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Sample records for die who-klassifikation maligner

  1. Dying for love: Perimenopausal degeneration of vaginal microbiome drives the chronic inflammation-malignant transformation of benign prostatic hyperplasia to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2017-04-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the second commonest cancer in males and is so common as to become almost holoendemic with advancing age. The recent demonstration that far from being benign, "benign" prostatic hypertrophy is a likely a reaction of the prostate to chronic untreated lower genital tract infection, and that this chronic inflammation is likely the usual precursor to the frequent occurrence of prostatic carcinoma has far reaching implications. The obvious source for the chronic inflammatory stimulus in the prostate is the documented dramatically altered lower female genital microbiota associated with the menopause. Hence the major hypothesis is that prostatic cancer may arise due to chronic infection and inflammation in the prostate gland consequent upon the altered microbiome of the menopausal female genital tract. This has implications for testing and diagnosis, treatment, population health and personal hygiene practices. It suggests that male dyspareunia, although almost never encountered in clinical practice may in fact be relatively common in older males, and in particular if diagnosed, represents a critical opportunity for therapeutic intervention to interrupt the chronic inflammation - cancer transformation and progression which has been well documented in other tissues. It implies that the coordinated application of next generation sequencing to the microbiome of the lower genital tracts of male and female couples, including seminal fluid, will have both research applications to further explore this sequence, as well as finding application as a potential population level screening procedure as is presently done for the "Thin Prep" cervical screening for human papillomavirus in females. Moreover this insight opens up new opportunities for chemointervention and chemoprevention for this important clinicopathological progression. These considerations give rise to the exciting possibility that prostatic malignancy may be preventable by various methods of local

  2. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  3. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Cao, Christopher Q; Yan, Tristan D

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. The great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated a median survival of 40 to 90 mo and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This remarkable improvement in survival has prompted new search into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade. PMID:21160794

  4. Pleural malignancies.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent.

  5. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  6. Wege in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  7. Malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alastair J; Parker, Robert J; Wiggins, John

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting features are those of chest pain and dyspnoea. Breathlessness due to a pleural effusion without chest pain is reported in about 30% of patients. A chest wall mass, weight loss, sweating, abdominal pain and ascites (due to peritoneal involvement) are less common presentations. Mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure with a history of exposure in over 90% of cases. There is also evidence that mesothelioma may result from both para-occupational exposure and non-occupational "environmental" exposure. Idiopathic or spontaneous mesothelioma can also occur in the absence of any exposure to asbestos, with a spontaneous rate in humans of around one per million. A combination of accurate exposure history, along with examination radiology and pathology are essential to make the diagnosis. Distinguishing malignant from benign pleural disease can be challenging. The most helpful CT findings suggesting malignant pleural disease are 1) a circumferential pleural rind, 2) nodular pleural thickening, 3) pleural thickening of > 1 cm and 4) mediastinal pleural involvement. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended to ensure prompt and appropriate management, using a framework of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and symptom palliation with end of life care. Compensation issues must also be considered. Life expectancy in malignant mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival of about one year following diagnosis. PMID:19099560

  8. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  9. Primary pineal malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cedeño Diaz, Oderay Mabel; Leal, Roberto García; La Cruz Pelea, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24765293

  10. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  11. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  12. Malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Cantin, R Y; Poole, A; Ryan, J F

    1986-10-01

    The increasing use of intravenous and inhalation sedation in the dental office has the potential of increasing the incidence of malignant hyperthermia (MH) in susceptible subjects. The object of this article is to present two cases of MH and to discuss its pathophysiology, its clinical picture, and its management in the light of the current literature. Stringent screening procedures should be adopted and maintained in order to channel suspected cases to appropriate centers for expert consultation and management. It is further advocated that a program of education for patients and their families be instituted, as it is an essential prerequisite of effective prophylaxis.

  13. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the…

  14. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  15. Malignant change in dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed Central

    Alcolado, J. C.; Ray, K.; Baxter, M.; Edwards, C. W.; Dodson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a chronic skin lesion produced by self-trauma. Avoidance of further trauma, topical steroids and psychological therapy all play a part in the treatment of such lesions. Unresolved lesions may become large and disfiguring and subject to infection. We report a case of one such lesion in an elderly woman who persistently excoriated a cholecystectomy scar over 40 years. Malignant transformation occurred in a manner analogous to the neoplastic change observed in other types of chronic ulcer (Marjolin's ulcer). The squamous cell carcinoma presented with widespread metastases from which the patient eventually died. Recent literature concerning Marjolin's ulcers is reviewed and it is noted that this is the first reported case of death caused by malignant change in dermatitis artefacta. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234114

  16. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  17. Die singulation method

    DOEpatents

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  18. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  19. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  20. The Angry Dying Patient.

    PubMed

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  1. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  2. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  3. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  4. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  5. Malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Henry; Davis, Mark; James, Danielle; Pollock, Neil; Stowell, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with greater frequency. Dantrolene

  6. Case Report: Pulmonary metastases of malignant meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Basunaid, Suhail; Franssen, Frits M.E.; Accord, Ryan; Hamid, Myrurgia Abdul; Mahesh, Shekar; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Schijns, Olaf E.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Meningioma accounts for approximately one-third of primary central nervous system tumors. Most meningiomas are benign, although up to one third are classified as atypical or malignant. We describe a 63-year Caucasian male presenting with pleural metastases from an intracranial meningioma. Distant metastases from meningiomas are infrequently found in clinical practice and mostly are associated with atypical or malignant meningiomas. There is no standard treatment; however surgical resection of both the primary and metastatic lesions is the safest therapy. The overall prognosis of atypical meningiomas is poor. Our patient died one week after discharge from our hospital. PMID:25254095

  7. Die Kometenmission Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Die Rosetta-Mission ist ein Meilenstein in der Erforschung der Kometen und ihrer Entstehung. Eine der größten üerraschungen war die unregelmäßge hantelförmige Gestalt des Zielkometen 67P/Tschurjumow-Gerassimenko. Er besteht wahrscheinlich aus zwei Einzelkörpern, die durch ihre Schwerkraft aneinander gehalten werden. Seine Oberfläche ist sehr rau und zeigt eine sehr vielf ältige Morphologie, die auf eine Vielzahl von ablaufenden Prozessen hindeutet. Der Kometenkern ist vermutlich auf Gr ößnskalen von mehr als etwa 10 bis 100 Metern homogen, Inhomogenitäten auf kleineren Skalen k nnten f r seine Aktivä t verantwortlich sein. Diese ist auf kleine Gebiete konzentriert, und auch Oberflächenveränderungen, die sich innerhalb von einigen Tagen bis wenigen Wochen abspielen, sind lokal. Im Kometenmaterial wurde eine Vielzahl an organischen Substanzen gemessen, die zum Teil als Schlüsselmoleküle für die Synthese der Grundbausteine des Lebens gelten, wie wir es kennen.

  8. Death, dying, and domination.

    PubMed

    Spindelman, Marc

    2008-06-01

    This Article critiques conventional liberal arguments for the right to die on liberal grounds. It contends that these arguments do not go far enough to recognize and address private, and in particular structural, forms of domination. It presents an alternative that does, which is thus more respectful of true freedom in the context of death and dying, and also more consistent with liberalism. After discussing obstacles to the achievement of a right to die that encompasses freedom from both public and private domination, the Article closes with a significant reform project within bioethics that might help bring it about.

  9. Precursors to Lymphoproliferative Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Lynn R.; McMaster, Mary L.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    We review monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) as a precursor to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a precursor to plasma cell disorders. These conditions are present in the general population and increase with age. These precursors aggregate with lymphoproliferative malignancies in families suggesting shared inheritance. MBL and MGUS may share some of the same risk factors as their related malignancies but data are limited. While these conditions are characterized by enhanced risk for the associated malignancy, the majority of individuals with these conditions do not progress to malignancy. A key focus for current work is to identify markers that predict progression to malignancy. PMID:23549397

  10. When a Baby Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Martha Jo; And Others

    Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…

  11. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have fun with. That absence leaves a big hole in our lives. Maybe you had a pet that died . Remember the first few times you walked into the house after your dog or cat was gone? It was strange not to have ...

  12. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  13. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A What's in this article? When — and How — Does It Happen? Where Do Dead People Go? What Does Grieving Mean? What About Me? If I'm Going to Die Someday, What Should I Do Now? en español ...

  14. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  15. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  16. Vasculitis associated with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mertz, L E; Conn, D L

    1992-02-01

    A large variety of vasculopathic syndromes are uncommonly associated with malignancies. Vasculitis is usually manifested by skin lesions and is generally associated with hematologic malignancies rather than solid tumors. Evidence of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and complement consumption is typically absent. Myelodysplastic syndromes can be confidently linked to vasculitis on the basis of recent literature. The temporal relationship of malignancy to vasculitis development is variable except that vasculitis generally follows the discovery of hairy cell leukemia and splenectomy. Vasculitis may occasionally be a complication of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation. Occasionally, malignant disorders may mimic vasculitic syndromes. The etiopathogenesis of vasculitis in patients with malignant disorders is unknown. The recent literature on vasculitis and malignancy addresses predominantly case reports and small patient cohorts and identifies clinical characteristics rather than pathogenic mechanisms.

  17. Die kalte Zunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Sören; Müller, Rüdiger

    Gefühlte Temperaturen. Ist ein Null Grad Celsius kalter Metallstab eigentlich kälter als ein Holzstab mit der selben Temperatur? Rein physikalisch gesehen natürlich nicht, aber wenn wir beide Stäbe anfassen, kommt uns der Metallstab deutlich kälter vor. Und wer kennt nicht die Szene aus dem Film Dumm und Dümmer in der Harry mit seiner Zunge am Metallrahmen des Skilifts hängen bleibt.Würde das auch passieren, wenn man an einem eiskalten Stück Holz lecken würde? Wohl kaum, doch woran liegt das eigentlich? Unterschiedliche Materialien haben verschiedene Fähigkeiten, Wärme zu übertragen und zu leiten. So transportiert Metall die von der Zunge ausgehende Wärme sehr schnell weiter und verändert seine Temperatur kaum, während die Zunge abkühlt. Holz hingegen leitet Wärme fast gar nicht und daher wird der Teil, der von der Zunge berührt wird, aufgewärmt.

  18. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  19. Malignant Vagal Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Hamersley, Erin R S; Barrows, Amy; Perez, Angel; Schroeder, Ashley; Castle, James T

    2016-06-01

    Paragangliomas are rare, typically benign neuroendocrine tumors that represent a small portion of head and neck tumors. A small percentage of these are known to have malignant potential. They arise from the carotid body, jugular bulb or vagus nerves. There is limited literature discussing the management of malignant vagal paragangliomas. We present a case of a 25 year old female with a left malignant vagal paraganglioma. The following case presentation will describe the presentation, classic radiologic findings, and management of a malignant vagal paraganglioma along with a review of the literature.

  20. Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments. PMID:23482881

  1. Designing a Die for Hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Radu

    2016-12-01

    Designing a die is in every application field an intensive process of bringing together know how from design, testing and every-day use from previous dies with the new application requirements. Contribution deals with a knowledge oriented, modular and feature integrated computer aided design system for die development. This paper describes the concepts behind designing a hydroforming die for sheet metal forming, with easy application-use in small workshops for testing hydroforming capabilities of different materials.

  2. Bronchial malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Weshler, Z; Sulkes, A; Kopolovitch, J; Leviatan, A; Shifrin, E

    1980-01-01

    We describe a case of malignant melanoma presenting initially as an endobronchial lesion located in the left main bronchus causing total atelectasis. This resolved with radiation therapy. Widespread metastases developed shortly thereafter. The differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic bronchial malignant melanoma is discussed. Other isolated case reports are reviewed.

  3. Dying with dignity.

    PubMed

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Malignancies after mitoxantrone for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seuffert, Linda; Mäder, Uwe; Toyka, Klaus V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the therapy-related risk of malignancies in mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included all mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis seen at our department between 1994 and 2007. We collected follow-up information on medically confirmed malignancies, life status, and cause of death, as of 2010. Malignancy rates were compared to the German national cancer registry matched for sex, age, and year of occurrence. Results: Follow-up was completed in 676 of 677 identified patients. Median follow-up time was 8.7 years (interquartile range 6.8–11.2), corresponding to 6,220 person-years. Median cumulative mitoxantrone dose was 79.0 mg/m2 (interquartile range 50.8–102.4). Thirty-seven patients (5.5%) were diagnosed with a malignancy after mitoxantrone initiation, revealing a standardized incidence ratio of 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.08). Entities included breast cancer (n = 9), colorectal cancer (n = 7), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4, 0.6%), and others (each entity n = 1 or 2). The standardized incidence ratio of colorectal cancer was 2.98 (95% CI 1.20–6.14) and of acute myeloid leukemia 10.44 (95% CI 3.39–24.36). It was not increased for other entities including breast cancer. Multivariate Cox regression identified higher age at treatment initiation but neither cumulative mitoxantrone dose (>75 vs ≤75 mg/m2) nor treatment with other immunosuppressive drugs or sex as a risk factor. Fifty-five patients had died, among them 12 of a malignancy and 43 reportedly of other causes. Conclusions: While the overall incidence of malignancies was only mildly increased, the risk of leukemia and colorectal cancer was heightened. If confirmed, posttherapy colonoscopy could become advisable. PMID:27170571

  5. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  6. Where people die.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources. PMID:515338

  7. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  8. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  9. Die Milchstraße.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, N.; Couper, H.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, from the English original "The guide to the Galaxy", published in 1994 (see Abstr. 61.003.065). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung unserer Galaxis. 2. Die Lokale Gruppe. 3. Die Geographie der Galaxis. 4. Der Perseus-Arm. 5. Der Orion-Arm. 6. Unsere lokale Nachbarschaft: ein typischer Winkel der Galaxis. 7. Der Sagittarius-Arm: innerhalb der Sonnenumlaufbahn. 8. Das Zentrum der Galaxis.

  10. Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... wall, abdomen, heart, or testicles. Being exposed to asbestos can affect the risk of malignant mesothelioma. Anything ... lived in places where they inhaled or swallowed asbestos . After being exposed to asbestos, it usually takes ...

  11. What Is Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you learn about the treatment options and possible side effects, and point you to information and services to help you in your cancer journey. ... free PDFs of our malignant mesothelioma information ...

  12. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

  13. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-01-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series. Images PMID:6198739

  14. I Could Have Died Laughing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael Forrest; Smith, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Notes that caregivers of the dying would do well to consider the prescriptive power of humor when confronting the challenges of healthy care for the terminally ill. Addresses laughter as the best medicine not only for the dying person but also for family and principal caregivers. Includes examples of therapeutic use of humor with the terminally…

  15. Adapt or die?

    PubMed

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  16. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  17. Malignant Vestibular Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, B.; Petchenik, L.; Williams, M.; Thomas, C.; Luken, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman underwent a translabyrinthine resection of a right intracanulicular acoustic neuroma, which had been detected in the work-up of sudden hearing loss. At the time of surgery, the tumor was roughly twice as large as indicated by the magnetic resonance scan taken only 2 months previously. The tumor eroded the vertical and transverse crests and extended well into the cerebellopontine angle. It was impossible to distinguish the facial nerve proximal to the geniculate ganglion. All visible tumor was resected, along with the facial nerve. Histological evaluation showed a highly cellular tumor, with many mitoses and areas of necrosis, meeting the criteria for malignant schwannoma. The patient has no stigmata of neurofibromatosis, and has no known relatives with that condition. This case is only the fourth reported of a malignant vestibular schwannoma. The relationships between vestibular schwannoma, neurofibromatosis, and malignancy are discussed. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171176

  18. Giant malignant insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karavias, Dimitrios; Habeos, Ioannis; Maroulis, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Tsamandas, Athanasios; Chaveles, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Insulinomas are the most common pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Most insulinomas are benign, small, intrapancreatic solid tumors and only large tumors have a tendency for malignancy. Most patients present with symptoms of hypoglycemia that are relieved with the administration of glucose. We herein present the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with an acute hypoglycemic episode. Subsequent laboratory and radiological studies established the diagnosis of a 17-cm malignant insulinoma, with local invasion to the left kidney, lymph node metastasis, and hepatic metastases. Patient symptoms, diagnostic and imaging work-up and surgical management of both the primary and the metastatic disease are reviewed. PMID:25960993

  19. Dying: A universal human experience?

    PubMed

    Bregman, L

    1989-03-01

    This paper explores the question, "Is there a universal psychological experience suffered by all dying persons?" a question to which the popular theory of Kübler-Ross presupposes an affirmative answer. Our answer takes three steps: first, a comparison between the Kübler-Ross model of dying and that of the late medievalBook of the Craft of Dying centered upon the five Kübler-Ross "stages"; second, a philosophical critique of the terms of this comparison; and third, a revised look at the alleged similarities between the two models, providing a deeper look at the moral and spiritual assumptions behind each.

  20. Malignant tumors of childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

  1. Early malignant syphilis*

    PubMed Central

    Ortigosa, Yara Martins; Bendazzoli, Paulo Salomão; Barbosa, Angela Marques; Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins

    2016-01-01

    Early malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by lesions, which can suppurate and be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever, asthenia, myalgia, and torpor state. We report a diabetic patient with characteristic features of the disease showing favorable evolution of the lesions after appropriate treatment. PMID:28300925

  2. Die Sonne, Stern unserer Erde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Ehlers, A.

    Dieses reich bebilderte Buch gibt eine Einführung in die Physik der Sonne und ihre Bedeutung für die Erde. Gestützt auf neueste Forschungsergebnisse aus Radioteleskop- und Satellitenbeobachtungen beschreibt der Autor die gewaltigen atomenergetischen Prozesse der Sonne, ihren geheimnisvollen Neutrinofluß, ihre seismischen Aktivitäten, Magnetfelder und Sonnenflecke, Korona, Sonnenausbrüche und Protuberanzen, den Sonnenwind, und die außerordentlich wichtige und vielfältige Bedeutung des Sonnenlichts, das Leben auf der Erde entstehen läßt und es auch gefährdet. Gut verständlich und in ansprechender Sprache geschrieben ist es ein wunderbares Buch für den Leser populärwissenschaftlicher Literatur, ein wertvolles Geschenk für Studenten der Astronomie und verwandter Disziplinen sowie Amateurastronomen.

  3. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  4. Cerebral malignant nerve sheath tumor, triton tumor variant: case report.

    PubMed

    Bornstein-Quevedo, Leticia; Peralta-Olvera, Fabiola; Marhx-Bracho, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Jurado, Rodolfo; De Leon-Bojorge, Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    A case of a cerebral malignant triton tumor in a 3-year-old boy with a 2-month history of frontal headache and no clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis is reported. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large, irregular tumor in the right parietooccipital lobe. A partial surgical resection was performed. Histologically, the tumor was highly cellular and consisted of spindle cells with hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei. Focally, neoplastic cells with rhabdomyoblastic features were found. The immunohistochemical study showed that tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein and CD57, and the rhabdomyoblasts expressed desmin, Myo-D1, and myoglobin. During the postoperative period, a massive intraparenchymal hemorrhage was identified and surgical drainage was performed. The patient worsened and died 10 days after the first surgery. Postmortem study was not authorized. Six cases of cerebral malignant nerve sheath tumor have been described; however, primary intraparenchymal malignant triton tumor has not been previously described.

  5. Head and neck malignancies in Croatian renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Basić-Jukić, Nikolina; Bubić-Filipi, Ljubica; Prgomet, Drago; Djanić Hadzibegović, Ana; Bilić, Mario; Kovac, Lana; Kastelan, Zeljko; Pasini, Josip; Mokos, Ivica; Basić-Koretić, Martina; Kes, Petar

    2010-04-01

    Renal transplantation is associated with increased incidence of cancer. We reviewed a large series of renal transplant recipients to determine the incidence and outcome of patients with malignant changes located at the head and neck. A total of 1232 renal transplant recipients have been followed at Department of Dialysis University Hospital Centre Zagreb from 1972 to 2009. Demographic data, localization and disease outcome were evaluated in patients who developed cancer. Twenty one patients (1.7%) developed 27 head and neck malignancies. The average time from transplantation to development of cancer was 56.8 months. The mean length of follow-up was 9.4+/-4.8 years. Eighteen malignancies were cutaneous in origin and 9 were noncutaneous. Of cutaneous malignancies, 88.9% were basal cell carcinoma; one patient had Merkell-cell carcinoma and one patient developed squamous cell carcinoma. Six cases of basocellular skin cancer were recorded in one fair-skin patient. Noncutaneous malignancies involved the oral cavity (2 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma and one pharyngeal cancer) and the thyroid gland in 3 patients each. Two patients had post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurring at the head and neck. One patient had brain tumor. Radical surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy were necessary in 33.3% of patients. Immunosuppression was reduced in all patients, and 12 patients were switched from the calcineurin-based immunosuppression to sirolimus. They all have stable graft function. None of the patients died from cancer. Immunosuppression was ceased in one patient with Kaposi's sarcoma who returned to dialysis and died 10 years later from heart failure. An increased incidence of cancer occurring in the head and neck was recorded. Careful skin examination and oral examination is mandatory for discovering cancer before dissemination. Sirolimus is safe alternative to calcineurin-based immunosuppression in patients who developed head and neck malignancies.

  6. Managing malignant pericardial effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Buzaid, A C; Garewal, H S; Greenberg, B R

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of the pericardium by metastatic tumors is not uncommon, particularly in patients with lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphomas, leukemias, and melanomas. There are five therapeutic modalities for the treatment of malignant pericardial effusion, including pericardiocentesis, pericardial sclerosis, systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment. The optimal treatment selection is dependent principally on a patient's life expectancy; responsiveness of the tumor to chemotherapy, irradiation, or both; and whether or not cardiac tamponade is present at diagnosis. The overall prognosis of patients with malignant pericardial effusion is primarily influenced by the extent and histologic features of the underlying cancer. Although this condition is usually incurable, a reasonable period of useful palliation can be obtained in most patients. Images PMID:2471362

  7. Lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, C.G.; Norman, J.; Cruse, C.W.; Reintgen, D.S.; Clark, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The development and rationale for the use of lymphoscintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of patients with malignant melanoma being considered for elective lymph node dissection is reviewed. This overview is updated by an analysis of 135 patients with early stage malignant melanoma involving the head, neck, shoulders, and trunk at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute at the University of South Florida (Tampa, FL). High discordancy rates (overall, 41%) were seen between drainage patterns predicted from historical anatomical guidelines and those revealed by the lymphoscintigraphic examination. The high discordancy rate was most pronounced in the head (64%) and the neck (73%). Surgical management was changed in 33% of the patients, overall. A preoperative lymphoscintigram is recommended for all patients with melanoma with head, neck, and truncal lesions evaluated for elective lymph node dissection as the lymphatic drainage patterns are often unpredictable and variable.

  8. Managing Malignant Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sahuquillo, Juan; Sheth, Kevin N.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Walcott, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Opinion statement Managing patients with malignant cerebral infarction remains one of the foremost challenges in medicine. These patients are at high risk for progressive neurologic deterioration and death due to malignant cerebral edema, and they are best cared for in the intensive care unit of a comprehensive stroke center. Careful initial assessment of neurologic function and of findings on MRI, coupled with frequent reassessment of clinical and radiologic findings using CT or MRI are mandatory to promote the prompt initiation of treatments that will ensure the best outcome in these patients. Significant deterioration in either neurologic function or radiologic findings or both demand timely treatment using the best medical management, which may include osmotherapy (mannitol or hypertonic saline), endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Under appropriate circumstances, decompressive craniectomy may be warranted to improve outcome or to prevent death. PMID:21190097

  9. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  10. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  11. Malignant Catatonia Mimicking Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dailin

    2013-01-01

    Malignant catatonia is an unusual and highly fatal neuropsychiatric condition which can present with clinical and biochemical manifestations similar to those of pheochromocytoma. Differentiating between the two diseases is essential as management options greatly diverge. We describe a case of malignant catatonia in a 20-year-old male who presented with concurrent psychotic symptoms and autonomic instability, with markedly increased 24-hour urinary levels of norepinephrine at 1752 nmol/day (normal, 89–470 nmol/day), epinephrine at 1045 nmol/day (normal, <160 nmol/day), and dopamine at 7.9 μmol/day (normal, 0.4–3.3 μmol/day). The patient was treated with multiple sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete clinical resolution. Repeat urine collections within weeks of this presenting event revealed normalization or near normalization of his catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Malignant catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the hypercatecholamine state, particularly in a patient who also exhibits concurrent catatonic features. PMID:24251048

  12. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Biphasic Mesothelioma; Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma; Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

  13. Epigenetics in the hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Chun Yew; Morison, Jessica; Dawson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of genomic and epigenomic data has identified abnormal regulation of epigenetic processes as a prominent theme in hematologic malignancies. Recurrent somatic alterations in myeloid malignancies of key proteins involved in DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and chromatin remodeling have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the initiation and maintenance of various malignancies. The rational use of targeted epigenetic therapies requires a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms of malignant transformation driven by aberrant epigenetic regulators. In this review we provide an overview of the major protagonists in epigenetic regulation, their aberrant role in myeloid malignancies, prognostic significance and potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:25472952

  14. Primary Intracranial Malignant Melanoma with Extracranial Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Kengo; Yoshimura, Chika; Kubo, Osami; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of primary intracranial malignant melanoma (PIMM) with extracranial metastases. The patient was an 82-year-old woman diagnosed with PIMM under the left cerebellar tentorium. We performed a tumor resection followed by gamma knife surgery. An magnetic resonance imaging at 11 months after surgery showed a local intracranial recurrence. At 12 months, vertebral metastasis was suspected, and 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) showed multiple extracranial metastases. She died at 13 months after surgery. Although extracranial metastases of PIMM are extremely rare, we should carefully follow up extracranial metastases together with intracranial ones, especially by FDG-PET/CT, even at an early asymptomatic stage. PMID:28061499

  15. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  16. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  17. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  18. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  19. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  20. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  1. Prevention of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chaidemenos, G; Stratigos, A; Papakonstantinou, M; Tsatsou, F

    2008-01-01

    The results of Primary Prevention programs, aiming at the decrease of melanoma incidence, were less encouraging than those of Secondary prevention which aims at an early diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Australia was the country with the best results obtained in both Prevention strategies, especially in avoiding intense, though intermittent, UV exposure. The success of these programs encouraged health authorities to initiate their application to other disorders. New sunscreens containing substances correcting the UV-damaged DNA may offer a promising result in the decades to come. However, so far no one epidemiological study has proved the prevention of malignant melanoma with the use of sun protecting agents. A meta-analysis verified the connection between melanoma and solarium use. The protective role of vitamin D in the development of prostate, breast and colon cancer was shown in a meta-analysis. The authors, however, suggest that fair-skinned persons should take oral supplementation of vitamin D, instead of exposing themselves to the sun. The Hellenic Society of Dermatology and Venereology published the results of 5-year-prevention programs in Greece. Their favorable results in the early diagnosis of melanoma justify an intense continuation of these efforts. PMID:18923759

  2. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  3. On the Child's Own Initiative: Parents Communicate with Their Dying Child About Death.

    PubMed

    Jalmsell, Li; Kontio, Taru; Stein, Maria; Henter, Jan-Inge; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Open and honest communication has been identified as an important factor in providing good palliative care. However, there is no easy solution to if, when, and how parents and a dying child should communicate about death. This article reports how bereaved parents communicated about death with their child, dying from a malignancy. Communication was often initiated by the child and included communication through narratives such as fairy tales and movies and talking more directly about death itself. Parents also reported that their child prepared for death by giving instructions about his or her grave or funeral and giving away toys.

  4. Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    PubMed Central

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

  5. Malignant lymphoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Hans Roland; Müller, Peter Ernst; Hiller, Erhard; Maier, Markus; Baur, Andrea; Jansson, Volkmar; Refior, Hans Jürgen

    2002-02-01

    Malignant lymphoma of bone is rare. In many cases, its diagnosis is delayed because of unspecific clinical signs and equivocal radiographs. Therapy in general is multimodal, including surgery and radio- and chemotherapy. Our objective was to demonstrate the clinical and radiological aspects of the lesion to optimize diagnostic approaches and to evaluate treatment and prognostic factors. Thirty-six patients with malignant lymphoma of bone who were surgically treated over a 15-year-period were retrospectively reviewed. Seventeen of them showed a singular bone non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) which was classified as primary lymphoma of the bone (PLB). In 13 cases, dissemination of the disease with multiple bone or visceral involvement was apparent (dNHL). Six patients suffered from bone involvement due to Hodgkin's disease (HD). Surgical treatment was indicated for diagnostic reasons or complications due to the disease. Radiation and chemotherapy were part of the oncological treatment. The patients' mean age was 57 years. The main symptom in malignant bone lymphoma in 33 patients was pain, with an average duration of 8 months. In the secondary cases, bone involvement appeared on average 57 months after the initial diagnosis. An osteolytic pattern was seen in 58% of the lesions. Soft-tissue involvement was seen in 71% of cases (PLB 80%, dNHL 73%, HD 40%) and was the primary diagnostic sign associated with this disease. The 5-year survival rate was 61% (PLB 88%, dNHL 38%, HD 50%). Multiple vs solitary bone involvement was the most significant factor in the prognosis. Extraskeletal involvement significantly decreased survival. No correlation was found between gender, age, location, or histological subtypes and survival. Bone involvement in NHL appears late in the extraskeletal disease. The clinical appearance is nonspecific, and the delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis is often long. One of the major radiologic signs is the existence of a soft-tissue tumor

  6. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed

    Frost, Thomas D G; Sinha, Devan; Gilbert, Barnabas J

    2014-01-15

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion "This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying". This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework.

  7. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Anne S.; Wistuba, Ignacio; Roth, Jack A.; Kindler, Hedy Lee

    2009-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly disease that occurs in 2,000 to 3,000 people each year in the United States. Although MPM is an extremely difficult disease to treat, with the median overall survival ranging between 9 and 17 months regardless of stage, there has been significant progress over the last few years that has reshaped the clinical landscape. This article will provide a comprehensive discussion of the latest developments in the treatment of MPM. We will provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment in the resectable and unresectable settings, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. In addition, there are controversial issues, such as the role of extrapleural pneumonectomy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus hemithoracic therapy that will also be addressed in this manuscript. PMID:19255316

  8. Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Drasin, Harry

    1978-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor derived from chromaffin tissue, which secretes catecholamines. Today, about 90 percent of patients with this tumor are cured by surgical procedures. In 8 to 15 percent of patients with this tumor there is unresectable, recurrent or metastatic disease, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. The natural history of metastatic disease includes long-term survivors; many, however, die early of disseminated disease. The most common site of metastatic lesions is the skeleton. Palliation for these lesions can often be achieved with the use of radiation therapy. Other sites are, in general, less responsive to radiation therapy. Chemotherapy has been used in combination with radiation therapy, but the results generally have been disappointing. Chemotherapy with doxorubicin hydrochloride and cyclophosphamide in combination with radiation therapy has provided good palliation for skeletal disease for about five months, when disease progression was again noted. Further information is needed concerning the optimal chemotherapeutic treatment of this unusual tumor. PMID:629048

  9. Guide for extrusion dies eliminates straightening operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.; Hoover, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent distortion of extruded metal, a guidance assembly is aligned with the die. As the metal emerges from the extrusion dies, it passes directly into the receiver and straightening tube system, and the completed extrusion is withdrawn.

