma reticulatum from predator control. Excluding predators from a marsh ecosystem for a single growing season resulted in a >100% increase in herbivory and a >150% increase in unvegetated bare space compared to plots with predators. Our results confirm that marshes in this region face multiple, potentially synergistic threats.

  13. How dying cells alert the immune system to danger

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Hajime; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    When a cell dies in vivo the event does not go unnoticed. The host has evolved mechanisms to detect the death of cells and rapidly investigate the nature of their demise. If cell death is a result of natural causes, that is, it is part of normal physiological processes, then there is little threat to the organism. In this situation, little else is done other than removing the corpse. However, if cells have died as the consequence of some violence or disease, then both defence and repair mechanisms are mobilized. The importance of this process to host defence and disease pathogenesis has only been appreciated relatively recently. This article will review our current knowledge of these processes. PMID:18340345

  14. Defects in the disposal of dying cells lead to autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Gaipl, Udo S; Franz, Sandra; Voll, Reinhard E; Sheriff, Ahmed; Kalden, Joachim R; Herrmann, Martin

    2004-12-01

    The fast and efficient uptake of dying cells is of main importance to prevent contact of the immune system with intracellular autoantigens. Insufficient clearance of the latter is discussed to drive the humoral autoimmune response in systemic lupus erythematosus. Many adaptor molecules and receptors are involved in the recognition of dying cells. In this paper we focus on the involvement of phosphatidylserine, glycoproteins, and complement and DNaseI in the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells, respectively. Furthermore, extracellular danger signals released from necrotic cells are discussed and the uptake process of primary necrotic cells is investigated in detail. Last but not least, the character and origin of clearance defects observed in some systemic lupus erythematosus patients is presented.

  15. Experimental predator removal causes rapid salt marsh die-off

    PubMed Central

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Coverdale, Tyler C; Bevil, Matt C; Crotty, Sinead M; Suglia, Elena R

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh habitat loss to vegetation die-offs has accelerated throughout the western Atlantic in the last four decades. Recent studies have suggested that eutrophication, pollution and/or disease may contribute to the loss of marsh habitat. In light of recent evidence that predators are important determinants of marsh health in New England, we performed a total predator exclusion experiment. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that predator depletion can cause salt marsh die-off by releasing the herbivorous crab Sesarma reticulatum from predator control. Excluding predators from a marsh ecosystem for a single growing season resulted in a >100% increase in herbivory and a >150% increase in unvegetated bare space compared to plots with predators. Our results confirm that marshes in this region face multiple, potentially synergistic threats. PMID:24766277

  16. Relative Lifetime Prediction for CPV Die-Attach Layers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, T. J.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-03-01

    In concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) cell assemblies, a large-area die-attach layer is subjected to thermal cycles, leading to thermomechanical fatigue. This causes cracking and the eventual failure of the CPV cell by thermal runaway. We define a damage metric representing lumped progress toward failure and present a numerical model for computing the accumulation of damage for arbitrary transient temperature conditions. The model is applied to a particular design with a solder die-attach layer. We show that accelerated-test thermal cycles with higher ramp rates cause more damage, both per cycle and per unit time. Outdoor exposure to one entire year in two geographic locations is also simulated, revealing that a year of exposure in Golden, Colorado is equivalent to 1.4 years of exposure in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  17. Development and evaluation of die and container materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, R. R.; Niesz, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    X = 0.75 Beta prime Sialon (a silicon aluminum oxynitride) and Sibeon (silicon beryllium oxynitride) are promising die materials. In sessile drop tests in contact with molten silicon, beryllium contamination was less than ppm and aluminum contamination 50 ppm. A shaping die of the Sialon material was successfully fabricated. Dry milling studies for the preparation of Si3N4-Al2O3-ALN mixtures were performed with butanol, acetic anhydride, oleic acid, and triethanolamine milling aids. Optimum mixing was achieved with 0.15 percent triethanolamine using a milling time of 8 hours. Preliminary evaluation of Sibeon materials indicates that they are more resistent to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Silicon contamination from the beryllium was less than aluminum contamination even though the aluminum impurity level in the Sibeon was only 450 to 1300 ppm. Work designed to produce an aluminum-free Sibeon is described.

  18. The Assisted Dying Bill and the role of the physician.

    PubMed

    Mullock, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    This article explores the role of the physician in the Assisted Dying Bill, which is currently progressing through the House of Lords. The Supreme Court decision in Nicklinson and Others has alerted Parliament to the possibility that the current prohibition against assisted suicide may breach Article 8 of the European Convention in relation to the right to choose how to end one's life. In this article, the role of healthcare professionals in the proposed legalisation of physician-assisted suicide is examined, together with consideration of key ethical concerns over who might be permitted to access assisted dying. Whether the proposed law presents an ethically sound alternative to the current prohibition against assisting in suicide is not clear, but Parliament must now respond in order to address human rights issues and the call to legalise medically assisted suicide.

  19. Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.

  20. Enhancing impact velocity with shock interactions in a restricting die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Jensen, B. J.; Cherne, F. J.; Owens, C. T.; Ramos, K. J.; Lieber, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    Shock compression and impact studies could benefit from the ability to increase impact velocities that can be achieved with gun systems. Single-stage guns have modest performance (0.2-2 km/s) that limits their utility for high-pressure and high-velocity studies, while more capable systems are expensive and complex. We are developing a technique that uses a low-strength sabot with a tapered die to increase the impact velocity without modifying the gun itself. Impact of the projectile with the die generates a converging shock wave in the sabot that acts to accelerate the front of the projectile, while decelerating the rear portion. Preliminary experiments using this technique have observed a velocity enhancement of up to a factor of two.

  1. [The professor-student relationship in coping with dying].

    PubMed

    Pinho, Líũcia Maria Oliveira; Barbosa, Maria Alves

    2010-03-01

    The new guidelines for undergraduate courses in the field of health care imply a need to prepare professionals to deal with life and death. To study death and dying in the context of nurse education means to contribute to the humanization of education and to preparing humanistic and critical professionals. We performed individual interviews with professors so that each could reveal their thoughts about experiencing death and dying in the educational relationship between nurse/professor and the nursing student in the hospital environment. Content analysis was performed using ideas close to those of Heidegger, revealing that education towards the concept and experience of death appears to be possible only if there is reflection regarding human existence, thoughts, and accepting finitude. By understanding one's own attitudes towards death and existence, it is possible to perceive possibilities in education for care in the death process.

  2. She's going to die: the case of Angela C.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1988-01-01

    Annas criticizes the legal reasoning in a District of Columbia Superior Court case, In re A.C. (1987). A dying woman who was 26 weeks pregnant agreed to attempts to prolong her life to give her fetus a better chance to be born healthy. When death seemed imminent, she appeared to refuse a cesarean section, and a Superior Court judge was called to the hospital on the advice of its legal counsel. After hearing from lawyers for the hospital, the patient, and the fetus, the judge ordered the surgery, and an appeals court concurred. The infant died two hours after delivery, the mother two days later. Annas argues that the decision rested on several false assumptions about the legal rights and obligations of pregnant women. In his view, the judges "justified their brutal and unprincipled opinion on the basis that [A.C.] was almost dead," and therefore the fetus's interests outweighed hers.

  3. Thermal Simulation of Four Die-Attach Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    contact between circuit board layers. ..............................................................5 Figure 4. Simulation results with AuSn braze on...being investigated, three were metallic, with good thermal conductivity. These materials were a Au/Sn braze , in an 80%/20% mixture; a CPES nanoscale...silver powder; and Kester R520A solder paste, an alloy which is 96.5% Sn, 3.0% Ag, and 0.5% Cu , commonly called SAC. The fourth die-attach material

  4. Should the patient be allowed to die? 1

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Richard

    1975-01-01

    In considering the patient's right to a certain quality of dying, this essay outlines how the legal and ethical justifications for passive euthanasia depend on the doctrine of acts and omissions. It is suggested that this doctrine is untenable and that alternative justifications are needed. The development of the modern mechanistic approach to death is traced, showing that a possible basis for an humane way of death lies in a reacceptance of a metaphysical concept of life. PMID:1100831

  5. Years after Inventors Die, Royalties Are Pennies from Heaven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    Sarah L. Kieweg had her own nice surprise when the University of Central Florida contacted her. She understood quite a bit about her father's pioneering work on artificial intelligence in the 1990s. Still, in 2006, eight years after he died of a heart attack, at age 50, the call from the university came out of the blue: some of James R. Driscoll's…

  6. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A method for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers.

  7. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  8. Voices of discontent? Conscience, compromise, and assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Huxtable, Richard; Mullock, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    If some form of assisted dying is to be legalised, we are likely to hear voices of discontent, not least from the medical profession and some of its members, who might be expected to provide the service. The profession generally favours a position of opposition, premised on an ethic of 'caring not killing', which might be said to convey its 'professional conscience'. There will, of course, also be individual conscientious objectors. In this article, we initially explore the nature and sources of conscience and we argue that conscience does merit respect. We also recognise that professionals, qua professionals, are bound to serve their patients, some of whom will want (and may be entitled to) that which their doctors do not wish to provide. Reflecting on the different values in issue, we suggest that there is a case for principled compromise which would afford professionals a limited right to conscientiously object, while also protecting patients. We then relate these reflections to assisted dying specifically. In the absence of any definitive steer from the purported integrity of medicine, we suspect that the profession could adopt a neutral stance on this divisive issue. We nevertheless anticipate individual objections if the law does move to embrace assisted dying, and we argue that such objections should be respected, according to the terms of the compromise model we defend.

  9. Results from prototype die-to-database reticle inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Bo; Dayal, Aditya; Broadbent, Bill; Lim, Phillip; Goonesekera, Arosha; Chen, Chunlin; Yeung, Kevin; Pinto, Becky

    2009-03-01

    A prototype die-to-database high-resolution reticle defect inspection system has been developed for 32nm and below logic reticles, and 4X Half Pitch (HP) production and 3X HP development memory reticles. These nodes will use predominantly 193nm immersion lithography (with some layers double patterned), although EUV may also be used. Many different reticle types may be used for these generations including: binary (COG, EAPSM), simple tritone, complex tritone, high transmission, dark field alternating (APSM), mask enhancer, CPL, and EUV. Finally, aggressive model based OPC is typically used, which includes many small structures such as jogs, serifs, and SRAF (sub-resolution assist features), accompanied by very small gaps between adjacent structures. The architecture and performance of the prototype inspection system is described. This system is designed to inspect the aforementioned reticle types in die-todatabase mode. Die-to-database inspection results are shown on standard programmed defect test reticles, as well as advanced 32nm logic, and 4X HP and 3X HP memory reticles from industry sources. Direct comparisons with currentgeneration inspection systems show measurable sensitivity improvement and a reduction in false detections.

  10. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-01-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications. PMID:27725780

  11. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  12. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Die Entdeckung des trägen Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2004-11-01

    Im Jahr 1904 erhielt der britische Physiker Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 bis 1919) den Nobelpreis für seine Untersuchungen über die Dichte von Gasen und die Entdeckung des Edelgases Argon.

  13. A comparison of the accuracy of two removable die systems with intact working casts.

    PubMed

    Aramouni, P; Millstein, P

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the reproducibility of die position using two removable die systems and two die stones. Poly(vinyl siloxane) impressions were made of a stainless steel, U-shaped arch with four evenly spaced abutments. Six groups were evaluated: Zeiser system/Fuji Rock; Zeiser system/Die Keen; solid cast/Fuji Rock; solid cast/Die Keen; Fuji Rock/Pindex; and Die Keen/Pindex. An optical comparator was used to measure the height of each abutment, the distance between the anterior abutments, and the distance between the posterior abutments. The Zeiser system with either Fuji Rock or Die Keen yielded the greatest accuracy. Die Keen exhibited more linear expansion than Fuji Rock, and solid casts had less distortion than the Pindex system.

  14. Most U.S. Kids Who Die from Flu Are Unvaccinated

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164426.html Most U.S. Kids Who Die From Flu Are Unvaccinated Researchers estimate ... Researchers found that about three-quarters of U.S. kids who died of flu complications between 2010 and ...

  15. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  16. Milling strategies evaluation when simulating the forming dies' functional surfaces production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ižol, Peter; Tomáš, Miroslav; Beňo, Jozef

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with selection and evaluation of milling strategies, available in CAM systems and applicable when complicated shape parts are produced, such as forming dies. A method to obtain samples is proposed and this stems from real forming die surface machined by proper strategies. The strategy applicability for the whole part - forming die - is reviewed by the particular specimen evaluation. The presented methodology has been verified by machining model die and comparing it to the production procedure proposed in other CAM systems.

  17. Impact of Simulation Technology on Die and Stamping Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark W.

    2005-08-01

    Over the last ten years, we have seen an explosion in the use of simulation-based techniques to improve the engineering, construction, and operation of GM production tools. The impact has been as profound as the overall switch to CAD/CAM from the old manual design and construction methods. The changeover to N/C machining from duplicating milling machines brought advances in accuracy and speed to our construction activity. It also brought significant reductions in fitting sculptured surfaces. Changing over to CAD design brought similar advances in accuracy, and today's use of solid modeling has enhanced that accuracy gain while finally leading to the reduction in lead time and cost through the development of parametric techniques. Elimination of paper drawings for die design, along with the process of blueprinting and distribution, provided the savings required to install high capacity computer servers, high-speed data transmission lines and integrated networks. These historic changes in the application of CAE technology in manufacturing engineering paved the way for the implementation of simulation to all aspects of our business. The benefits are being realized now, and the future holds even greater promise as the simulation techniques mature and expand. Every new line of dies is verified prior to casting for interference free operation. Sheet metal forming simulation validates the material flow, eliminating the high costs of physical experimentation dependent on trial and error methods of the past. Integrated forming simulation and die structural analysis and optimization has led to a reduction in die size and weight on the order of 30% or more. The latest techniques in factory simulation enable analysis of automated press lines, including all stamping operations with corresponding automation. This leads to manufacturing lines capable of running at higher levels of throughput, with actual results providing the capability of two or more additional strokes per

  18. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  19. Chandra observations of dying radio sources in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims: We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods: We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results: The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions: We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  20. Political History as Women's History: Toward a More Inclusive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyshner, Christine

    2002-01-01

    The secondary school history curriculum, with its emphasis on political history, tends to relegate women to the margins or to interpret their accomplishments according to a patriarchal framework. The author argues that by adapting theoretical developments in the field of women's history, women can be seen as political agents in history, thereby…

  1. Application of Magnetic Kinds of Nondestructive Inspection to Parts From Die Tool Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilova, A. V.; Selishchev, A. I.; Idarmachev, I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities of control of the level of accumulated damage in dies for cold and hot forming as a function of the coercivity are considered. The coercivity of the material of dies for hot forging and cold stamping is studied. Formulas are obtained for determining the coercivity in steels for hot die forging in the state as delivered.

  2. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.3 Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises...

  3. Palliative and Curative Care Nurses' Attitudes Toward Dying and Death in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Examined sociodemographic background, nursing unit, amount of experience caring for dying patients, death anxiety, and attitudes toward working with dying patients among 56 nurses in palliative, surgical, and pediatric services. Work setting was found to be a more significant force in shaping attitudes toward caring for the dying than was…

  4. Strippable grid facilitates removal of grid-surfaced conical workpiece from die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Female die facilitates the removal of a sheet metal structure from a die used for explosive forming of the metal. The female die consists of a smooth conical frustum made of fiber glass with a cured epoxy-resin surface on which a molded grid pattern made of a polyurethane resin is overlaid.

  5. Verbesserte Ausbildung für neue Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure - eine wichtige Investition in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, Oliver

    Bedingt durch die Globalisierung und die damit einhergehende Verschärfung des Wettbewerbs befinden sich die Produktionsbetriebe der chemischen Industrie in stetigem Wandel. Für Betriebsleiter und Betriebsingenieure werden damit Fähigkeiten wie Kostenmanagement, Sozial- und Organisationskompetenz, Führungsqualifikationen und unternehmerisches Handeln immer wichtiger. Neben den Anforderungsprofilen bei Neueinstellungen ist dies auch bei der Fortbildung zu berücksichtigen. Das Trainingsprogramm der Evonik Degussa wurde daher durch die Konzeption neuer Seminare und die Anpassung bestehender Weiterbildungsmaßnahmen weiterentwickelt. Neben Vorträgen und Fallbeispielen sind ebenfalls die Durchführung von Planspielen sowie das Kennenlernen eines Produktionsbetriebes einer anderen Organisationseinheit enthalten. Ziel ist es vor allem die unternehmerische Orientierung neuer Betriebsleiter und -ingenieure zu fördern, die Innovationsgeschwindigkeit zu erhöhen und durch Kenntnis und Nutzung bereits anderweitig entwickelter Lösungen und Methoden die Produktivität zu steigern. Die Produktionsmeister werden aufgrund der Bedeutung dieser Funktion für die Führung der Mitarbeiter und bei der Umsetzung von Veränderungsprojekten in das Ausbildungsprogramm einbezogen. Der Erfolg des Trainingsprogramms zeigt sich an den Teilnehmerzahlen und den ausgesprochen positiven Rückmeldungen.

  6. Die Liberalisierung de Telekommunikationsbranche in Deutschland( The Liberalization of the Telecommunication-Industry in Germany)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    anderen europdischen Ldndern - eine dramatische Entwick- lung erlebt: Zahlreiche neue Anbieter von Telekommunikationsdienstleistungen haben den Markt ...AG (DTAG), zweitens die Liberalisierung des Marktzutritts bzw. Offfiung des Marktes , und drittens die Deregulierung. Wdhrend also mit Liberalisierung...die Offnung des Marktes ffir neue Anbieter gemeint ist, wird unter Deregulierung der Abbau staatlicher Vorschriften iiber das Verhalten der Markt

  7. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  8. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  9. History of psychology.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Time, money, and history.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, David

    2012-06-01

    This essay argues that taking the economy seriously in histories of science could not only extend the range of activities studied but also change--often quite radically--our understanding of well-known cases and instances in twentieth-century science. It shows how scientific intellectuals and historians of science have followed the money as a means of critique of particular forms of science and of particular conceptions of science. It suggests the need to go further, to a much broader implicit definition of what constitutes science--one that implies a criticism of much history of twentieth-century science for defining it implicitly and inappropriately in very restrictive ways.

  11. Investigating human evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, BERNARD

    2000-01-01

    We rely on fossils for the interpretation of more than 95% of our evolutionary history. Fieldwork resulting in the recovery of fresh fossil evidence is an important component of reconstructing human evolutionary history, but advances can also be made by extracting additional evidence for the existing fossil record, and by improving the methods used to interpret the fossil evidence. This review shows how information from imaging and dental microstructure has contributed to improving our understanding of the hominin fossil record. It also surveys recent advances in the use of the fossil record for phylogenetic inference. PMID:10999269

  12. Medicine in the Encyclopédie (1751-1780) of Diderot and d'Alembert.

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale G; Bisaccia, Carmela; Cirillo, Massimo; Richet, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    On July 1, 1751, the royal Parisian printer Le Breton published the first volume of the Encyclopédie of Diderot and d'Alembert, a rational dictionary, in folio and in alphabetical order, sold by subscription. The whole work was completed in 1780 (a total of 35 volumes, of which 12 were of illustrations, 4 of supplements and 2 of indices). In 1782 it was followed by the Encyclopédie méthodique, printed by Panckoucke, which ended in 1832 with volume number 166. The frontispiece of the first volume, designed by Charles-Nicolas Cochin Jr. and engraved by Benoît-Louis Prévost showed the columns of an Ionic temple where the Truth appears between Reason and Philosophy. Reason is shown trying to break the veil of Truth, and Philosophy trying to embellish it. Below are the philosophers, their eyes fixed on Truth. Theology is on his knees with his back facing Truth, and seems to receive light from the top. The subsequent chain of figures depicts Memory, Ancient History, Modern History, Geometry, Astronomy and Physics. Below are Optics, Botany, Chemistry and Agriculture. On the bottom line one finds the representatives of arts and professions derived from science. In a 42-page preface ("Discours préliminaire") d'Alembert discussed the path to new knowledge as one "based on what we receive through senses. Ideas depend on senses." The medical collaborators were, or became, famous. Medicine was considered to be rooted in experiment, in patients and in measurements. Functions started to be described with numbers. It was the birth of determinism which was later reinforced by Magendie and Claude Bernard. Albrecht Haller, president of the Academy of Science at Göttingen, as well as a member of all European academies, wrote seminal entries. New accurate definitions appeared for life, disease, death, infections, plague, epidemics, hygiene, fevers and edema. Semiology, the study of signs, became the visible explanation of deranged function, diagnosis and prognosis.

  13. Student Papers in Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.

    Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee,…

  14. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond…

  15. Why Military History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Josiah, III

    2008-01-01

    Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

  16. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  17. Brazilian History through Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaher, Celia Ribeiro; Varella, Maria Angelica

    This paper provides an overview of the beginnings of the newspaper in Brazil with information on the more significant titles and their role in the history of journalism and their impact on social change that occurred between the Imperial and Republican periods. Current collections at the National Library and legal deposit are discussed. It…

  18. The History Computerization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the History Computerization Project, which is being developed for the exchange of information between researchers, librarians, archivists, museum curators, preservation groups, and historical societies, focuses on workshops that teach the use of computer database management for historical cataloging and research. (LRW)

  19. A Little History (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Seeds of the Blue Book were planted in Cambridge, MA in the early 1960's, and variants thereof in Boulder, Colorado and Tucson, Arizona at a somewhat later date. However, flowering and cross-pollination did not occur until 1984 with the fruit ripening in 1991. We will briefly review this obscure history, search for lessons learned, and ponder what comes next.

  20. History of Vietnamese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong Quang Ham

    This is the first of a two-volume textbook, covering the official program of the Ministry of Education, of the secondary curriculum for the history of Vietnamese literature. It is divided into three main sections. The first section "First Year of the Secondary Cycle (Grade 11)" deals with (1) popular literature; (2) the influence of China, (3)…

  1. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  2. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  3. History, Theory, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the question of theory as it may pertain to the history of education, with particular attention to the United States. Historians, like everyone else, have little choice regarding the use of theory; to one extent or another they must. The question is how much and to what end. The author aims to consider the…

  4. AFA-NIET History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Guy; Schnoor, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Presents a history of the American Forensic Association regarding its splintering within the forensic community. Discusses the incorporation of the National Individual Events Tournament (NIET). Considers how the NIET Committee has encouraged research projects related to forensic pedagogy as well as other issues related to forensics. (NH)

  5. Narrative History and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamura, Eileen H.

    2011-01-01

    While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…

  6. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  7. Life History and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  8. History at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

  9. Black History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  10. My English History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the author's history as an English teacher. Suggests that English teaching is not hermetic but profoundly influenced by educational trends outside the subject itself. Explains that the author's commitment to English combines a sense of engagement with a sense of liberation. (PM)

  11. In a Word, History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  12. History and Civility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  13. Five Colleges: Five Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Ronald, Ed.