  10. Primary malignant melanoma of prostate.

    PubMed

    Doublali, M; Chouaib, A; Khallouk, A; Tazi, M F; El Fassi, M J; Farih, My H; Elfatmi, H; Bendahou, M; Benlemlih, A; Lamarti, O

    2010-05-01

    Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: malignant hyperthermia

    MedlinePlus

    ... 26(5):413-25. Citation on PubMed Robinson R, Carpenter D, Shaw MA, Halsall J, Hopkins P. Mutations in RYR1 in malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. Hum Mutat. 2006 Oct;27(10):977-89. Review. Citation on PubMed Rosenberg H, Davis M, James D, Pollock N, Stowell K. Malignant ...

  12. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  13. Synchronous primary oesophageal malignant melanoma and sigmoid adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ahsan; Bansil, Sandeep; Junglee, Naushad; Sutton, Jonathon; Gasem, Jaber; Ahmed, Waqar

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of a gentleman in his 70s who was referred to the gastroenterology outpatient clinic with dysphagia. An oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed which showed a polypoidal black coloured mass in the oesophagus. Endoscopic biopsies confirmed malignant melanoma. Further staging investigations were organised to assess suitability for surgery which revealed a mass in the sigmoid colon. Subsequent colonoscopy and biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma. As this was an unusual case to associate these two malignancies at the same time, there was no ideal or recognised management plan available. Different treatment options were considered and a consensus was developed regarding best surgical approach but due to the lapse in time a repeat staging CT scan was organised which unfortunately now demonstrated lymph node metastasis. Patient was managed conservatively from this point onwards and he died 12 months later. PMID:22689833

  14. Malignant cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt 'pseudocyst': a case report.

    PubMed

    Awori, Jonathan; Wu, Chris Y; Maher, Cormac O

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pseudocysts are an uncommon complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with a history of complicated hydrocephalus managed with a VP shunt due to sequelae of prematurity. The patient presented with abdominal distention, and a pseudocyst was diagnosed. Despite shunt externalization and aspiration, the pseudocyst continued to produce up to 1 liter of serosanguineous fluid per day. After MRI revealed malignant features within the pseudocyst, laparotomy was performed and the pseudocyst was partially excised. Pathology reports suggested sarcoma. The cystic mass grew back aggressively, accompanied by distant metastasis. The patient's condition deteriorated and he died from his disease. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of an abdominal malignancy mimicking a pseudocyst and causing VP shunt failure.

  15. Malignant eroticized countertransference.

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Gabbard (1994) divided the pathology of therapists, both male and female, who commit sexual boundary violations into those who are psychotic, those who are predatory psychopaths, those engaging in masochistic surrender, and those called "the lovesick therapist." Lovesick therapists are the most common type and manifest crucial narcissistic themes of "a desperate need for validation by their patients, a hunger to be loved and idealized, and a tendency to use patients to regulate their own self-esteem" (p. 127). Among the psychodynamic aspects of this curiously circumscribed area of loss of reality testing that makes it difficult for the therapist to see how self-destructive and harmful such enactment is, are an unconscious reenactment of incestuous longings, a misperception of the patient's wish for maternal nurturance as a sexual overture, enactments of rescue fantasies, a projected idealization of the self of the therapist, a confusion of the therapist's needs with the patient's needs, a fantasy that love is curative, acting out disavowed rage at the patient, or rage at an organization, an institute, or one's training analyst, a manic defense against mourning, a narcissistic fantasy that their sexual affair is an exception, insecurity regarding masculine identity, and assorted primitive preoedipal themes. Gabbard's (1991) erotized countertransference is one variety of what I have termed malignant eroticized countertransference. His variety is a development that occurs under the pressure of the patient's preemptive and compelling expressions of lust and love, the patient's erotic transference. But malignant eroticized countertransference can also occur without the patient having offered any such expressions; it can even occur on first meeting the patient when he or she walks into the office! This is akin to the romantic "love-at-first-sight" theme so favored in the movies and by novelists, but it is always pathological when it occurs in the therapeutic situation

  16. Fulminant course in a case of malignant phyllodes tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Young Woo; Kim, Hwan Soo; Kim, Deok Woo

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with an inflammatory and ulcerative malignant phyllodes tumor in her right breast. A right modified radical mastectomy and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap were performed. A month after the initial operation, several masses recurred at the superior margin and deep margin of the TRAM flap. Wide excision was performed, but masses recurred at the inferior margin and in both lung fields 2 weeks after the second operation. Six weeks after the second operation, the patient died due to progression of dyspnea and respiratory failure. PMID:28203559

  17. Malignancy and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.

  18. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  19. Primary cerebral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai; Kong, Xiangyi; Mao, Gengsheng; Qiu, Ming; Zhu, Haibo; Zhou, Lei; Nie, Qingbin; Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs. We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma—a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions. We present a rare case of a primary cerebral melanoma in the left temporal lobe. The mass appeared iso-hypodense on brain computed tomography (CT), short signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (T1WI) and long signal on T2WI. It was not easy to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We showed the patient's disease course and reviewed related literatures, for readers’ reference. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. After surgery, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient was discharged without any complications and went on to receive adjuvant radiochemotherapy. It is difficult to diagnose primary cerebral melanoma in the absence of any cutaneous melanosis. A high index of clinical suspicion along with good pathology reporting is the key in diagnosing these extremely rare tumors. PMID:28121927

  20. Malignant renal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. PMID:28326263

  1. Thyroid Malignancies in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, Evan M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Silver, Barbara; Tishler, Roy B.; Marcus, Karen J.; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence of thyroid cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and determine disease characteristics, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thyroid cancer cases were retrospectively identified from a multi-institutional database of 1981 HL patients treated between 1969 and 2008. Thyroid cancer risk factors were evaluated by a Poisson regression model. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 14.3 years (range, 0-41.2 years), 28 patients (1.4%) developed a thyroid malignancy. The overall incidence rate (expressed as the number of cases per 10,000 person-years) and 10-year cumulative incidence of thyroid cancer were 9.6 and 0.26%, respectively. There were no observed cases of thyroid malignancy in patients who received neck irradiation for HL after age 35 years. Age <20 years at HL diagnosis and female sex were significantly associated with thyroid cancer. The incidence rates of females aged <20 at HL diagnosis in the first 10 years, ≥10 years, ≥15 years, and ≥20 years after treatment were 5, 31, 61, and 75 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. At a median follow-up of 3.5 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, 26 patients (93%) were alive without disease, 1 (4%) was alive with metastatic disease, and 1 (4%) died of metastatic disease, at 6 and 3.6 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, respectively. Conclusions: Although HL survivors have an increased risk for thyroid cancer, the overall incidence is low. Routine thyroid cancer screening may benefit females treated at a young age and ≥10 years from HL treatment owing to their higher risk, which increases over time.

  2. Malignant mesothelioma: attributable risk of asbestos exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Spirtas, R; Heineman, E F; Bernstein, L; Beebe, G W; Keehn, R J; Stark, A; Harlow, B L; Benichou, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate a case-control study of malignant mesothelioma through patterns of exposure to asbestos based upon information from telephone interviews with next of kin. METHODS--Potential cases, identified from medical files and death certificates, included all people diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma and registered during 1975-1980 by the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program, the New York State Cancer Registry (excluding New York City), and 39 large Veterans Administration hospitals. Cases whose diagnosis was confirmed in a special pathology review as definite or probable mesothelioma (n = 208) were included in the analysis. Controls (n = 533) had died of other causes, excluding cancer, respiratory disease, suicide, or violence. Direct exposure to asbestos was determined from responses to three types of questions: specific queries as to any exposure to asbestos; occupational or non-vocational participation in any of nine specific activities thought to entail exposure to asbestos; and analysis of life-time work histories. Indirect exposures were assessed through residential histories and reported contact with family members exposed to asbestos. RESULTS--Among men with pleural mesothelioma the attributable risk (AR) for exposure to asbestos was 88% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76-95%). For men, the AR of peritoneal cancer was 58% (95% CI 20-89%). For women (both sites combined), the AR was 23% (95% CI 3-72%). The large differences in AR by sex are compatible with the explanations: a lower background incidence rate in women, lower exposure to asbestos, and greater misclassification among women. CONCLUSIONS--Most of the pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas in the men studied were attributable to exposure to asbestos. The situation in women was less definitive. PMID:7849863

  3. General Information about Malignant Mesothelioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... wall, abdomen, heart, or testicles. Being exposed to asbestos can affect the risk of malignant mesothelioma. Anything ... lived in places where they inhaled or swallowed asbestos . After being exposed to asbestos, it usually takes ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Malignant Mesothelioma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wall, abdomen, heart, or testicles. Being exposed to asbestos can affect the risk of malignant mesothelioma. Anything ... lived in places where they inhaled or swallowed asbestos . After being exposed to asbestos, it usually takes ...

  5. Treatment Options for Malignant Mesothelioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... wall, abdomen, heart, or testicles. Being exposed to asbestos can affect the risk of malignant mesothelioma. Anything ... lived in places where they inhaled or swallowed asbestos . After being exposed to asbestos, it usually takes ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  8. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ropio, Joana; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Soares, Paula; Chevret, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT) is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies. PMID:27618103

  9. Primary malignant melanoma of prostate

    PubMed Central

    Doublali, M.; Chouaib, A.; Khallouk, A.; Tazi, M. F.; El Fassi, M. J.; Farih, My. H.; Elfatmi, H.; Bendahou, M.; Benlemlih, A.; Lamarti, O.

    2010-01-01

    Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate. PMID:20882159

  10. Molecular Diagnosis for Breast Malignancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-94-J-4033 TITLE: Molecular Diagnosis for Breast Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wen-Tien Chen, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Biomedical Laboratories. - Signature -^yjgf Wen-Tien Chen, Ph.D. Page 4 Molecular diagnosis for breast malignancy (1) FRONT COVER: (2) SF 298...June 8-9, 1995 (abstract). Chen, W.-T, Goldstein LA, Pineiro-Sänchez M, Howard L, Ghersi G, Salamone M, Flessate D, Yeh Y. 1977. " Molecular Diagnosis for

  11. Malignant tumours after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fahlenkamp, D; Reinke, P; Kirchner, S; Schnorr, D; Lindeke, A; Loening, S A

    1996-10-01

    In 1243 patients after renal transplantation, 39 malignant tumours were detected in 37 patients. The average latency period between transplantation and tumour disease was 72 months. Tumours included 8 malignant lymphomas, 7 dermatomas and 24 visceral tumours. The patients who developed a tumour had received fewer blood transfusions before transplantation than a tumour-free control group of 60 patients with renal transplants. Rejection crises occurred in a significantly smaller number of tumour patients compared with the control group.

  12. Immune Modulation in Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dhodapkar, Kavita M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the immune system in the context of hematologic malignancies has long been appreciated particularly due to the curative impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The role of immune system in shaping the biology and evolution of these tumors is now well recognized. While the contribution of the immune system in anti-tumor effects of certain therapies such as immune-modulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies active in hematologic malignancies is quite evident, the immune system has also been implicated in anti-tumor effects of other targeted therapies. The horizon of immune-based therapies in hematologic malignancies is rapidly expanding with promising results from immune-modulatory drugs, immune-checkpoint blockade and adoptive cellular therapies, including genetically-modified T cells. Hematologic malignancies present distinct issues (relative to solid tumors) for the application of immune therapies due to differences in cell of origin/developmental niche of tumor cells, and patterns of involvement such as common systemic involvement of secondary lymphoid tissues. This article discusses the rapidly changing landscape of immune modulation in hematologic malignancies and emphasizes areas wherein hematologic malignancies present distinct opportunities for immunologic approaches to prevent or treat cancer. PMID:26320065

  13. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  14. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C [Tucson, AZ; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Clews, Peggy J [Tijeras, NM; Baker, Michael S [Albuquerque, NM; De Boer, Maarten P [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  15. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  16. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  17. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  18. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  19. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary (Hypercalcemic Type): Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kascak, Peter; Zamecnik, Michal; Bystricky, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant rhabdoid tumor (ovarian small cell carcinoma of hypercalcemic type) in a 24-year-old female with fulminant course. Clinically, hypercalcemia was not found at the time of primary diagnosis. However, it appeared later during the course of tumor progression. Histologically, the tumor showed classical features of small cell carcinoma of hypercalcemic type. Therapy included radical surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite this intensive therapy, the disease recurred and the patient died 10 months after the diagnosis. We discuss the diagnosis and therapy of this tumor, as well as its recent classification as malignant rhabdoid tumor. PMID:27462229

  20. An acute multispecies episode of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in captive wild animals in an Italian zoo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyls, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific, one-step PCR wit...

  1. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  2. Years of life lost due to malignant neoplasms characterized by the highest mortality rate

    PubMed Central

    Pikala, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The analysis of premature deaths measured with years of life lost between the studied and referential populations helps to emphasize the social and economic aspect of a loss caused by deaths due to malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to analyze years of life lost by inhabitants of the Lodz province due to malignant neoplasms. Material and methods The study material included a database which contained information gathered from 313,144 death certificates (including 66,899 people who died of malignant neoplasms) of inhabitants of the Lodz province who died between 1999 and 2008. The SEYLLp (Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person) method was used to determine years of life lost. Jointpoint models were used to analyze time trends. Results In males the diseases which mostly contributed to death were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms (SEYLLp = 170.7) and cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus (SEYLLp = 47.5). In females the principal diseases were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms (SEYLLp = 61.6), breast cancer (SEYLLp = 60.4) and cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus (SEYLLp = 42.3). The years of life lost were growing in the period under study. Conclusions The number of years lost due to malignant neoplasms in the Lodz province between 1999 and 2008 was growing. The main reasons for deaths in females were tracheal, bronchial and lung malignant neoplasms as well as breast cancer and in males – cancer of the large intestine, rectum and anus as well as prostate cancer. PMID:25395953

  3. Imaging enhancement of malignancy by cyclophosphamide: surprising chemotherapy opposite effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Kensuke; Yang, Meng; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Jiang, Ping; Xu, Mingxu; Yamamoto, Norio; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuro; Moossa, A. R.; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2008-02-01

    Although side effects of cancer chemotherapy are well known, "opposite effects" of chemotherapy which enhance the malignancy of the treated cancer are not well understood. We have observed a number of steps of malignancy that are enhanced by chemotherapy pre-treatment of mice before transplantation of human tumor cells. The induction of intravascular proliferation, extravasation, and colony formation by cancer cells, critical steps of metastasis was enhanced by pretreatment of host mice with the commonly-used chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide appears to interfere with a host process that inhibits intravascular proliferation, extravasation, and extravascular colony formation by at least some tumor cells. Cyclophosphamide does not directly affect the cancer cells since cyclophosphamide has been cleared by the time the cancer cells were injected. Without cyclophosphamide pretreatment, human colon cancer cells died quickly after injection in the portal vein of nude mice. Extensive clasmocytosis (destruction of the cytoplasm) of the cancer cells occurred within 6 hours. The number of apoptotic cells rapidly increased within the portal vein within 12 hours of injection. However, when the host mice were pretreated with cyclophosphamide, the cancer cells survived and formed colonies in the liver after portal vein injection. These results suggest that a cyclophosphamide-sensitive host cellular system attacked the cancer cells. This review describes an important unexpected "opposite effects" of chemotherapy that enhances critical steps in malignancy rather than inhibiting them, suggesting that certain current approaches to cancer chemotherapy should be modified.

  4. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  5. Cyclosporin-A associated malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Durnian, Jonathan M; Stewart, Rosalind MK; Tatham, Richard; Batterbury, Mark; Kaye, Stephen B

    2007-01-01

    The use of cyclosporin is well established within the ophthalmology community, especially against sight threatening intraocular inflammation. It is well known however, that immunosuppression in general is a risk factor for the development of malignancy and numerous studies point to the risk imposed by cyclosporin. This article analyses and reviews all relevant studies with regard to the development of malignancy associated with the use of cyclosporin and extrapolates this into the ophthalmic setting. This is to enable clinicians to assess the risks in individual patients and to present a monitoring regime which can be used in patients undergoing cyclosporin treatment. The review is solely concerned with the risk of the development of malignancy following cyclosporin immunosuppression and not with any other adverse effect. PMID:19668519

  6. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    2017-03-22

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients.

  7. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  8. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  9. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  10. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  11. Death and Dying: Issues for Educational Gerontologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore, Myers, Jane E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on death orientations, the dying process, and bereavement, with a major focus on the elderly. Suggests that relevant knowledge about death and dying are important for gerontological practitioners and proposes that death-related content be systematically integrated into academic curricula at the preservice and inservice levels.…

  12. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  13. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  14. Lenvatinib and Capecitabine in Patients With Advanced Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-23

    Advanced Cancer; Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Malignant Neoplasms of Bone and Articular Cartilage; Malignant Neoplasms of Digestive Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Eye Brain and Other Parts of Central Nervous System; Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Ill-defined Secondary and Unspecified Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Independent (Primary) Multiple Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Lip Oral Cavity and Pharynx; Malignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Mesothelial and Soft Tissue; Malignant Neoplasms of Respiratory and Intrathoracic Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands; Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract

  15. Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath

    2012-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy. PMID:23249860

  16. [Kinase inhibitors against hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Arinobu

    2014-06-01

    Dysregulation of protein phosphorylation, especially on tyrosine residues, plays a crucial role in development and progression of hematological malignancies. Since remarkable success in imatinib therapy of CML and Ph+ALL, extensive efforts have made to explore candidate molecular targets and next breakthrough drugs. Now that next generation ABL kinase inhibitors are available for CML, the therapeutic algorithm has been revolutionized. As for AML and lymphoid malignancies, many kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3, BTK and aurora-A are on early and late clinical trials, and a number of promising drugs including ibrutinib are picked up for further evaluation.

  17. Malignancies in a renal transplant population: The St. Michael's Hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Saleeb, R.; Faragalla, H.; Yousef, G. M.; Stewart, R.; Streutker, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous publications have shown an increased incidence of various malignancies amongst renal transplant populations. The objective of this study was to analyze the rate and types of malignancies occurring in the St. Michael's Hospital renal transplant population and to determine whether our results were comparable to those previously published. Methods: After approval by the hospital's research ethic board, review of the records and pathology of the 1584 patients in the renal transplant clinic database patients was performed. The reports dated back to the year 1970. Results: Amongst the 1584 renal transplant patients, 106 patients with 132 dysplastic and malignant posttransplant lesions were identified. The highest incidence amid the malignancies was in nonmelanoma skin malignancies squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma, and Kaposi sarcoma, with a total of 32 patients having 54 separate tumors (2.02% of all patients, 43.2% of tumors). Following skin tumors in incidence were genitourinary (28 tumors), gastrointestinal tract (GIT) lesions (8 adenocarcinomas, 14 dysplastic lesions, 1 low grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoid), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) (10 cases), gynecologic (6 carcinomas), cervical/anal/vulvar dysplasia and invasive (SCCs) (4), and thyroid (3 papillary tumors). Nine patients had tumors of multiple sites/types. With respect to outcome, 14 patients died of malignancy, with the highest mortality being in the GIT malignancies (six patients). Second in mortality were the PTLD and skin tumor groups. Discussion: Information on the incidence and outcome of various malignancies in renal transplant patients is important in designing guidelines for the follow-up of these patients regarding tumor screening and prevention. The rate of malignancies in our group is comparable to that reported in other centers. PMID:27141185

  18. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  19. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Asplund, Maria; Herrera, Jose A.R.; Steiniche, Torben; Mourier, Tobias; Brunak, Søren; Willerslev, Eske; Izarzugaza, Jose M.G.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Lars P.

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be investigated. PMID:28098541

  20. Malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Stella M.; Millward-Sadler, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The features of four cases of malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver and other organs are described. Two cases were associated with a microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. The nature of the tumours and possible pathogenesis for the anaemias are discussed. Images PMID:4832301

  1. The Origin of Malignant Malaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

  2. Malignant hypertension in antiphospholipid syndrome without overt lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Cacoub, P; Wechsler, B; Piette, J C; Beaufils, H; Herreman, G; Bletry, O; Godeau, P

    1993-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is usually defined by the association of a clinical manifestation (recurrent venous and/or arterial thrombosis, recurrent spontaneous miscarriages) and a biological abnormality (anticardiolipin antibody, lupus anticoagulant). We retrospectively analyzed the records of 5 patients (4 females, 1 male, aged 30 +/- 12 years) with antiphospholipid syndrome, primary (n = 1) or secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4), who developed malignant systemic hypertension with renal insufficiency, in the absence of lupus nephritis. Before the episode of malignant hypertension, all patients had normal systemic blood pressure and renal function. During malignant hypertension the systolic pressure was 206 +/- 39 mmHg and the diastolic pressure 130 +/- 25 mmHg, peak serum creatinine was 204 +/- 95 mumol/l, daily proteinuria was 1.1 +/- 0.8 gr, and complement serum levels were normal in all patients. Renal angiography found normal proximal renal arteries. Renal biopsy showed ischaemic glomeruli without proliferative lesions (n = 5), focal intimal fibrosis either isolated (n = 3) or associated with thrombosis (n = 2) of the intrarenal vessels, and the absence of vasculitis. Immunofluorescence study did not reveal typical lupus deposits. Patients were treated with antihypertensive agents, increasing doses of prednisone (n = 3), and anticoagulant (n = 2) or anti-aggregant therapy (n = 1). After a mean follow-up of 6.8 +/- 5.2 years, 4 patients were still alive with normal blood pressure and renal function, whereas 1 patient died of a probable catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome. Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, primary or secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus, may develop malignant hypertension with renal insufficiency and intrarenal vascular lesions, in the absence of lupus nephritis.

  3. Tetracycline sclerosis in the management of malignant pericardial effusion.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, F A; Ginsberg, J S; Evans, W K; Scott, J G; Oleksiuk, F

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-two patients with malignant pericardial effusion were seen at the Toronto General Hospital between 1979 and 1984. Under ECG monitoring, an indwelling Kifa catheter was inserted into the pericardial sac and then connected to a Hemovac system and allowed to drain for 12 to 24 hours. Xylocaine hydrochloride, 100 mg, was first instilled intrapericardially, followed by tetracycline hydrochloride, 500 to 1,000 mg, dissolved in 20 mL normal saline. The catheter was clamped for one to two hours and then allowed to drain into the Hemovac. This procedure was repeated every 24 to 48 hours until the net drainage was less than 25 mL/24 hours. Nine men and 13 women were treated (median age, 55 years). The primary malignancy included lung in 15 patients, breast in two patients, and carcinoma of the stomach, ovary, pleural mesothelioma, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and adenocarcinoma of unknown primary in one patient each. Twenty patients received one to five instillations of tetracycline. In one patient the catheter could not be inserted into the pericardial sac, and in one patient the catheter clotted before tetracycline instillation. Minor complications included transient arrhythmia in two patients, postinjection pain in four patients, and self-limited temperature elevation greater than 38.5 degrees C in two patients. fifteen patients had good control of their malignant pericardial effusion for more than 30 days (median survival, 160 days; range, 38 to 275 days). Three patients died before 30 days without evidence of effusion, and no patient surviving longer than 30 days developed recurrent effusion or pericardial constriction. Intrapericardial tetracycline instillation is a safe and efficacious treatment for malignant pericardial effusion and should be considered the first treatment modality in this situation.

  4. Primary Pulmonary Malignant Melanoma: Report of an Important Entity and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakopoulos, Christos; Zarkavelis, George; Andrianopoulou, Artemis; Papoudou-Bai, Alexandra; Stefanou, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanoma involving the respiratory tract is nearly always metastatic in origin, and primary tumors are extremely rare. Published data on primary pulmonary malignant melanomas are limited. Up to now 40 relevant cases have been reported in the English literature. Herein, we report a case of a 56-year-old female patient who presented with intracranial metastases due to primary pulmonary melanoma. She underwent bronchoscopy and died 5 months after the initial diagnosis despite the administered biochemotherapy and subsequent immunotherapy. To establish the diagnosis of primary pulmonary malignant melanoma, any extrapulmonary origin was excluded by detailed examination and radiographic imaging. Moreover, an extensive review of the literature regarding this rare entity has been performed. PMID:28352484

  5. Skin: A mirror of internal malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Kota, RahulKrishna S.; Diwan, Nilofar G.; Jivani, Nidhi B.; Gandhi, Shailee S.

    2016-01-01

    Skin manifestations are a reflection of many of the internal diseases. Sometimes, skin disease may be the only manifestation of the internal disease. Internal malignancies may give rise to a number of cutaneous manifestations through their immunological, metabolic, and metastatic consequences. Curth proposed criteria to establish a causal relationship between a dermatosis and a malignant internal disease. Malignancy can present with a plethora of cutaneous manifestations. Here, we describe in brief about various skin manifestations of internal malignancies. PMID:28144085

  6. En bloc spondylectomy in malignant tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Liljenqvist, Ulf; Lerner, Thomas; Halm, Henry; Buerger, Horst; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried

    2008-04-01

    En bloc spondylectomy is a technique that enables wide or marginal resection of malignant lesions of the spine. Both all posterior techniques as well as combined approaches are reported. Aim of the present study was to analyse the results of 21 patients with malignant lesions of the spine, all treated with en bloc excision in a combined posteroanterior (n = 19) or all posterior approach (n = 2). Twenty-one consecutive patients, operated between 1997 and 2005, were included into this retrospective study. Thirteen patients had primary malignant lesions, eight patients had solitary metastases, all located in the thoracolumbar spine. There were 16 single level, three two-level, one three-level and one four-level spondylectomy. The patients were followed clinically and radiographically (including CT studies) with an average follow-up of 4 years. Out of 11 patients with primary Ewing or osteosarcoma seven patients are alive without any evidence of disease. One patient died after 5 years from other causes and three are alive with evidence of disease. Latter had either a poor histologic response to the preoperative chemotherapy (n = 2) or an intralesional resection (n = 1). All three patients with solitary spinal metastases of Ewing or osteosarcoma died of the disease. Five patients with solitary metastases of mainly hypernephroma are alive. In total, six resections were intralesional, mainly due to large intraspinal tumor masses, with two patients having had previous surgery. In the remaining cases, wide (n = 10) or marginal (n = 5) resection was accomplished. There were one pseudarthrosis requiring extension of the fusion and two cases with local recurrences and repeated excisional surgery. At follow-up CT studies, all cages were fused. Health related quality of life analysis (SF-36) revealed only slightly decreased physical component and normal mental component scores compared to normals in those patients with no evidence of disease. En bloc spondylectomy enables wide

  7. En bloc spondylectomy in malignant tumors of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Thomas; Halm, Henry; Buerger, Horst; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    En bloc spondylectomy is a technique that enables wide or marginal resection of malignant lesions of the spine. Both all posterior techniques as well as combined approaches are reported. Aim of the present study was to analyse the results of 21 patients with malignant lesions of the spine, all treated with en bloc excision in a combined posteroanterior (n = 19) or all posterior approach (n = 2). Twenty-one consecutive patients, operated between 1997 and 2005, were included into this retrospective study. Thirteen patients had primary malignant lesions, eight patients had solitary metastases, all located in the thoracolumbar spine. There were 16 single level, three two-level, one three-level and one four-level spondylectomy. The patients were followed clinically and radiographically (including CT studies) with an average follow-up of 4 years. Out of 11 patients with primary Ewing or osteosarcoma seven patients are alive without any evidence of disease. One patient died after 5 years from other causes and three are alive with evidence of disease. Latter had either a poor histologic response to the preoperative chemotherapy (n = 2) or an intralesional resection (n = 1). All three patients with solitary spinal metastases of Ewing or osteosarcoma died of the disease. Five patients with solitary metastases of mainly hypernephroma are alive. In total, six resections were intralesional, mainly due to large intraspinal tumor masses, with two patients having had previous surgery. In the remaining cases, wide (n = 10) or marginal (n = 5) resection was accomplished. There were one pseudarthrosis requiring extension of the fusion and two cases with local recurrences and repeated excisional surgery. At follow-up CT studies, all cages were fused. Health related quality of life analysis (SF-36) revealed only slightly decreased physical component and normal mental component scores compared to normals in those patients with no evidence of disease. En bloc spondylectomy

  8. Malignant melanoma of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    John, K J; Hayes, D W; Green, D R; Dickerson, J

    2000-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is a serious and devastating skin disease that podiatrists may be called upon to treat. It is pertinent that delays in diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma be avoided. Some of the topics discussed in this article are causes, clinical features, classification, and treatment of malignant melanoma, focusing on the foot and ankle.

  9. Abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Delicata, M; Hambley, H

    2011-08-01

    Malignancy often results in clotting abnormalities. The aetiology of haemostasis problems in cancer is complex, and is still not completely understood. We describe a case of a patient with malignant mesothelioma, who was found to have elevated activated partial thromboplastin time, due to lupus anticoagulant. We suggest that patients with malignancy should have their coagulation checked prior to any invasive procedures.

  10. Malignant Transformation of Pulmonary Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Sub; Keum, Dong Yoon; Hwang, Il Seon

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML) is defined as metastasis of a leiomyoma to lung tissue. It was first reported in 1937. P BML is known as a benign disease, but can undergo malignant transformation. Only 1 case of the malignant transformation of PBML to leiomyosarcoma has been reported previously. In this report, we present a case of malignant transformation of PBML. PMID:28180107

  11. Is there a moral duty to die?

    PubMed

    Corlett, J A

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty of others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right. But is there a moral duty to die? If so, under what conditions, if any, ought one to have such a duty, and why? In this paper, I distinguish between different moral grounds for the putative moral duty to die: deontological, intuitionist, and contractarian. Subsequently, I argue in support of Paul Menzel's theory of health care distribution. More precisely, I concur with his claim that there is a moral duty to die inexpensively in health care contexts. Then I provide and defend a philosophical analysis of the conditions in which such a duty could exist.

  12. House of Lords debates assisted dying (again).

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Lord Joffe's Patient (Assisted Dying) Bill (see Bulletin 187) had its Second Reading on 6 June. The debate was lively, informed and inevitably somewhat polarised. However, some common themes emerged and are outlined below.

  13. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  14. Thick film silicon growth techniques. [die materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research which was directed toward finding an improved die material is reported. Wetting experiments were conducted with various materials to determine their compatibility with silicon. Work has also continued toward the development of quartz as a die material as new techniques have provided more optimistic results than observed in the past. As a result of the thermal modification previously described, improvements in growth stability have contributed to an increase in ribbon quality.

  15. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  16. Gastrointestinal Malignancy and the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Maria T.; Peek, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species participate in the genesis of a substantial number of malignancies—in conservative estimates, at least 15% of all cancer cases are attributable to infectious agents. Little is known about the contribution of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome to the development of malignancies. Resident microbes can promote carcinogenesis by inducing inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, altering stem cell dynamics, and producing metabolites such as butyrate, which affect DNA integrity and immune regulation. Studies in humans and rodent models of cancer have identified effector species and relationships among members of the microbial community in the stomach and colon that increase the risk for malignancy. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome, or the immune response to such bacteria, could be developed to prevent or treat certain GI cancers. PMID:24406471

  17. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  18. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morlino, A; Rossi, M T; Fabrizio, T; Scutari, F

    2010-03-01

    Malignant fibroous histiocytoma (MFH) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma, that most frequently occurs in the muscles of the extremities and in abdominal or in retroperitoneal space of young adults. It is seldom confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is rarely diagnosed before excision and pathological exam, and has an unfavorable prognostic in some cases. This work reports the case of a 94 years old patient with originally cutaneous MFH stressing the importance of the early diagnosis.

  19. Endobronchial metastases from extrathoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Sebahat; Uçan, Eyüp S; Celik, Gülperi; Sener, Gülper; Sevinç, Can; Kilinç, Oğuz; Itil, Oya

    2005-01-01

    Endobronchial metastases (EBM) from extrapulmonary malignant tumors are rare. The most common extrathoracic malignancies associated with EBM are breast, renal and colorectal carcinomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and bronchoscopic aspects of patients with EBM who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2002. Data about patients' clinical conditions, symptoms, radiographic and endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination results were investigated. EBM was defined as bronchoscopically visible lesions histopathologically identical to the primary tumor in patients with extrapulmonary malignancies. We found 15 cases with EBM. Primary tumors included breast (3), colorectal (3), and renal (2) carcinomas; Malignant Melanoma (2); synovial sarcoma (1), ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma (1), pheochromocytoma (1), hypernephroma (1), and Hodgkin's Disease (1). The most common symptoms were dyspnea (80%), cough (66.6%) and hemoptysis (33.3%). Multiple (40%) or single (13.3%) pulmonary nodules, mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy (40%), and effusion (40%) were the most common radiographic findings. The mean interval from initial diagnosis to diagnosis of EBM was 32.8 months (range, 0-96 months) and median survival time was 18 months (range, 4-84). As a conclusion, various extrapulmonary tumors can metastasize to the bronchus. Symptoms and radiographic findings are similar with those in primary lung cancer. Therefore, EBM should be discriminated from primary lung cancer histopathologically. Although mean survival time is usually short, long-term survivors were reported. Consequently, treatment must be planned according to the histology of the primary tumor, evidence of metastasis to other sites and medical status of the patient.

  20. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  1. Targeting hedgehog in hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Irvine, David A; Copland, Mhairi

    2012-03-08

    The Hedgehog pathway is a critical mediator of embryonic patterning and organ development, including hematopoiesis. It influences stem cell fate, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in responsive tissues. In adult organisms, hedgehog pathway activity is required for aspects of tissue maintenance and regeneration; however, there is increasing awareness that abnormal hedgehog signaling is associated with malignancy. Hedgehog signaling is critical for early hematopoietic development, but there is controversy over its role in normal hematopoiesis in adult organisms where it may be dispensable. Conversely, hedgehog signaling appears to be an important survival and proliferation signal for a spectrum of hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, hedgehog signaling may be critical for the maintenance and expansion of leukemic stem cells and therefore provides a possible mechanism to selectively target these primitive cell subpopulations, which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Indeed, phase 1 clinical trials of hedgehog pathway inhibitors are currently underway to test this hypothesis in myeloid leukemias. This review covers: (1) the hedgehog pathway and its role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, (2) the recent development of clinical grade small molecule inhibitors of the pathway, and (3) the potential utility of hedgehog pathway inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in hemato-oncology.

  2. Living until we die: reflections on the dying person's spiritual agenda.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Herbert

    2006-03-01

    The spiritual agenda for the dying presumes a willingness to face the reality of imminent death. It also depends on support from caregivers who will encourage whatever agency is possible for the one who is dying. The spiritual practices that will enhance agency for the dying include remembering, thanking, relinquishing, waiting, and trusting. The absence of abandonment and the dependable presence of caregivers are essential to create communities and relationships in which hope can be found and sustained.

  3. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

  4. Naked megakaryocyte nuclei: a clue to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, M; Lefkowitz, E

    1977-10-01

    Bone marrow smears from 63 patients with various malignancies and a series of 51 controls were examined for the presence and percentage of naked megakaryocyte nuclei (NMN). Patients with malignancy had more than 15% NMN, which, when compared with the incidence in controls, was statistically significant. The etiology of this artifact is unknown. It is a clue to the presence of malignancy, and might be useful in following treated cases of malignancy for evidence of relapse. NMN should not be confused with metastatic malignant cells.

  5. Thermal Modelling In Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasgado, M. T. Alonso; Davey, K.; Watari, H.

    2004-06-01

    The pressure die casting process is cyclic and the temperature levels in the die are principally dictated by the total energy received from the casting. It is thus extremely important that any solidification model for the casting is able to predict energy extraction rates to a high degree of accuracy. In this paper an efficient three dimensional hybrid thermal model for the pressure die casting process is described. The finite element method (FEM) is used for modelling heat transfer in the casting, coupled to a boundary element (BE) model for the die. The FEM can efficiently account for the non-linearity introduced by the release of latent heat on solidification, whereas the BEM is ideally suited for modelling linear heat conduction in the die, as surface temperatures are of principal importance. The FE formulation for the casting is based on a control volume capacitance method, which is shown to provide high accuracy and stability. This method is similar to the apparent and effective heat capacitance methods, which are popular approaches used where conduction predominates over other heat transfer mechanisms. These methods involve the specification of element or nodal capacitances to accommodate for the release of latent heat. Unfortunately they suffer from a major drawback in that energy is not correctly transported through elements and so providing a source of inaccuracy. The control volume capacitance method allows for the transport of mass arising from volumetric shrinkage and ensures that energy is correctly transported. The BE model caters for surface phenomena such as boiling in the cooling channels, which is important, as this effectively controls the manner in which energy is extracted. The die temperature is decomposed into two components, one a steady-state part and the other a time-dependent perturbation. This approach enables the transient die temperatures to be calculated in an efficient way, since only die surfaces close to the die cavity are

  6. Temozolomide and radiation for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies.

    PubMed

    Loh, Kenneth C; Willert, Jennifer; Meltzer, Hal; Roberts, William; Kerlin, Bryce; Kadota, Richard; Levy, Michael; White, Greg; Geddis, Amy; Schiff, Deborah; Martin, Laura; Yu, Alice; Kung, Faith; Spear, Matthew A

    2005-05-01

    This study describes the outcomes of children treated with combinations of temozolomide and radiation therapy for various aggressive central nervous system malignancies. Their age at diagnosis ranged from 1 to 15 years. Patients with focal disease were treated with concomitant temozolomide (daily 75 mg/m) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in a dose that ranged from 50 to 54 Gy, followed by temozolomide (200 mg/m/d x 5 days/month in three patients, 150 mg/m x 5 days/ month in one patient). Patients with disseminated disease were treated with craniospinal radiation (39.6 Gy) before conformal boost. One patient received temozolomide (200 mg/m x 5 days/month) before craniospinal radiation, and one patient received temozolomide (daily 95 mg/m) concomitant with craniospinal radiation and a radiosurgical boost, followed by temozolomide (200 mg/m x 5 days/month). Three patients achieved a partial response during treatment, with two of these patients dying of progressive disease after treatment. One patient has no evidence of disease. Three patients achieved stable disease, with one of these patients dying of progressive disease after treatment. Toxicities observed included low-grade neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia. The combination of temozolomide and radiotherapy appears to be well tolerated in a variety of treatment schemas for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies. This information is of particular use in designing future studies, given the recent positive results in a randomized study examining the use of temozolomide concomitant with radiation in the treatment of adult glioblastoma.

  7. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  8. Malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of asbestos insulation workers: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, J; Lilis, R; Suzuki, Y; Penner, L; Selikoff, I J

    1988-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma has been rare in the general population. In recent decades its incidence has risen dramatically, parallel to the increasing use of asbestos in industry since 1930. Altogether 17,800 asbestos insulation workers, members of the International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Asbestos Workers (AFL-CIO-CLC) in the United States and Canada, were enrolled for prospective study on 1 January 1967 and followed up to the present. Every death that occurs is investigated by our laboratory. One hundred and seventy five deaths from mesothelioma occurred among the 2221 men who died in 1967-76 and 181 more such deaths in the next eight years. Altogether, 356 workers had died of malignant mesothelioma (pleural or peritoneal) by 1984. Diagnosis of mesothelioma was accepted only after all available clinical, radiological, and pathological material was reviewed by our laboratory and histopathological confirmation by the pathology unit made in each case. One hundred and thirty four workers died of pleural and 222 of peritoneal mesothelioma. Age at onset of exposure, age at onset of the disease, and age at death were similar in both groups of patients. Significant difference was noted only in the time elapsed from onset of exposure to the development of first symptoms, which was longer in the group with peritoneal mesothelioma. Shortness of breath, either new or recently increased, and chest pain were the most frequent presenting symptoms in the group with pleural mesothelioma; abdominal pain and distension were frequent in the patients with peritoneal mesothelioma. Pleural effusion or ascites were found in most patients. The most effective approach to the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma in these cases was by open lung biopsy; exploratory laparotomy was best for diagnosing peritoneal mesothelioma. Patients with pleural mesothelioma died principally from pulmonary insufficiency whereas those with peritoneal mesothelioma succumbed after a

  9. Compassionate community networks: supporting home dying.

    PubMed

    Abel, Julian; Bowra, Jon; Walter, Tony; Howarth, Glennys

    2011-09-01

    How may communities be mobilised to help someone dying at home? This conceptual article outlines the thinking behind an innovative compassionate community project being developed at Weston-super-Mare, UK. In this project, a health professional mentors the dying person and their carer to identify and match: (a) the tasks that need to be done and (b) the members of their social network who might help with these tasks. Network members may subsequently join a local volunteer force to assist others who are network poor. Performing practical tasks may be more acceptable to some family, friends and neighbours than having to engage in a conversation about dying, and provides a familiarity with dying that is often lacking in modern societies, so in this model, behavioural change precedes attitudinal change. The scheme rejects a service delivery model of care in favour of a community development model, but differs from community development schemes in which the mentor is a volunteer rather than a health professional, and also from those approaches that strive to build community capacity before any one individual dying person is helped. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed. There is a need for evaluation of this and similar schemes, and for basic research into naturally occurring resource mobilisation at the end of life.

  10. [Malignant infantile osteopetrosis revealed by choanal atresia: A case report].

    PubMed

    Ba, I D; Ba, A; Thiongane, A; Ly/Ba, A; Ba, M; Fattah, M; Faye, P M; Cissé, D F; Diouf, F N

    2016-05-01

    Malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by increased bone density due to osteoclastic dysfunction. We report on the case of a 3-month-old girl who was referred to our hospital by the ENT department for severe anemia in the context of bilateral choanal atresia. Clinical examination showed failure to thrive, anemia, respiratory distress, bilateral choanal atresia, and chest deformation. The abdomen was soft with large hepatosplenomegaly. We noted a lack of eye tracking, no optical-visual reflexes, and left nerve facial paralysis. The blood count showed normocytic normochromic anemia with severe thrombocytopenia. The infectious work-up and blood smears were negative. The skeleton X-ray showed diffuse bone densification of the skull, long bones, pelvis, vertebrae, and ribs. The facial bone CT confirmed membranous choanal atresia. The molecular biology search for the TCIRG1 gene mutation was not available. The patient had supportive treatment (transfusion, oral steroid, vitamin D, oxygen, nutrition). Bone marrow transplantation was indicated but not available. She died at 6 months in a context of severe anemia and bleeding. Malignant infantile osteopetrosis is rare and symptoms are nonspecific. Diagnosis should be considered in young infants presenting refractory anemia, particularly in the context of choanal atresia. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only curative treatment.

  11. Meningioma after radiotherapy for malignancy.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Peter F; Shah, Kalee; Dunkel, Ira J; Reiner, Anne S; Khakoo, Yasmin; Rosenblum, Marc K; Gutin, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Complications of radiation exposure have gained importance with increasing cancer survivorship. Secondary malignancies have been associated with cranial radiation exposure. We present our experience with intracranial radiation-induced meningioma (RIM) and discuss the implications of its presentation and natural history for patient management. Patients diagnosed with meningioma who had received radiation therapy between 1960 and 2014 were identified. Records were retrospectively reviewed for details of radiation exposure, previous malignancies, meningioma subtypes, multiplicity and pathologic descriptions, treatment and follow-up. Thirty patients were diagnosed with RIM. Initial malignancies included acute lymphocytic leukemia (33.3%), medulloblastoma (26.7%) and glioma (16.7%) at a mean age of 8.1years (range 0.04-33years). The mean radiation dose was 34Gy (range 16-60Gy) and latency time to meningioma was 26years (range 8-51years). Twenty-one patients (70%) underwent surgery. Of these, 57.1% of tumors were World Health Organization (WHO) grade I while 42.9% were WHO II (atypical). The mean MIB-1 labeling index for patients with WHO I tumors was 5.44%, with 33.3% exhibiting at least 5% staining. Mean follow-up after meningioma diagnosis was 5.8years. Mortality was zero during the follow-up period. Meningioma is an important long-term complication of therapeutic radiation. While more aggressive pathology occurs more frequently in RIM than in sporadic meningioma, it remains unclear whether this translates into an effect on survival. Further study should be aimed at delineating the risks and benefits of routine surveillance for the development of secondary neoplasms after radiation therapy.

  12. [Lymphadenopathy: demarcation to malignant lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Feller, A C

    2013-05-01

    Recognition of the differential diagnosis between lymphadenitis and malignant lymphoma requires good knowledge of the basic forms of the disease as well in depth knowledge of the structure of the individual compartments. There are defined forms of lymphadenitis where the differential diagnosis to certain lymphoma entities is known. Other reactive structural alterations show indistinct limits so that a decision is only possible after using additional techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and molecular analyses. Finally, there are marginal areas which can only be clarified by including clinical data.

  13. Killing, letting die and moral perception.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant

    1994-10-01

    There are a number of arguments that purport to show, in general terms, that there is no difference between killing and letting die. These are used to justify active euthanasia on the basis of the reasons given for allowing patients to die. I argue that the general and abstract arguments fail to take account of the complex and particular situations which are found in the care of those with terminal illness. When in such situations, there are perceptions and intuitions available that do not easily find propositional form but lead most of those whose practice is in the care of the dying to resist active euthanasia. I make a plea for their intuitions to be heeded above the sterile voice of abstract premises and arguments by examining the completeness of the outline form of the pro-euthanasia argument. In doing so, I make use of Nussbaum's discussion of moral perception and general claims to be found in the literature of moral particularism.

  14. CAE Based Die Face Engineering Development to Contribute to the Revitalization of the Tool & Die Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing C.; St. Pierre, Shawn; He, Jeanne; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin C.

    2005-08-01

    Over the past two decades, the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have emerged as one of the most important engineering tools in various industries, due to its flexibility and accuracy in prediction. Nowadays, CAE tools are widely used in the sheet metal forming industry to predict the forming feasibility of a wide variety of complex components, ranging from aerospace and automotive components to household products. As the demand of CAE based formability accelerates, the need for a robust and streamlined die face engineering tool becomes more crucial, especially in the early stage when the tooling layout is not available, but a product design decision must be made. Ability to generate blank, binder and addendum surfaces with an appropriate layout of Drawbead, Punch Opening Line, Trim Line are the primary features and functions of a CAE based die face engineering tool. Once the die face layout is ready, a formability study should be followed to verify the die face layout is adequate to produce a formable part. If successful, the established die face surface should be exported back to the CAD/CAM environment to speed up the tooling and manufacturing design process with confidence that this particular part is formable with this given die face. With a CAE tool as described above, the tool & die industry will be greatly impacted as the processes will enable the bypass of hardware try-out and shorten the overall vehicle production timing. The trend has shown that OEMs and first tiers will source to low cost producers in the world which will have a negative impact to the traditional tool & die makers in the developed countries. CAE based tool as described should be adopted, along with many other solutions, in order to maintain efficiency of producing high quality product and meeting time-to-market requirements. This paper will describe how a CAE based die face engineering (DFE) tool could be further developed to enable the traditional tool & die makers to meet the

  15. [Diabetes in patients with malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Zoltán; Boér, Katalin; Halászlaki, Csaba; Németh, Zsuzsanna

    2013-09-01

    Disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism are fairly common is patients with malignancy. On the other hand, diabetes appears to have an effect on the development and progression of various tumors. Malignant diseases and the therapies used in their treatment often have an impact on carbohydrate metabolism, while diabetes may hinder specific oncotherapy or influence oncological therapeutic decisions. Several complications of malignant diseases and some of the medications used in their treatment, such as steroids or parenteral nutrition, may raise blood glucose levels. The various obstacles of oral nutrition frequently seen in patients with malignancy can lead to hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes. Our article endeavours to review the pathophysiological and clinical connection between diabetes and malignant diseases and the use of insulin, oral antidiabetic drugs and diet in patients with malignant disease.

  16. Die Arbeitsunfähigkeit in der Statistik der GKV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Klaus

    Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt anhand der Statistiken des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit (BMG) einen Überblick über die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsdaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenkassen (GKV). Zunächst werden die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsstatistiken der Krankenkassen und die Erfassung der Arbeitsunfähigkeit erläutert. Hiernach wird auf die Entwicklung der Fehlzeiten auf GKV-Ebene eingegangen. Ebenfalls wird Bezug auf die Unterschiede der Fehlzeiten zwischen den verschiedenen Kassen genommen.

  17. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  18. Malignant melanoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, B. K.; Holman, C. D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) in sunlight is thought to be the main cause of malignant melanoma in lightly-pigmented populations. Individuals with fair skin, fair hair, blue eyes and/or a tendency to burn rather than tan when exposed to the sun are at particularly high risk of melanoma and should be given special attention in primary prevention programmes. Intermittent exposure to the sun, as in recreational exposure, may be a more potent cause of melanoma than more continuous exposure. Primary prevention offers the best prospects for a substantial reduction in mortality from malignant melanoma. However, there is little evidence available to judge the effectiveness of primary prevention of melanoma through reduction of exposure to the sun. Education for reducing exposure to the sun is common in high-risk populations but has never been evaluated adequately. Mortality from melanoma could also possibly be reduced by earlier diagnosis through education or screening of high-risk groups. Regular screening of patients with the familial dysplastic naevus syndrome should reduce their mortality from melanoma. PMID:3301043

  19. Oncolytic Virotherapy for Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Swarna; Bartee, Eric; Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma (MM), and the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) primarily affect adults and are difficult to treat. For high-risk disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) can be used. However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. Ex vivo manipulations of the autograft to purge cancer cells using chemotherapies and toxins have been attempted. Because these past strategies lack specificity for malignant cells and often impair the normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, prior efforts to ex vivo purge autografts have resulted in prolonged cytopenias and graft failure. The ideal ex vivo purging agent would selectively target the contaminating cancer cells while spare normal stem and progenitor cells and would be applied quickly without toxicities to the recipient. One agent which meets these criteria is oncolytic viruses. This paper details experimental progress with reovirus, myxoma virus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackievirus, and vaccinia virus as well as requirements for translation of these results to the clinic. PMID:22312362

  20. Primary retroperitoneal malignant melanoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, GUO-BING; WU, GUANG-YAO; GHIMIRE, PRASANNA; ZHANG, ZAI-PENG

    2011-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma occurring at an extra cutaneous site is rare. A case of primary malignant melanoma located in the retroperitoneum of an 18-year-old female is presented in this study. Histopathological examination of the tissue biopsies at laparotomy with immunohistochemical stains confirmed a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Further extensive clinical and radiological investigations proved the retroperitoneum to be the primary site. PMID:22848275

  1. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-28

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  2. Effect of Die Strength and Work Piece Strength on the Wear of Hot Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the strength ratio extracted from an Archard model for wear is used to describe the wear rates expected in hot forging dies. In the current study, the strength ratio is the strength of the hot forging die to the strength of the work piece. Three hot forging die steels are evaluated. The three die steels are FX, 2714, and WF. To determine the strength of the forging die, a continuous function has been developed that describes the yield strength of three die steels for temperatures from 600 to 700 °C and for times up to 20 h (i.e., tempering times of up to 20 h). The work piece material is assumed to be AISI 1045. Based on the analysis, the wear resistance of WF should be superior and FX should be slightly better than 2714. Decreasing the forging temperature increases the strength ratio, because the strength of the die surface increases faster than the flow strength of AISI 1045. The increase in the strength ratio indicates a decrease in the expected wear rate.

  3. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  4. Investigation of Die Stress Profiles during Powder Compaction using Instrumented Die

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The radial stress profile in a cylindrical die during compaction of titanium (Ti) powder was investigated by experiments. The concept of an instrumented die was extended to design an enhanced instrumented die. Custom-made strain gage pins were used to measure the radial stress during powder compaction. The test fixture was designed to simulate double-action pressing. The measured die stress profile for Ti powder was compared with that for a commercially available iron (Fe) powder. The stress history shows that an appreciable residual stress remains in the die in the radial direction after the axial compaction stress is removed from the powder. Furthermore, the radial stress profile in the die, while under maximum axial compaction stress, is more uniform across the height of the Fe compact than that of the Ti compact. In addition, the residual stress profile in the die in the radial direction reduces symmetrically in both directions beyond the height of the compact for both powders. Finally, the Ti powder shows a significantly higher frictional coefficient at the maximum axial compaction stress, and consequently a higher maximum axial ejection stress than the Fe powder.

  5. A profile of silicosis cases who died.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H

    1982-01-01

    Silicosis cases which had been notified by doctors and confirmed after investigations were followed up by the Industrial Health Division. Up to August 1981, a total of 313 persons were confirmed as having the disease. Of these, 59 had died. The majority of these 59 persons had had their silica exposure in the granite quarries. 13 had been exposed to "rubber powder" which contained a high percentage of free silica. 52 of those who died were male, and their average age at death was 60.87 years. This did not appear to be significantly shorter than their life expectancy of 65.1 years. But the average age of death for the 7 women was 58.86 years, which was much shorter than their life expectancy of 70 years. Many of the men died from causes unrelated to silicosis. But 6 of the 7 women had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) and they apparently died of the disease or complications arising from it.

  6. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  7. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  8. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  9. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  10. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  11. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  12. Counseling Older Persons: Careers, Retirement, Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinick, Daniel

    The focus of this monograph is on three areas of counseling with older clients: career counseling, retirement counseling, and counseling regarding death and dying. The portion on career counseling includes reasons older persons change careers, obstacles they are likely to face when seeking employment, myths surrounding the employability of older…

  13. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  14. [Companionship for women dying of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Gerlach, E

    1999-01-01

    This report reflects the experience of accompanying HIV-infected women during the process of dying using their curriculi vitae as examples of different modes of dealing with fatal illness. The text contains paintings of past and contemporary art concerning death and eros and poetry as a form of therapy.

  15. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  16. Malignant Mesothelioma: Development to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Joyce; Westbom, Catherine; Shukla, Arti

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of the mesothelium caused by asbestos. Asbestos use has been reduced but not completely stopped. In addition, natural or man-made disasters will continue to dislodge asbestos from old buildings into the atmosphere and as long as respirable asbestos is available, MM will continue to be a threat. Due to the long latency period of MM development, it would still take decades to eradicate this disease if asbestos was completely removed from our lives today. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and clinicians to work together to understand this deadly disease and find a solution for early diagnosis and treatment. This article focuses on developmental mechanisms as well as current therapies available for MM. PMID:23959774

  17. Isolated urachal malakoplakia mimicking malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Pakalapati, Saisriharsha; Parachuri, Sanjay; Kakarla, Venkateshwara Rao; Byrappa, Mahesh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Malakoplakia is an unusual inflammatory disease with uncertain pathogenesis affecting any organ in the body, but predominantly genitourinary tract, with specific predilection to the bladder. We report a rare case of isolated malakoplakia of the urachus in a 29-year-old male patient who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms without any hematuria. Investigations revealed sterile pyuria with no bacterial growth in urine. Radiological investigations revealed a mass in the urachal region. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy followed by pelvic lymph node dissection and partial cystectomy with excision of the urachal mass. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed malakoplakia. Postoperative course was uneventful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case report of isolated urachal malakoplakia without any concomitant malignancy or bladder involvement reported in our country and one of the very few reported worldwide. PMID:28216941

  18. Secondary malignancies following cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Kaldor, J M

    1994-01-01

    Many agents used in cancer chemotherapy are known carcinogens. However, few secondary malignancies have been definitely linked to chemotherapy, since studies on this problem are complicated by methodological problems. A causal relationship has been established between alkylating agents and leukaemia and between cyclophosphamide and bladder cancer. The risk of leukaemia peaks at 5-10 years after beginning of chemotherapy and declines steadily after its end. The interaction between chemotherapy and radiotherapy has not been fully clarified, nor has the leukaemogenic potency of individual drugs, although combinations without nitrogen mustard seem to entail a lower risk. Other tumours reported at increased incidence, in particular among Hodgkin's disease patients, for whom a carcinogenic effect of chemotherapy seems plausible, are non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lung cancer. Other secondary solid tumors have also been reported, but for none of them an independent effect of chemotherapy has been demonstrated.

  19. Diffuse Malignant Mesothelioma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rom, William N.; Lockey, James E.

    1982-01-01

    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma is a signal tumor of asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma incidence has been steadily rising during the past two decades, reflecting the increases in asbestos use during and following World War II. The onset of the disease follows exposure by 25 to 40 years. The dose-response relationship appears to be much lower than that for asbestosis or lung cancer—it is not known whether current levels of exposure will entail a risk for disease 30 years hence. There is no synergistic or additive interaction with smoking for this tumor. Current knowledge indicates that pleural plaques, per se, do not increase the risk for this tumor beyond that of the previous asbestos exposure alone. Durable fibers with high aspect ratios, especially amphiboles, are associated with experimental tumor induction. Treatment modalities including surgical procedures and chemotherapy with doxorubicin and 5-azacytidine offer prospects for palliation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:6761970

  20. Clinical Management of Malignant Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Foreman-Larkin, Julie; Netland, Peter A.; Salim, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Malignant glaucoma remains one of the most challenging complications of ocular surgery. Although it has been reported to occur spontaneously or after any ophthalmic procedure, it is most commonly encountered after glaucoma surgery in eyes with prior chronic angle closure. The clinical diagnosis is made in the setting of a patent peripheral iridotomy and axial flattening of the anterior chamber. Intraocular pressure is usually elevated, but it may be normal in some cases. Although the exact etiology of this condition is not fully understood, several mechanisms have been proposed and it is thought to result from posterior misdirection of aqueous humor into or behind the vitreous. This review discusses pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, imaging modalities, and current treatment strategies for this rare form of secondary glaucoma. PMID:26819754

  1. Rare Malignant Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Trevor; Albarracin, Constance; Carkaci, Selin; Whitman, Gary J; Adrada, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    While the more common forms of breast cancer are well understood and recognized, there are many important rare malignancies that are less appreciated. Many of these cancers have imaging findings that, when understood, help to formulate a more educated differential diagnosis. In this article, the clinical features, imaging, and pathologic findings of rare breast malignancies will be discussed. PMID:26664775

  2. Rare Malignant Tumors of the Breast.

    PubMed

    Miller, Trevor; Albarracin, Constance; Carkaci, Selin; Whitman, Gary J; Adrada, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    While the more common forms of breast cancer are well understood and recognized, there are many important rare malignancies that are less appreciated. Many of these cancers have imaging findings that, when understood, help to formulate a more educated differential diagnosis. In this article, the clinical features, imaging, and pathologic findings of rare breast malignancies will be discussed.

  3. Malignant gonadal tumour formation in intersexual states

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, H. W. S.

    1975-01-01

    Two cases of malignant tumour are reported in phenotypically male hermaphrodites. The importance of establishing the presence of persistent Müllerian duct structures in pseudo-hermaphrodites is discussed in relation to prophylactic castration in anticipation of malignant change. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:1197157

  4. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid].

    PubMed

    Rossi, P; Ducasse, A; Pluot, M; Brugniart, C; Gotzamanis, A; Jouhaud, F

    2002-12-01

    Fibrous histiocytomas, mostly benign, have often been reported in the orbit, but only four lesions have been described on the eyelids, with only one malignant. The authors present a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid in a 76-year-old woman with a difficult histological diagnosis. Characteristics of this pathology are explained from data in the literature.

  5. Malignant ameloblastoma: classification, diagnostic, and therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Verneuil, Andrew; Sapp, Philip; Huang, Catherine; Abemayor, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasm of the mandible and maxilla that rarely exhibits malignant behavior. We report the case of an aggressive malignant ameloblastoma of the mandible that presented with an unusual multiphasic, histologic pattern. Initial fine needle aspiration and radiographic findings showed features consistent with a benign, fibro-osseous lesion. However, aggressive growth and the association of enlarged submandibular lymph nodes suggested a more malignant potential. Treatment consisted of an angle-to-angle composite mandibular resection, right modified neck dissection, left functional supraomohyoid neck dissection, and anterior chin skin resection with iliac crest osteocutaneous free flap reconstruction. Microscopic evaluation showed primarily malignant ameloblastoma without cellular atypia and extensive fields of fibro-osseous tissue with smaller fields of clear cell odontogenic tumor. This multiphasic, histologic arrangement may explain the perplexing preoperative microscopic diagnosis, suggesting a benign fibro-osseous lesion. Of the lymph nodes analyzed, one from the right submandibular triangle exhibited metastatic, benign-appearing ameloblastoma without fibro-osseous or clear cell features. The absence of cellular features of malignancy in the tumor mass and lymph node metastasis suggest that the lesion should be classified as malignant ameloblastoma rather than ameloblastic carcinoma or odontogenic carcinoma. A malignant ameloblastoma with all 3 of the aforementioned microscopic features has not been previously reported. We review the classification of epithelial odontogenic malignancies. Lesions showing multiphasic patterns can create diagnostic dilemmas and may require extensive surgical sampling and/or removal to establish an accurate diagnosis.

  6. Primary Ovarian Malignant PEComa: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Westaby, Joseph D; Magdy, Nesreen; Fisher, Cyril; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-09-28

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm characterized by expression of both melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. PEComas are rarely encountered in the female genital tract. We here report a case of malignant primary PEComa of the ovary, and discuss the differential diagnosis. This represents the first case of primary typical malignant PEComa of the ovary.

  7. [Malignant schwannoma metastasizing to the heart].