    This book presents essays on the histories of five Massachusetts schools of higher education (Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Smith College, Hampshire College) who together have had a successful consortia lasting for 25 years. The first essay, by Theodore P. Greene, depicts the temper of Amherst…

  14. History of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  15. Picturing Iowa's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…

  16. Bengal Literature and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  17. History in Present Tense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrewsky, Jackie

    1994-01-01

    Eschewing Little Mermaid and Ninja Turtle costumes, students at a Washington Montessori school celebrate Halloween dressed as John Adams, Clara Barton, and other historical figures. U.S. Department of Education recently recognized eight schools for using interdisciplinary approaches, devoting adequate instructional time to history, and addressing…

  18. Testing History As Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James R.; Hart, James

    1973-01-01

    Some obvious difficulties of teaching and testing history as inquiry are reviewed. Examples of test items that require students to utilize thought processes developed through inquiry teaching are presented together with a rationale for their use. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is proposed as a useful tool in test construction. (SM)

  19. Psychology and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  20. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  1. Music in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on music as an art using sound in time to express ideas and emotions and contains articles featuring appreciations of some of Iowa's renowned musical artists. The first article gives an overview of music in Iowa's history. The next article describes Antonin Dvorak's summer sojourn in Spillville…

  2. Histories of Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ashley

    2006-01-01

    This paper revisits the value of and justification for histories of geographical education as a field of research endeavour within geographical education. Four potentially fruitful areas of research are identified. These are pressure groups, especially the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education; the influence of…

  3. Kentucky History and Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckinridge County Board of Education, Hardinsburg, KY.

    Designed for use in grades 6, 7, and 8, this curriculum guide provides 11 individual units for teaching Kentucky history and geography with the recommended text "Kentucky Heritage" published by Steck-Vaughn. Unit titles are The Blue Grass State, Early Explorations of Kentucky, Development of the Government of Kentucky, The Constitution…

  4. Projects in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harben, Cedric Y.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses two types of historical projects conducted by O-level pupils at Clifton College: studies of famous chemists and projects on the development of industrial chemicals. Indicates that a project in the history of chemistry is characterized by its practical and philosophical approach to chemistry study. (CC)

  5. A Biospheric Natural History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…

  6. Understanding World Economic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  7. Freud and cultural history.

    PubMed

    Burke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with three questions: Can historians make use of Freud's ideas? Have they done so in the past? Should they do so in the future? It begins with a personal encounter with Freud's ideas and then raises some general questions about the relation between psychoanalysis and history.

  8. History of Space Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    2012), 1. 2 Winston Churchill, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/history.html (accessed January 8, 2012). 3 Deborah Cadbury , Space Race... Cadbury , Space Race, The Epic Battle Between America and the Soviet Union for Dominion of Space (New York: Harper Collins, 2006), 4. 22 7 Ibid., 5

  9. Epistemology and history.

    PubMed

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The essay reviews Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's intensive engagement with French epistemology that has remained a constant throughout his career. It focuses especially on a set of recent writings by Rheinberger that all revolve around the question: how has epistemology become historical? This question is discussed in the context of Rheinberger's own move from philosophy to an embracement of history.

  10. Footsteps through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Michael L.

    1984-01-01

    Using colored construction paper, students trace around their shoes and cut out two forms. Students then pick and research an event from the time period in history under study and write a report on the representations of shoe soles. The reports are taped, in order of occurrence, around the classroom. (RM)

  11. Redefining American Literary History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruoff, A. LaVonne Brown, Ed.; Ward, Jerry W., Jr., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays which provide starting points for a redefinition of American literary history based on a multiethnic and multiracial, rather than European, theory of culture. After an introduction by the editors, essays in the book are: "The Literatures of America: A Comparative Discipline" (Paul Lauter);…

  12. A History of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Evan L.

    Any study of the history of psychology must first determine what is to be considered psychology, whether to stick to the relatively continuous Western tradition or to include others (e.g., Eastern, Oriental), and whether to investigate the impact of the socio-cultural events of the time on the views of that period or consider those views in a…

  13. The Holocaust and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This theme based journal issue consists of articles and teaching ideas focusing on the Holocaust and history. This publication contains the following materials: (1) "Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust?" (Alan Singer); (2) "Responses to 'Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust'"; (3) "Escape to Cuba: Story of Laura Kahn,…

  14. Wer entdeckte die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie? Prioritätsstreit zwischen Hilbert und Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Klaus P.

    2005-09-01

    Im November 1915 arbeiteten Albert Einstein und David Hilbert an den Feldgleichungen der Gravitationstheorie. Im Jahre 1997 behaupteten die Wissenschaftshistoriker Corry, Renn und Stachel in einer viel beachteten Arbeit, Hilbert habe die entscheidenden Formeln von Einstein gestohlen. Grundlage ihrer Argumentation war eine wieder gefundene Korrekturfahne von Hilberts entscheidender Arbeit. Die Physikhistorikerin Daniela Wuensch bringt jedoch detaillierte Argumente dafür vor, dass die entscheidende Quelle, nämlich die Korrekturfahne, in neuerer Zeit manipuliert worden ist, um Einsteins Priorität unangetastet zu lassen. Einstein bleibt aber der Entdecker der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie.

  15. Application of direct laser melting to restore damaged steel dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jeong Hwan; Joo, Byeong Don; Mun, Sung Min; Sung, Min Young; Moon, Young Hoon

    2011-02-01

    Direct laser melting (DLM) technology can be applied to restore damaged steel dies. To understand the effects of DLM process parameters such as the laser power and scan rate, a series of experiments was conducted to determine the optimal operating parameters. To investigate the laser melting characteristics, the depth/height ratio, depth/width ratio and micro-hardness as a function of the laser energy density were analyzed. Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni layers were deposited on a steel die with 11.38 J/mm2 of energy input. The wear-resistance and the friction coefficient of the deposited layer were investigated by a pin-on-disk test. The penetration depth decreased as the scan rate increased as a consequence of the shorter interaction time. The depth/height ratio of the deposited layer decreased with an increase in the scan rate. The depth/width ratio increased as laser power increased and the scan rate decreased. The deposition shape of the Fe-Ni powder was relatively shallow and wide compared with that of the Fe-Cr powder. The scan rate had a substantial effect upon the deposition height, with the Fe-Cr powder melting more than the Fe-Ni powder. The micro-hardness of the layer melted from the powders is higher than that of the substrate, and the hardness of the laser-surface-melted layer without any metal powder is higher compared to that of the metal-powder-melted layer. The direct laser melting process with Fe-Ni powder represents a superior method when restoring a steel die when the bead shape and hardness of the restored surface are important outcome considerations.

  16. [The rescue of the human in the patient who dies].

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss briefly a proposal for the recovery of the essential content of the concept of human nature through the careful attention to ethics which must be received by a terminal ill person in the last phase of life. I propose palliative medicine as a way to rescue the human mind in the life of dying patients to whom the fullness of nature and human dignity belongs. It's about recovering the original medical ethos through the exercise of the virtues through which staff can be trained to recognize the weak, the sick, miserable, the dispossessed are important, are worthy of medicine, used for science: are human and quite valid.

  17. Dying slowly with compassion and dignity: A commentary

    PubMed Central

    Rakos, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Fraley offers a provocative behavior-analytic perspective on the process of slow death. I argue that the value of his insightful analysis is severely compromised by his insistence on equating behavioral competence with personal worth. Fraley errs by proclaiming that his philosophy is science, that existing social practices are essential human attributes, and that idiosyncratic reinforcing stimuli are universally functional. Further, his philosophical tenet is fundamentally inconsistent with his genuinely humane goal of understanding and promoting protracted dying as a behavioral rather than metaphysical phenomenon. PMID:22478294

  18. Developing a Blended Course on Dying, Loss, and Grief

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Karen; Andreoni, V. Ann; Wilkie, Diana J.; Burgener, Sandra; Buschmann, MaryBeth Tank; Henderson, Gloria; Hsiung, Yi-Fang Yvonne; Zhao, Zhongsheng

    2010-01-01

    An important component of end-of-life education is to provide health professionals with content related to dying, loss, and grief. The authors describe the strategies used to develop and offer a blended course (integration of classroom face-to-face learning with online learning) that addressed the sensitive and often emotional content associated with grieving and bereavement. Using Kolb’s experiential learning theory, a set of 4 online learning modules, with engaging, interactive elements, was created. Course evaluations demonstrated the success of the blended course in comparison to the traditional, exclusive face-to-face approach. PMID:19412055

  19. Reliability Testing the Die-Attach of CPV Cell Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Sweet, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    Results and progress are reported for a course of work to establish an efficient reliability test for the die-attach of CPV cell assemblies. Test vehicle design consists of a ~1 cm2 multijunction cell attached to a substrate via several processes. A thermal cycling sequence is developed in a test-to-failure protocol. Methods of detecting a failed or failing joint are prerequisite for this work; therefore both in-situ and non-destructive methods, including infrared imaging techniques, are being explored as a method to quickly detect non-ideal or failing bonds.

  20. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1998-02-17

    A method is disclosed for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers. 17 figs.

  1. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  2. [Recent case law about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Bascuñán R, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the sentences dictated between 1993 and 2002 by the Supreme Courts of Canada and the Unites States, the House of Lords and Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and the European Human Rights Court, about the validity of the legal prohibition of assistance for suicide. These sentences constituted a judicial consensus about the right to die. This consensus recognized the legal right of patients to reject medical treatments but did not recognize the right to be assisted by a physician to commit suicide. This exclusion is changing in the recent case law of Canada and the United Kingdom, which accepts the fundamental right of terminal patients to medically assisted suicide.

  3. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography as a Method for Finding Die Attach Voids in Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brahm, E. N.; Rolin, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA analyzes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles to understand failure modes of these components. The diode is an EEE part critical to NASA missions that can fail due to excessive voiding in the die attach. Metallography, one established method for studying the die attach, is a time-intensive, destructive, and equivocal process whereby mechanical grinding of the diodes is performed to reveal voiding in the die attach. Problems such as die attach pull-out tend to complicate results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study is to determine if three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), a nondestructive technique, is a viable alternative to metallography for detecting die attach voiding. The die attach voiding in two- dimensional planes created from 3DCT scans was compared to several physical cross sections of the same diode to determine if the 3DCT scan accurately recreates die attach volumetric variability

  4. Die Starter: A New System to Manage Early Feasibility in Sheet Metal Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narainen, Rodrigue; Porzner, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Die Starter, a new system developed by ESI Group, allows the user to drastically reduce the number of iterations during the early tool process feasibility. This innovative system automatically designs the first quick die face, generating binder and addendum surfaces (NURBS surfaces) by taking account the full die process. Die Starter also improves the initial die face based on feasibility criteria (avoiding splits, wrinkles) by automatically generating the geometrical modifications of the binder and addendum and the bead restraining forces with minimal material usage. This paper presents a description of the new system and the methodology of Die Starter. Some industrial examples are presented from the part geometry to final die face including automatic developed flanges, part on binder and inner binder.

  5. Micromorphology and site formation at Die Kelders Cave I, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, P

    2000-01-01

    The deposits of Die Kelders I were previously described and studied by Tankard & Schweitzer (1974, 1976) from the standpoint of classical granulometric analysis of sand from a coastal cave in order to infer the geological history of the cave and its environs. This paper supplements these earlier works by taking a more holistic approach toward site formation processes by including investigation of the biogenic and anthropogenic influences on the cave deposits and history. The study employs the technique of soil micromorphology, which is the study of resin-impregnated, undisturbed blocks of sediment and petrographic thin sections, in which sediments from all areas of the cave were examined. The study showed that diagenesis of the deposits in the eastern areas of the excavation resulted in decalcification, which in turn brought about slumping and compaction. Equivalent stratigraphic layers exposed in the western and central areas were only mildly decalcified and consequently, these sediments contain limestone rock fall and relatively abundant marine and terrestrial mollusks, the latter not dissimilar to the Late Stone Age (LSA) midden which covers these deposits. Thus, in spite of lowered and more distant shorelines, marine resources were exploited during Middle Stone Age (MSA) times. Observations from these calcareous units also clearly demonstrates that previously recognized "occupational horizons" (e.g. Layers 6, 8 and 10) can be resolved micromorphologically into several ephemeral events, such as burning/fire, redistribution of ashes by wind and water, and non-deposition; the latter is shown by phosphatic alteration of sediments exposed on former surfaces and accumulation of guano, or the presence of millimeter-thick truncation surfaces below which aeolian dust infiltrated. Both field and microscopic observations illustrate that the deposits in caves are highly variable from wall to center, and that excavations should not be localized in just one microenvironment

  6. Dying autologous cells as instructors of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Munoz, L E; Herrmann, M; Berens, C

    2015-01-01

    In an organism, cell death occurs at many different sites and in many different forms. It is frequently part of normal development or serves to maintain cell homeostasis. In other cases, cell death not only occurs due to injury, disease or infection, but also as a consequence of various therapeutic interventions. However, in all of these scenarios, the immune system has to react to the dying and dead cells and decide whether to mount an immune response, to remain quiet or to initiate healing and repopulation. This is essential for the organism, testified by many diseases that are associated with malfunctioning in the cell death process, the corpse removal, or the ensuing immune responsiveness. Therefore, dying cells generally have to be considered as instructors of the immune system. How this happens and which signals and pathways contribute to modulate or shape the immune response is still elusive in many conditions. The articles presented in this Special Issue address such open questions. They highlight that the context in which cell death occurs will not only influence the cell death process itself, but also affect the surrounding cellular milieu, how the generation and presence of 'eat me' signals can have an impact on cell clearance, and that the exact nature of the residual 'debris' and how it is processed are fundamental to determining the immunological consequences. Hopefully, these articles initiate new approaches and new experiments to complete our understanding of how cell death and the immune system interact with each other.

  7. Die Parting welt marks' measurement using structured laser analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-01-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to twelve centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft air ducts, coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly the die parting welt mark is inspected. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements are: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic, the reading must be accurate, a hard copy print out is required, and it must be non-destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the duct and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum height of 50.8 microns. The prototype systems uses computer vision and custom software written in the C language. This paper discusses different measurement methods tested and the benefits of each technology. The development of a specialized system is justified for production use. This paper describes the prototype system and some of its configuration for factory testing.

  8. Interventions to enhance the spiritual aspects of dying.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Cann, Beverley J

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, medical and allied health publications have begun to address various topics on spirituality. Scholars have posited numerous definitions of spirituality and wrestled with the notion of spiritual pain and suffering. Researchers have examined the relationship between spirituality and health and explored, among other topics, patients' perceptions of their spiritual needs, particularly at the end of life. This paper summarizes salient evidence pertaining to spirituality, dying patients, their health care providers, and family or informal caregivers. We examine the challenging issue of how to define spirituality, and provide a brief overview of the state of evidence addressing interventions that may enhance or bolster spiritual aspects of dying. There are many pressing questions that need to be addressed within the context of spiritual issues and end-of-life care. Efforts to understand more fully the constructs of spiritual well-being, transcendence, hope, meaning, and dignity, and to correlate them with variables and outcomes such as quality of life, pain control, coping with loss, and acceptance are warranted. Researchers should also frame these issues from both faith-based and secular perspectives, differing professional viewpoints, and in diverse cultural settings. In addition, longitudinal studies will enable patients' changing experiences and needs to be assessed over time. Research addressing spiritual dimensions of personhood offers an opportunity to expand the horizons of contemporary palliative care, thereby decreasing suffering and enhancing the quality of time remaining to those who are nearing death.

  9. Study on stretching effect of multiple die forming technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-woo; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom-soo

    2013-12-01

    The multiple die forming (MDF) technology is suitable for flexible manufacturing, and it affords several advantages including its applicability to various forming processes such as single-curved surface forming, and double-curved surface forming. In sheet metal forming process, the elastic recovery has become a problem. Therefore, the stretch forming process is applied MDF technology to reduce elastic recovery effect. Numerical simulation is carried out for a saddle-type surface forming using ABAQUS. Every simulation case performs spring-back analysis to find elastic recovery effect after forming simulation. In this simulation, urethane pads are defined based on a hyperelastic material model as a cushion for the smoothness of forming surface. The elastic recovery deformation behavior is also investigated to consider the exact result after the last forming process, and then, the actual experiments are performed to confirm the formability of this forming process. By comparing the simulation and the experimental results, the tendency of the decreased amount of elastic recovery from the application of stretch process is verified. Consequently, it is confirmed that the multiple die stretch forming process has the capability and feasibility of being used to manufacture the curved surfaces of sheet metal.

  10. How an organism dies affects the fitness of its neighbors.

    PubMed

    Durand, Pierre M; Rashidi, Armin; Michod, Richard E

    2011-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD), a genetically regulated cell suicide program, is ubiquitous in the living world. In contrast to multicellular organisms, in which cells cooperate for the good of the organism, in unicells the cell is the organism and PCD presents a fundamental evolutionary problem. Why should an organism actively kill itself as opposed to dying in a nonprogrammed way? Proposed arguments vary from PCD in unicells being maladaptive to the assumption that it is an extreme form of altruism. To test whether PCD could be beneficial to nearby cells, we induced programmed and nonprogrammed death in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cellular contents liberated during non-PCD are detrimental to others, while the contents released during PCD are beneficial. The number of cells in growing cultures was used to measure fitness. Thermostability studies revealed that the beneficial effect of the PCD supernatant most likely involves simple heat-stable biomolecules. Non-PCD supernatant contains heat-sensitive molecules like cellular proteases and chlorophyll. These data indicate that the mode of death affects the origin and maintenance of PCD. The way in which an organism dies can have beneficial or deleterious effects on the fitness of its neighbors.

  11. Extensive intraalveolar pulmonary hemorrhage in infants dying after surfactant therapy.

    PubMed

    Pappin, A; Shenker, N; Hack, M; Redline, R W

    1994-04-01

    To assess the possible relationship between exogenous surfactant therapy and pulmonary hemorrhage in premature infants, we compared autopsy findings in 15 infants treated with exogenous surfactant and in 29 who died before the introduction of surfactant therapy. Infants who met the following criteria were included: birth weight 501 to 1500 gm, survival 4 hours to 7 days, and no congenital anomalies. Average birth weight, gestational age, and age at death were equivalent for the two groups. High rates of pulmonary hemorrhage were present in both groups (treated 80% vs untreated 83%). The untreated group had higher incidences of interstitial hemorrhage and lung hematomas and significantly more large interstitial hemorrhages: 31% untreated versus 0% treated (p < 0.05). The overall rate of intraalveolar hemorrhage was similar in the two groups, but surfactant-treated infants were more likely to have extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage: 53% versus 14% (p < 0.05). Most surfactant-treated infants who survived more than 24 hours had extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage (8/9). Patients who had extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage, with or without prior surfactant therapy, frequently had clinically significant pulmonary hemorrhage (7/12). These findings indicate that infants who die after surfactant therapy have higher rates of a specific type of pulmonary hemorrhage--extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage.

  12. [Arthritis and clinical history].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S

    2011-01-01

    In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms.

  13. Stress and life history.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-05-19

    In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories.

  14. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  15. Toxicology in the Old Testament. Did the High Priest Alcimus die of acute aconitine poisoning?

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand P; Karenberg, Axel

    2002-01-01

    The Bible contains several interesting contributions to the history of neurology, as is the case of the High Priest Alkimos, who died suddenly in 159 BC. He was regarded as a stereotypical stroke victim for a long time. The reports on his death in the Septauginta and the later 'Jewish Antiquities' of Flavius Josephus present some typical symptoms of stroke (collapse, loss of speech and death within a short time), but they also describe severe pains, which are very unusual among patients with stroke. Similar symptoms can be found in the case of the Roman emperor Claudius, who was poisoned by his spouse Agrippina. It was thought that she used aconitine, an ingredient of the monkshood plant (Aconitum napellus L.), which imitates an apoplectic insult, but also causes vehement pains. It was therefore possible that something similar had happened to Alkimos, as aconitine was a common poison in ancient times and the surroundings of his death may confirm the suspicion. Reigning during a time of great upheaval, Alkimos was able to maintain his high office chiefly because of the help of the Seleucides. He has just begun construction work on the temple of Jerusalem, an order, which was regarded as a sacrilege by his foes. This impression was enhanced by his subsequent illness which could be considered as a divine punishment.

  16. ["Die grosse Barb" in the museum of the University of Marburg. An early documentation of acromegaly].

    PubMed

    Krause, W; Rassner, G; Happle, R

    2009-06-01

    The university museum for cultural history in the castle of Marburg has a portrait "Die grosse Barb", which represents a women suffering from acromegaly. She shows the typical pathologic alterations: thickening of the skin folds, thickening of the lips and the eyelids, growth of bones and cartilages, lengthening of the nose, enlargement of the ears, protrusion of the zygoma, mandible and the chin. Acromegaly is a consequence of enhanced secretion of growth hormone, which occurs also as a symptom of several syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, McCune-Albright-syndrome, and NAME syndrome (Carney complex type I). The most remarkable symptom of acromegaly is the gigantism. This occurs also in androgen-deficient states, such as the Klinefelter syndrome and some more genetic syndromes, of which the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, the Sotos syndrome, the Marfan syndrome, the homocystinuria, and the fragile X-syndrome may be mentioned. Nothing is known on the further fate of the patient shown in the portrait. It is also unknown, whether she owes her position as a chambermaid to her gigantism, for it was a common use in courts to have people with abnormal body shapes in attendance.

  17. How do patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction die?

    PubMed

    Chan, Michelle M Y; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) die provides insight into the natural history and pathophysiology of this complex syndrome, thereby allowing better prediction of response to therapy in designing clinical trials. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge surrounding mortality rates, modes of death, and prognostic factors in HFPEF. Despite the lack of uniform reporting, the following conclusions may be drawn from previous studies. The mortality burden of HFPEF is substantial, ranging from 10% to 30% annually, and higher in epidemiological studies than in clinical trials. Mortality rates compared with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) appear to be strongly influenced by the type of study, but are clearly elevated compared with age- and co-morbidity-matched controls without heart failure. The majority of deaths in HFPEF are cardiovascular deaths, comprising 51-60% of deaths in epidemiological studies and ∼70% in clinical trials. Among cardiovascular deaths, sudden death and heart failure death are the leading cardiac modes of death in HFPEF clinical trials. Compared with HFREF, the proportions of cardiovascular deaths, sudden death, and heart failure deaths are lower in HFPEF. Conversely, non-cardiovascular deaths constitute a higher proportion of deaths in HFPEF than in HFREF, particularly in epidemiological studies, where this difference may be related to fewer coronary heart deaths in HFPEF. Key mortality risk factors, including age, gender, body mass index, burden of co-morbidities, and coronary artery disease, offer some explanation for the differences in mortality rates observed across studies.

  18. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  19. The Trouble with History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    regards, the post-structuralist theories of Michel Foucault, the deconstruc- tionist notions of Jacques Derrida , and Dominick LaCapra’s techniques of...is closer to fiction than nonfiction. Indeed, they have a point. Compare: Frank Ankersmit, “Historiography and Postmodernism ,” History and Theory, 28...Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (Hanover, N.H.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1997) and Evans

  20. History of hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-05-01

    Hadrontherapy is today an established modality in cancer radiation therapy. Based on the superior ballistic and radiobiological properties of accelerated ions, this discipline experienced a remarkable growth in the last 20 years. This paper reviews the history of hadrontherapy, from the early days to the most recent developments. In particular, the evolution of proton and carbon ion therapy is presented together with a glance at future solutions such as single-room facilities.

  1. A passion for history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Robin

    2008-02-01

    While walking through the recently refurbished physics department at Manchester University with its newly painted walls and gleaming windows, a sense of history is never far behind. Many famous physicists have worked and studied at the university, including Ernest Rutherford, J J Thomson, William Bragg and James Chadwick. Indeed, when Albert Einstein came to the UK in 1921, it was at Manchester that he gave his first lecture to a British audience.