    PubMed

    Menezes Júnior, A da S; Greco, O T; Fiorini, M; Pavarino, P; Corbucci, H; Caixeta, A M

    1992-01-01

    We introduce the case of a 34-year-old male with a malignant metastasizing tumor in the heart associated with skin manifestations. The patient was submitted to heart surgery to resect the tumor. The correct diagnosis was done by pathological findings and immunohistochemical methods and showed, malignant schwannoma.

  8. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

  9. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  10. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor in retroperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yihong; Chu, Xi; Yi, Ye; Tong, Liang; Dai, Yingbo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor occurs in various sites. Malignant SFT in retroperitoneum is extremely rare. Patient concerns: We report a case of malignant retroperitoneal SFT in a 59-year-old man presented with right flank pain for 1 month. Diagnoses, interventions and outcomes: A laparotomy and resection of the tumor were performed, the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with malignant retroperitoneal SFT. No adjuvant treatment was performed, and the patient had no signs of recurrence or metastasis at the 12 months follow-up. Lessons: Complete surgical excision is the basic treatment principle for malignant retroperitoneal SFT. The histologic features and the Ki-67 label index are helpful for the diagnosis of malignant SFT. PMID:28296778

  11. First surgical tumour reduction of peritoneal surface malignancy in a rat's model.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jens; Kilian, Maik; Atanassov, Vladimir; Braumann, Chris; Ordemann, Juergen; Jacobi, Christoph A

    2008-01-01

    Surgical therapy of peritoneal surface malignancy from colorectal origin in combination with Hyperthermic Intraoperative Peritoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) has now become an established treatment approach in very few specialised centres. A peritonectomy procedure is possible to perform with additional HIPEC in patients. An experimental model to simulate peritonectomy procedure and HIPEC does not exist so far in rats. Nevertheless, animal models seem to be very important for evaluation of new therapeutic opportunities and toxicity of different multimodal therapies. In a first step we analysed the surgical tumour debulking of peritoneal surface malignancy in rats. A peritoneal surface malignancy from colonic origin was induced in 75 male BD IX rats. Twenty one days after induction of peritoneal surface malignancy rats were randomised and animals intend to create an operation with surgical tumour debulking. There was no tumour growth in two animals. The aim of the peritonectomy procedure was the complete tumour reduction. In this study the results of the surgical approach will be described. A complete tumour reduction (R0) was achieved in 34 animals. In 39 rats a macroscopic tumour deposit was left behind (R2). The intraoperative experimental Peritoneal Cancer Index (ePCI) was used to describe tumour weight and number of tumour inoculations. Both parameters were found to be dependent factors of complete tumour reduction. Six animals died due to therapeutical interventions. Surgical tumour debulking in rats with peritoneal surface malignancy is possible with high reliability and a low mortality rate. This animal model could be an important step for investigation of multimodal treatment options and toxicity in treatment regimens of peritoneal surface malignancy.

  12. [Efficacy and problems of radio- and chemo-combination therapy for malignant bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, S; Isu, K; Ubayama, Y; Goto, T; Goto, M; Kagami, Y; Ishii, S; Usui, M; Sasaki, T; Yagi, T

    1988-04-01

    In this study we reviewed cases of osteosarcoma, malignant lymphoma of bone and Ewing's sarcoma. Historically, osteosarcoma was unresponsive to chemotherapy. Most patients were treated by radiation or amputation alone and 80% of them died from pulmonary metastasis within 2 years. Five-year survival rate was 13%. Introduction of ADM, HD-MTX and CDDP improved dramatically the prognosis of these cases. Five-year survival rate was 60%. On the other hand, 11 cases of malignant lymphoma of bone and 4 cases of Ewing's sarcoma were treated by radiation with no local recurrence. VEPA or CHOP chemotherapy was used for the former with a five-year survival rate of 45%. For the latter, T-11 protocol (Rosen) was applied, and all patients survive with no metastasis. Other organ injuries circulatory disturbance, bone necrosis and growth-disturbance of bone in radiotherapy, myocardiopathy caused by ADM and renal toxicity of CDDP are all problematic.

  13. Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections in Pediatric Malignancy Patients: A Seven-Year Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Düzgöl, Mine; Özek, Gülcihan; Bayram, Nuri; Oymak, Yeşim; Kara, Ahu; Demirağ, Bengü; Karapınar, Tuba Hilkay; Ay, Yılmaz; Vergin, Canan; Devrim, İlker

    2016-01-01

    Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is a benign self-limited disease. In this study, we review our experience in focusing on the outcome and treatment of VZV infection in pediatric malignancy patients. During the study period, a total of 41 patients with pediatric malignancy had been hospitalized with the diagnosis of VZV infection. All the patients were treated with intravenous acyclovir for a median of 7 days (ranging from 5 to 21 days). The calculated attributable delay of chemotherapy due to VZV infections was 8 days (ranging from 2 to 60 days). VZV-related complications were observed in 3 of 41 patients (7%) who suffered from acute respiratory distress syndrome, and one of them with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis died due to respiratory failure despite acyclovir and broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment plus supportive treatment. VZV infections are still important contagious diseases in pediatric cancer patients, because they cause not only significant mortality but also a delay in chemotherapy. PMID:27751970

  14. Cerebral Metastasis of a Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kolias, Angelos G; Allinson, Kieren; Santarius, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm that was thought to be a localised disease with limited metastatic capability. However, recent post-mortem studies have identified metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) in about 3% of cases. Case Description: We present the case of a 65-year-old with a solitary supratentorial metastatic deposit of MPM treated with surgical resection and adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy. Despite a good surgical outcome with symptomatic recovery, the patient died of cardiopulmonary compromise five months postoperatively. Conclusions: Although rare, CNS metastasis of MPM is a condition that neurosurgeons should be aware of. CNS metastases may occur via three distinct mechanisms, namely perineural spread, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis and, most commonly, haematogenous spread leading to parenchymal deposits. Surgical resection of these deposits can lead to symptomatic improvement, and together with radiotherapy, to local disease control. However, the overall survival remains poor. PMID:26180665

  15. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed Central

    Mermann, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377

  16. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  17. Clayton's compromises and the assisted dying debate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Richard Huxtable has recently argued that while assisted dying has been both repeatedly condemned and commended, a compromise resolution is possible. Following critique of other purported solutions, he argues for a new legal offence of "compassionate killing" as a plausible compromise between supporters and opponents of legalised assisted dying, because it offers something of significance to both sides. However, it turns out that "compassionate killing" would leave both sides with insufficient net benefit for the proposal to qualify as a compromise between them. By analogy with another apparently intractable bioethical debate, concerning destructive embryo research, this column rejects Huxtable's solution as another "Clayton's compromise". True compromise is not possible in bioethical debates involving divisions over deeply held values and world views. Resolving such debates inevitably involves the substitution of one dominant world view with another.

  18. [Malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumours: Two case reports and complete review of the literature cases].

    PubMed

    Le Fèvre, C; Castelli, J; Perrin, C; Hénaux, P L; Noël, G

    2016-04-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours are extremely rare and can be associated with neurofibramatosis type 1. Their prognosis is poor and surgery remains the mainstay of therapy and should be the first line of treatment. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are second line treatment and their effectiveness remains to demonstrate. The diagnosis is clinical, radiological, histological and immunohistochemical. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours have a potential of local tumour recurrence very high and can metastasize. They often occur in extremity of the members but also rarely into brain. We report two cases of intracerebral nerve sheath tumour. The first was a 68-year-old woman who was admitted with progressive symptoms of headache and diplopia. A left frontotemporal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours was diagnosed and was treated by surgery and irradiation. Ten months later, she presented a local recurrence and spine bone's metastases were treated by vertebroplasty and irradiation. The patient died 15 months after the diagnosis. The second case was a 47-year-old woman who was referred because headache and vomiting symptoms. A right frontal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours was diagnosed and treated by surgery and irradiation. After that, the patient had three local recurrence operated and pulmonary and cranial bone's metastases. She was still alive after 20 months. We propose a literature review with 25 cases of intracerebral nerve sheath tumour identified, including the two current cases.

  19. Organ transplantation from donors (cadaveric or living) with a history of malignancy: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Yuan, Jin; Li, Wei; Ye, Qifa

    2014-10-01

    The evolution of organ transplantation has resulted in extended lifespan as well as better life quality of patients with end-stage diseases, which in turn causes an increased demand for organs. The persistent organ shortage requires a careful reconsideration of potential donors (living or cadaveric) that have current or historical malignancies. Donors with low-grade skin tumors, carcinomas in situ of the uterine cervix, and primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors can be considered as potential donors for recipients dying on wait list longing for organ transplantation. Recently, transplant centers have turned to other types of malignancies including low grade renal cell carcinoma, prostate, ureteral, endometrial and breast cancer, and favorable outcomes have been shown in such innovations. When considering donors with a history of malignancy, general biologic behavior of the tumor type, histology and stage at the time of diagnosis, and the length of disease-free interval should be considered (Transplantation 2002;74(12):1657-1663). With the review of literatures, we illustrate the organ utilization from donors with malignancies all around the world since earlier times and give some suggestions for decision making under the circumstance of whether to choose those marginal donors or not on the basis of reviewed literatures.

  20. Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164254.html Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study Slight differences in death rates were possibly ... likely to die if they are treated during weeks that inspectors are checking on the staff, a ...

  1. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  2. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  3. Malignant mesothelioma in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwok C; Leung, Chi C; Tam, Cheuk M; Yu, Wai C; Hui, David S; Lam, Wah K

    2006-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (mesothelioma) is rare. We conducted the first systematic study of the epidemiology of mesothelioma in Hong Kong from 1988 to May 2002 by reviewing medical records. Mesothelioma patients were identified from the database of 12 out of 20 hospitals that would have admitted mesothelioma patients territory-wide. These 12 hospitals served 73% of the total hospital bed-years of the 20 hospitals. We identified 67 mesothelioma patients. The estimated annual incidence was one per million, which was similar to the background incidence of one to two per million among Caucasians. Occupational history was available in 43 subjects. Three quarters of mesothelioma patients with available occupational history had occupational asbestos exposure. Restricting analysis to 48 patients with accessible medical records and using 67 occupational asbestosis patients for comparison, the epidemiology of mesothelioma in Hong Kong shares similarities with the literature: mean age of 63 years upon diagnosis, mean latency of 46 years, median survival of 9.5 months, male predominance, selective presentation among women, high prevalence among workers in ships and dockyards, predominantly epithelioid type, lower prevalence of asbestos bodies, and negative association with pleural plaques. Asbestos consumption in Hong Kong rose in the 1970s and peaked in early 1980s and late 1990s. Hong Kong may encounter an epidemic of mesothelioma in the 2010s if effective occupational asbestos control measures are not in place.

  4. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J.; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted ‘breakthrough’ designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HAEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES

    PubMed Central

    Kulhara, P.; Verma, S.C.; Bambery, P.; Nehra, R.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMMARY Sixty nine patients with various types of haematological malignancies were studied. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (n =32) was the commonest diagnosis. The patients were assessed on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire and Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and those who had scores above the cut off points for Hamilton Rating Scale and/or PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire were assessed on Present State Examination. The patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months interval. At 3 months 51 patients were re-assessed whilst at 6 months only 26 could be re-evaluated. There were no significant changes in scores of Hamilton Rating scale and PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire at intake and subsequent follow-up assessments. No significant correlations between stressful life experience and severity of illness emerged. Twenty nine patients were interviewed on Present State Examination and of these 20 had diagnosable depressive neuroses- From consultation liaison psychiatric point of view, provision of psychiatric help to these patients is discussed. PMID:21927472

  6. Esophageal malignancy: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianyuan; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is mainly found in Asia and east Africa and is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. However, it has not garnered much attention in the Western world due to its low incidence rate. An increasing amount of data indicate that esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma, has been rising by 6-fold annually and is now becoming the fastest growing cancer in the United States. This rise has been associated with the increase of the obese population, as abdominal fat puts extra pressure on the stomach and causes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Long standing GERD can induce esophagitis and metaplasia and, ultimately, leads to adenocarcinoma. Acid suppression has been the main strategy to treat GERD; however, it has not been proven to control esophageal malignancy effectively. In fact, its side effects have triggered multiple warnings from regulatory agencies. The high mortality and fast growth of esophageal cancer demand more vigorous efforts to look into its deeper mechanisms and come up with better therapeutic options. PMID:23236223

  7. Novel immunotherapies for hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system is designed to discriminate between self and tumor tissue. Through genetic recombination, there is fundamentally no limit to the number of tumor antigens that immune cells can recognize. Yet, tumors use a variety of immunosuppressive mechanisms to evade immunity. Insight into how the immune system interacts with tumors is expanding rapidly and has accelerated the translation of immunotherapies into medical breakthroughs. Herein, we appraise the state of the art in immunotherapy with a focus on strategies that exploit the patient’s immune system to kill cancer. We review various forms of immune-based therapies, which have shown significant promise in patients with hematological malignancies, including (i) conventional monoclonal therapies like rituximab, (ii) engineered monoclonal antibodies called bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), (iii) monoclonal antibodies and pharmaceutical drugs that block inhibitory T-cell pathways (i.e. PD-1, CTLA-4 and IDO), and (iv) adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy with T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or T-cell receptors (TCRs). We also assess the idea of using these therapies in combination and conclude by suggesting multi-prong approaches to improve treatment outcomes and curative responses in patients. PMID:25510273

  8. Childhood malignancies and decision making.

    PubMed

    Holder, A R

    1992-01-01

    Failure to obtain "adequate" medical care for a child constitutes child neglect, which may be used as the basis for prosecution of parents, removal of the child from the home, or court-ordered medical treatment. "Adequate" care is usually construed as that which is given by a licensed physician, but, in case of dispute, courts almost never engage in choosing one medical approach over another. The principle that parents may not refuse medical care, however, is made very difficult when children have malignancies--the long-term nature of the treatment means that, if the child is left at home, court order or not, the parents may flee with their child. Removing the child from the home, however, adds that trauma to the ill child's burdens. Questions should be asked before making a request to a court to order a therapy which will prolong but not save a child's life if the parents would prefer to spare their child the side effects. Parents, however, may always refuse to permit their child to participate in research studies, no matter how promising. Adolescents are increasingly believed to be capable of medical decision making; most courts, however, would not allow an adolescent to refuse life-saving treatment.

  9. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Adam D; Ki, Dong Hyuk; He, Shuning; Look, A Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are tumors derived from Schwann cells or Schwann cell precursors. Although rare overall, the incidence of MPNST has increased with improved clinical management of patients with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor predisposition syndrome. Unfortunately, current treatment modalities for MPNST are limited, with no targeted therapies available and poor efficacy of conventional radiation and chemotherapeutic regimens. Many murine and zebrafish models of MPNST have been developed, which have helped to elucidate the genes and pathways that are dysregulated in MPNST tumorigenesis, including the p53, and the RB1, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, RAS-ERK and Wnt signaling pathways. Preclinical results have suggested that new therapies, including mTOR and ERK inhibitors, may synergize with conventional chemotherapy in human tumors. The discovery of new genome editing technologies, like CRISPR-cas9, and their successful application to the zebrafish model will enable rapid progress in the faithful modeling of MPNST molecular pathogenesis. The zebrafish model is especially suited for high throughput screening of new targeted therapeutics as well as drugs approved for other purposes, which may help to bring enhanced treatment modalities into human clinical trials for this devastating disease.

  10. Noncoding RNAs in endocrine malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kentwell, Jessica; Gundara, Justin S; Sidhu, Stan B

    2014-05-01

    Only recently has it been uncovered that the mammalian transcriptome includes a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. Among numerous kinds of ncRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs, have been extensively investigated with regard to their biogenesis, function, and importance in carcinogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have only recently been implicated in playing a key regulatory role in cancer biology. The deregulation of ncRNAs has been demonstrated to have important roles in the regulation and progression of cancer development. In this review, we describe the roles of both short noncoding RNAs (including microRNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and piwi-interacting RNAs) and lncRNAs in carcinogenesis and outline the possible underlying genetic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on clinical applications. The focus of our review includes studies from the literature on ncRNAs in traditional endocrine-related cancers, including thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine malignancies. The current and potential future applications of ncRNAs in clinical cancer research is also discussed, with emphasis on diagnosis and future treatment.

  11. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  12. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  13. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  14. Die and telescoping punch form convolutions in thin diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Die and punch set forms convolutions in thin dished metal diaphragm without stretching the metal too thin at sharp curvatures. The die corresponds to the metal shape to be formed, and the punch consists of elements that progressively slide against one another under the restraint of a compressed-air cushion to mate with the die.

  15. 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies Print A A ... Here are 5 ideas that might help you cope when someone you love has died: Join in ...

  16. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  17. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  18. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  19. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  20. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by...

  1. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  2. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  3. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  4. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  5. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will...

  6. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  7. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  8. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  9. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  10. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  11. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  12. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid...

  13. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  14. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no...

  15. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  16. Metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor involving the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J Jordi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases from malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast which subsequently metastasized to the right lower lobe of the lung 1 year after initial presentation, and to the right cerebellar hemisphere 2 years after diagnosis of her breast mass. After both chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy the patient is tumor free at most recent follow-up, 116 months after the breast tumor diagnosis was made. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell brain tumors is discussed.

  17. Cutaneous malignancies in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ivette M Sosa; Zubair, Adeel; Brewer, Jerry D

    2014-01-01

    During the past century, organ transplantation has delivered the miracle of life to more than 500,000 patients in need. Secondary malignancies have developed as an unforeseen consequence of intense immunosuppressive regimens. Cutaneous malignancies have been recognized as the most frequent cancer that arises post-transplantation. Among organ transplant recipients (OTRs), skin cancer is a substantial cause of morbidity and potential mortality. The authors discuss epidemiology and clinical presentation of cutaneous malignancies; associated risk factors; recommendation for the care of immunosuppressed OTRs, and emerging therapies on the horizon.

  18. Differentiating suicide decedents who died using firearms from those who died using other methods.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Joye C

    2017-02-22

    Studies have documented a link between gun ownership and suicide, but little is known about characteristics of those most likely to use a gun in a suicide attempt rather than alternative methods. We examined which factors differentiate suicide decedents who died using a gun from those who died by other methods. We further examined whether such findings are consistent within the subcomponent of our larger sample comprised entirely of gun owning suicide decedents. Data reflect 267 suicide decedents, with data provided by individuals who identified as having lost someone to suicide (loss survivors). Within the full sample, a higher proportion of gun-owning and male suicide decedents died by firearm. Further, individuals who had previously discussed suicide or engaged in one or more non-lethal suicide attempts were less likely to die by suicide using a gun. Within the subsample of gun owning suicide decedents, a greater proportion of decedents who stored guns at home and in unsecure locations died from self-inflected gunshot wounds. These findings add clarity to the relationship between firearm ownership and death by suicide at the individual level. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the notion that means safety implementation may represent a vital suicide prevention tool.

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  20. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  1. Malignant rectal melanoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Morlino, Andrea; La Torre, Giuseppe; Vitagliano, Giulia; Cammarota, Aldo

    2015-03-26

    Il Melanoma Anorettale è una malattia rara e aggressiva ed è il terzo tipo più comune di melanoma maligno dopo quello della cute e della retina. Il sintomo più comune è il sanguinamento rettale, che è spesso scambiato per sanguinamento associato a emorroidi. La diagnosi è molto difficile, e quella iniziale può essere corretta solo in circa 80% dei casi. Il caso clinico che proponiamo riguarda un uomo di 71 anni giunto alla nostra osservazione per dolore anale, tenesmo rettale, sanguinamento. L’eplorazione rettale ci ha mostrato una neofromazione dolorosa, di colorito brunastro nel canale anale. La colonscopia e la endoscopia hanno evidenziato la presenza di una grande massa stenotica interessante il canale anale ed il retto con un diametro di circa 90 mm. La biopsia è positiva per melanoma a cellule maligne pigmentate. La TAC ha mostrato un ispessimento della parete rettale e linfonodi nel tessuto adiposo, nel distretto otturatore bilaterale e metastasi polmonari bilaterali. Il dato di laboratorio del Ca 19-9 è nei livelli normali. Il paziente è stato sottoposto a resezione addomino-perineale con dissezione linfonodale. Non ci sono studi dimostranti che la resezione radicale del melanoma primario ano-rettale è associata ad un miglioramento del controllo locale e della sopravvivenza. I pazienti con malattia localizzata dovrebbero essere sottoposti a escissione locale ogniqualvolta ciò sia tecnicamente fattibile. Il ruolo predominante del trattamento chemio radioterapico preoperatorio è quello di ridurre le recidive locoregionale e della cavità pelvica, e per ottenere un più alto tasso di conservazione dell’apparato sfinteriale. Inoltre facilita la rimozione delle potenziali micrometastasi e riduce le metastasi a distanza.

  2. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years. PMID:20386624

  3. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  4. Method and apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darter, John L.

    1986-06-01

    The invention comprises an apparatus for die forming metal sheets and extrusions which utilizes die blocks of low melting temperature metallic material. The die blocks are formed in an adjustable mold which comprises a mold box, a pivotable dam within the mold box and blocking means for locking the pivotable dam member in a desired angular position. Once a desired die block angle is ascertained for a particular joggle, the pivotable member of the mold box is adjusted to produce the desired angle in the die casting made in the mold box.

  5. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  6. Stereotaxic interstitial irradiation of malignant brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gutin, P.H.; Leibel, S.A.

    1985-11-01

    The authors discuss the feasibility of treatment of malignant tumors with brachytherapy. The history of brain tumor brachytherapy, its present day use, and future directions are detailed. 24 references.

  7. Targeting immune checkpoints in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tete; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the bodys anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered immune privileged and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma. In this review, we focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antagonizing monoclonal antibodies for programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We discuss advances in the working mechanisms of these immune checkpoint molecules, their status in malignant glioma, and current preclinical and clinical trials targeting these molecules in malignant glioma. PMID:27756892

  8. Oral metastasis in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Sproat, C P; Brown, A E; Lindley, R P

    1993-10-01

    A case is reported of a 48-year-old man with malignant sarcomatous pleural mesothelioma, who presented with a secondary deposit in the mandibular alveolus. We believe that this is the first reported case of this nature.

  9. Intrasellar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).

    PubMed

    Krayenbühl, N; Heppner, F; Yonekawa, Y; Bernays, R L

    2007-02-01

    Intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and intrasellar schwannomas are rare tumors. We describe a case of an intrasellar schwannoma with progression to a MPNST, a finding that, although very rare, extends the differential diagnosis of intrasellar lesions.

  10. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  11. Dying cancer patients talk about euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N

    2008-08-01

    Within developed nations, there is increasing public debate about and apparent endorsement of the appropriateness of euthanasia as an autonomous choice to die in the face of intolerable suffering. Surveys report socio-demographic differences in rates of acceptance of euthanasia, but there is little in-depth analysis of how euthanasia is understood and positioned within the social and moral lives of individuals, particularly those who might be considered suitable candidates-for example, terminally-ill cancer patients. During discussions with 28 such patients in Australia regarding medical decisions at the end of life, euthanasia was raised by 13 patients, with the others specifically asked about it. Twenty-four patients spoke positively of euthanasia, 19 of these voicing some concerns. None identified euthanasia as a currently favoured option. Four were completely against it. Endorsement for euthanasia was in the context of a hypothetical future or for a hypothetical other person, or temporally associated with acute pain. Arguments supporting euthanasia framed the issue as a matter of freedom of choice, as preserving dignity in death, and as curbing intolerable pain and suffering, both of the patient and of those around them. A common analogy featured was that of euthanising a dog. These arguments were typically presented as self-evident justification for euthanasia, construed as an appropriate choice to die, with opposers positioned as morally inferior or ignorant. The difficulties of ensuring 'choice' and the moral connotations of 'choosing to die,' however, worked to problematise the appropriateness of euthanising specific individuals. We recommend further empirical investigation of the moral and social meanings associated with euthanasia.

  12. Malignant tumors in an ancient Egyptian population.

    PubMed

    Zink, A; Rohrbach, H; Szeimies, U; Hagedorn, H G; Haas, C J; Weyss, C; Bachmeier, B; Nerlich, A G

    1999-01-01

    Since it is still an open debate whether malignant tumors are mainly influenced by environmental factors, the frequency of such malignant tumors in historic populations with different living conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of malignant tumors affecting bone tissue in a population of mumrnies and skeletons, which had been excavated from the large necropolis of Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. Our study material comprised a series of at least 415 individuals (thereof 325 adults) dating from approx. 1500-500 B.C. All individuals had been mummified, but were severely damaged and partially broken by grave robbers, so that often only parts of the mummies/skeletons were available for investigation. The available specimens were subjected to careful macroscopic examination, while isolated findings were radiologically analyzed. Using this approach, we identified at least 4 cases showing malignant tumors affecting the skeleton. In two cases, multiple mixed osteolytic-osteoblastic lesions suggested multiple metastases from carcinomas. Two further individuals presented with multiple osteolyses (vertebra, pelvis, skull) most suggestive of multiple myeloma. The observation of at least 4 cases of malignant tumors with osseous manifestation in a series of 325 adult individuals provides clear evidence that malignant tumors were not a rare event in the ancient Egyptian study population, particularly when the limitations of a study of tumors manifested only in osseous remnants are taken into consideration. A calculation of the age- and sex-adjusted tumor frequency in our material in comparison with a recent model for such a material by Waldron (1996) indicates that the rate of malignant tumors with bone affection in our series is higher than in an English population from 1901-1905, although lower than in a comparable present day population. This clearly indicates that important factors affecting malignant tumors were effective even

  13. Malignant mesothelioma: Canadian perspective and research directions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C.W.; Martin, J.; MacRae, R.; Tsao, M.S.; Nguyen, E.; Johnston, M.; Baas, P.; Laurie, S.; Feld, R.; Murray, N.; Shepherd, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Canada has increased dramatically because of work-related asbestos exposures. Treatment options are limited. Although chemotherapy is now an accepted standard in the management of advanced disease, uncertainty surrounds the roles of radical surgery and radiation. In March 2007, a symposium was held in Vancouver, B.C., to review the current approach to malignant mesothelioma in Canada and to discuss development of a national clinical research strategy.

  14. Intussusception Presenting with Malignant Hypertension and Lethargy

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Andra; Ashtiani, Nilou; Ahmadi, Nazanin; Bakx, Roel; de Vaate, Annelies Walrave-bij; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of malignant hypertension in children is renal or renovascular pathology. The combination with lethargy suggests a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis with hypertensive encephalopathy. Here, we present a case of severe hypertension with lethargy as the sole presenting symptoms of ileocecal intussusception. Both normalized following surgical repositioning. We conclude that malignant hypertension and lethargy can be presenting symptoms of intussusception. PMID:23914204

  15. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be palliative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27247718

  16. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient*

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  17. Implementing California's Law on Assisted Dying.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ruchika

    2017-03-01

    On October 5, 2015, Governor Jerry Brown approved bill ABX2 15, the End of Life Option Act, making California the fifth state in the country to allow physician-assisted dying. The law was modeled after Oregon's 1997 Death with Dignity Act. When the legislative special session ended on March 10, 2016, California health care providers had only ninety days to respond to the state mandate before the law would take effect, on June 9, 2016. Experience with the law so far suggests several challenges with implementation.

  18. Do imaginary companions die? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kastenbaum, Robert; Fox, Lynn

    Adults in this exploratory study usually recalled that their childhood imaginary companions faded away or were dismissed as other options for social interaction became more appealing. However, eight participants reported that their IC had died. Analysis of these deaths offers a glimpse of the child's talent for transitional thought processes that navigate between the emerging constraints of logic and the continuing appeal of fantasy. It is suggested that young children are testing the limits and possibilities of what it means to be "real" at the same time they are trying to puzzle out "alive" and "dead."

  19. Die Schokoladen-Diät

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    Schlankheitskuren sind einerseits ein soziales Phänomen, aber auch ein großer Zweig der Nahrungsmittelindustrie. Die Industrie bietet dabei verschiedene Produkte an, wie Diätlebensmittel, Nahrungsergänzungsmittel, Sportkleidung und -ausrüstung, Übungsvideos und -bücher, usw. Allerdings ist es bekanntermaßen sehr schwer, das einmal erreichte Wunschgewicht auch langfristig zu halten. Häufig tritt dabei der so genannte Jojo-Effekt auf, so dass man schließlich nach der Diät mehr wiegt als vorher.

  20. Die swell as an objective in the design of polymer extrusion dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegbert, Roland; Behr, Marek; Elgeti, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on developing a suitable objective function for the inverse form of profile extrusion die design. First, the problem is motivated by introducing the extrusion die design process. After describing how Computer Aided Engineering enhances the traditional design process, a set of applicable objective functions is introduced. The main criteria for identifying the most suitable are computational applicability, robustness and smoothness of the functional. After discussing the results of several simulations, an objective function is proposed for the implementation in an existing optimization framework utilizing parameter-based optimization.

  1. DIE Deflection Modeling: Empirical Validation and Tech Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2003-05-28

    This report summarizes computer modeling work that was designed to help understand how the die casting die and machine contribute to parting plane separation during operation. Techniques developed in earlier research (8) were applied to complete a large computational experiment that systematically explored the relationship between the stiffness of the machine platens and key dimensional and structural variables (platen area covered, die thickness, platen thickness, thickness of insert and the location of the die with respect to the platen) describing the die/machine system. The results consistently show that there are many significant interactions among the variables and it is the interactions, more than the individual variables themselves, which determine the performance of the machine/die system. That said, the results consistently show that it is the stiffness of the machine platens that has the largest single impact on die separation.

  2. Genetic progression of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tímár, J; Vizkeleti, L; Doma, V; Barbai, T; Rásó, E

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the skin is the most aggressive human cancer given that a primary tumor a few millimeters in diameter frequently has full metastatic competence. In view of that, revealing the genetic background of this potential may also help to better understand tumor dissemination in general. Genomic analyses have established the molecular classification of melanoma based on the most frequent driver oncogenic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KIT) and have also revealed a long list of rare events, including mutations and amplifications as well as genetic microheterogeneity. At the moment, it is unclear whether any of these rare events have role in the metastasis initiation process since the major drivers do not have such a role. During lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, the clonal selection process is evidently reflected by differences in oncogenic drivers in the metastases versus the primary tumor. Clonal selection is also evident during lymphatic progression, though the genetic background of this immunoselection is less clear. Genomic analyses of metastases identified further genetic alterations, some of which may correspond to metastasis maintenance genes. The natural genetic progression of melanoma can be modified by targeted (BRAF or MEK inhibitor) or immunotherapies. Some of the rare events in primary tumors may result in primary resistance, while further new genetic lesions develop during the acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies. Only a few genetic lesions of the primary tumor are constant during natural or therapy-modulated progression. EGFR4 and NMDAR2 mutations, MITF and MET amplifications and PTEN loss can be considered as metastasis drivers. Furthermore, BRAF and MITF amplifications as well as PTEN loss are also responsible for resistance to targeted therapies, whereas NRAS mutation is the only founder genetic lesion showing any association with sensitivity to immunotherapies. Unfortunately, there are hardly any data on the

  3. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  4. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  5. The dying child and surviving family members.