  2. Brief History of Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Tampa, M; Sarbu, I; Matei, C; Benea, V; Georgescu, SR

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Before the discovery of Treponema pallidum as the etiologic agent, the origins of syphilis have been the subject of several debates. Diverse therapeutic agents were employed in an attempt to cure the disease. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of the disease, the approach in art, the cultural and the evolution of the treatments from the empiric means to the discovery of penicillin. PMID:24653750

  3. As a toxin dies a prion comes to life: A tentative natural history of the [Het-s] prion

    PubMed Central

    Daskalov, Asen; Saupe, Sven J

    2015-01-01

    A variety of signaling pathways, in particular with roles in cell fate and host defense, operate by a prion-like mechanism consisting in the formation of open-ended oligomeric signaling complexes termed signalosomes. This mechanism emerges as a novel paradigm in signal transduction. Among the proteins forming such signaling complexes are the Nod-like receptors (NLR), involved in innate immunity. It now appears that the [Het-s] fungal prion derives from such a cell-fate defining signaling system controlled by a fungal NLR. What was once considered as an isolated oddity turns out to be related to a conserved and widespread signaling mechanism. Herein, we recall the relation of the [Het-s] prion to the signal transduction pathway controlled by the NWD2 Nod-like receptor, leading to activation of the HET-S pore-forming cell death execution protein. We explicit an evolutionary scenario in which formation of the [Het-s] prion is the result of an exaptation process or how a loss-of-function mutation in a pore-forming cell death execution protein (HET-S) has given birth to a functional prion ([Het-s]). PMID:26110610

  4. Effect of Some Parameters on the Cast Component Properties in Hot Chamber Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rupinder; Singh, Harvir

    2016-04-01

    Hot chamber die casting process is designed to achieve high dimensional accuracy for small products by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable moulds, called dies. The present research work is aimed at study of some parameters (as a case study of spring adjuster) on cast component properties in hot chamber die casting process. Three controllable factors of the hot chamber die casting process (namely: pressure at second phase, metal pouring temperature and die opening time) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi's parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the casting. Castings were produced using aluminium alloy, at recommended parameters through hot chamber die casting process. Analysis shows that in hot chamber die casting process the percentage contribution of second phase pressure, die opening time, metal pouring temperature for surface hardness is 82.48, 9.24 and 6.78 % respectively. While in the case of weight of cast component the contribution of second phase pressure is 94.03 %, followed by metal pouring temperature and die opening time (4.58 and 0.35 % respectively). Further for dimensional accuracy contribution of die opening time is 76.97 %, metal pouring temperature is 20.05 % and second phase pressure is 1.56 %. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the castings were improved significantly.

  5. Optimizations Of Coat-Hanger Die, Using Constraint Optimization Algorithm And Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebaal, Nadhir; Schmidt, Fabrice; Puissant, Stephan

    2007-05-01

    Polymer extrusion is one of the most important manufacturing methods used today. A flat die, is commonly used to extrude thin thermoplastics sheets. If the channel geometry in a flat die is not designed properly, the velocity at the die exit may be perturbed, which can affect the thickness across the width of the die. The ultimate goal of this work is to optimize the die channel geometry in a way that a uniform velocity distribution is obtained at the die exit. While optimizing the exit velocity distribution, we have coupled three-dimensional extrusion simulation software Rem3D®, with an automatic constraint optimization algorithm to control the maximum allowable pressure drop in the die; according to this constraint we can control the pressure in the die (decrease the pressure while minimizing the velocity dispersion across the die exit). For this purpose, we investigate the effect of the design variables in the objective and constraint function by using Taguchi method. In the second study we use the global response surface method with Kriging interpolation to optimize flat die geometry. Two optimization results are presented according to the imposed constraint on the pressure. The optimum is obtained with a very fast convergence (2 iterations). To respect the constraint while ensuring a homogeneous distribution of velocity, the results with a less severe constraint offers the best minimum.

  6. The History of Secondary Education in History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2012-01-01

    "History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as…

  7. Integrating Men's History into Women's History: A Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Melinda S.

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, "The History Teacher" published several articles on the importance and process of integrating women's history into "regular history." Now, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, the author suggests to add a new perspective as to how teachers think about and teach gender in the classroom.…

  8. History Teachers Are Not Historians! Theme: Why Teach History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Suggests that the imposition of order on history perpetuates a historian/history teacher dichotomy. Illustrates prevailing fallacies in the teaching of history: (1) the moniker fallacy; (2) the one-school fallacy; (3) the contextual fallacy; and (4) the wave fallacy. States that an avoidance of these fallacies will at least partially reconcile…

  9. Disciplinary History and the Situation of History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordham, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A growing consensus in the history education community supports the idea that the discipline of history provides the best opportunity for moving beyond a "nation-building" or "skills-based" approach to teaching about the past. The social and temporal characteristics of the discipline of history mean such conclusions have…

  10. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  11. Role of crab herbivory in die-off of New England salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Holdredge, Christine; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2009-06-01

    Die-offs of cordgrass are pervasive throughout western Atlantic salt marshes, yet understanding of the mechanisms precipitating these events is limited. We tested whether herbivory by the native crab, Sesarma reticulatum, is generating die-offs of cordgrass that are currently occurring on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), by manipulating crab access to cordgrass transplanted into die-off areas and healthy vegetation. We surveyed 12 Cape Cod marshes to investigate whether the extent of cordgrass die-off on creek banks, where die-offs are concentrated, was related to local Sesarma grazing intensity and crab density. We then used archived aerial images to examine whether creek bank die-off areas have expanded over the past 2 decades and tested the hypothesis that release from predation, leading to elevated Sesarma densities, is triggering cordgrass die-offs by tethering crabs where die-offs are pervasive and where die-offs have not yet been reported. Intensity of crab grazing on transplanted cordgrass was an order of magnitude higher in die-off areas than in adjacent vegetation. Surveys revealed that Sesarma herbivory has denuded nearly half the creek banks in Cape Cod marshes, and differences in crab-grazing intensity among marshes explained >80% of variation in the extent of the die-offs. Moreover, the rate of die-off expansion and area of marsh affected have more than doubled since 2000. Crab-tethering experiments suggest that release from predation has triggered elevated crab densities that are driving these die-offs, indicating that disruption of predator-prey interactions may be generating the collapse of marsh ecosystems previously thought to be exclusively under bottom-up control.

  12. History, causality, and sexology.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2003-08-01

    In 1896, Krafft-Ebing published Psychopathia Sexualis. Popularly defined as hereditary weakness or taintedness in the family pedigree, degeneracy was called upon as a causal explanation for perversions of the sexual instinct. Although Krafft-Ebing accepted Karl Ulrichs proposal that homosexuality could be innate and probably located in the brain, he paid little attention to neuropathological sexology. Alfred Binet challenged Krafft-Ebing's orthodoxy by explaining fetishism in terms of associative learning, to which Krafft-Ebing's response was that only those with a hereditary taint would be vulnerable. Thus did the venerable nature-nurture antithesis maintain its rhetoric, even to the present day. Krafft-Ebing died too soon to meet the Freudian challenge of endopsychic determinism, and too soon also to encounter the idea of a developmental multivariate outcome of what I have termed the lovemap. Like other brain maps, for example the languagemap, the lovemap requires an intact human brain in which to develop. The personalized content of the lovemap has access to the brain by way of the special senses.

  13. Formulation of anisotropic Hill criteria for the description of an aluminium alloy behaviour during the channel die compression test

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrus, A.; Francillette, H.

    2007-04-07

    During the last years the study of the plastic deformation modes and the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloys have been the subject of many investigations. This paper deals with a phenomenological identification of an anisotropic Hill constitutive equation of aluminium AU4G samples using a channel die compression device at room temperature. By considering the different possible orientations of the samples in the channel die device, three initial textures, named ND (normal direction Z), LD (longitudinal direction X) and TD (transverse direction Y), were defined with the corresponding stresses {sigma}ND, {sigma}LD and {sigma}TD. To describe the anisotropy of the material, a quadratic Hill criteria is used. An Avrami type equation based on the mixture of the hardening and softening phenomena is used to describe variation of each stress component with the equivalent plastic strain. The identification of the parameters of the law is made using an identification software (OPTPAR) and a good correlation between the experimental stresses and computed ones is obtained. The variation of the Hill parameters with a proposed equivalent strain, describing the deformation history of the material, is analysed. Finally, using the expressions of F, G, H and N, the constitutive equation of the normal anisotropy in the plane XY is obtained.

  14. Laser tabbed die: A repairable, high-speed die-interconnection technology. 1994 LDRD final report 93-SR-089

    SciTech Connect

    Malba, V.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1995-09-01

    A unique technology for multichip module production is presented. The technology, called Laser Tabbed Die (L-TAB), consists of a method for forming surface-mount-type {open_quotes}gull wing{close_quotes} interconnects on bare dice. The dice are temporarily bonded to a sacrificial substrate which has a polymer thin film coated onto it. The gull wings are formed on the side of the die with a direct-write laser patterning process which allows vertical as well as horizontal image formation. Using the laser patterning system, trenches are formed in a positive electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) which is plated onto a metal seed layer, allowing copper to be electroplated through the resultant mask. After stripping the resist and the metal seed layer, the polymer film on the substrate is dissolved, releasing the chip with the {open_quotes}gull wings{close_quotes} intact. The chips are then bonded onto a circuit board or permanent substrate with solder or conductive adhesive.

  15. Inventing the History of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molella, Arthur P.

    1988-01-01

    Selected are three pioneers who invented the history of technology: Abbott P. Usher, Lewis Mumford, and Sigfried Giedion. Their careers, publications, and contributions to the history of technology are described. (YP)

  16. Integrating Educational Theory and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James P.

    1977-01-01

    Recommends that history teachers incorporate educational theory into their courses. Describes and evaluates a history course at Brooklyn College constructed around Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives. (Author/DB)

  17. Summary of The History Manifesto.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Noortje

    2016-06-01

    This essay provides a brief, impartial summary of some main points of The History Manifesto, of the debate among historians that it has engendered, and of its connection to previous debates in and about the history of the sciences.

  18. The debate about physician assistance in dying: 40 years of unrivalled progress in medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Some issues in medical ethics have been present throughout the history of medicine, and thus provide us with an opportunity to ascertain: (1) whether there is progress in medical ethics; and (2) what it means to do good medical ethics. One such perennial issue is physician assistance in dying (PAD). This paper provides an account of the PAD debate in this journal over the last 40 years. It concludes that there is some (but limited) progress in the debate. The distinctions, analogies and hypothetical examples have proliferated, as have empirical studies, but very little has changed in terms of the basic arguments. The paper further argues that many of the contributions to the debate fail to engage fully with the concerns people have about the legal introduction of PAD in the healthcare system, perhaps because many of the contributions sit on the borderline between academic analysis and social activism.

  19. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: • We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. • Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. • We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  20. History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

  1. Book History and Ideological Hierarchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Dali, Keren

    2006-01-01

    The evolving field of Book History has had difficulty in integrating the experiences of immigrant culture. In explaining the origins of print culture in North America, Book History has a tendency to associate lowbrow with immigrants and their struggles to establish a foothold in a new land. Book History therefore symbolically defines immigrant…

  2. NEWE: A Western Shoshone History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume relates the history of the Western Shoshone, or Newe, whose territory included parts of the Great Basin area which extends from southern California to Idaho. Based on the spoken word of tribal elders and research conducted at numerous archives, the history begins with ancient…

  3. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post…

  4. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  5. The Controversy around Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  6. Make History with Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Presents creative ways for teachers to interest students in learning history by encouraging a feel for the context and interrelationships of events. Names, dates, and events are interspersed with opportunities for students to experience history through their own lives (e.g. oral histories, personal scrapbooks, family photographs, and household…

  7. Family Histories: Collecting, Connecting, Celebrating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damkoehler, Dee; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum for grade two at Metcalf Laboratory School, Normal, Illinois, that celebrates family histories and American immigration. Reports that the journey begins with the teachers sharing their own family backgrounds, followed by story reading, sharing the family history project with parents, collecting oral histories,…

  8. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  9. Recasting History: The Public Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Beth

    2014-01-01

    If you ask Americans what is studied in history classrooms, many will answer "facts and dates." If you ask them what people can do with a history degree, they answer "teach." Yet those same Americans acknowledge the power and practical relevance of history as they flock to national parks, historic sites, museums, and cultural…

  10. The History of Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jayesh B.

    2012-01-01

    The history of wound healing is, in a sense, the history of humankind. This brief history of wound healing has been compiled for the benefit of readers. It is amazing to see that some of the basic principles of wound healing have been known since 2000 bc. PMID:24525756

  11. The End of Economic History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the field of economic history is no longer a separate subfield of economics but an integral part of the entire discipline. Explains the concepts of monetary policy, labor force development, and economic growth in U.S. economic history. Concludes that the end of economic history is the beginning of better and richer economics. (CFR)

  12. Build Skills by Doing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has profoundly limited the teaching of history over the past 10 years. Now, the Common Core State Standards offers an opportunity to reverse this decline by giving history a more prominent place in the school curriculum alongside literacy goals. Learning history and argumentative writing is key to developing analytical ways of…

  13. Lesson Study and History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  14. United States History: United States History I, Honors United States History I ACT, AP US History I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Worth Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide, covering U.S. history, honors U.S. history, and advanced placement U.S. history contains the following components: a statement of philosophy and broad goals for each content area; objectives organized around broad content goals or strands; scope and sequence charts; instructional planning guides that include suggested…

  15. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski…

  16. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  17. Effect of vegetation die-off on tidal marshland tested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-04-01

    Consisting of densely vegetated platforms raised slightly above sea level, and interwoven by channels of water meandering inland from the coast, tidal marshlands help buffer against strong storm surges, protect against flooding, limit coastal erosion, and provide a valuable habitat for a vast array of coastal species. Continued global climate change, however, has researchers worried about the stability of coastal marshlands in light of rising temperatures and sea levels and a declining ocean pH. Of particular concern over shorter time scales are the potential consequences for marsh dynamics should there be a mass die-off of marshland vegetation. Investigations of the effects of mass vegetative death on marshland behavior have been conducted almost exclusively using computer simulations, but Temmerman et al. sought to bolster this previous research with empirical evidence.

  18. Interpreting guidance on prosecution for assisted dying for district nurses.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Following a ruling by the House of Lords in 2009, the Director of Public Prosecutions issued guidance setting out the circumstances that would be likely to lead to the prosecution of a person for encouraging or assisting suicide under the Suicide Act 1961, section 2. In that guidance, a district nurse assisting a person to commit suicide would be one of the circumstances that would lead to prosecution. The Director of Public Prosecutions recently unexpectedly amended her guidance in relation to health professionals. This article discusses the implications of the amendment and argues that it will cause confusion among district nurses and give rise to an unrealistic expectation about the role a district nurse can lawfully take in assisting a person to die.

  19. [Death and dying process: evidences from the literature of nursing].

    PubMed

    Júnior, Fernando José Guedes da Silva; Santos, Lissandra Chaves de Sousa; Moura, Pedro Victor dos Santos; Melo, Belisa Maria Silva; Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to identify the profile of production and analyze perceptions, feelings and confrontations on the process of death and dying in the practice evidenced in nursing scientific production in the period 1994 to 2009. There was a qualitative, descriptive research, developed through a systematic literature review with metasynthesis from the meta-ethnographic method. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, this set was subjected to quality assessment checklist with Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Subjects perceive this process as a transition, separation and finitude. This is permeated with feelings of frustration and powerlessness and the most effective interventions to this issue is the development of coping strategies that vary with the reality of each individual.

  20. A support group for fathers whose partners died from cancer.

    PubMed

    Yopp, Justin Michael; Rosenstein, Donald Lee

    2013-04-01

    Men who are raising dependent children after their spouses or partners have died from cancer face unique challenges adjusting to single parenthood while managing their grief and the grief of their children. Unfortunately, the needs of those widowers have been overlooked in the clinical literature and no published interventions are designed specifically for that population. The current article details the creation and implementation of a peer support group for fathers recently widowed because of their wives' deaths from cancer. Initial observations and emergent themes from the group are described. Group members suggested that they benefited from participation in the support group and that this form of psychosocial support is a promising intervention for fathers in similar circumstances.

  1. A right to die? Euthanasia and the law in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Lorana; Otlowski, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This article examines the legal regulation of active voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide in Australia. The Dying with Dignity Bill 2009 (Tas), which was recently defeated by the Tasmanian Parliament, is discussed, as well as other jurisdictions' past and present legislative developments in this context. The recent case law is also considered to ascertain how "mercy killing" or assisted suicide cases are dealt with by the criminal justice system, with particular reference to the case of R v Justins [2008] NSWSC 1194. This is followed by a critical evaluation of the key arguments for and against euthanasia. The article concludes by examining the significance of the Tasmanian Bill and the implications of such legislation.

  2. [Psychological and psychoanalytical issues in Schreker's opera "Die Gezeichneten"].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, Elena Romana

    2016-11-01

    Franz Schrekers opera "Die Gezeichneten" is the artistically answer to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis. The proceedings in this drama discuss some principles of psychoanalyses. The figures show typical psychological mechanisms like repression, sublimation or regression and also the typical symptoms of neurosis. During the date of origin of the opera, Freud's method of psychoanalysis becomes well known and a lot of physicians and psychologists begin with their education in it. Themes like the theory of sexuality by Freud were discussed in the Vienna society. The story contains all mechanisms of psychoanalysis and discloses the psychopathology of the society of "fín de siègle" on the end of the 19th century. Franz Schreker's opera is like a forecasting of the nemesis, which in Europe occurs two decades later. The figures of the opera show the central facts of psychoanalysis and their artificial expression in music and performance.

  3. Forest die-back modified plankton recovery from acidic stress.

    PubMed

    Vrba, Jaroslav; Kopáček, Jiří; Fott, Jan; Nedbalová, Linda

    2014-03-01

    We examined long-term data on water chemistry of Lake Rachelsee (Germany) following the changes in acidic depositions in central Europe since 1980s. Despite gradual chemical recovery of Rachelsee, its biological recovery was delayed. In 1999, lake recovery was abruptly reversed by a coincident forest die-back, which resulted in elevated terrestrial export of nitrate and ionic aluminum lasting ~5 years. This re-acidification episode provided unique opportunity to study plankton recovery in the rapidly recovering lake water after the abrupt decline in nitrate leaching from the catchment. There were sudden changes both in lake water chemistry and in plankton biomass structure, such as decreased bacterial filaments, increased phytoplankton biomass, and rotifer abundance. The shift from dominance of heterotrophic to autotrophic organisms suggested their substantial release from severe phosphorus stress. Such a rapid change in plankton structure in a lake recovering from acidity has, to the best of our knowledge, not been previously documented.

  4. Vacuum Die Casting of Silicon Sheet for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of a vacuum die-casting process for producing silicon sheet suitable for photovoltaic cells with a terrestrial efficiency greater than 12 percent and having the potential to be scaled for large quantity production is considered. The initial approach includes: (1) obtaining mechanical design parameters by using boron nitride, which has been shown to non-wetting to silicon; (2) optimizing silicon nitride material composition and coatings by sessile drop experiments; (3) testing effectiveness of fluoride salt interfacial media with a graphite mold; and (4) testing the effect of surface finish using both boron nitride and graphite. When the material and mechanical boundary conditions are established, a finalized version of the prototype assembly will be constructed and the casting variables determined.

  5. Why do people with rheumatoid arthritis still die prematurely?

    PubMed

    Gabriel, S E

    2008-12-01

    Premature death has been long recognised as a manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Three lines of evidence can explain why patients with RA die prematurely and why the mortality gap between patients with RA and the general population appears to widening. First, patients with RA have a higher risk of several serious comorbid conditions and they tend to experience worse outcomes after the occurrence of these illnesses. Second, patients with RA do not appear to receive optimal primary or secondary preventive care. And third, the systemic inflammation and immune dysfunction associated with RA appears to promote and accelerate comorbidity and mortality. This paper provides a brief summary and interpretation of the data underlying these findings. Together, these results provide a compelling argument in favour of a focused research programme aimed specifically at eliminating premature death in patients with RA.

  6. Luminescence dating of Middle Stone Age deposits at Die Kelders.

    PubMed

    Feathers, J K; Bush, D A

    2000-01-01

    Luminescence dating of sediments has not been used extensively for dating Middle Stone Age deposits in South Africa, despite its potential for contributing to a poorly dated record. Such deposits at Die Kelders cave, on the southern South African coast, consist of narrow bands of occupation debris separated by thicker layers of aeolian sands containing much less evidence of occupation. Homogeneous, aeolian sediments are usually considered ideal for luminescence dating. Here we report luminescence analyses of five samples from these sands that demonstrate sufficient bleaching prior to burial to validate dating and that yield ages of about 60-70 ka, in agreement with other evidence from sedimentology, archaeology and electron spin resonance. Lack of significant differences in the ages suggests the deposits accumulated fairly rapidly during the early part of the Last Glaciation.

  7. The Great Diadema antillarum Die-Off: 30 Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessios, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1983-1984, the sea urchin Diadema antillarum suffered mass mortality throughout the Caribbean, Florida, and Bermuda. The demise of this herbivore contributed to a phase shift of Caribbean reefs from coral-dominated to alga-dominated communities. A compilation of published data of D. antillarum population densities shows that there has been moderate recovery since 1983, with the highest rates on islands of the eastern Caribbean. On the average the current population densities are approximately 12% of those before the die-off, apparently because of recruitment limitation, but the exact factors that are constraining the recovery are unclear. Scattered D. antillarum cohorts in some localities and aggregation of settled individuals in shallow water have created zones of higher herbivory in which juvenile coral recruitment, survivorship, and growth are higher than they are in alga-dominated areas. Unlike other stressors on Caribbean coral reefs, recent changes in D. antillarum populations progress toward aiding the recovery of coral cover.

  8. Über die Kleinsignalgewinnmessung nach Ladenburg-Levy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, R.; Hertz, J. H.

    Es werden die Möglichkeiten und Probleme der Anwendung einer alten Methode von Ladenburg-Levy zur Kleinsignalgewinnmessung in Niederdruck-Impulsgasentladungen diskutiert. Als Beispiel werden Ergebnisse der zeitaufgelösten Gewinnmessung am 2. Pos. System des Stickstoff ( = 337 nm) mitgeteilt.Translated AbstractOn the Small-Signal Gain Measurement According to Ladenburg-LevyThe application of an old method of Ladenburg-Levy to small-signal gain measurement in pulsed low pressure gas discharges as well as the problems connected with this method are discussed. As an example experimental results of time resolved gain measurements in the 2nd positive system of nitrogen ( = 337 nm) are presented.

  9. Development of Thin Section Zinc Die Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Frank

    2013-10-31

    A new high fluidity zinc high pressure die casting alloy, termed the HF alloy, was developed during laboratory trials and proven in industrial production. The HF alloy permits castings to be achieved with section thicknesses of 0.3 mm or less. Technology transfer activities were conducted to develop usage of the HF high fluidity alloy. These included production of a brochure and a one-hour webinar on the HF alloy. The brochure was then sent to 1,184 product designers in the Interzinc database. There was excellent reception to this mailing, and from this initial contact 5 technology transfer seminars were conducted for 81 participants from 30 companies across a wide range of business sectors. Many of the successful applications to date involve high quality surface finishes. Design and manufacturing assistance was given for development of selected applications.