    PubMed

    Shrier, D K

    1980-12-01

    This overview of death and dying focuses on the dying child and surviving family members. Children's concepts of death at different developmental stages are reviewed. These range from an inability to distinguish death from other forms of separation prior to age 3, through partial concepts of death until, by age 10 to 15 years, children are able to conceptualize death as universal, inevitable and final. The importance of adults assisting in the child's growing comprehension of death is stressed. The stages of grief and mourning, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, are reviewed from the perspective of the child and family: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Recognition is given to the variations in coping styles among different family members. The special circumstances related to the death of an infant and the impact of the death of a child on the surviving siblings are discussed. Specific helpful interventions to assist families in coping with mourning are described. The death of a child remains one of the most painful and difficult events for a family and its physician to accept.

  6. Dying or living?: The double bind.

    PubMed

    Longhofer, J

    1980-06-01

    Describing the behaviors of terminally ill patients, their families and those charged with their care has received considerable attention during the past decade. This study of comprehensive cancer treatment and research facility indicates that the prevailing theory is limited to explanation at the intra-psychic level. In her work with hundreds of terminal cases, Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross found that patients typically progress through five stages: 1) denial, 2) anger, 3) bargaining, 4) depression, and 5) acceptance. She concludes that the majority of her patients die in a stage of acceptance--a state of equanimity. Recently, scholars have claimed that this five stage scheme has limited applicability and may in fact contribute to the formalization of a dying person's behavior. This preliminary report proposes that the stage theory, if it has any descriptive validity, becomes meaningful only when used to describe behaviors occurring among patients, families, and medical practitioners. A plausible explanation of these behaviors is accomplished by examination of communication patterns containing the structure of paradox or double bind. Patients are forced to perceive realities about their physical conditions not as they appear to them, but as they are defined by those in their environment. This paper explores these communication patterns in relation to the structure of social relationships and the specific contents of messages being transmitted and received.

  7. [The debate about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Armando; Solar, Sebastián

    2005-05-01

    The Right to Die is a debatable issue and some basic notions need to be clarified to discuss it. Death needs to be recognized as part of human life. The goal of medicine is to avoid pain and alleviate suffering, to prevent premature death and when this is not possible, to let it occur peacefully. The concept of euthanasia is unclear, which increases the confusion on end-of-life topics. The term euthanasia should be used only when referring to medical acts performed to produce the patient's death, with the intention of terminating his/her suffering. It is what is usually called "active" euthanasia, which can be voluntary or involuntary. It is essential to understand the difference between producing and allowing death. This will permit timely decisions about limiting or withdrawing treatments, that can be disproportionate or that are only prolonging suffering. Limiting treatments does not mean to abandon the patient but rather to redefine his needs, such as pain treatment, prevention of complications, and relief of suffering. The ethic rationale for these decisions is the respect to the dignity of human life, and the estimation of proportionality or futility of each treatment. The physician's duty with the patient at the end of his life is to assist him in dying according to his values and to minimize his distress.

  8. Dying, mourning, and spirituality: a psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Marrone, R

    1999-09-01

    Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled.

  9. Malignant triton tumour of the sinonasal tract: Case report and literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Zakzouk, Abdulmajeed; Hammad, Fahad; Langlois, Olivier; Aziz, Moutaz; Marie, Jean-Paul; Choussy, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective is to report a rare tumour of the sinonasal tract and conduct a literature review. Malignant triton tumour is a subtype of malignant schwannoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. It is a very rare tumour, with only 15 reported cases involving the sinonasal region. PRESENTATION OF CASE Forty-seven years old female presented with a right-sided epistaxis, progressive right sided nasal obstruction and anosmia and a visible mass in the right nasal cavity. Imaging studies showed a mass extending from the piriform aperture to the nasopharynx in contact with the dura and the orbital content. The mass was biopsied and the result was consistent with malignant triton tumour. The patient refused the surgery at first so chemotherapy with MAID protocol was started. After the fourth course of chemotherapy the treatment was stopped due to patient intolerance and a thrombosis of the jugular vein. Patient then underwent surgery with frontal craniotomy and dural excision, endoscopic control was done at the end to insure a complete removal. The patient received Radiotherapy in the postoperative period (56 Greys). At 5 years of follow up the patient is doing fine with no signs of recurrence and normal ophthalmological findings. DISCUSSION Sixteen cases, including our case, have been reported to date in the literature. The mean age at presentation is 61 years. None of cases were associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Eight patients were reported to be alive 5 years post-treatment, and 2 patients were reported to have died of the disease. The prognosis for triton tumours in the sinonasal tract is better than that for triton tumours in other locations. CONCLUSION Malignant triton tumour is a rare malignancy of the sinonasal tract. Otolaryngologists should be aware of this disease. The optimal treatment should include radical resection of the tumour. PMID:25123649

  10. Soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas also show some malignant features: A clinicopathological study of a 15-year database

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zitong; Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Chen, Fei; Wen, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the clinicopathological features of six cases of soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma and explore the role of increased aggressive biological behavior in the recurrences and treatment of this type of ameloblastomas. Material and Methods In this study, we retrospectively reviewed recurrent ameloblastomas during a 15-year period; six cases were diagnosed as soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma. The clinical, radiographic, cytological and immunohistochemical records of these six cases were investigated and analyzed. Results All the six soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas occurred after radical bone resection, and were located in the adjacent soft tissues around the osteotomy regions. In Case 4, the patient developed pulmonary metastasis, extensive skull-base infiltration and cytological malignancy after multiple recurrences and malignant transformation was diagnosed. In the other five cases, although there were no cytological signs are sufficient to justify an ameloblastoma as malignant, some malignant features were observed. In Case 1, the tumor showed moderate atypical hyperplasia and the Ki-67 staining percentage was 40% positive, which are strongly suggestive of potential malignance. In Case 5, the patient developed a second soft tissue recurrence in the parapharyngeal region and later died of tumor-related complications. All the remaining three patients showed cytology atypia of varying degrees and high expression of PCNA or Ki-67, which confirmed active cell proliferation. Conclusions Increased aggressiveness is an important factor of soft tissue recurrence. An intraoperative rapid pathological examination and more radical treatment are suggested for these cases. Key words: Ameloblastoma, soft tissue recurrence, aggressive biological behaviour. PMID:25662548

  11. [Bone loss in women with malignant genital neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Magnowski, Piotr; Wolski, Hubert; Magnowska, Magdalena; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, women with genital cancers live longer due to early diagnosis and better treatment schemes. Only few studies assessed bone mass in patients with genital cancer Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by progressive loss of bone mass, weakening of the spatial structure of the bone, and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteopenia is a condition of reduced, but not yet reaching the pathological values, bone density in relation to norms for age and sex. Metastases are the primary cause of death in cancer patients. It is estimated that approximately half of people dying due to cancer have bone metastases. Osteoporosis in neoplastic disease may occur due to bone metastases or therapy-related adverse effects, i.e. reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Bone microenvironment provides a good medium for the growth of cancer cells. BMD of the femur and spine should be measured by DXA. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the techniques used to detect bone metastases. Lifestyle is the key to improving the quality of life and maximize any pharmacological treatment in cancer patients. It is proposed that treatment of cancer without bone metastases does not require therapy increasing bone mass. Further studies in women treated for gynecological malignancies undergoing oophorectomy and adjuvant treatment are needed to elucidate the mechanisms associated with bone loss.

  12. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.Allen; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Choudhury, Aswin K.; Dedhia, Sanjay

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects or problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  13. [From absolute necessity of dying to preventive planning of dying? The change of social and medicine debates on dying in the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Jordan, I

    2010-04-01

    International euthanasia debates focussing on "autonomous dying" in the 1980s corresponded with a general change in the health-care system: availability of new technical means with an analogous medical-ethic understanding of human suffering and dying. This change is part of a general development from "passive health consumption" to "active prevention" in our society.

  14. The dying role: its relevance to improved patient care.

    PubMed

    Noyes, R; Clancy, J

    1977-02-01

    Society is failing to meet the obligation it has to its dying members. Persons with terminal illnesses suffer isolation and neglect in hospitals, receive overzealous treatment by physicians, and are kept in ignorance of their situation by families and medical personnel. Evidence for these statements has come from observers of the medical care system and from dying patients themselves (Kübler-Ross, 1969; Reynolds and Kalish, 1974; Sudnow, 1967); In the nineteenth century it was common for persons to die in the familiar environs of their homes, surrounded by grieving families from whom they parted in a meaningful manner (Blauner, 1966). Dying persons of today no longer fill a well-defined social role. Instead, the distinction between the roles of sick and dying persons has been lost and, in the resulting confusion, the care of dying people has suffered. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between the dying and sick roles, identify the signs of existing role confusion, suggest ways in which this confusion may be corrected, and show how reestablishment of the dying role can result in improved care of dying people. The important part physicians play in defining sick and dying roles will be emphasized.

  15. The Dying Role: Its Relevance to Improved Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Russell; Clancy, John

    2016-01-01

    SOCIETY is failing to meet the obligation it has to its dying members. Persons with terminal illnesses suffer isolation and neglect in hospitals, receive overzealous treatment by physicians, and are kept in ignorance of their situation by families and medical personnel. Evidence for these statements has come from observers of the medical care system and from dying patients themselves (Kübler-Ross, 1969; Reynolds and Kalish, 1974; Sudnow, 1967). In the nineteenth century it was common for persons to die in the familiar environs of their homes, surrounded by grieving families from whom they parted in a meaningful manner (Blauner, 1966). Dying persons of today no longer fill a well-defined social role. Instead, the distinction between the roles of sick and dying persons has been lost and, in the resulting confusion, the care of dying people has suffered. The purpose of this article is to clarify the distinction between the dying and sick roles, identify the signs of existing role confusion, suggest ways in which this confusion may be corrected, and show how reestablishment of the dying role can result in improved care of dying people. The important part physicians play in defining sick and dying roles will be emphasized.

  16. Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-23

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  17. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  18. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olaofe, Olaejirinde Olaniyi; Akinyemi, Hezekiah Adebola Morakinyo; Suleiman, Oreoluwa Adeola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the prevalence of some of skin malignancies in our environment and to provide a data base for creating awareness for prevention and early detection of the diseases in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these skin lesions in our environment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed malignant skin lesions which presented at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Osogbo Osun State between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 (61.2%)were males and 38 (38.8%) were females. Malignant melanoma ranked highest followed by squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma in that order. Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower limbs. Conclusion Skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country. Efforts should be directed toward prevention, early diagnosis and management in order to abolish or reduce morbidity, as well as mortality associated with late presentation of people in the developing countries. PMID:26161176

  19. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  20. Malignant mesenterial mesothelioma in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Budiyasa, Dewa Gde Agung; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman

    2008-10-01

    Mesothel is the cell lining of serosal surface of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and testis. Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor from mesothel that has a tendency to grow rapidly and invade locally. Although the incidence of malignant mesenterial mesothelioma is not so high, the case fatality rate is very high. The aim of this case report is to report the rare and difficult case with several complications. A Balinese man, 64 years old, came with chief complaint of weakness, abdominal enlargement, and nausea, with history of previous liver disease. On physical examination were found a decrease of conciousness, subfebrile, abdominal distension, ascites, negative traube space, and paralysis of the left side of the body. Laboratory examination results showed leukocytosis, hypochromic-micrositic anemia, trombocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, increase of alkaline phosphatase, and mild hyponatremia. Abdominal USG showed intraperitoneal mass which some of them attach to abdominal wall, possibly from mesenterium and ascites, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed reflux esofagitis and anthral erossive gastritis, skull CT scan showed small infarction at left parietal medulla and right basal ganglia, cytology showed spreaded and grouped mesothel with reactive lymphocyte and amorph back ground. FNAB result showed malignant mesothelioma, and normal colonoscopy. Based on the above data, the diagnoses were malignant mesenterial mesothelioma, reflux esofagitis and anthral erossive gastritis, and non hemorrhagic stroke. Malignant mesenterial mesothelioma should be considered in patient with the combination of unexplained ascites and abdominal pain. Although the result of treatment is very disappointing, the patient had to be treated optimally to increase quality of life.

  1. Malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Paxton V; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2006-05-01

    Head and neck masses represent a common clinical entity in children. In general, these masses are classified as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic. Having a working knowledge of lesions within this region and conducting a thorough history and physical examination generally enables the clinician to facilitate an appropriate workup and establish a diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is broad, and expeditiously distinguishing benign from malignant masses is critical for instituting a timely multidisciplinary approach to the management of malignant lesions. Neoplasms of the head and neck account for approximately 5% of all childhood malignancies. A diagnosis of malignancy may represent a primary tumor or metastatic foci to cervical nodes. In this review, we discuss the general approach to evaluating suspicious masses and adenopathy in the head and neck region and summarize the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck with regard to their incidence, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, staging, and management. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland tumors are discussed elsewhere in this issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery.

  2. Evaluation of Pre-Malignant and Malignant Lesions in Cervico Vaginal (PAP) Smears by Nuclear Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Rani M.N, Divya; Kumar ML, Harendra; SR, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer occurring among women worldwide, with almost half a million new cases each year. Normal cells gradually transform to form cancer cells through several stages. So, the changes occurring during the transformational stages need to be assessed. Aim: Our aim was to study various nuclear parameters useful in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant cervico-vaginal pap smears. Materials and Methods: Bethesda System was used to categorize cervical pap smears into premalignant and malignant lesions. Nuclear parameters were calculated using J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analysed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) parameters in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. PMID:25584229

  3. Necroptosis: A new way of dying?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Britt

    2016-09-01

    This review embarks upon a cell death journey from the discovery of apoptosis and necrosis through to the coalescence of these: necroptosis. The mechanisms of 2 emerging necrotic cell death pathways, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, will be explored before delving into apoptotic and necroptotic signaling cascades, highlighting the complex interplay between molecular players. The involvement of the ripoptosome, interferon signaling and DNA damage in necroptosis will be discussed briefly. The major focus is on necroptosis initiation by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and its cognate receptor TNFR1, caspase-independent RIP1/RIP3/MLKL necrosome activation and cell death propagation by damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release. Finally, the implications of a complex cell death signaling network will be revealed in the context of cancer biology and therapy. The clinical contribution of the discovery of necroptosis as an unequivocally new way of dying is monumental and could drastically alter cancer therapy strategies in the future.

  4. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  5. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, D M

    1999-01-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide. PMID:10635498

  6. Paradoxical contributions of EEG during protracted dying.

    PubMed

    Spudis, E V; Penry, J K; Link, A S

    1984-02-01

    Estimates of the potential for recovery from severe brain damage have become more accurate as EEG and imaging techniques evolve. When all modern electrical criteria for brain death are satisfied, useful recovery is probably impossible. Many patients who have no reasonable chance of returning to a cognitive, sapient, or useful state may be nurtured throughout a prolonged final illness primarily because of brain waves that fluctuate in the 2- to 5-microV range. The incidence of such protracted dying is unknown. We illustrate diffuse low-amplitude wave forms and regional fragments recorded from a 27-year-old woman maintained on a respirator for six months after loss of brain-stem reflexes. Considering the limited noise-signal ratio of modern equipment, popular EEG criteria for death may be prematurely rigid, prolonging death in tragic circumstances.

  7. Death and dying anxiety among bereaved and nonbereaved elderly parents.

    PubMed

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-08-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying anxiety scores than nonbereaved parents, but there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in death anxiety. Religiosity was unrelated to death and dying anxiety. Dying anxiety was higher among bereaved mothers than bereaved fathers. Death and dying anxiety were not associated with the length of time since the loss of the child or the nature of the child's death. Results are discussed in light of the difficulties that bereaved parents experience after the loss of their child. Implications for theory, for health and welfare professionals, and for policy are suggested.

  8. Endovascular Therapy for Management of Oral Hemorrhage in Malignant Head and Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kakizawa, Hideaki Toyota, Naoyuki; Naito, Akira; Ito, Katsuhide

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in oral hemorrhage from malignant head and neck tumors. Methods. Ten patients (mean age 56 years) with oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors underwent a total of 13 emergency embolization procedures using gelatin sponge particles, steel and/or platinum coils, or a combination of these embolic materials. Angiographic abnormalities, technical success rate, clinical success rate, recurrence rate, complications, hemostatic period, hospital days, survival days, and patient outcome were all analyzed. Results. Angiographic abnormalities were identified during 85% of procedures (11/13). The technical success rate was 100% (13/13 procedures). The primary and secondary clinical success rates were 77% (10/13 procedures) and 67% (2/3 procedures), respectively. The overall clinical success rate was 92%, and the recurrence rate was 22% (2/9 procedures) in patients whom we were able to observe during the 1-month period after embolization. No major complications occurred. Several patients in whom gelatin sponge particles had been used complained of transient local pain after the procedure. The median hemostatic period was 71 days (range 0-518 days). Median hospital and survival days were 59 days (range 3-209 days) and 141 days (range 4-518 days), respectively. Three patients survived and 7 patients died during the observation period. Only 1 of these 7 patients died from hemorrhage. Conclusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that endovascular therapy is an effective, safe, and repeatable treatment for oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors.

  9. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period. PMID:26539979

  10. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  11. Thermal Hotspots in CPU Die and It's Future Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Hu, Fu-Yuan

    Owing to the increasing core frequency and chip integration and the limited die dimension, the power densities in CPU chip have been increasing fastly. The high temperature on chip resulted by power densities threats the processor's performance and chip's reliability. This paper analyzed the thermal hotspots in die and their properties. A new architecture of function units in die - - hot units distributed architecture is suggested to cope with the problems of high power densities for future processor chip.

  12. [A case of primary intracerebral malignant lymphoma in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Tomabechi, M; Daita, G; Ohgami, S; Yonemasu, Y; Maekawa, I

    1992-04-01

    The patient, a 44-year-old female, was admitted to our department because of right hemiparesis and left oculomotor nerve palsy on February 7, 1986. Neither lymphadenopathy nor hepatosplenomegaly was present. She had been treated with prednisolone for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for one and a half year before admission. The CT scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass lesion from the midbrain through the thalamus on the right side. The whole body gallium scintigram showed no abnormal uptake except in the brain. Stereotaxic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma, diffuse, large cell type (International Working Formulation). The enhanced mass lesion disappeared after radiation therapy. Subsequently, she received chemotherapy. She remained well until May 1988 when she died because of the systemic lymphadenopathy. The association of malignant lymphoma and SLE has appeared occasionally in the literature. Primary intracerebral malignant lymphoma associated with SLE is much rarer but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of symptoms of the central nervous system in a patient with SLE. Therefore, biopsy of a cerebral mass lesion is mandatory if appropriate therapy such as radiation and chemotherapy is to be administered.

  13. Radiation Therapy Field Extent for Adjuvant Treatment of Axillary Metastases From Malignant Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh Ballo, Matthew T.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Cormier, Janice N.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Ross, Merrick I.; Zagars, Gunar K.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment-related outcomes and toxicity for patients with axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) to either the axilla only or both the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (extended field [EF]). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 200 consecutive patients treated with postoperative RT for axillary lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received postoperative hypofractionated RT for high-risk features; 95 patients (48%) received RT to the axilla only and 105 patients (52%) to the EF. Results: At a median follow-up of 59 months, 111 patients (56%) had sustained relapse, and 99 patients (50%) had died. The 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 51%, 43%, and 46%, respectively. The 5-year axillary control rate was 88%. There was no difference in axillary control rates on the basis of the treated field (89% for axilla only vs. 86% for EF; p = 0.4). Forty-seven patients (24%) developed treatment-related complications. On both univariate and multivariate analyses, only treatment with EF irradiation was significantly associated with increased treatment-related complications. Conclusions: Adjuvant hypofractionated RT to the axilla only for metastatic malignant melanoma with high-risk features is an effective method to control axillary disease. Limiting the radiation field to the axilla only produced equivalent axillary control rates to EF and resulted in lower treatment-related complication rates.

  14. Immunosuppression and Multiple Primary Malignancies in Kidney-Transplanted Patients: A Single-Institute Study

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Michele L.; Criscitiello, Carmen; Renda, Andrea; Federico, Stefano; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Dodaro, Concetta; Scotti, Alessandro; Tammaro, Vincenzo; Calogero, Armando; Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio; Carlomagno, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Immunodeficiency is associated with higher cancer incidence. However, it is unknown whether there is a link between immunodeficiency and development of multiple primary malignancies. In the present study we analyse this link focusing on kidney-transplanted patients, as they are at higher risk of developing cancer due to the chronic assumption of immunosuppressants. We followed up 1200 patients who underwent kidney transplantation between 1980 and 2012. A total of 77/1200 kidney-transplanted patients developed cancer and 24 of them developed multiple cancers. Most multiple cancers were synchronous with a nonsignificant association between cancer and rejection episodes. In the general cancer population, one-ninth of patients are at higher risk of developing a second tumor over a lifetime; hence it would be reasonable to conclude that, from a merely theoretical and statistical viewpoint, long-term transplanted patients potentially have a higher risk of developing MPMs. However, data did not confirm this assumption, probably because these patients die before a second primary malignancy appears. Despite many observations on the increased incidence of different tumor types in immunodeficient patients and despite immunosuppression certainly being a predisposing factor for the multicancer syndrome, data so far are not robust enough to justify a correlation between immunodeficiency and multiple primary malignancies in transplanted patients. PMID:26185750

  15. Primary intraosseous malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the skull: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Mee; Lee, Ghi Jai; Koh, Young-Cho; Kwon, O-Ki; Park, Yong-Koo

    2003-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare primary neoplasm that constitutes less than 1% of the malignant tumors of bone, and involvement of the skull is very rare. We present a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the skull, presenting an intraosseous lesion in a 43-yr-old woman. She had a rapidly growing, tender mass in the right parietal region. A plain radiograph showed an osteolytic lesion of the right parietal bone. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesion showed heterogeneous low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and slightly high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. No evidence of an extraosseous extension to the adjacent dura and soft tissue was found, and a wide excision of the parietal bone was performed. Histologically, the tumor was a typical MFH displaying pleomorphic spindle cells in a storiform pattern. The results of immunohistochemical stainings revealed that the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and p53, and negative for smooth muscle actin, S100 protein, desmin, and MyoD1. Three months later, a mainly cystic, recurrent mass was developed at the previously operated site. Before the resection, we first performed the percutaneous aspiration cytology, revealing diagnostic multinucleated pleomorphic cells. Thereafter, she had to receive repetitive resections of recurrent or residual lesions, and she died of postoperative meningoencephalitis two years after the first operation. PMID:12923345

  16. A rare case of malignant glioma suspected to have arisen from a cavernous sinus.

    PubMed

    Taomoto, Katsushi; Ohnishi, Hideyuki; Kamada, Yoshitaka; Kuga, Yoshihiro; Kohaya, Norimasa; Nakashima, Kazuya; Ichioka, Tsugumichi; Tominaga, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Nakazato, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with a right trigeminal dysfunction (dysesthesia) initially, followed by right oculomotor and abducens paresis lasting 1 month. Neuroimaging studies showed an enhanced mass in the right cavernous sinus extending to the trigeminal ganglion. The extraparenchymal tumor located around the right trigeminal ganglion was totally removed, except for an intracavernous lesion, by the orbitozygomatic approach. The solid tumor was completely separated from the brainstem and seemed to be a trigeminal schwannoma arising from the trigeminal ganglion or cavernous sinus at surgery. A histological examination, however, found a typical malignant glioma that consisted primarily of astrocytic tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed the tumor cells stained intensely for GFAP, S-100 protein, and vimentin, but not for NFP, Schwann/2E, CD34, and CD68. The mean MIB-1 index was 12.4%. The tumor recurred after a short time, and then it rapidly disseminated into the subarachnoid space and left the cerebral hemisphere. The patient died 1 year after the initial symptoms in spite of aggressive surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy with temozolomide. There are no previous reports of a malignant glioma arising from either the cavernous sinus or the trigeminal ganglion. From the pathogenetic point of view, this malignant glioma is an extremely rare case that developed clinically and neuroradiologically from the cavernous sinus and was suspected be being derived from ectopic glial tissue.

  17. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation is a Safe Treatment for Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mizandari, Malkhaz; Pai, Madhava Xi Feng; Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina; Quaretti, Pietro; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Ao Guokun; Kyriakides, Charis; Dickinson, Robert; Nicholls, Joanna; Habib, Nagy

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of this novel radiofrequency ablation catheter when used for endoscopic palliative procedures. We report a retrospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary radiofrequency ablation of their malignant biliary strictures following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. Following ablation, they had a metal stent inserted. Results. Following this intervention, there were no 30-day mortality, hemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the 39 patients, 28 are alive and 10 patients are dead with a median survival of 89.5 (range 14-260) days and median stent patency of 84.5 (range 14-260) days. One patient was lost to follow-up. All but one patient had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. One patient with stent blockage at 42 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and restenting. Among the patients who are alive (n = 28) the median stent patency was 92 (range 14-260) days, whereas the patients who died (n = 10) had a median stent patency of 62.5 (range 38-210) days. Conclusions. In this group of patients, it appears that this new approach is feasible and safe. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  18. Assessment of immunological techniques in the diagnosis and prognosis of ocular malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, A. J.; Foulds, W. S.; Damato, B. E.; Trope, G. E.; Morrison, L.; Lee, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Tests of cell mediated immunity (one and two stage leucocyte migration inhibition assays) and humoural immunity (membrane immunofluorescence and serum effects on leucocyte migration) were done with leucocytes and sera from 36 patients with uveal melanoma, five with conjunctival melanoma, 21 with non-malignant ocular disease, and 189 with cutaneous melanoma. Cell mediated reactivity with melanoma extracts and serum reactivity with cultured melanoma cells were significantly more frequent in the melanoma patients, but control donor reactivity was also relatively high. Maximum reactivity was found with cells or serum from those patients in whom, on pathological examination, the intraocular melanoma had penetrated the sclera and in patients with conjunctival melanoma. Maximum separation of melanoma patients from control donors was achieved by consideration of the results of several tests done simultaneously. These immunopathological studies were made during the period from 1972 to 1978. At follow-up in 1983 four of the five patients suffering from conjunctival melanoma had died from metastases, and 10 of the 36 with uveal melanoma had died from metastatic disease. The immunological reactions, while of some value in separating melanoma patients from those without melanoma, did not predict whether a particular patient with uveal melanoma would die of metastatic disease or would survive. PMID:3884037

  19. Epigenetics of hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Deqing; Shilatifard, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hematological malignancies comprise a diverse set of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms in which normal hematopoiesis has gone awry and together account for ∼10% of all new cancer cases diagnosed in the United States in 2016. Recent intensive genomic sequencing of hematopoietic malignancies has identified recurrent mutations in genes that encode regulators of chromatin structure and function, highlighting the central role that aberrant epigenetic regulation plays in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms for how alterations in epigenetic modifiers, specifically histone and DNA methylases and demethylases, drive hematopoietic cancer could provide new avenues for developing novel targeted epigenetic therapies for treating hematological malignancies. Just as past studies of blood cancers led to pioneering discoveries relevant to other cancers, determining the contribution of epigenetic modifiers in hematologic cancers could also have a broader impact on our understanding of the pathogenesis of solid tumors in which these factors are mutated. PMID:27798847

  20. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic malignancies: part 2.

    PubMed

    Yuste Chaves, M; Unamuno Pérez, P

    2013-09-01

    The skin can be key to early diagnosis of systemic malignancies. In the second part of this review, we present various skin conditions that can, in certain contexts, reveal the presence of malignancy. The skin conditions are presented in groups based on a diverse range of morphological characteristics. Specifically, the following groups are analyzed: erosive and blistering lesions; inflammatory papules and nodules; xerosis, ichthyosis, and generalized exfoliative dermatitis; symptoms such as pruritus; abnormal hair distribution patterns; sweating disorders; benign tumors that can form part of hereditary syndromes associated with a risk of visceral cancer; and finally, oral and nail abnormalities. This review highlights the importance of the skin in the study of systemic malignancies.

  1. Malignant hyperthermia presenting during laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, S S; Smurthwaite, G J

    2008-05-01

    A 44-year-old man presented for elective laparoscopic adrenalectomy. During the procedure his end-tidal carbon dioxide readings rose steadily. We assumed that this was due to a prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum until he developed ST segment depression on his electrocardiogram and a rapid rise in temperature. A diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia was made in view of the rising temperature and carbon dioxide. He responded to cooling and intravenous dantrolene. He was later confirmed to be malignant hyperthermia-susceptible on in vitro contracture testing of a muscle biopsy. The diagnosis was delayed as the early signs of malignant hyperthermia are the same as the expected physiological changes in laparoscopic surgery. As laparoscopic surgery continues to expand we advocate vigilance to ensure early identification of this rare but potentially devastating condition.

  2. Therapeutic bronchoscopic interventions for malignant airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dalar, Levent; Özdemir, Cengiz; Abul, Yasin; Karasulu, Levent; Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Akbaş, Ayşegül; Altın, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is no definitive consensus about the factors affecting the choice of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of malignant airway obstruction. The present study defines the choice of the interventional bronchoscopic modality and analyzes the factors influencing survival in patients with malignant central airway obstruction. Totally, over 7 years, 802 interventional rigid bronchoscopic procedures were applied in 547 patients having malignant airway obstruction. There was a significant association between the type of stent and the site of the lesion in the present study. Patients with tracheal involvement and/or involvement of the main bronchi had the worst prognosis. The sites of the lesion and endobronchial treatment modality were independent predictors of survival in the present study. The selection of different types of airway stents can be considered on the base of site of the lesion. Survival can be estimated based on the site of the lesion and endobronchial brochoscopic modality used. PMID:27281104

  3. Labeled cells in patients with malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, J.P.

    1984-07-01

    Recently, new approaches for radiosotopic cell labeling have gained prominence in the investigation of various aspects of malignant diseases and in the clinical care of such patients. Isotopes such as indium-111 can be visualized with standard scanning techniques providing further information about the migration of normal and malignant cells has been discovered. In vivo studies have been performed with indium-111 in animals and humans, including comparisons of the migration of abnormal cells (malignant) and of lymphocytes to abnormal nodes. Evaluation and comparison of the migration of carcinoma cells, normal lymphoid cells, and malignant lymphoid cells in animals show markedly different patterns of distribution, which could have bearing on investigations of mechanisms of metastasis. In vivo human studies also have evaluated the migration patterns of lymphoid cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and well-differentiated lymphoma, showing very different migrating behavior between these two polarities of a similar diseases. There are concerns about the use of an isotope such as indium-111 for the labeling of long-lived cells such as lymphocytes. Laboratory studies have demonstrated impaired cell function at high concentrations of radioactivity. Some workers have expressed concern about long-term changes in cells that recirculate. Others cite precedents of other long-term uses of isotopes, therapeutically, without detrimental effects. These concerns continue to be investigated. Finally, an area of much interest in the use of indium-111 is the labeling of granulocytes. This technique has been useful diagnostically, to localize infections. The major value in patients with malignancy, primarily with hematologic malignancies, is to evaluate the potential benefit of granulocyte transfusions. Many of these patients develop prolonged granulocytopenia and become infected, and granulocyte transfusions may become a therapeutic consideration.