  10. Modeling and numerical simulation of multiflux die in the multilayer co-extrusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Jun Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Mun, Sang Ho; Kim, See Jo

    2017-02-01

    It is of great importance to understand the stretching and folding mechanism in the multiflux co-extrusion die to get uniform multilayer distribution at the end of die lip in the multilayer co-extrusion processes. In this work, to understand the mechanism of the layer distribution, modeling and numerical simulation were carried out for three-dimensional flow analysis in the multilayer co-extrusion die. The multilayer flow fields were numerically visualized and analyzed on the arbitrary cross-section of the multiflux die. In addition, numerical results for the multiflux die characteristics were obtained for non-Newtonian fluids in terms of power-law index for the cross model, which will be useful for the optimal design of screw and die, simultaneously, in the multilayer co-extrusion process.

  11. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  12. Climate in Earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  13. Earthquake history of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Although situated between two States (California and Washington) that have has many violent earthquakes, Oregon is noticeably less active seismically. the greatest damage experienced resulted from a major shock near Olympia, Wash., in 1949. During the short history record available (since 1841), 34 earthquakes of intensity V, Modified Mercalli Scale, or greater have centered within Oregon or near its borders. Only 13 of the earthquakes had an intensity above V, and many of the shocks were local. However, a 1936 earthquake in the eastern Oregon-Washington region caused extensive damage and was felt over an area of 272,000 square kilometers. 

  14. The history of happiness.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    In the 18th century, the Enlightenment ushered in the notion that happiness was the attainment of a worthy life. Since then the pursuit of happiness has spread to every aspect of behavior, from religion and politics to work and parenting. Today the happiness imperative creates pressures that, paradoxically, can make us miserable. Sadness is often mistaken for a pathology. Understanding the cultural commitment to good cheer as an artifact of modern history, not as an inherent feature of the human condition, opens new opportunities for understanding key facets of our social and personal experience.

  15. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  16. Atmospheric refraction: a history.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-20

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  17. History of rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Belinfante, Louis S

    2012-02-01

    Man has considered the nose to be a key feature, if not the key feature, of facial appearance, beauty, and dynamics. However, because of its central facial location and weak cartilaginous support, the nose is susceptible to disfiguring infection, trauma, pathologic entities, and human-associated carnages. This article discusses the various methods (eg, endonasal approach, external approach, and osteoplastic operations) surgeons have tried throughout history to give their patients a more attractive face by altering the one physical anatomic structure that one usually notices first.

  18. History of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Naoe, Shiro

    2014-04-01

    We describe a short history of Kawasaki disease. In 1967, we published a paper entitled 'Infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes. Clinical observation of 50 cases'; this was the first report on what is now called Kawasaki disease. Since then, many reports on cardiology, treatment, epidemiology, pathology and etiology of Kawasaki disease have been published. Furthermore, a recent Chapel Hill Consensus Statement on Kawasaki disease in the classification of vasculitis is given, along with a figure on the relationship and classification of childhood vasculitis by autopsy material.

  19. Validation of the Quality of Dying (QOD)-Hospice Scale

    PubMed Central

    Cagle, John G.; Munn, Jean C.; Hong, Seokho; Clifford, Maggie; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    Context Measuring the quality of the dying experience is important for hospice providers. However, few instruments exist that assess the quality of one’s dying; and those that do, have not been well validated in hospice. Objectives This study tested the properties of the Quality of Death-Hospice Scale (QOD-Hospice) to provide preliminary validation data on internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, convergent validity and factorability in a hospice setting. Additionally, results of the factor analysis were used to create a brief version of the measure. Methods Bereaved informal caregivers who had provided care for a hospice patient were recruited from a large non-profit hospice. Participants completed post-death surveys, which included the QOD-Hospice and other study measures. Convergent validity was tested by exploring hypothesized associations with related instruments measuring: negative emotional states (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21); emotional grief (Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-2); social support (Lubben Social Network Scale-6); and a single item measure of satisfaction with hospice care. Results Seventy caregivers participated in the survey (40 primary caregivers, 30 secondary caregivers), most of whom were female (67%) and white (81%). The QOD-Hospice produced an alpha of 0.86, an intraclass correlation of 0.49 between caregivers of the same decedent, and was correlated with all measures testing convergent validity (P<0.05; in the hypothesized direction) and most, but not all, subscales. An exploratory factor analysis elicited two factors, Preparation (seven items) and Security (six items), which were combined to create a 13-item version of the scale, the QOD-Hospice-SF. Conclusion Although further testing of the QOD-Hospice measures is needed, preliminary evidence suggests the instruments are reliable and valid for use in hospice. PMID:25057986

  20. Dies1/VISTA expression loss is a recurrent event in gastric cancer due to epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Rocha, Sara; Azevedo, Mafalda; Reis, Inês; Camilo, Vânia; Sousa, Bárbara; Valente, Sofia; Paredes, Joana; Almeida, Raquel; Huntsman, David; Oliveira, Carla

    2016-10-10

    Dies1/VISTA induces embryonic stem-cell differentiation, via BMP-pathway, but also acts as inflammation regulator and immune-response modulator. Dies1 inhibition in a melanoma-mouse model led to increased tumour-infiltrating T-cells and decreased tumour growth, emphasizing Dies1 relevance in tumour-microenvironment. Dies1 is involved in cell de/differentiation, inflammation and cancer processes, which mimic those associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT). Despite this axis linking Dies1 with EMT and cancer, its expression, modulation and relevance in these contexts is unknown. To address this, we analysed Dies1 expression, its regulation by promoter-methylation and miR-125a-5p overexpression, and its association with BMP-pathway downstream-effectors, in a TGFβ1-induced EMT-model, cancer cell-lines and primary samples. We detected promoter-methylation as a mechanism controlling Dies1 expression in our EMT-model and in several cancer cell-lines. We showed that the relationship between Dies1 expression and BMP-pathway effectors observed in the EMT-model, was not present in all cell-lines, suggesting that Dies1 has other cell-specific effectors, beyond the BMP-pathway. We further demonstrated that: Dies1 expression loss is a recurrent event in GC, caused by promoter methylation and/or miR-125a-5p overexpression and; GC-microenvironment myofibroblasts overexpress Dies1. Our findings highlight Dies1 as a novel player in GC, with distinct roles within tumour cells and in the tumour-microenvironment.

  1. Dies1/VISTA expression loss is a recurrent event in gastric cancer due to epigenetic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Rocha, Sara; Azevedo, Mafalda; Reis, Inês; Camilo, Vânia; Sousa, Bárbara; Valente, Sofia; Paredes, Joana; Almeida, Raquel; Huntsman, David; Oliveira, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Dies1/VISTA induces embryonic stem-cell differentiation, via BMP-pathway, but also acts as inflammation regulator and immune-response modulator. Dies1 inhibition in a melanoma-mouse model led to increased tumour-infiltrating T-cells and decreased tumour growth, emphasizing Dies1 relevance in tumour-microenvironment. Dies1 is involved in cell de/differentiation, inflammation and cancer processes, which mimic those associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT). Despite this axis linking Dies1 with EMT and cancer, its expression, modulation and relevance in these contexts is unknown. To address this, we analysed Dies1 expression, its regulation by promoter-methylation and miR-125a-5p overexpression, and its association with BMP-pathway downstream-effectors, in a TGFβ1-induced EMT-model, cancer cell-lines and primary samples. We detected promoter-methylation as a mechanism controlling Dies1 expression in our EMT-model and in several cancer cell-lines. We showed that the relationship between Dies1 expression and BMP-pathway effectors observed in the EMT-model, was not present in all cell-lines, suggesting that Dies1 has other cell-specific effectors, beyond the BMP-pathway. We further demonstrated that: Dies1 expression loss is a recurrent event in GC, caused by promoter methylation and/or miR-125a-5p overexpression and; GC-microenvironment myofibroblasts overexpress Dies1. Our findings highlight Dies1 as a novel player in GC, with distinct roles within tumour cells and in the tumour-microenvironment. PMID:27721458

  2. History of autostereoscopic cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Walter

    2012-03-01

    This paper covers the history of autostereoscopic cinema, from the beginnings of autostereoscopy in the 1800s, the development of motion capability and it's subsequent evolution to present techniques. Public viewings of autostereoscopic movies have occurred on a semi-ongoing basis since the early 1940s. In Moscow and other cities, theaters were constructed called stereokinos, for showing autostereoscopic films, with specially positioned seating for proper viewing. The Cyclostéréoscope was an autostereoscopic cinema system invented by François Savoye in France. It was based around a drum made of metal bars that revolve around a screen. For several years in the 1940s and 1950s, it was open to the public in Paris. Any film made in a dual film format could be shown. Besides dedicated theaters in Russia and France, exhibits of content have occurred outside devoted theaters. The paper focuses on the history of autostereoscopic technology developed for entertainment, public viewing of content, the individuals involved and the content itself.

  3. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  4. History of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2006-01-01

    Milestones in the history of the development of vascular access and the subsequent advances in practical clinical applications of the knowledge, techniques, technology, and experience to the beneficial management of a variety of patients are described. The original achievements are presented and briefly discussed primarily, but not exclusively, in relationship to the successful development of parenteral nutrition (PN). Beginning with the discovery of the circulation of blood, landmark events, resulting from astute observations, experimentation, and ingenious technological advances, are summarized or outlined chronologically over the past 4 centuries, with emphasis on the many recent accomplishments of basic and clinical scientists during the past 6 decades. Brief descriptions of several seminal contributions to safe and effective IV access, management, and therapy acknowledge and recognize the historical highlights that have allowed a complex and potentially hazardous therapeutic modality to evolve into a commonly applied useful adjunct to our current inpatient and outpatient armamentarium. A comprehensive list of references documents the highlights of the development of vascular access for the student of history.

  5. History of acupuncture research.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yi; Xing, Jing-jing; Li, Juan; Zeng, Bai-Yun; Liang, Fan-rong

    2013-01-01

    The acupuncture has been practiced in China for more than 3000 years and was spread to Europe and American from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. The history of acupuncture research was initiated in the eighteenth century and developed rapidly since then. In the past, physicians tried hard to apply acupuncture into clinical practice, while scientists were focused on the possible characteristics of acupoints and meridians. In the modern time, scientists have strived hard to evaluate the real effectiveness of acupuncture and the underlying physiological and biological mechanisms of acupuncture. Reviewing research history from past to present, we are delighted to witness this wonderful development. Accumulated evidences that acupuncture is beneficial in various conditions significantly enhanced our understanding the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment. However, there is still no conclusive evidence in acupuncture clinical studies. The clinical research still needs great improving, while the basic research results need to be appropriately transformed into clinical outcomes. Based on current achievements, we believe that although the challenges and difficulties exist, a more collaborative, innovative, and integrated approach will help us to achieve further progress in future acupuncture research.

  6. History of ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

  7. Reconstructing Druze population history

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Scarlett; Das, Ranajit; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Elhaik, Eran

    2016-01-01

    The Druze are an aggregate of communities in the Levant and Near East living almost exclusively in the mountains of Syria, Lebanon and Israel whose ~1000 year old religion formally opposes mixed marriages and conversions. Despite increasing interest in genetics of the population structure of the Druze, their population history remains unknown. We investigated the genetic relationships between Israeli Druze and both modern and ancient populations. We evaluated our findings in light of three hypotheses purporting to explain Druze history that posit Arabian, Persian or mixed Near Eastern-Levantine roots. The biogeographical analysis localised proto-Druze to the mountainous regions of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq and southeast Syria and their descendants clustered along a trajectory between these two regions. The mixed Near Eastern–Middle Eastern localisation of the Druze, shown using both modern and ancient DNA data, is distinct from that of neighbouring Syrians, Palestinians and most of the Lebanese, who exhibit a high affinity to the Levant. Druze biogeographic affinity, migration patterns, time of emergence and genetic similarity to Near Eastern populations are highly suggestive of Armenian-Turkish ancestries for the proto-Druze. PMID:27848937

  8. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  9. [Pierre Janet observes history].