  4. Predictive models of malignant transudative pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Francisco; Toubes, María E.; Lama, Adriana; Suárez-Antelo, Juan; San-José, Esther; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe, Antonio; Álvarez-Dobaño, José M.; Rábade, Carlos; Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Díaz-Louzao, Carla; Valdés, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background There are no firm recommendations when cytology should be performed in pleural transudates, since some malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) behave biochemically as transudates. The objective was to assess when would be justified to perform cytology on pleural transudates. Methods Consecutive patients with transudative pleural effusion (PE) were enrolled and divided in two groups: malignant and non-MPE. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the probability of malignancy. Two prognostic models were considered: (I) clinical-radiological variables; and (II) combination of clinical-radiological and analytical variables. Calibration and discrimination [receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC)] were performed. Results A total of 281 pleural transudates were included: 26 malignant and 255 non-malignant. The AUC obtained with Model 1 (left PE, radiological images compatible with malignancy, absence of dyspnea, and serosanguinous appearance of the fluid), and Model 2 (the variables of Model 1 plus CEA) were 0.973 and 0.995, respectively. Although no false negatives are found in Models 1 and 2 to probabilities of 11% and 14%, respectively, by applying bootstrapping techniques to not find false negatives in 95% of other possible samples would require lowering the cut-off points for the aforementioned probabilities to 3% (Model 1) and 4% (Model 2), respectively. The false positive results are 32 (Model 1) and 18 (Model 2), with no false negatives. Conclusions The applied models have a high discriminative ability to predict when a transudative PE may be of neoplastic origin, being superior to adding an analytical variable to the clinic-radiological variables. PMID:28203412

  5. Malignant lymphoma in african lions (panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; McKnight, C A; Sikarskie, J G; Kitchell, B E; Garner, M M; Raymond, J T; Fitzgerald, S D; Valli, V E; Agnew, D; Kiupel, M

    2010-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma has become an increasingly recognized problem in African lions (Panthera leo). Eleven African lions (9 male and 2 female) with clinical signs and gross and microscopic lesions of malignant lymphoma were evaluated in this study. All animals were older adults, ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. Immunohistochemically, 10 of the 11 lions had T-cell lymphomas (CD3(+), CD79a(-)), and 1 lion was diagnosed with a B-cell lymphoma (CD3(-), CD79a(+)). The spleen appeared to be the primary site of neoplastic growth in all T-cell lymphomas, with involvement of the liver (6/11) and regional lymph nodes (5/11) also commonly observed. The B-cell lymphoma affected the peripheral lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. According to the current veterinary and human World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms, T-cell lymphoma subtypes included peripheral T-cell lymphoma (4/11), precursor (acute) T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (2/11), chronic T-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/leukemia (3/11), and T-zone lymphoma (1/11). The single B-cell lymphoma subtype was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) testing by immunohistochemistry on sections of malignant lymphoma was negative for all 11 lions. One lion was seropositive for FeLV. In contrast to domestic and exotic cats, in which B-cell lymphomas are more common than T-cell lymphomas, African lions in this study had malignant lymphomas that were primarily of T-cell origin. Neither FeLV nor FIV, important causes of malignant lymphoma in domestic cats, seems to be significant in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma in African lions.

  6. L-connect routing of die surface pads to the die edge for stacking in a 3D array

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips and method of routing the interface pads from the face of the chip or die to one or more sidewall surfaces of the die. The interconnection is routed from the face of the die to one or more edges of the die, then routed over the edge of the die and onto the side surface. A new pad is then formed on the sidewall surface, which allows multiple die or chips to be stacked in a three-dimensional array, while enabling follow-on signal routing from the sidewall pads. The routing of the interconnects and formation of the sidewall pads can be carried out in an L-connect or L-shaped routing configuration, using a metalization process such as laser pantography.

  7. Giant metastasizing malignant hidradenoma in a child

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sunil K; Misra, Ritu; Gupta, Rohini; Bansal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with a scalp swelling. The swelling was recurrent, reappearing everytime after local excision. She underwent surgery and the histopathologic diagnosis was malignant hidradenoma. This very rare and aggressive tumor is known to occur in elderly population and is histopathologically distinct from its commonly occuring benign counterpart. Malignant hidradenoma is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We empahsize that being cognizant of the possibility of this rare tumor would assist in timely action in the form of wide resection, with possible reduction in morbidity and mortality. PMID:27730041

  8. Megakaryocytes, malignancy and bone marrow vascular niches.

    PubMed

    Psaila, B; Lyden, D; Roberts, I

    2012-02-01

    Dynamic interactions between hematopoietic cells and their specialized bone marrow microenvironments, namely the vascular and osteoblastic 'niches', regulate hematopoiesis. The vascular niche is conducive for thrombopoiesis and megakaryocytes may, in turn, regulate the vascular niche, especially in supporting vascular and hematopoietic regeneration following irradiation or chemotherapy. A role for platelets in tumor growth and metastasis is well established and, more recently, the vascular niche has also been implicated as an area for preferential homing and engraftment of malignant cells. This article aims to provide an overview of the dynamic interactions between cellular and molecular components of the bone marrow vascular niche and the potential role of megakaryocytes in bone marrow malignancy.

  9. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: an unusual malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Prachi G; Mahajan, Sunanda A; Khopkar, Uday S; Kharkar, Vidya D

    2013-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, life-long heritable disease caused due to a unique susceptibility to human papilloma virus. The disseminated verrucous lesions and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions persist from early childhood and can transform into a cutaneous malignancy in a fourth of patients. Malignant transformation into syringoid eccrine carcinoma (SEC) has been reported only once so far. SEC is an extremely invasive, rare, locally destructive, slowly growing adnexal tumor. We hereby report the association of EV with SEC in a 29-year-old male.

  10. [Malignant pleural mesothelioma with multiple nodules].

    PubMed

    Asano, Michiko; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Nishi, Hideyuki; Taguchi, Koji; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2011-12-01

    A 62-year-old man with left chest pain had left pleural effusion pointed out on a chest radiograph. Chest CT scans showed multiple nodules on the left parietal pleura and pleural effusion. He was referred to our hospital and we performed thoracoscopic examination. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (biphasic type) was diagnosed, based on the pathological findings of a parietal nodular mass, including immunohistological analysis. Chemotherapy using carboplatin and pemetrexed reduced the size of tumor and left pleural effusion. This is a rare case with atypical CT findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  11. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Carolina; Salame, Latife; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii. PMID:27882257

  12. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  13. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, D.A.; Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography.

  14. Malignancy in Children with Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Karen R.; Whitlock, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Down syndrome (DS) display a unique spectrum of malignancies, with a 10 to 20-fold increased risk of acute leukemias, and a markedly decreased incidence of solid tumors. This review discusses current understanding of the basis for this distinctive pattern of cancer incidence, and the clinical and biologic features of the malignant disorders most frequent in DS: transient myeloproliferative disease, acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We also review distinctive pharmacogenetic issues, highlighting the differential chemosensitivity and toxicity profiles of DS patients compared to the general population; and epidemiologic studies of protective and adverse environmental risk factors for development of leukemia. PMID:19176633

  15. Pulmonary Hamartoma Mimicking Malignancy: A Cytopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Manjari; Preeti; Deepak, Desh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary Hamartomas (PH) are benign tumour-like lesions of lung with an uncommon occurrence and pose a diagnostic challenge on chest radiograph. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) can lead to a definitive diagnosis as well as distinguishes these from malignant lung mass. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and incidentally detected on routine chest radiographs. We report a case of pulmonary hamartoma where the patient was symptomatic and a possibility of malignant neoplasm was considered until the FNAC concluded the diagnosis. PMID:28050379

  16. Cutaneous Manifestations of Internal Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    McLean, David I.

    1987-01-01

    The skin can provide clues to the well-being of our patients. Some skin changes, such as hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita or erythema gyratum repens, are so specific that there is a virtual certainty of internal malignancy. Other changes, such as severe pruritus, are significant management problems in late-stage lymphoma and leukemia. Still others, such as herpes zoster in a cancer patient in remission, may be a marker for recurrent malignant disease. This review will discuss many of the skin changes associated with systemic cancer. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21263960

  17. Advances in the management of malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mazen Y; Mapa, Marissa; Shin, Hyung Ju C; Shin, Dong M

    2003-07-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas are very aggressive tumors that originate from mesothelial cells, which form the serosal lining of the pleura, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Finding effective chemotherapeutic treatment for malignant mesothelioma is a challenge. There is no standard treatment because this tumor is relatively resistant to therapy. A resurgence of interest has been expressed in novel therapies and conventional treatments used in different ways. Several treatment modalities have been studied, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy. Chemotherapy can be administered systemically or directly into the pleura. This review presents the results of the most recent trials and highlights the most promising advances in the battle against this aggressive disease.

  18. Is metastatic pancreatic cancer an untargetable malignancy?

    PubMed Central

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Gharios, Joseph; Elkarak, Fadi; Antoun, Joelle; Ghosn, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies, known to be chemo-resistant and have been recently considered resistant to some targeted therapies (TT). Erlotinib combined to gemcitabine is the only targeted therapy that showed an overall survival benefit in MPC. New targets and therapeutic approaches, based on new-TT, are actually being evaluated in MPC going from immunotherapy, epigenetics, tumor suppressor gene and oncogenes to stromal matrix regulators. We aim in this paper to present the major causes rendering MPC an untargetable malignancy and to focus on the new therapeutic modalities based on TT in MPC. PMID:26989465

  19. Histogenesis of ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, T J

    1990-01-01

    The histogenesis of ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours, which includes the concept of metaplastic carcinoma, is controversial. Four such tumours were examined for evidence of metaplastic transition from carcinoma to sarcoma using morphology and reticulin stains. Consecutive sections were stained immunohistochemically using cytokeratin and vimentin to determine whether cells at the interface between carcinoma and sarcoma expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin. There was no evidence of morphological, architectural, or immunohistochemical transitions from carcinoma to sarcoma in the four tumours studied. This suggests that ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours are not metaplastic carcinomas but are composed of histogenetically different elements. Images PMID:2160478

  20. Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459

  1. Malignant neoplasms in rats fed lasiocarpine.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. S.; Reddy, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Lasiocarpine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, was fed at a dietary concentration of 50/10(6) for 55 weeks, to 20 male F-344 rats. Malignant tumours developed in 17/20 animals between 48 and 59 weeks. Forty-five percent (9/20) developed angiosarcomas of the liver and 35% (7/20) had hepatocellular carcinomas. Other tumours included malignant adnexas tumour of the skin (1 rat) and lympohoma (1 rat). Lung metastases were observed in 4 animals with angiosarcoma of the liver and one animal with hepatocellular carcinoma. From one animal, angiosarcoma was successfully transplanted through 4 generations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:204322

  2. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all.

  3. Remote thermal neutron die-away measurements to improve Differential Die-Away Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Kelly A.; Vujic, Jasmina; Gozani, Tsahi

    2007-08-01

    Differential Die-away Analysis (DDAA) is a very effective detection technique of special nuclear material (SNM). It is based on the detection of fast fission neutrons that decay with a time constant characteristic of the thermal neutron that created them. The presence of fast neutrons with this slow die-away time is a positive, sensitive indication of the presence of SNM in the inspected cargo. The thermal decay time of an inspected medium is not known before a DDAA measurement is taken. The choice of when, from the end of a neutron pulse, data are to be acquired must be taken conservatively. If the thermal decay time of an inspected medium can be determined, a priori, then a better estimate of the expected time of separation between the intrinsic detector signal and the fission signal can be achieved. With a better estimate of this time, the choice of times after the end of the pulse to perform signal integration can be optimized. A more optimal choice for this time will result in higher detection sensitivity. This paper describes a method of remotely assessing the thermal die-away properties of an interrogated cargo, and grossly characterizes the class of material being inspected in terms of neutron attenuation and moderation properties.

  4. Regional ontogeny of New England salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    Coastal areas are among the world's most productive and highly affected ecosystems. Centuries of human activity on coastlines have led to overexploitation of marine predators, which in turn has led to cascading ecosystem-level effects. Human effects and approaches to mediating them, however, differ regionally due to gradients in biotic and abiotic factors. Salt marsh die-off on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), triggered by a recreational-fishing-induced trophic cascade that has released herbivorous crabs from predator control, has been ongoing since 1976. Similar salt marsh die-offs have been reported in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.), but the driving mechanism of these die-offs has not been examined. We used field experiments to assess trophic interactions and historical reconstructions of 24 New England marshes to test the hypotheses that recreational fishing and predator depletion are a regional trigger of salt marsh die-off in New England and that die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are more recent than those on Cape Cod. Predator depletion was the general trigger of marsh die-off and explained differences in herbivorous crab abundance and the severity of die-off across regions. Die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are following a trajectory similar to die-off on Cape Cod, but are approximately 20 years behind those on Cape Cod. As a result, die-off currently affects 31.2% (SE 2.2) of low-marsh areas in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay, less than half the severity of die-off on Cape Cod. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that recreational fishing is an increasing threat to coastal ecosystems and that studying the effects of human activity at regional scales can provide insight into local effects and aid in early detection and potential remediation.

  5. [Metachronous four primary malignancies in gastro-intestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Min; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

    2009-06-01

    Multiple primary malignancy was reported firstly by Billroth in 1889. Recently, multiple primary malignancies are considered to increase due to improved survival rate of cancer patients, advanced diagnostic tools, and increased use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In Korea, several cases of triple primary malignancies were reported. However, four primary malignancies in gastro-intestinal tract was rarely reported. Recently, we experienced a 70 year-old male who was diagnosed with metachronous four primary malignancies in rectum, ascending colon, stomach, and ampulla of Vater. We report this rare case of metachronous four primary malignancies with a review of literature.

  6. Hypocalcaemic response to streptomycin in malignant hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Roediger, W. E. W.; Ludwin, D.; Hinder, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    We report a case of malignant hypercalcaemia associated with primary hepato-cellular carcinoma in whom streptomycin produced a notable and reproducible fall in serum calcium. A hypocalcaemic response to streptomycin has been reported from experimental animals but not previously from man. PMID:175360

  7. Systemic sarcoidosis mimicking malignant metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Hammen, Irena; Sherson, David Lee; Davidsen, Jesper Roemhild

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of systemic sarcoidosis involving the liver, pancreas, lungs, mediastinal and intraabdominal lymph nodes and bones. Multiple organ system manifestations mimicked malignant metastatic disease. The diagnosis was established with clinical, radiological, and pathological findings after neoplasm was ruled out by pathological tests. The patient showed rapid symptom remission with systemic steroid treatment. PMID:26672956

  8. Hyperparathyroidism After Irradiation for Childhood Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg; Gill, Anthony; Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina; Shun, Albert; Bergin, Mary; Stevens, Graham; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. Results: A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism.

  9. Malignant catarrhal fever: inching towards understanding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an often lethal infection of many species in the order Artiodactyla, caused by members of the MCF virus group within Gammaherpesvirinae. MCF is a worldwide problem and has a significant economic impact on highly disease-susceptible hosts, such as cattle, bison and ...

  10. Cerebral metastasis from malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    El Molla, Mohamed; Gragnaniello, Cristian; Al-Khawaja, Darweesh; Chiribao-Negri, Concepcion; Eftekhar, Behzad

    2013-09-26

    Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon, highly invasive tumor derived from the mesothelial cells of pleura or peritoneum characterized by poor outcome. Mesothelioma was thought to metastasize locally only via direct invasion and not have distant spread. Distant metastases were discovered mostly on post-mortem examination. The authors present a case of 62-year-old man with pleural mesothelioma and brain metastasis.

  11. Malignant PEComa of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Norman L

    2004-09-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare, usually benign lesions comprising a family of neoplasms including angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, clear cell "sugar" tumors, and clear cell myomelanocytic tumors. This report describes an apparent case of a malignant PEComa of the skull base in a 49-year-old woman, a previously undescribed location for this lesion.

  12. Ukrain monotherapy in malignant melanoma (case report).

    PubMed

    Hamler, F; Hiesmayr, W; Korsh, O; Melnyk, A

    1996-01-01

    A patient with a metastasizing malignant melanoma (stage III) was treated with Ukrain monotherapy. Before and during the first Ukrain course of treatment the patient excreted melanin in the urine. After the third course melanin was no more detectable and the patient has been without any symptoms of disease for the last 12 years.

  13. Sindbis viral vectors target hematopoietic malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Suzme, R; Tseng, J-C; Levin, B; Ibrahim, S; Meruelo, D; Pellicer, A

    2012-11-01

    Sindbis viral vectors target and inhibit the growth of various solid tumors in mouse models. However, their efficacy against blood cancer has not been well established. Here, we show that Sindbis vectors infect and efficiently trigger apoptosis in mouse BW5147 malignant hematopoietic T-cells, but only at low levels in human lymphoma and leukemia cells (Jurkat, Karpas, CEM, DHL and JB). The Mr 37/67 kD laminin receptor (LAMR) has been suggested to be the receptor for Sindbis virus. However, JB cells, which are infected by Sindbis at low efficiency, express high levels of LAMR, revealing that additional factors are involved in Sindbis tropism. To test the infectivity and therapeutic efficacy of Sindbis vectors against malignant hematopoietic cells in vivo, we injected BW5147 cells intraperitoneally into (C3HXAKR) F1 hybrid mice. We found that Sindbis vectors targeted the tumors and significantly prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. We also tested the Sindbis vectors in a transgenic CD4-Rgr model, which spontaneously develop thymic lymphomas. However, infectivity in this model was less efficient. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Sindbis vectors have the potential to target and kill hematopoietic malignancies in mice, but further research is needed to evaluate the mechanism underlining the susceptibility of human lymphoid malignancies to Sindbis therapy.

  14. Impaired Neovascularization and Reduced Capillary Supply in the Malignant vs. Non-malignant Course of Experimental Renovascular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hartner, Andrea; Jagusch, Lisa; Cordasic, Nada; Amann, Kerstin; Veelken, Roland; Jacobi, Johannes; Hilgers, Karl F.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hypertension develops in some cases of hypertension but not in others. We hypothesized that an impaired neovascularization and a reduced capillary supply characterizes the malignant course of experimental hypertension. Two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension was induced in rats; controls (sham) were sham operated. To distinguish malignant hypertension from non-malignant hypertension, we considered two factors: weight loss, and the number of typical vascular lesions (onion skin lesions and fibrinoid necroses) per kidney section of the nonclipped kidney. Animals in the upper half for both criteria were defined as malignant hypertensives. After 5 weeks, mean arterial blood pressure was elevated to the same degree in malignant hypertension and non-malignant hypertension whereas plasma renin and aldosterone were significantly higher in malignant hypertensives. The expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was elevated (up to 14-fold) in non-malignant but significantly more increased (up to 36-fold) in malignant hypertensive rats, compared to sham. As a bioassay for neovascularization, the area of granulation tissue ingrowth in polyvinyl discs (implanted subcutaneously) was reduced in malignant hypertension compared to non-malignant hypertension and sham, while there was no difference between non-malignant hypertension and sham. The number of renal and left ventricular capillaries was significantly lower in malignant hypertension compared to non-malignant hypertension, as was the number of proliferating endothelial cells. We conclude that an impaired neovascularization and capillarization occurs in malignant renovascular hypertension but not in the non-malignant course of the disease despite comparable blood pressure levels. This might contribute to the unique vascular lesions and progressive target organ damage observed in malignant hypertension. PMID:27625610

  15. Do We Know What Causes Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of our DNA. But DNA affects more than how we look. Some genes control when cells in the body grow, divide into new cells, and die at the right time. Changes in these genes may cause cells to grow out of control, which can lead to ...

  16. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  17. Potato Early Dying: Molecular Perspectives on Pathogenicity and Host Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato early dying has not received the reputation of being a particularly devastating disease of potato. However, the interaction between the vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae and the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans to form the early dying complex makes studying this disease very in...

  18. Can We Humanize Dying in the General Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen

    This paper reviews the literature on the behavior and attitudes of medical-nursing personnel toward the dying person and illustrates the frequent conflict between hospital staff and the needs of dying. Inner perturbation stemming from feelings of vicarious suffering, vicarious disintegration, or personal anxiety about death, education deficiencies…

  19. Optoelektronik Infrarotlicht für die Faseroptik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drach, Volker

    2003-07-01

    Die Eigenschaften der kondensierten Materie sind durch die elektronische Bandstruktur bestimmt. Daher sind sie in Raumladungszonen an Oberflächen abhängig von der Ladungsdichte. Ein Team des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe machte sich nun diesen Effekt zu Nutze und induzierte in metallischen Nanostrukturen durch eine elektrische Spannung reversible Änderungen der makroskopischen Eigenschaften [1].

  20. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  1. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  2. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  3. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  4. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  5. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-06

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional.

  6. Sonnet XXX: Love, dignity, and dying.

    PubMed

    Ely, E Wesley

    2016-05-01

    All of us in medicine who care for patients who are chronically critically ill, dying of incurable illnesses, will be faced with discussions about the value of their lives and about the appropriateness of ongoing supportive care. Such discussions are good and true, and they must always be done within the context of the sanctity of every human life and the promise of God that we are His children, each and every one of us. In this article, I explore the end-of-life path of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the courageous faith that she demonstrated in the face of her illness. I explore with you, the reader, the hard-core conversations that took place at her bedside and their meaning in light of Catholic moral teaching. This story is not meant to indicate that we should always do all interventions at all times for all patients. That would be a teaching counter to Evangelium vitae. This story is meant to help you think through the path of your patients and of you as a physician or other type of healthcare professional in serving your patients. Primum non nocere. Ad majorem Dei gloriam.

  7. NICMOS PEERS INTO HEART OF DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Egg Nebula, also known as CRL 2688, is shown on the left as it appears in visible light with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and on the right as it appears in infrared light with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Since infrared light is invisible to humans, the NICMOS image has been assigned colors to distinguish different wavelengths: blue corresponds to starlight reflected by dust particles, and red corresponds to heat radiation emitted by hot molecular hydrogen. Objects like the Egg Nebula are helping astronomers understand how stars like our Sun expel carbon and nitrogen -- elements crucial for life -- into space. Studies on the Egg Nebula show that these dying stars eject matter at high speeds along a preferred axis and may even have multiple jet-like outflows. The signature of the collision between this fast-moving material and the slower outflowing shells is the glow of hydrogen molecules captured in the NICMOS image. The distance between the tip of each jet is approximately 200 times the diameter of our solar system (out to Pluto's orbit). Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Dean Hines (University of Arizona); Raghvendra Sahai (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); NICMOS Instrument Definition Team; and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  8. The right to die: beyond academia.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Carole

    2016-03-01

    The world's first legal euthanasia death occurred in the Australian City of Darwin on Sunday 22 September 1996 when Bob Dent ended his life under the Northern Territory's short-lived Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995. Dent's death intensified argument about euthanasia in Australia, transforming the debate from a textbook discussion in social ethics into a vigorous and divisive social dispute. The day before he ended his life, Dent dictated a letter, written down by his wife. This description of his experience with terminal illness is graphic-the letter, his last effort to bring the plight of those living with terminal illness to public consciousness. In this paper I outline issues from the perspective of those, who like Bob Dent, the choice to die with dignity is personal and urgent. Rather than approach the issue purely from the theoretical, academic debate therefore, I present aspects that are largely unknown unless the experience of life-denying symptoms becomes real. From these aspects, dilemmas and consequences emerge that are not framed through the academic debate and in this way, I argue for the possibility of a framework that could change the law.

  9. Catholic theology and the "right to die".

    PubMed

    Coleman, G D

    1985-03-01

    Catholic moral theology teaches that life is sacred but not absolute. Because life and all activities are subordinated to spiritual ends, it is moral to allow oneself to die when efforts to prolong life will bring no significant benefit and may even make it more difficult to finish life in peace, composure, and union with God. This is not the moral equivalent of suicide, but rather an acceptance of the human condition. In making such a decision, the distinction between morally ordinary and extraordinary means is crucial and based on the patient's total good. Ordinary means are those which offer a reasonable hope of benefit without excessive expense, pain, or other inconvenience. Extraordinary means are those which cannot be obtained without excessive burden or which, if used, would not offer a reasonable hope of benefit. Whether a medical procedure is standard or experimental does not, from a moral viewpoint, affect whether it is ordinary or extraordinary. In Catholic teaching, the patient has the paramount right to decide whether life-preserving measures will be used. If the patient is unable to make this decision, then the family should make it as the patient's representative.

  10. [To die alone, a big city problem?].

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Larsen, D F; Rosdahl, N

    2001-05-28

    The question whether being found dead is a problem related to living in a big city was examined by using death certificates from a 3-month period in 1994. The rates of persons found dead were higher for both sexes in the City of Copenhagen than in the rural County of Storstrøm. The age distribution showed that the rate increased with advancing age. The vast majority were found dead in their own home, although the rate was higher in Copenhagen than in Storstrøm. Whereas the manner of death was natural for the majority of cases in both areas, more deaths with an uncertain manner of death were recorded in Copenhagen than in Storstrøm (32% vs 9%). In general, suicide or accident was more often reported in those found dead in the County of Storstrøm than in those in Copenhagen. The cause of death was unknown in 46% of deaths in Copenhagen where 16% had died from external causes, proportions that were 58% and 21%, respectively, in Storstrøm. The rate of legal autopsies was higher in subjects with an uncertain manner of death than in the rest, and was also associated with an age below 40 years. We conclude that being found dead is related to living in a big city, although the reason(s) for this remains unidentified.

  11. Asbestos-related lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: selected current issues.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases persist, because millions of workers have had prior exposure and many industrializing countries continue to use asbestos. Globally, an estimated 107,000 people die annually from lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, and asbestosis due to occupational asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are caused by all major types of asbestos. Asbestos causes more lung cancer deaths than malignant mesothelioma of the pleura; most cases of the latter are due to asbestos exposure. The cancer risk increases with cumulative asbestos exposure, with increased risk even at low levels of exposure to asbestos. Based on empirical studies, an estimated cumulative occupational exposure to asbestos of 1 fiber/mL-year substantially raises malignant mesothelioma risk. No safe threshold for asbestos exposure has been established for lung cancer and mesothelioma. The validity of fiber-type risk assessments depends critically on the quality of exposure assessments, which vary considerably, leading to a high degree of uncertainty. Asbestos exposure without asbestosis and smoking increases the risk of lung cancer. The joint effect of asbestos and smoking is supra-additive, which may depend in part on the presence of asbestosis. Asbestos workers who cease smoking experience a dramatic drop in lung cancer risk, which approaches that of nonsmokers after 30 years. Studies to date show that longer, thinner fibers have a stronger association with lung cancer than shorter, less thin fibers, but the latter nonetheless also show an association with lung cancer and mesothelioma. Low-dose chest computed tomographic scanning offers an unprecedented opportunity to detect early-stage lung cancers in asbestos-exposed workers.

  12. Hypercalcemia of malignancy and new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sternlicht, Hillel; Glezerman, Ilya G

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcemia of malignancy affects up to one in five cancer patients during the course of their disease. It is associated with both liquid malignancies, commonly multiple myeloma, leukemia, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and solid cancers, particularly breast and renal carcinomas as well as squamous cell carcinomas of any organ. The clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia are generally constitutional in nature and not specific to the inciting malignancy. Such physical manifestations can range from malaise to lethargy and confusion. Constipation and anorexia are common. Acute kidney injury is likely the most frequently encountered manifestation of end organ damage. Symptomatology is closely linked to both the absolute elevation of serum calcium levels and the rapidity of calcium rise. The majority of cases are humoral in etiology and related to parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Approximately 20% of cases are the result of direct bone metastasis with extra-renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) and ectopic parathyroid hormone production likely accounting for less than 1% of cases. The diagnosis of hypercalcemia of malignancy is confirmed either by an elevated PTHrP or by an evidence of bone metastasis in the appropriate clinical setting. Treatment is predicated on the patient’s symptoms and absolute serum calcium level. Interventions are aimed at lowering the serum calcium concentration by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing urinary calcium excretion, the former accomplished via bisphosphonate therapy and the latter with aggressive hydration. Novel therapies for refractory disease include denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand, and the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Finally, anti-PTHrP antibodies have been successfully deployed in animal models of disease. Despite the efficacy of the above therapies, hypercalcemia of malignancy portends an ominous prognosis, indicating advanced and often refractory

  13. Malignant Tumors of Tongue in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Bastani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of oral cancers varies from one country to another, which can be clarified by the difference in the distribution of the risk factors and the possible etiologies. Tongue is a main segment of oral cavity and malignant lesions of this region accounts for nearly 30% of all oral cancers. Objectives In the present study, we evaluated the pattern of tongue cancer in Iranian population and compared these findings with those previously reported in the other countries. Methods In this multicenter, retrospective cross-sectional study recorded cases of the malignant tongue tumors in the cancer research center (CRC) of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were extracted. The patient records and their microscopic reports were retrieved from the archives and age, sex and microscopic types were evaluated. It is to be noted that the CRC has been serving as a cancer registry center for major hospitals all over the country since the year of 2003. Thus, the obtained statistics are highly reliable. Results During the years 2003 to 2008, a total number of 952 new cases of the tongue cancer were recorded in the CRC. Most cases are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. 450 cases (47.2%) occurred in men and 489 cases (51.36%) in women. Four different types of malignant lesions (epithelial, salivary gland, hematopoietic and mesenchymal) were diagnosed. Epithelial tumors were the most prevalent malignancies (93%) of which squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) made up 87.39% of all lesions. Salivary gland tumors had the second place with 3.15% of the total lesions. Conclusions In Iranian population, squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent malignancy of tongue and it is notable that the ratio of female to male population was equal. These lesions were prevalent in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Thus screening examination of tongue by dentist especially in elderly patients is necessary for early detection of cancerous lesions. PMID:27761209

  14. Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Zangari, Andrea; Zaini, Johan; Gulìa, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor development. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR (P-F) fusion state has important implications in the pathogenesis and biology of RMS, and different genes alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of P-F negative and embryonal RMS, which are the subsets of tumors most frequently affecting the bladder. These genes include p53, MEF2, MYOG, Ptch1, Gli1, Gli3, Myf5, MyoD1, NF1, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, IGF1R, PDGFRA, ERBB2/4, MET, BCOR. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) usually shows SMARCB1/INI1 alterations. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations are the most frequently associated alterations in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Few genes alterations in urothelial neoplasms have been reported in the paediatric population, which are mainly related to deletion of p16/lnk4, overexpression of CK20 and overexpression of p53. Here, we reviewed available literature to identify genes associated to bladder malignancies in children and discussed their possible relationships with these tumors. PMID:27013922

  15. Interstitial irradiation and hyperthermia for the treatment of recurrent malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Sneed, P K; Stauffer, P R; Gutin, P H; Phillips, T L; Suen, S; Weaver, K A; Lamb, S A; Ham, B; Prados, M D; Larson, D A

    1991-02-01

    Between June 1987 and June 1989, 29 recurrent malignant gliomas or recurrent solitary brain metastases in 28 patients were treated in a Phase I study of interstitial irradiation and hyperthermia. Patient age ranged from 18 to 65 years, and the Karnofsky Performance Status scores ranged from 40 to 90%. There were 13 glioblastomas, 10 anaplastic astrocytomas, 3 melanomas, and 3 adenocarcinomas. Catheters were implanted stereotactically after computed tomography-based preplanning. Hyperthermia was administered before and after brachytherapy, using one to six 2450- or 915-MHz helical coil microwave antennas and one to three multisensor fiberoptic thermometry probes. The goal was to heat as much of the tumor as possible to 42.5 degrees C for 30 minutes. Within 30 minutes after the first hyperthermia treatment, implant catheters were afterloaded with high-activity iodine-125 seeds delivering tumor doses of 32.6 to 61.0 Gy. Most patients had no sensation of heating. Complications included seizures in 5 patients, reversible neurological changes in 9 patients, a scalp burn in 1, and infections in 3. Of 28 evaluable 2-month follow-up scans, 11 showed definite improvement in the radiological appearance of the tumor, 4 were slightly improved, 7 were stable, and 6 showed tumor progression. Ten patients underwent reoperation for persistent tumor and/or necrosis. Eleven of 28 patients are alive 40 to 97 weeks after treatment. Thirteen patients died of a brain tumor, 2 died of extracranial melanoma metastases, 1 died of new brain melanoma metastases, and 1 died of a pulmonary embolus. The median survival was 55 weeks overall. Median survival has not yet been reached for the anaplastic astrocytoma subgroup. We conclude that interstitial brain hyperthermia using helical coil microwave antennas is technically feasible. The level of toxicity is acceptable, and the computed tomographic response rate is encouraging.

  16. Including die and press deformations in sheet metal forming simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilthammar, Johan; Sigvant, Mats; Kao-Walter, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    Structural analysis, in Abaqus, of a stamping die and subsequent morphing of the tool surfaces in AutoForm were performed to improve a sheet metal forming simulation. First, the tool surfaces of the XC90 rear door inner were scanned. They were not matching when the die was unloaded and could therefore not give any satisfying results in sheet metal forming simulations. Scanned surface geometries were then added to a structural FE-model of the complete stamping die and some influential parts of the production press. The structural FE- model was analysed with Abaqus to obtain the structural deformations of the die. The calculated surface shapes were then transferred to AutoForm where a forming simulation was performed. Results from the different sheet metal forming simulations were compared to measured draw in curves and showed a substantial increase in accuracy and ability to analyse dies in running production when the morphed surfaces were used.

  17. Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Nirav; Lalla, Yastira; Vu, An N.; Farah, Camile S.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions. PMID:24078812

  18. Catatonic Symptoms Appearing before Autonomic Symptoms Help Distinguish Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from Malignant Catatonia.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Nomura, Tomohisa; Takami, Hiroki; Sakamoto, So; Mizuno, Keiko; Sekii, Hajime; Hatta, Kotaro; Sugita, Manabu

    A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas. Identifying the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms could aid in distinguishing malignant catatonia from NMS.

  19. Catatonic Symptoms Appearing before Autonomic Symptoms Help Distinguish Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from Malignant Catatonia

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Nomura, Tomohisa; Takami, Hiroki; Sakamoto, So; Mizuno, Keiko; Sekii, Hajime; Hatta, Kotaro; Sugita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas. Identifying the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms could aid in distinguishing malignant catatonia from NMS. PMID:27725556

  20. Fulminant sepsis caused by Bacillus cereus in patients with hematologic malignancies: analysis of its prognosis and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daichi; Nagai, Yuya; Mori, Minako; Nagano, Seiji; Takiuchi, Yoko; Arima, Hiroshi; Kimura, Takaharu; Shimoji, Sonoko; Togami, Katsuhiro; Tabata, Sumie; Yanagita, Soshi; Matsushita, Akiko; Nagai, Kenichi; Imai, Yukihiro; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2010-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is a growing concern as a cause of life-threatening infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, the risk factors for patients with unfavorable outcomes have not been fully elucidated. At our institution, we observed the growth of B. cereus in blood culture in 68 patients with (23) or without (45) hematologic malignancies treated from September 2002 to November 2009. We defined a case as having sepsis when more than two blood culture sets were positive for B. cereus or only a single set was positive in the absence of other microorganisms in patients who had definite infectious lesions. We determined 12 of 23 patients with hematologic malignancies as having sepsis, as well as 10 of 45 patients without hematologic malignancies (p = 0.012). Of the 12 patients with hematologic malignancies, four patients with acute leukemia died of B. cereus sepsis within a few days. In our cohort, risk factor analysis demonstrated that a neutrophil count of 0/mm(3), central venous (CV) catheter insertion, and the presence of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms were significantly associated with a fatal prognosis (p = 0.010, 0.010, and 0.010, respectively). Analysis of data from our cohort in conjunction with those from 46 previously reported patients with B. cereus sepsis identified similar risk factors, that is, acute leukemia, extremely low neutrophil count, and CNS symptoms (p = 0.044, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively). These results indicate that appropriate prophylaxis and early therapeutic intervention against possible B. cereus sepsis are crucially important in the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  1. Reactive oxygen metabolites can be used to differentiate malignant and non-malignant pleural efffusions

    PubMed Central

    Cobanoglu, Ufuk; Sayir, Fuat; Mergan, Duygu

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increase in reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and free radicals is an important cause of cell injury. In this study, we investigated whether determination of ROM in pleural fluids of patients with malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions can be used as a tumor marker indicating malignant effusions in the differential diagnosis. METHODS: Sixty subjects with exudative pleural effusion and 25 healthy individuals as the control group were included in the study. Of the subjects with pleural effusion, 50% were malignant and 50% were non-malignant. ROM was studied in the pleural fluids and sera of the subjects with pleural effusion and in the sera of those in the control group. The ROM values of smokers and non-smokers were compared in each group. The Student’s t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used in order to detect differences between groups for descriptive statistics in terms of pointed features. The statistical significance level was set at 5% in computations, and the computations were made using the SPSS (ver.13) statistical package program RESULTS: It was determined that the difference between the ROM values of subjects with malignant and non-malign pleural effusions and the sera of the control group was significant in the malignant group compared to both groups (P = 0.0001), and the sera ROM values of patients with non-malignant pleural effusion were significant compared to the control group (P = 0.0001), and the ROM values of smokers were significant compared to non-smokers in each of the three groups (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that sera ROM levels are increased considerably in patients with exudative effusions compared to that of the control group. This condition can be instructive in terms of serum ROM value being suggestive of exudative effusion in patients with effusions. Furthermore, the detection of pleural ROM values being significantly higher in subjects with malignant pleural effusions compared to non-malignant

  2. Conundrums in the management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: Toward lessening acute morbidity and late effects of treatment.

    PubMed

    Gershenson, David M; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    One of the most extraordinary stories in the chronicles of gynecologic cancers has been that of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Prior to the mid-1960s, most patients died of disease. Fifty years later, most survive. Precisely because high cure rates are achievable, the concentration over the past decade has been on minimizing toxicity and late effects. The present review focuses on five areas of interest related to the management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors that highlight the different therapeutic strategies practiced by pediatric and gynecologic oncologists: 1) primary surgery, 2) surgery alone (surveillance) for patients with FIGO stage IA disease, 3) postoperative management of FIGO stage IC-III disease, 4) postoperative management of pure immature teratoma, and 5) postoperative management of metastatic pure dysgerminoma. All of these topics share a common overarching theme: Lessening acute morbidity and late effects of treatment.

  3. A fatal case of malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease) in a man with factor V Leinden mutation and lupus anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Hohwy, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Glümer; Tøttrup, Anders; Steiniche, Torben; Fogh, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos' disease) is a very rare condition characterized by atrophic papular skin lesions and variable association of systemic involvement. We describe a 33-year-old man who presented with a widespread skin eruption consistent with malignant atrophic papulosis. During the course of the disease he even developed penile ulcerations, a symptom that has been reported only a few times previously. He subsequently died of multiple perforations of the small bowel 2.5 years after onset of the disease. Laboratory investigations revealed a mutation of factor V Leiden and the presence of lupus anticoagulant, but no anti-cardiolipin antibodies. The patient was treated with narrow-band ultraviolet (UV)B, prednisolone and, later, aspirin, pentoxifyllin and warfarin. Despite this very intensive anticoagulant and anti-platelet therapy, the treatment had no effect on the skin lesions and could not prevent systemic involvement.

  4. Occurrence of malignancies after kidney transplantation in adults: Slovak multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Zilinska, Z; Sersenova, M; Chrastina, M; Sr, J Breza; Bena, L; Baltesova, T; Jurcina, A; Roland, R; Lackova, E; Cellar, M; Laca, L; Dedinska, I

    2017-01-05

    end of the year 2015, and 23.5% of patients died. There was no difference in the kidney function at the time of malignancy occurrence (s-creat 133.7 ± 59.8 µmol/l) and one year later (s-creat 131.1 ± 47.9 µmol/l) (P = 0.7768). The patients after successful treatment more frequently suffered from BCC (P = 0.0140), did not undergo palliative treatment (P = 0.0033), but were more frequently treated surgically (P < 0.0001).

  5. What Are the Key Statistics about Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mesothelioma About Malignant Mesothelioma What Are the Key Statistics About Malignant Mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is fairly rare in ... on survival rates can be found in Survival Statistics for Mesothelioma . Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer ...

  6. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  7. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    % in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  8. Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Quanyou Zhou

    2002-01-30

    An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.

  9. [Why do Hungarian men die early?].

    PubMed

    Kopp, Mária; Skrabski, Arpád

    2009-09-01

    The mortality rate for 40- 69-year-old men was 12.2/thousand males of corresponding age in 1960 and 16.2 in 2005: it increased by 33%, while among 40- 69-year-old women it decreased from 9.6 0/thousand females of corresponding age to 7.8. The aim of the present follow up study was to analyze which psychosocial risk factors might explain the high premature mortality rates among Hungarian men. Participants in the Hungarostudy 2002 study, a nationally representative sample, 1130 men and 1529 women were contacted again in the follow up study in 2006, who in 2002 were between the age of 40-69 years. By 2006, 99 men (8.8%) and 53 women (3.5%) died in this age group. Socio-economic, psychosocial and work-related measures, self-rated health, chronic disorders, depressive symptoms (BDI), WHO well-being, negative affect, self-efficacy, meaning in life and health behavioral factors were included in the analysis. After adjustment according to smoking, alcohol abuse, BMI, education and age, a number of variables were significant predictors of mortality only in men: low education, low subjective social status, low personal and family income, insecurity of work, no control in work, severe depression, no meaning in life, low social support from spouse, low social support from child. Socio-economic and work related risk factors predicted only male premature death. Among women dissatisfaction with personal relations was the most important risk factor. Among men depression seems to mediate between these chronic stress factors and premature death.

  10. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  11. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  12. Compaction die for forming a solid annulus on a right circular cylinder. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Harlow, J.L.

    1981-09-14

    A compacting die is disclosed wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  13. [Malignant insulinoma: recommendations for workup and treatment].

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric; Caron, Philippe; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Tabarin, Antoine; Mitry, Emmanuel; Reznick, Yves; Taieb, David; Pattou, François; Goudet, Pierre; Vezzosi, Delphine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Cadiot, Guillaume; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Do Cao, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Insulinoma are malignant in 4 to 14 % of cases. Their rarity and the sparse data available in the literature have limited publication of specific guidelines for their management. The following review aim to provide up-to-date recommendations on initial evaluation including pathologic grading, measures to control hypoglycemia, antitumor strategies and long term follow-up. Will be discussed in detail respective indications of surgery, diazoxide, somatostatin analogs, everolimus, sunitinib, liver directed treatments including arterial embolization, chemotherapy and radiometabolic therapy. A Medline search using terms "insulinoma", "neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors", "islet cell carcinoma", "malignant insulinoma" was performed limiting the selection to English language articles and adult age cases, along with cross referencing.

  14. Computed tomography of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Furui, S.; Yashiro, N.; Ohtomo, K.; Iio, M.

    1983-05-01

    Fifteen patients with primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma in 13, biliary cystadenocarcinoma in two) were examined by computed tomography (CT). The CT features were classified into three types: (A) a well-defined round cystic mass with internal papillary projections, (B) a localized intrahepatic biliary dilatation without a definite mass lesion, and (C) miscellaneous low-density masses. Intraphepatic biliary dilatation was noted in all cases of Types A and B and half of those of Type C; dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts occurred in 4/4, 1/3, and 0/8, respectively. CT patterns, such as a well-defined round cystic mass with papillary projections or dilatation of intra- and extrahepatic ducts, give important clues leading to a correct diagnosis of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy.

  15. [Malignant phyllodes tumour : a case report].

    PubMed

    Radermacher, J; Burlet, O; Sylvestre, R M; Wetz, P; Delvenne, Ph

    2016-11-01

    A 28 year old woman has suffered over the previous month from a post-traumatic swelling sensation of the left breast. Ultrasonography demonstrates a 9 cm, sharply-cut, rounded, hypo-echogenic lesion. Surgery is performed, with the hypothesis of an haematoma. The pathological analysis of the lesion shows a malignant phyllodes tumour with heterologous rhabdomyosarcomatous features. No metastasis is found. A radical mastectomy is performed and the patient benefits from an adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Phyllodes tumours represent up to 1 % of all mammary cancers, with 10-20 % of malignant lesions. These tumours behave differently from usual breast cancers. This atypical case, arising in a traumatic context, provides the opportunity to discuss the treatment and classification of phyllodes tumours of the breast.

  16. Targeting malignant mitochondria with therapeutic peptides.

    PubMed

    Constance, Jonathan E; Lim, Carol S

    2012-08-01

    The current status of peptides that target the mitochondria in the context of cancer is the focus of this review. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used to kill tumor cells are principally mediated by the process of apoptosis that is governed by the mitochondria. The failure of anticancer therapy often resides at the level of the mitochondria. Therefore, the mitochondrion is a key pharmacological target in cancer due to many of the differences that arise between malignant and healthy cells at the level of this ubiquitous organelle. Additionally, targeting the characteristics of malignant mitochondira often rely on disruption of protein--protein interactions that are not generally amenable to small molecules. We discuss anticancer peptides that intersect with pathological changes in the mitochondrion.

  17. [Multiple primary malignant tumors involving the liver].

    PubMed

    Tiszlavicz, L; Tasnádi, T

    1993-01-31

    In the Department of Pathology of the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University in Szeged during the last 30 years 1770 (19.4% of the cancers) primary malignant lung tumours were observed in autopsy material, from which 86 patients (4.9%) had other malignancies as well. In 81 cases other extrapulmonary and in 5 cases other primary lung tumours were observed. The male predominance in these cases was significant. All of the patients were heavy smokers. Amongst these synchronous tumour-associations the most frequent extrapulmonary tumours arose in the urogenital tract, in the head and neck, relatively frequently also in the breast, liver, stomach, intestine and thyroid. These cases caused diagnostic dilemmas both for the clinician and even for the pathologist. Several signs help to distinguish a new primary tumour from a metastasis. Multiplicity itself does not mean poorer prognosis. Each cancer should possibly receive adequate treatment.

  18. Targeting malignant mitochondria with therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Constance, Jonathan E; Lim, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    The current status of peptides that target the mitochondria in the context of cancer is the focus of this review. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used to kill tumor cells are principally mediated by the process of apoptosis that is governed by the mitochondria. The failure of anticancer therapy often resides at the level of the mitochondria. Therefore, the mitochondrion is a key pharmacological target in cancer due to many of the differences that arise between malignant and healthy cells at the level of this ubiquitous organelle. Additionally, targeting the characteristics of malignant mitochondria often rely on disruption of protein–protein interactions that are not generally amenable to small molecules. We discuss anticancer peptides that intersect with pathological changes in the mitochondrion. PMID:22946430

  19. Carcinosarcoma of parotid gland (malignant mixed tumor).

    PubMed

    Feng, Duan; Fidele, Nyimi Bushabu; Agustin, Mansthumba Milolo; Jian, Guan; Bourleyi, Sekele Isouradi; Augustin, Lamwe; Olivier, Ngueji Kakubu

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm; with a poor prognosis. The most common epithelial components are adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the most common mesenchymal components are chondrosarcoma. It should not be confused with the most common carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, in which the epithelial component alone is malignant. This condition might exhibit with a wide variety of presentation and symptoms along with associated conditions. We present a case of an old patient who presented with a very unusual type clinically with confusing presentation which was eventually diagnosed as carsinosarcoma. In addition, the literature is reviewed, and the possible clinical signs and management of malignant mixed tumor of the salivary gland are briefly discussed.

  20. Experimental ocular malignant melanoma in Sinclair swine.

    PubMed

    Burns, R P; Tidwell, M

    1986-04-01

    An animal model of malignant melanoma of the eye was established by transplanting a cell suspension from cutaneous melanomas into the anterior chamber of the eye in Sinclair Farm miniature swine. The frequency of tumor takes in the eye was increased from 8.9% to 22% by treating the animals simultaneously with subconjunctival triamcinolone acetonide. As an animal model for hematoporphyrin derivative--photoradiation treatment of human malignant melanoma of the eye, this does not appear to be a good research tool because of the sporadic incidence of tumor takes, the rapid growth of tumor within the eye causing glaucoma, and the dark iris pigmentation of successful tumor takes, which hides extensive underlying ciliary body tumor.

  1. Vaccinations in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsigrelis, C; Ljungman, P

    2016-03-01

    Patients with hematological malignancies are at risk for a number of infections that are potentially preventable by vaccinations such as pneumococcal infections and influenza. Treatment, especially with anti-B-cell antibodies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), negatively impacts the response to vaccination for several months. It is therefore recommended that patients be vaccinated before initiating immunosuppressive therapy if possible. The risk of side-effects with inactivated vaccines is low, but care has to be taken with live vaccines, such as varicella-zoster virus vaccine, since severe and fatal complications have been reported. HSCT patients require repeated doses of most vaccines to achieve long-lasting immune responses. New therapeutic options for patients with hematological malignancies that are rapidly being introduced into clinical practice will require additional research regarding the efficacy of vaccinations. New vaccines are also in development that will require well-designed studies to ascertain efficacy and safety.

  2. BMI1: A Biomarker of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A.

    2016-01-01

    BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications. PMID:27168727

  3. Understandings of death and dying for people of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiung-yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-02-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period, Chinese people have integrated these philosophies and religions to form the basis of their culture and traditions. Although they agree that death is a natural part of the life span, a unique belief about death and dying has emerged among the Chinese from this integration. From this, the people find a significant definition of death and dying.

  4. Physikgeschichte Die Anfänge des Physik-Nobelpreises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2003-09-01

    Durch Absorption von zwei Laserstrahlen mit unterschiedlichen Wellenlängen können in Halbleitern makroskopische Ströme erzeugt werden. Die Ausbreitungsrichtung der Elektronen und insbesondere die Ausrichtung ihrer Spins lassen sich über die relative Phase der beiden Laserfelder kohärent kontrollieren, wie kürzlich zwei Gruppen an den Universitäten von Marburg und Iowa demonstrierten [1, 2]. Genutzt wird bei diesem Experiment der Effekt der Quanteninterferenz zur Erzeugung von elektrischen Spinströmen.

  5. Association Between Coeliac Disease and Risk of Any Malignancy and Gastrointestinal Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuehua; Chen, Wuzhen; Li, Peiwei; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Coeliac disease (CD) is reported to be associated with risk of malignancy; however, this association remains unclear. We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between CD and risk of all malignancies as well as gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy specifically. The PUBMED and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies from 1960 to March 2015, without restriction. Two reviewers independently performed the study inclusion and data extraction methods. Odds ratios (ORs), risk ratios, or standardized incidence ratios were pooled using either a fixed- or a random-effects model. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to explore sources of heterogeneity. A total of 17 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR for risk of all malignancies was 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–1.44), whereas the pooled OR for risk of GI malignancy was 1.60 (95% CI 1.39–1.84) and suggested an inverse association with CD. Moreover, patients with CD were at a higher risk of esophageal cancer (pooled OR = 3.72, 95% CI 1.90–7.28) and small intestinal carcinoma (pooled OR = 14.41, 95% CI 5.53–37.60), whereas no significant associations were observed for other GI cancers, including gastric, colorectal, liver, and pancreatic cancers. Subgroup analyses also indicated that the results were influenced by the CD diagnostic method, as well as the follow-up time after CD diagnosis. CD was associated with increased risk of all malignancies as well as GI malignancies, including esophageal cancer and small intestinal carcinoma. PMID:26402826

  6. Assessment of mutations of Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes and the p53 suppressor gene in seven malignant mesothelioma patients exposed to asbestos--PCR-SSCP and sequencing analyses of paraffin-embedded primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, F; Araki, S; Tanigawa, T; Miura, H; Akabane, H; Iwasaki, R

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether malignant mesothelioma due to asbestos has genetic alterations in the Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes or in the p53 suppressor gene, we analyzed the point mutations of these genes in paraffin-embedded autopsy samples of the primary tumors of malignant mesothelioma in seven asbestos patients who died from malignant mesothelioma. The genetic analysis was conducted by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand comformation polymorphysms (PCR-SSCP) method in all patients, and through the sequencing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bases in one patient. No genetic alterations were found in exons 1 or 2 of Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes, or in exons 5 to 9 of the p53 gene, in any of the patients. Further studies on a larger number of patients are required to reach a definite conclusion concerning the genetic effects of asbestos on malignant mesothelioma.

  7. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed. PMID:25914884

  8. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Fitzner, Karen A.; Jacobs, Daniel I.; Bennett, Charles L.; Liebling, Dustin B.; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M.; Grimm, Sean A.; Fisher, Matthew J.; Haleem, Meraaj S.; Ray, Paul S.; McKoy, Judith M.; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E.; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. Methods: A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results: Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. Conclusion: With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. PMID:25466707

  9. Malignancy Risk Models for Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Ana M.; Brezzo, María M.; Secchi, Dante G.; Barra, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant. Study Design: Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and morphometric-morphological features were studied, and multivariate models were applied. Three groups were estabished: a) oral cancer (OC) group (n=10), b) OPMD group (n=10), and c) control group (n=8). Results: An average of 50% of patients with malignancy were found to have smoking and drinking habits. A high percentage of TP53 mutations were observed in OC (30%) and OPMD (average 20%) lesions (p=0.000). The majority of these mutations were GC ? TA transversion mutations (60%). However, patients with OC presented mutations in all the exons and introns studied. Highest diagnostic accuracy (p=0.0001) was observed when incorporating alcohol and tobacco habits variables with TP53 mutations. Conclusions: Our results prove to be statistically reliable, with parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. Models 2 and 3 were the most accurate for assessing the risk of an OPMD becoming cancerous. However, in a public health context, model 3 is the most recommended because the characteristics considered are easier and less costly to evaluate. Key words:TP53, oral potentially malignant disorders, risk factors, genotype, phenotype. PMID:23722122

  10. Functional MR Imaging in Chest Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Broncano, Jordi; Luna, Antonio; Sánchez-González, Javier; Alvarez-Kindelan, Antonio; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2016-02-01

    With recent advances in MR imaging, its application in the thorax has been feasible. The performance of both morphologic and functional techniques in the evaluation of thoracic malignances has improved not only differentiation from benign etiologies but also treatment monitoring based on a multiparametric approach. Several MR imaging-derived parameters have been described as potential biomarkers linked with prognosis and survival. Therefore, an integral approach with a nonradiating and noninvasive technique could be an optimal alternative for evaluating those patients.

  11. Disseminated nocardiosis masquerading as metastatic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Arjun, Rajalakshmi; Padmanabhan, Arjun; Reddy Attunuru, Bhanu Prakash; Gupta, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon gram-positive bacterial infection caused by aerobic actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. It can be localized or systemic and is regarded as an opportunistic infection that is commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in a patient with underlying malignancy in whom the clinical presentation was highly suggestive of a metastatic disease. PMID:27578940

  12. [Multiple primary malignant tumors involving the liver].

    PubMed

    Tiszlavicz, L

    1991-11-17

    In the autopsy material of the Department of Pathology of Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University 167 primary liver cancers were observed in 30 years, from which 13 patients (7.8%) had also other primary malignancies. The tumour-associations were mainly synchronously, there was strong male predominance. In 9 cases the hepatocellular carcinoma originated in cirrhotic liver. The most frequent extrahepatic tumours were found in the lungs (5 cases), smoking was among the anamnestic data.

  13. Livedo reticularis heralding hypercalcaemia of malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Gaurav; Walia, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    The term livedo reticularis is used to describe net-like purple rash usually on the lower limbs. It is an important clinical sign with diverse aetiologies. Hypercalcaemia is an uncommon but important clinical entity, sometimes associated with livedo reticularis. Generally, hypercalcaemia of renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism has been reported with this condition. We report a case of livedo reticularis heralding onset of hypercalcaemia of malignancy. PMID:24832704

  14. Plastic biliary stents for malignant biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Inge; Fockens, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Plastic biliary endoprostheses have not changed much since their introduction more than 3 decades ago. Although their use has been challenged by the introduction of metal stents, plastic stents still remain commonly used. Much work has been done to improve the problem of stent obstruction but without substantial clinical success. In this review, the authors discuss the history of plastic biliary stent development and the current use of plastic stents for malignant biliary diseases.

  15. [Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    A, Burgos; R, Kaplan; N, Rodríguez; Meza, Vetanzo; Morelatto, R; Piccinni, D

    2008-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm and it is only 0.5% of the malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity, and less than 10% of all the malignant melanomas. The mean age for patients with oral melanoma is from 40 to 70 years; with a higher frequency between the 50 and 60 years. Pigmentation areas are frequently noted before diagnosis of this neoplasm. Some predisposing factors are mechanical traumas resulting from not well adapted prostheses, solar radiation, and chem-icals. Although oral cavity melanomas can remain asymptomatic during a time, the clinical presentations include hemorrhage, ulceration and pain. Melanomas grow fast, generally in a vertical growth phase, with early invasion of bones and lymphatic nodes. The prognosis for patients with melanoma is poor with a 5-year survival rate. The election treatment is surgical. The early diagnosis, the recognition of the lesions for doctors and odontologists, and the biopsy of recent or old pigmentation areas in the mouth that they have some changes (ulceration, bleeding, etc.) will contribute to offer patients a more effective treatment and a higher survival rate. We will present the case study of a 78-year-old male patient with a tumor in the dental ridge surrounded by melanotic spots, which was diagnosed as invasive melanoma and confirmed with immunohistochemical techniques.

  16. Giant malignant phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan; Savasere, Thejas; Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Babu, Rajashekhara; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    The term phyllodes tumour includes lesions ranging from completely benign tumours to malignant sarcomas. Clinically phyllodes tumours are smooth, rounded, and usually painless multinodular lesions indistinguishable from fibroadenomas. Percentage of phyllodes tumour classified as malignant ranges from 23% to 50%. We report a case of second largest phyllodes tumour in a 35-year-old lady who presented with swelling of right breast since 6 months, initially small in size, that progressed gradually to present size. Examination revealed mass in the right breast measuring 36×32 cms with lobulated firm surface and weighing 10 kgs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was reported as borderline phyllodes; however core biopsy examination showed biphasic neoplasm with malignant stromal component. Simple mastectomy was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the core biopsy report. Postoperatively the patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is on follow-up for a year and has not shown any evidence of metastasis or recurrence.

  17. Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Mittal, V K; Bodzin, J H

    1980-09-01

    Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel are uncommon and are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. A 10 year survey (1967 to 1977) of the clinical records at one hospital revealed 39 cases of primary malignant tumors of the small bowel. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (89.7 percent) and weight loss (77 percent). Six patients presented with complications of enterovesical fistula, bleeding and perforation. Preoperative diagnosis was suspected in 27 cases (69.2 percent). Adenocarcinoma was the most common tumor, followed by carcinoid tumor, lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma and melanoma. The treatment of choice was surgical resection whenever possible. Curative resection was attempted in 25 cases. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy was used in four patients with lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients (69.2 percent) are alive from 1 to 6 years after diagnosis and treatment. The 5 year survival rate is 35 percent. Earlier diagnosis is essential if the prognosis for patients with small bowel malignancy is to be improved.

  18. Fertility issues in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Loren, Alison W

    2015-01-01

    An essential component of a cancer patient's comprehensive care is addressing potential threats to his or her reproductive health. Providers should discuss the risk of infertility with newly diagnosed patients and offer the chance to consult with a reproductive specialist as early as possible. Standard fertility preservation options include embryo or oocyte cryopreservation for women and sperm banking for men; all options for pre-pubertal children are experimental. Patients with hematologic malignancies are a distinct population in whom standard options may present special challenges, and alternative management strategies are being explored. Unique approaches in hematologic malignancy patients include experimental techniques, such as hormonal therapy, referrals to reproductive specialists after cancer treatment, or discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in appropriate chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Importantly, expedited communication between hematologists and reproductive specialists may greatly enhance the quality of care for these patients. Facilitation of referrals will both improve the quality-of-life and expand the prospect of parenthood in survivors. There are ample opportunities to advance the field of oncofertility through additional research, especially in hematologic malignancy patients.

  19. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  20. Malignant Clear Cell Hidradenoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Reddy, Pavan S; Kallail, K. James

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old female had a mass in the right breast palpable beneath the areola. A mammogram revealed a 1.5-centimeter soft tissue density that was confirmed with a subsequent ultrasound. The patient underwent a core needle biopsy which was initially reported as a moderately differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed negative staining for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), mammaglobin, and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15). A wide local excision of the mass was performed. The pathology report stated the tumor had an infiltrative growth pattern with a desmoplastic stromal response with enhanced epithelial atypia consistent with malignant transformation of a nodular clear cell hidradenoma. Clear cell hidradenoma is a very rare tumor originating from the sweat gland and has a propensity for the face and extremities. The malignant variant of this tumor is extremely rare and has been reported to originate from the breast in few cases. This case represents the difficulty in diagnosing this tumor along with the radiographic and histologic features that can distinguish this malignancy from other entities.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    There are three major challenges in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: mesothelioma must be distinguished from benign mesothelial hyperplasia; malignant mesothelioma (and its subtypes) must be distinguished from metastatic carcinoma; and invasion of structures adjacent to the pleura must be demonstrated. The basis for clarifying the first two aspects is determination of a panel of monoclonal antibodies with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation performed by highly qualified experts. Clarification of the third aspect requires sufficiently abundant, deep biopsy material, for which thoracoscopy is the technique of choice. Video-assisted needle biopsy with real-time imaging can be of great assistance when there is diffuse nodal thickening and scant or absent effusion. Given the difficulties of reaching an early diagnosis, cure is not generally achieved with radical surgery (pleuropneumonectomy), so liberation of the tumor mass with pleurectomy/decortication combined with chemo- or radiation therapy (multimodal treatment) has been gaining followers in recent years. In cases in which surgery is not feasible, chemotherapy (a combination of pemetrexed and platinum-derived compounds, in most cases) with pleurodesis or a tunneled pleural drainage catheter, if control of pleural effusion is required, can be considered. Radiation therapy is reserved for treatment of pain associated with infiltration of the chest wall or any other neighboring structure. In any case, comprehensive support treatment for pain control in specialist units is essential: this acquires particular significance in this type of malignancy.