    PubMed

    Fischer-Homberger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Janet, philosopher and physician, Freud's junior by three years, not only described traumatic dissociation and pathogenic subconscious ideas; he outlined a comprehensive system of psychology. Still, he considered his concepts to be mere linguistic tools, designed to grasp mental phenomena as precisely as possible. His prime interest was in observations - his own and those of others, whether his contemporaries at home and abroad or predecessors of all kinds. Janet never regarded himself as a historian, but his works as well as his way of thinking are most interesting from a historiographical point of view. His three-volume Médications psychologiques of 1919 contains a wealth of material about the history of psychotherapy. Furthermore, he dealt with his sources in a critical and historically reflexive manner. The later Janet considered any explanation and theory to be "inventions", more or less useful and basically open to change. By working with the notion of "narration", he described scientific statements as narratives, different from lies, fairy-tales or novels only in their claim to be verifiable. Every narration, however, is placed in a social context: narrators always wish to evoke a particular image of the real in their audience. Thus Janet established the link between scientific edifices and individual motivation, an unsettling link in terms of the history of science and certainly alien, if not positively abhorrent to Freud.

  10. Verbal autopsy and therapeutic itinerary of children who die before arrival in a paediatric centre in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Ntoude, Anicet; Soh, Florence; Ngou, Patrick; Koki Ndombo, Paul O.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Cameroon the rate of infant-juvenile mortality remains high and most death occur in the community. Mortality statistics is usually based on hospital data which are generally insufficient and less reliable. In a context where legislation on death registration is not applied, and where conventional autopsy is not often done, verbal autopsy (VA) provides information on mortality. This study tried to experiment this method and also analyses the therapeutic pathway of a group of children who died before arrival at the emergency department of a pediatric hospital. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out on children who died before arrival, at the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation in Yaounde, between October 2013 and April 2014. The addresses of parents or relatives of the deceased children were registered at the start of the study. Each respondent was interviewed 5 to 6 weeks later at the residence of the deceased child, with the aid of a VA questionnaire. Information obtained was on the socio-demographic characteristics of the families, past history of deceased, clinical presentation and the different health care services sought before the death. Results In all, 40 children who died were included in the study. The majority of the deceased children were less than 5 years (82.5%) with 50.0% being less than 1 year of age. Almost half of them (47.5%) had been ill for more than 24 hours, 40% for more than 3 days. Up to 50.0% had not been taken to a health facility. Most of them had visited 2 or 3 other health facilities before dying on the way to our hospital. Auto medication was frequent (42.5%); parents initially recourse to drugs which were either bought or obtained from home. Some parents (25.0%) brought their children only after they had been to a private dispensary, or a traditional healer (15.0%). Only 7.5% benefited from consultation in a public health facility and 2.5% resorted to prayers and incantations

  11. The Effects of Externally Solidified Product on Wave Celerity and Quality of Die Cast Products

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll Mobley; Yogeshwar Sahai; Jerry Brevick

    2003-10-10

    The cold chamber die casting process is used to produce essentially all the die cast aluminum products and about 50% of the die cast magnesium products made today. Modeling of the cold chamber die casting process and metallographic observations of cold chamber die cast products indicate that typically 5 to 20% of the shot weight is solidified in the shot sleeve before or during cavity filling. The protion of the resulting die casting which is solidified in the shot sleeve is referred to as externally solidified product, or, when identified as a casting defect, as cold flakes. This project was directed to extending the understanding of the effects of externally solidified product on the cold chamber die casting process and products to enable the production of defect-free die castings and reduce the energy associated with these products. The projected energy savings from controlling the fraction of externally solidified product in die cast components is 40 x 10 Btu through the year 2025.

  12. Hospice Care for Children With Cancer: Where Do These Children Die?

    PubMed

    Thienprayoon, Rachel; Lee, Simon C; Leonard, David; Winick, Naomi

    2015-07-01

    Hospice is an important provider of end of life care; many children who die of cancer enroll in hospice programs. How frequently such children remain in hospice to die at home, or disenroll from hospice and die in the hospital, has not been described. A child's location of death has important implications for quality of life and parental adaptation. This represents a subanalysis of a retrospective study of 202 consecutive oncology patients who died at a single center between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010. Of 95 children who enrolled in hospice, 82 had known location of death. Sixty (73%) died at home or an inpatient hospice unit, 15 (18%) died in the oncology unit, 5 (6%) died in the intensive care unit, and 2 (2%) died in the emergency department. The median length of hospice services was 41 days, twice the national median of 21 days reported in adults. One quarter of children disenrolled from hospice care, ultimately dying in an acute care setting. Further studies are warranted to explore the hospice experience in children, and to address modifiable factors that may impact a family's choice to withdraw from hospice care.

  13. At the Interface: Academic History, School History and the Philosophy of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retz, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    How history is learnt and taught must to some extent be shaped by conceptions of what history is. Historians tend to conceptualize what something is by investigating what it has been and what it has meant in different contexts. This article explains how a debate in the philosophy of history between positivism and intentionalism provided the…

  14. Thermal fatigue behavior of H-13 die steel for aluminum die casting with various ion sputtered coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Sputtered coatings of Mo, W, Pt, Ag, Au, Co, Cr, Ni, Ag + Cu, Mo + Pt, Si3N4, A1N, Cr3C2, Ta5Si3, and ZrO2 were applied to a 2-inch-square, 7-inch-long thermal fatigue test specimen which was then internally water cooled and alternately immersed in molten aluminum and cooled in air. After 15,000 cycles the thermal fatigue cracks at the specimen corners were measured. Results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance was obtained with platinum, molybdenum, and tungsten coatings. Metallographic examination indicates that the improvement in thermal fatigue resistance resulted from protection of the surface of the die steel from oxidation. The high yield strength and ductility of molybdenum and tungsten contributed to the better thermal fatigue resistance.

  15. Live to die another way: modes of programmed cell death and the signals emanating from dying cells.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Yaron; Steller, Hermann

    2015-06-01

    All life ends in death, but perhaps one of life's grander ironies is that it also depends on death. Cell-intrinsic suicide pathways, termed programmed cell death (PCD), are crucial for animal development, tissue homeostasis and pathogenesis. Originally, PCD was almost synonymous with apoptosis; recently, however, alternative mechanisms of PCD have been reported. Here, we provide an overview of several distinct PCD mechanisms, namely apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis. In addition, we discuss the complex signals that emanate from dying cells, which can either trigger regeneration or instruct additional killing. Further advances in understanding the physiological roles of the various mechanisms of cell death and their associated signals will be important to selectively manipulate PCD for therapeutic purposes.

  16. Live to die another way: modes of programmed cell death and the signals emanating from dying cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Yaron; Steller, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Preface All life ends in death, but perhaps one of life’s grander ironies is that it also depends on death. Cell-intrinsic suicide pathways, termed programmed cell death (PCD), are crucial for animal development, tissue homeostasis and pathogenesis. Originally, PCD was virtually synonymous with apoptosis, but recently, alternative PCD mechanisms have been reported. Here, we provide an overview of several distinct PCD mechanisms, namely apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis. In addition, we discuss the complex signals emanating from dying cells, which can either fuel regeneration or instruct additional killing. Further advances in understanding the physiological role of multiple cell death mechanisms and associated signals will be important to selectively manipulate PCD for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25991373

  17. Natural history and risk factors in fulminant hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, U; Thapa, B; Prasad, A; Sharma, A; Singh, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: The natural history of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) without liver transplantation is not well known. Aims: To study the natural history and prognostic factors, especially the presence of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), in children with FHF. Methods: FHF was defined by the onset of encephalopathy within 12 weeks of onset of jaundice. From August 1997 to December 2000, 67 children (≤12 years) were diagnosed with FHF. Their clinical features, investigations and outcome were noted. Viral markers A to E (IgM, anti-HAV; IgM, anti-HEV, HBsAg, and anti-HCV) were determined by ELISA. SBP was defined by the presence of ≥250 neutrophils with or without a positive culture in ascitic fluid. Results: Mean age of the children was 5.8 years with an almost equal sex distribution. Viral markers were positive in 63 (94%) cases: hepatitis A in 34 (54%), E in 17 (27%), A+E in seven (11%), and B in five (8%). Thirty one children presented with grade I or II encephalopathy and all recovered, whereas 17 of 36 children who had grade III or IV encephalopathy died. Ascites was detected (both clinically and ultrasonically) in 34 (51%) cases, nine (26%) of which had SBP. Overall mortality was 25%. Mortality was higher in those who had ascites than in those who did not (32% v 18%); among those with ascites it was maximum in those who had SBP (78% v 16%). Total serum bilirubin and grade of encephalopathy were significantly higher, serum albumin was significantly lower, and prothrombin time was significantly prolonged in those who died than in those who recovered. Conclusion: The natural history of FHF in Indian children depends on age, grade of encephalopathy, ascites, and SBP. SBP depicts worse outcome. In all cases of FHF with ascites, the presence of SBP should be investigated. PMID:12089125

  18. Dying star creates sculpture of gas and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Sculpture of gas and dust hi-res Size hi-res: 125 Kb Credits: ESA, NASA, HEIC and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Dying star creates sculpture of gas and dust The so-called Cat's Eye Nebula, formally catalogued NGC 6543 and seen here in this detailed view from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, is one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen in space. A planetary nebula forms when Sun-like stars gently eject their outer gaseous layers to form bright nebulae with amazing twisted shapes. Hubble first revealed NGC 6543's surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas in 1994. This new image, taken with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), reveals the full beauty of a bull's-eye pattern of eleven or more concentric rings, or shells, around the Cat’s Eye. Each ‘ring’ is actually the edge of a spherical bubble seen projected onto the sky - which is why it appears bright along its outer edge. High resolution version (JPG format) 125 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 2569 Kb Acknowledgment: R. Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain) and Z. Tsvetanov (NASA). Sculpture of gas and dust hi-res Size hi-res: 287 Kb Credits: Nordic Optical Telescope and Romano Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain) Dying star creates sculpture of gas and dust An enormous but extremely faint halo of gaseous material surrounds the Cat’s Eye Nebula and is over three light-years across. Some planetary nebulae been found to have halos like this one, likely formed of material ejected during earlier active episodes in the star's evolution - most likely some 50 000 to 90 000 years ago. This image was taken by Romano Corradi with the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma in the Canary Islands. The image is constructed from two narrow-band exposures showing oxygen atoms (1800 seconds, in blue) and nitrogen atoms (1800 seconds, in red). High resolution version (JPG

  19. Improved Life of Die Casting Dies of H13 Steel by Attaining Improved Mechanical Properties and Distortion Control During Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    J. F. Wallace; D. Schwam

    1998-10-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to increase die casting die life by using fast enough quenching rates to obtain good toughness and fatigue resistance in premium grade H-13 steel dies. The main tasks of the project were to compile a database on physical and mechanical properties of H-13; conduct gas quenching experiments to determine cooling rates of dies in difference vacuum furnaces; measure the as-quenched distortion of dies and the residual stresses; generate finite element analysis models to predict cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress of gas quenched dies; and establish rules and create PC-based expert system for prediction of cooling rates, distortion, and residual stress in vacuum/gas quenched H-13 dies. Cooling curves during gas quenching of H-13 blocks and die shapes have been measured under a variety of gas pressure. Dimensional changes caused by the gas quenching processes have been determined by accurate mapping of all surfaces with coordinate measuring machines before and after the quench. Residual stresses were determined by the ASTM E837 hole-drilling strain gage method. To facilitate the computer modeling work, a comprehensive database of H-13 mechanical and physical properties has been compiled. Finite element analysis of the heat treated shapes has been conducted using the TRAST/ABAQUS codes. There is a good fit between the predicted and measured distortion contours. However, the magnitude of the predicted distortion and residual stresses does not match well the measured values. Further fine tuning of the model is required before it can be used to predict distortion and residual stress in a quantitative manner. This last step is a prerequisite to generating rules for a reliable expert system.

  20. The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Kent

    1999-01-01

    Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)