  2. Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Bordi, Cesare; D'Adda, Tiziana; Azzoni, Cinzia; Pizzi, Silvia; Bottarelli, Lorena; Mormandi, Francesca; Antonetti, Tommaso; Luong, Tu Vinh; Rindi, Guido

    2006-01-01

    In contrast with the large amount of data generated from endocrine tumors of the pancreas, sparse and mostly unconfirmed data are available on the criteria for the assessment of malignancy risk and patient outcome in endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In these conditions the 2000 WHO classification with its standardized scheme of pathologic report constitutes a framework facilitating the assessment of tumor malignancy and has been regarded as useful for clinical purposes, providing the basis for proper management of the patients and for the design of treatment protocols. The classification is based on a combination of pathological and clinical features with parameters specific for each organ in which the endocrine tumors originate. Three main categories, one further subdivided into two subgroups, are considered: (1) well-differentiated endocrine tumors, further subdivided into tumors with benign and with uncertain behavior; (2) well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas, low grade; and (3) poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, high grade. In this review the differential tumor characteristics between the different categories are summarized. Moreover, the relevance of additional features with respect to tumor prognostication, chiefly the Ki-67 proliferation index and malignancy-associated genetic changes, is discussed with emphasis on the discrepancies emerging between tumors of foregut and of midgut origin.

  3. The engima of circulating malignant cells.

    PubMed

    PEREZ, F M; YONEMOTO, R H

    1962-09-01

    There is no doubt that cancer cells do enter the circulating blood of persons with malignant lesions. Differentiation of them from other atypical cells found normally in the bloodstream is at present being studied. Investigators have expressed belief that most of the circulating malignant cells in the early stages of the disease are destroyed by host resistance. Surviving cells, however, develop into occult metastatic emboli which may remain quiescent until host defenses collapse. Clinical measures for the active control of these dormant implants have not been evolved as yet. Inasmuch as the mechanism of host resistance is still beyond clinical comprehension, the only known way to improve survival rates is the universal application of practical clinical methods for preventing iatrogenic disseminations, for devitalizing malignant cells and for apprehending emboli that may have left the main lesion just before surgical operation. Since it adequately eradicates primary sources of cell dissemination, conventional radical resection is still the treatment of choice for dealing with early solid neoplasms.

  4. Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Simeonov, D; Smith, A

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  5. Hydrocele with a surprise: Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis - Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Pankaj N.; Abiola, Olajide O.; Wagaskar, Vinayak G.; Oswal, Ajay T.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocele is a very common condition that is simple to evaluate and treat. Management of hydrocele is usually delegated to the junior members of the surgical team. Sometimes this simple condition can spring huge surprises. A 20-year-old man presented with acute onset large, painless fluctuant left hemi-scrotal swelling. Scrotal ultrasonography showed thickened tunica vaginalis. A diagnosis of left hydrocele was made and repair by excision of sac was planned. During the procedure, the sac was found studded with red nodular growths; histopathology reported malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis. Metastatic evaluation showed extensive retroperitoneal lymph nodal involvement. Despite receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with radiotherapy patient died due to extensive metastasis within 16 months. This case is presented for rarity of diagnosis, young age of presentation, absence of etiological factor and rapidly progressive clinical course. PMID:28216946

  6. Ibex-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a bongo antelope (Tragelaphus euryceros).

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Garner, Michael M; Taus, Naomi S; Li, Hong; Coke, Rob L

    2007-09-01

    A 4-yr-old male bongo antelope (Tragelaphus euryceros) died after an acute clinical course involving a febrile illness, anorexia, lethargy, minor oculonasal discharge, and diarrhea. Histologic lesions were compatible with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed an amplified region of a herpesviral DNA polymerase gene sequence nearly identical to that of a MCF virus previously identified in Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana). The bongo had been housed across from an exhibit containing Nubian ibex that tested positive for MCF viral antibodies by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Further testing of the zoo's ibex via PCR also revealed viral DNA sequences nearly identical to those found in the bongo's tissues.

  7. Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Malignant Cystic Duct Obstruction: Treatment with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Takeda, Taro; Aburano, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Sanada, Taku; Kosaka, Shotaro; Toya, Daisyu; Matsui, Osamu

    2008-07-15

    We report the successful management of acute cholecystitis using cystic duct stent placement in 3 patients with inoperable malignant cystic duct obstruction (2 cholangiocarcinoma and 1 pancreatic carcinoma). All patients underwent stent placement in the bile duct, using an uncovered stent in 2 and a covered stent in 1, to relieve jaundice occurring 8-184 days (mean 120 days) before the development of acute cholecystitis. The occluded cystic duct was traversed by a microcatheter and a stent was implanted 4-17 days (mean 12 days) after cholecystostomy. Acute cholecystitis was improved after the procedure in all patients. Two patients died 3 and 10 months later, while 1 has survived without cholecystitis for 22 months after the procedure to date.

  8. Nivolumab for the treatment of malignant melanoma in a patient with pre-existing myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Osamu; Yokota, Kenji; Atsuta, Naoki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Akiyama, Masashi; Ando, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    A 79-year-old man with lymph node recurrence of malignant melanoma received nivolumab, an anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody. He had pre-existing ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) and a continued small amount of corticosteroid. Grade 3 creatine phosphokinase elevation appeared after two doses of nivolumab, and the treatment was postponed until it improved to grade 1. After three doses of nivolumab, he experienced diplopia and facial muscle weakness which were consistent with an acute exacerbation of MG, and the symptoms relieved without additional treatment for MG. He achieved shrinkage of metastasis after ten doses of nivolumab. Although a case who died due to MG after administration of nivolumab was reported recently, pre-existing MG is considered not to be always a contraindication of nivolumab.

  9. A case of Mikulicz's disease complicated by malignant lymphoma: a postmortem histopathological finding.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Hamano, Hideaki; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Moteki, Hideaki; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kaneko, Yasunori; Hara, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese man with an 11-year history of Mikulicz's disease (MD) received continuous corticosteroid administration. At age 58, a left renal pelvic mass was identified and diagnosed as an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor. The patient underwent an operation to remove the tumor. Subsequently, he contracted repeated pulmonary infections and eventually died of severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Autopsy revealed systemic lymph node swelling and infiltration in some organs, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was diagnosed. These findings suggest that an IgG4-related disease can be causally related to the development of malignant lymphoma through the occurrence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

  10. Non-asbestos-related malignant mesothelioma. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.T. Jr.; Greenberg, S.D.; Buffler, P.A.

    1984-09-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon, but increasingly important, neoplasm. The existing English-language medical literature concerning non-asbestos-related malignant mesotheliomas was reviewed for evidence of other agents associated with the induction of malignant mesothelioma. Both animal and human data were reviewed. In most reviews of malignant mesothelioma, there are a significant proportion of cases without documented asbestos exposure (range, 0% to 87%). Furthermore, there are several fairly well-documented agents other than asbestos that induce malignant mesothelioma in animals, and strong evidence exists that such is the case in man. In reviews of malignant mesothelioma, the percentage of cases with asbestos exposure varies, but a significant number are apparently not asbestos related. It is believed that sufficient evidence exists to suggest that non-asbestos agents can induce malignant mesotheliomas in man, and additional epidemiologic studies in this area are needed.

  11. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Tanaka, Takehiro; Gemba, Ken-Ichi; Taguchi, Koji; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Sueoka, Naoko; Kamei, Toshiaki; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kazuro; Yoshino, Tadashi; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2006-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is the most common primary pleural neoplasm. Angiogenesis is an important component of a variety of pathological processes, including carcinogenesis and tumor metastases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most potent known endothelial, cell specific mitogen. The authors assessed the relation between VEGF expression and clinicopathological variables or overall survival, in malignant mesothelioma. We studied 37 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and found that 36 out of 37 (97.3%) malignant mesothelioma samples were stained positively for VEGF. An increased expression of VEGF was observed in the epithelioid type compared with the other histological types of malignant mesothelioma, including the biphasic and sarcomatoid types. No statistically significant association was observed between VEGF expression and gender, age, or clinical stage. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF did not impact on the survival of patients with malignant mesothelioma. Although VEGF expression might be important for tumor development and maintenance, it was not identified as a prognostic factor in malignant mesothelioma.

  12. Dynamic infrared imaging for the detection of malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Terry M.; Li, Haifang; Fisher, Paul; Rosenblatt, Ruth; Dulaimy, Khaldoon; Li, Song; O'Hea, Brian; Salvitti, Mathew; Geronimo, Veronica; Geronimo, Christine; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Carvelli, Paola; Weiss, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The potential for malignancy detection using dynamic infrared imaging (DIRI) has been investigated in an animal model of human malignancy. Malignancy was apparent in images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of tumour bearing mice. The observation of malignancy was removed by the administration of an agent that blocks vasodilation caused by nitric oxide (NO). Image patterns similar to those that characterize malignancy could be mimicked in normal mice using an NO producing agent. Apparently DIRI allows for cancer detection in this model through vasodilation caused by malignancy generated NO. Dynamic infrared detection of vasomotor and cardiogenic surface perfusion was validated in human subjects by a comparison with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Dynamic infrared imaging technology was then applied to breast cancer detection. It is shown that dynamic infrared images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of the normal and malignant breast have image pattern differences, which may allow for breast cancer detection.

  13. Characterization of Spray Lubricants for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-01-01

    During the die casting process, lubricants are sprayed in order to cool the dies and facilitate the ejection of the casting. The cooling effects of the die lubricant were investigated using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), heat flux sensors (HFS), and infrared imaging. The evolution of the heat flux and pictures taken using a high speed infrared camera revealed that lubricant application was a transient process. The short time response of the HFS allows the monitoring and data acquisition of the surface temperature and heat flux without additional data processing. A similar set of experiments was performed with deionized water in order to assess the lubricant effect. The high heat flux obtained at 300 C was attributed to the wetting and absorbant properties of the lubricant. Pictures of the spray cone and lubricant flow on the die were also used to explain the heat flux evolution.

  14. Warum Normen für die Instandhaltung?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschuschke, Werner E.

    Viele kennen Normen wie Konstruktionsnormen, in denen z. B. der Außendurchmesser, die Steigung, der Flankenwinkel und andere Maße eines Gewindes festgelegt sind. Es gibt Prüfnormen aber auch Normen eines Managementsystems wie des Qualitätsmanagements in der DIN-EN-ISO-9000-Familie. Aber warum Normen für die Instandhaltung? Begonnen hat es mit der DIN 31051, die 1985 veröffentlicht wurde. Es war die erste Instandhaltungsnorm weltweit und sie wurde von der Schweiz und Österreich übernommen. In ihr sind Begriffe der Instandhaltung, Grundlagen zum Abnutzungsprozess und Aktivitäten der Instandhaltung beschrieben. Es wurde der Begriff Instandsetzung statt Reparatur publiziert: Nicht mehr Flickschustern sondern einen funktionsfähigen Anlagenzustand möglichst erhalten.

  15. 8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT

  16. Method and Apparatus for Die Forming Metal Sheets and Extrusions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of a variety of die blocks for introducing a variety of angled joggles in the metal sheets and extrusions. Relatively low melting temperature material is used for the castings. Keywords: Patents; Aircraft parts. (kt)

  17. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  18. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

  19. Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2010-09-01

    This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

  20. Cost analysis of medical assistance in dying in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, Aaron J.; Manns, Braden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The legalization of medical assistance in dying will affect health care spending in Canada. Our aim was to determine the potential costs and savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. METHODS: Using published data from the Netherlands and Belgium, where medically assisted death is legal, we estimated that medical assistance in dying will account for 1%–4% of all deaths; 80% of patients will have cancer; 50% of patients will be aged 60–80 years; 55% will be men; 60% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 month; and 40% of patients will have their lives shortened by 1 week. We combined current mortality data for the Canadian population with recent end-of-life cost data to calculate a predicted range of savings associated with the implementation of medical assistance in dying. We also estimated the direct costs associated with offering medically assisted death, including physician consultations and drug costs. RESULTS: Medical assistance in dying could reduce annual health care spending across Canada by between $34.7 million and $138.8 million, exceeding the $1.5–$14.8 million in direct costs associated with its implementation. In sensitivity analyses, we noted that even if the potential savings are overestimated and costs underestimated, the implementation of mdedical assistance in dying will likely remain at least cost neutral. INTERPRETATION: Providing medical assistance in dying in Canada should not result in any excess financial burden to the health care system, and could result in substantial savings. Additional data on patients who choose medical assistance in dying in Canada should be collected to enable more precise estimates of the impact of medically assisted death on health care spending and to enable further economic evaluation. PMID:28246154

  1. Consortia for Known Good Die (KGD). Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    were being actively developed for test and bum-in of bare die or minimally packaged die. The companies plan to make the technology available to the...lifetime (up to the consensus single best technology for making temporary 1000 cycle limit) reducing cost. Cost impact of caner probe contact to...model and develop the system specification for Im oe _ side 40O extensions to make this a useful tool for industrial users 2 CPU 10 mm on each side 2001

  2. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  3. Herbivory drives the spread of salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Bevil, Matthew C; Crotty, Sinead M

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh die-off is a Western Atlantic conservation problem that has recently spread into Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. It has been hypothesized to be driven by: 1) eutrophication decreasing plant investment into belowground biomass causing plant collapse, 2) boat wakes eroding creek banks, 3) pollution or disease affecting plant health, 4) substrate hardness controlling herbivorous crab distributions and 5) trophic dysfunction releasing herbivorous crabs from predator control. To distinguish between these hypotheses we quantified these variables at 14 Narragansett Bay salt marshes where die-off intensity ranged from <5% to nearly 98%. Nitrogen availability, wave intensity and plant growth did not explain any variation in die-off. Herbivory explained 73% of inter-site variation in die-off and predator control of herbivores and substrate hardness also varied significantly with die-off. This suggests that salt marsh die-off is being largely driven by intense herbivory via the release of herbivorous crabs from predator control. Our results and those from other marsh systems suggest that consumer control may not simply be a factor to consider in marsh conservation, but with widespread predator depletion impacting near shore habitats globally, trophic dysfunction and runaway consumption may be the largest and most urgent management challenge for salt marsh conservation.

  4. SiC Die Attach for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevin-Bazin, A.; Lacroix, F.; Barbot, J.-F.

    2013-11-01

    Eutectic solders AuIn19 and AuGe12 and nanosilver paste were investigated for SiC die attach in high-temperature (300°C) applications. The soldering or sintering conditions were optimized through die shear tests performed at room temperature. In particular, application of static pressure (3.5 MPa) during sintering resulted in greatly improved mechanical behavior of the nanosilver-based joint. Microstructural study of the eutectic solders showed formation of Au-rich grains in AuGe die attach and significant diffusion of Au and In through the Ni layer in AuIn19 die attach, which could lead to formation of intermetallic compounds. Die shear tests versus temperature showed that the behaviors of the studied die attaches are different; nevertheless they present suitable shear strengths required for high-temperature applications. The mechanical behavior of joints under various levels of thermal and mechanical stress was also studied. Creep experiments were carried out on the eutectic solders to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the complete module; only one creep mechanism was observed in the working range.

  5. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Grotzer, Michael A.; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed. PMID:27524931

  6. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a malignancy associated with recurrent epididymitis?

    PubMed

    Yen, Ching-Heng; Lee, Chun-Te; Su, Chung-Jen; Lo, Hua-Cheng

    2012-11-09

    A 53-year-old Taiwanese male had several episodes of left epididymitis with hydrocele refractory to antibiotic treatment. Partial epididymectomy plus preventive vasectomy were planned, and, incidentally, an ill-defined nodule was found lying on the tunica vaginalis near the epididymal head. The pathological diagnosis was malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Radical orchiectomy with wide excision of the hemi-scrotal wall was performed. So far, there is no evidence of recurrence after more than 3 years of follow-up. Malignant tumor should be considered in the case of recurrent epididymitis refractory to empirically effective antibiotic treatment. Although the nature of this tumor is highly fatal, the malignancy can possibly be cured by early and aggressive surgical treatment.

  7. Dying while living: a critique of allowing-to-die legislation.

    PubMed Central

    Lappé, M

    1978-01-01

    Several US states are enacting 'right-to-die' laws, in the wake of the Karen Quinlan case. But the way such a law is drafted may cast doubt on a patient's existing common law right to control all aspects of his own treatment; it may give legal sanction to a lower standard of medical care that society at present expects from doctors; and it may lead to conflict between the patient's directive and his doctor's clinical judgement which cannot readily be resolved. The laws themselves are categorised as a) legalising active killing or b) defining rights of patients to control treatment or c) assigning to others the rights to control treatment where the patient is not competent. The California law is discussed critically. The conclusion is that such legislation is not a satisfactory answer to the ethical problem of euthanasia. PMID:739516

  8. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  9. Cause-Specific Mortality Due to Malignant and Non-Malignant Disease in Korean Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. Methods This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more than 150,000 person-years in male foundry production workers. In the current study, we stratified mortality ratios by the following job categories: melting-pouring, molding-coremaking, fettling, and uncategorized production work. We calculated standard mortality ratios (SMR) of foundry workers compare to general Korean men and relative risk (RR) of mortality of foundry production workers reference to non-production worker, respectively. Results Korean foundry production workers had a significantly higher risk of mortality due to malignant disease, including stomach (RR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.41–11.06) and lung cancer (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01–4.30), compared with non-production workers. High mortality ratios were also observed for non-malignant diseases, including diseases of the circulatory (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18–3.14), respiratory (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.52–21.42 for uncategorized production worker), and digestive (RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.22–4.24) systems, as well as for injuries (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.52–3.66) including suicide (RR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.32–10.01). Conclusion This study suggests that foundry production work significantly increases the risk of mortality due to some kinds of malignant and non-malignant diseases compared with non-production work. PMID:24505454

  10. Malignant Catatonia and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in Relation to Disulfiram Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kiran K.; Bondade, Swapna; Sattar, Fiaz Ahmed; Singh, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Disulfiram is a widely used drug in the management of alcohol dependence syndrome as an aversive agent. Although a drug of high efficacy, it has a large number of side effects. Disulfiram-induced catatonia is a known rare side effect of the drug and herein we report a case of what appeared to be the sequential development of malignant catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome and co-morbid paranoid schizophrenia following disulfiram overdose. Clinicians need to be vigilant on the emergence of such rare side effects. PMID:27570348

  11. Improved quality of life in patients with malignant pleural effusion following videoassisted thoracoscopic talc pleurodesis. Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Basso, Stefano M M; Mazza, Francesco; Marzano, Bernardo; Santeufemia, Davide A; Chiara, Giordano B; Lumachi, Franco

    2012-11-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common, debilitating complication of several types of advanced malignancy, which may significantly reduce the quality of life of patients. There are several options to treat MPE, including thoracentesis, placement of a long-term indwelling pleural catheter and chemical pleurodesis. The best treatment is still debated, but talc remains the agent of choice to achieve pleurodesis. Forty-six patients (28 men and 18 women; median age 67 years, range 47-82 years) with MPE related to different malignancies underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy talc pleurodesis. There were 26 (56.5%) patients with non-small cell lung cancer, 8 (17.4%) with breast cancer, 7 (15.2%) with pleural mesothelioma and 5 (10.9%) with other malignancies. The average operative time was 28±8 minutes, and the duration of chest tube drainage was 9.4±4.1 days. Side-effects were mild (temporary pain, fever for 2-3 days), affecting only three (12%) patients. Two patients (8%) died during hospitalization, due to progression of disease. Overall, pre- and postoperative Karnofsky performance index (KI) and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea score were 62.1±12.2 vs. 71.3±13.2 (p=0.014), and 4.2±0.8 vs. 2.7±1.0 (p<0.001), respectively. A significant relationship between total amount of preoperative pleural effusion and both KI (R=-0.54, p=0.002) and MRC (R=0.64, p=0.0001) was found. No correlation (p=NS, log-rank test) was found between preoperative KI or MRC and underlying malignancy related to MPE. In conclusion, thoracoscopic large-particle talc pleurodesis is a feasible and effective treatment for MPE, significantly improving quality of life of patients.

  12. Virus infection facilitates the development of severe pneumonia in transplant patients with hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duorong; Wu, Jim; Pan, Yujia; Yan, JinSong; Liu, Min; Liu, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an effective therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies. Severe pneumonia is associated with high mortality rate in HSCT recipients. Viral co-infection indicates a poor prognosis of HSCT recipients. In this study, a total of 68 allogeneic HSCT recipients were included. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was assessed by testing peripheral blood and oropharynx swabs, respectively, collected in the first 180 days after transplantation. We analysed the correlation of CMV and RSV co-infection with severe pneumonia and mortality. The incidence of CMV and RSV co-infection was 26.5% (18/68). Severe pneumonia was diagnosed in 61% (11/18) cases with co-infection compared to only 10% (5/50) cases with mono-infection or no infection. The analysis of potential risk factors for severe pneumonia showed that CMV and RSV co-infection was significantly associated with severe pneumonia (p < 0.001). The 5 patients who died of severe pneumonia were all co-infected with CMV and RSV. In conclusion, CMV and RSV co-infection appears to be an important factor and facilitates the development of severe pneumonia in allogeneic HSCT patients with hematologic malignancies. PMID:27340772

  13. Association of Lymphoid Malignancies and Philadelphia-Chromosome Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Clinical Characteristics, Therapy and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Masarova, Lucia; Newberry, Kate J.; Pierce, Sherry A.; Estrov, Zeev; Cortes, Jorge E.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    The co-occurrence of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative neoplasms (MPN/LPN) has been reported, mostly in case reports. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics and clinical course of the coexistent diseases. Among 9866 patients who presented to our institution from 1960 to 2014, 34 (0.3%) were diagnosed with MPN/LPN. LPN was diagnosed first in 16 patients, second in 15, and at the same time in 3. The time to secondary malignancy was longer when LPN was diagnosed first (119 vs 98 months). Myelofibrosis (41%), polycythemia vera (24%), and essential thrombocythemia (18%) were the most common MPNs, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (50%) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (32%) were the most common LPNs. Seventy-three percent of patients treated for MPN and 72% of those treated for LPN achieved a complete response. After a median follow-up from MPN diagnosis of 84 months, 16 patients are alive and 18 died (4 related to MPN and 2 LPN). Coexistent MPN/LPN is a rare event that does not appear to predict worse outcomes. Treatment choice is generally oriented towards controlling the prevalent disease; the other malignancy may influence treatment strategies in selected cases. PMID:26012362

  14. Targeting the B cell receptor signaling pathway in B lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Maike; Müschen, Markus

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW Normal B cells that failed to productively rearrange immunoglobulin V region genes, encoding a functional B cell receptor (BCR) are destined to die. Likewise, the majority of B cell malignancies remain dependent on functional BCR signaling, while in some subtypes BCR expression is missing and, apparently, counterselected. Here we summarize recent the experimental evidence for the importance of BCR signaling and clinical concepts to target the BCR pathway in B cell leukemia and lymphoma. RECENT FINDINGS While the dependency on pre-BCR signaling in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) seems to be limited to few ALL subtypes (e.g. TCF3-PBX1), most mature B cell lymphomas rely on BCR signaling provided by different stimuli e.g. tonic B cell signaling, chronic (auto)-antigen exposure, and self-binding properties of the BCR. The finding that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), BCRs bind to an epitope on the BCR itself unravels a novel concept for CLL pathogenesis. SUMMARY Targeting of the B cell receptor tyrosine kinases SYK, BTK, and PI3K achieve promising clinical responses in various mature B cell malignancies and might also be useful in defined subsets of ALL. However, further understanding of the BCR signal integration in the different disease groups are required to accurately predict, which groups of patients will benefit from BCR pathway-inhibition. PMID:24811161

  15. The treatment of intraperitoneal malignant disease with monoclonal antibody guided 131I radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, B.; Mather, S.; Shepherd, J.; Crowther, M.; Hawkins, L.; Britton, K.; Slevin, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    Seven patients with small volume ovarian carcinoma, remaining after conventional therapy with surgery and a platinum containing chemotherapy regimen, were treated with intraperitoneal monoclonal antibody guided radiotherapy. 100 mCi131I conjugated to 10 mg of monoclonal antibody were injected i.p. in 2,000 ml peritoneal dialysis fluid. Patients were evaluated 3 months later; 3 had clinical progressive disease while third look laparotomy demonstrated progressive disease in 3 of the remaining 4 patients. The seventh patient did not have a third look laparotomy and is currently inevaluable for response. Five patients with recurrent malignant ascites not controlled by diuretics or repeated paracentesis were similarly treated with 75-170 mCi131I conjugated to 10 mg monoclonal antibody. In three patients the ascites was controlled for a mean of 4 months. One patient died too early to assess the control of his ascites but tumour cells disappeared from the ascitic fluid after therapy. In the patient whose ascites were not controlled, a subpopulation of antigen-negative tumour cells was demonstrated. This study was unable to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit for i.p. injected monoclonal antibody guided radiotherapy for solid intraperitoneal tumour but suggests that it may be capable of controlling the accumulation of antigen positive malignant ascites. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3219277

  16. A Case of Malignant Melanoma of the Uterine Cervix with Disseminated Metastases throughout the Vaginal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Nami; Mabuchi, Yasushi; Yagi, Shigetaka; Minami, Sawako; Okuhira, Hisako; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) in the female genital tract accounts for less than 2% of all melanomas, and the vast majority associated occur in the vulva and vagina. Primary MM of the uterine cervix is extremely rare and its prognosis is very poor. We report a case of primary MM of the cervix with dissemination throughout the vaginal wall. A 66-year-old woman presented with postmenopausal bleeding. Gynecologic examination demonstrated a 2 cm polypoid blackish-pigmented tumor on the cervix with multiple small blackish-pigmented lesions throughout the vaginal wall. Cervical Pap smear cytology showed malignant melanoma. MRI and PET/CT did not detect any distant or lymph node metastases. She underwent radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and total vaginectomy. The pathological diagnosis was FIGO stage IIIA primary cervical MM. She received adjuvant chemotherapy with 6 courses of dacarbazine, but 6 months later, multiple lung metastases were detected. Despite 4 courses of anti-PD-1 antibody (nivolumab) treatment, she died of the disease 13 months after surgery. PMID:28197351

  17. Second cancers and late mortality in Australian children treated by allogeneic HSCT for haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A S; Ashton, L J; Vajdic, C M; Le Marsney, R E; Daniels, B; Nivison-Smith, I; Wilcox, L; Dodds, A J; O'Brien, T A

    2015-02-01

    We examined risk of second cancer and late mortality in a population-based Australian cohort of 717 pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients treated for a malignant disease during 1982-2007. Record linkage with population-based death and cancer registries identified 17 second cancers at a median of 7.9 years post HSCT; thyroid cancer being the most common malignancy (n=8). The cumulative incidence of second cancer was 8.7% at follow-up, and second cancers occurred 20 times more often than in the general population (standardised incidence ratio 20.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=12.6-32.7). Transplantation using radiation-based conditioning regimens was associated with increased second cancer risk. A total of 367 patients survived for at least 2 years post HSCT and of these 44 (12%) died at a median of 3.1 years after HSCT. Relapse was the most common cause of late mortality (n=32). The cumulative incidence of late mortality was 14.7%. The observed rate of late mortality was 36 times greater than in the matched general population (standardised mortality ratio 35.9, 95% CI=26.7-48.3). Recipients who relapsed or who had radiation-based conditioning regimens were at higher risk of late mortality. Second cancers and late mortality continue to be a risk for pediatric patients undergoing HSCT, and these results highlight the need for effective screening and survivorship programs.

  18. Malignant insulinoma presenting as metastatic liver tumor. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Baldelli, R; Ettorre, G; Vennarecci, G; Pasimeni, G; Carboni, F; Lorusso, R; Barnabei, A; Appetecchia, M

    2007-12-01

    Insulin-secreting tumors are the commonest hormone-producing neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. They occur with an incidence of 4 cases per million per year. About 10% of them are metastatic and malignant insulinomas very rarely observed in children and in elderly. We report a rare case of very large malignant insulinoma in a 71-year-old woman admitted in our Oncological Institute on October 2005. She presented with fasting hypoglicemia (blood glucose 35 mg/dl) and high serum insulin levels (insulin 115.9 microU/ml). A computerized tomographic scan showed a pancreatic tail lesion of about 6 cm in max diameter and multiple liver metastases. A whole body scintiscan using 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide was made and an increased uptake in the tail of the pancreas has been found. The patient was submitted to liver biopsy and the diagnosis of a metastatic insulin-secreting tumor was immunoistochemically confirmed. Due to the presence of some hypoglicemic episodes uncontrolled by medical treatment, on December 2005 the patient was admitted to surgical intervention with a body and tail pancreatic resection. Post-operatively the patient experienced again syncope with hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. It was then decided to start a schedule of treatment with somatostatin analog (octreotide subcutaneously 500 microg three times a day) with a good control of blood glucose levels (101 mg/dl). A trans-arterial chemioembolization was planned but the patient died for pancreatic and cardiovascular complications before this treatment started.

  19. Contribution of Soft Substrates to Malignancy and Tumor Suppression during Colon Cancer Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Rabineau, Morgane; Kocgozlu, Leyla; Dujardin, Denis; Senger, Bernard; Haikel, Youssef; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Freund, Jean-Noel; Schaaf, Pierre; Lavalle, Philippe; Vautier, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In colon cancer, a highly aggressive disease, progression through the malignant sequence is accompanied by increasingly numerous chromosomal rearrangements. To colonize target organs, invasive cells cross several tissues of various elastic moduli. Whether soft tissue increases malignancy or in contrast limits invasive colon cell spreading remains an open question. Using polyelectrolyte multilayer films mimicking microenvironments of various elastic moduli, we revealed that human SW480 colon cancer cells displayed increasing frequency in chromosomal segregation abnormalities when cultured on substrates with decreasing stiffness. Our results show that, although decreasing stiffness correlates with increased cell lethality, a significant proportion of SW480 cancer cells did escape from the very soft substrates, even when bearing abnormal chromosome segregation, achieve mitosis and undergo a new cycle of replication in contrast to human colonic HCoEpiC cells which died on soft substrates. This observation opens the possibility that the ability of cancer cells to overcome defects in chromosome segregation on very soft substrates could contribute to increasing chromosomal rearrangements and tumor cell aggressiveness. PMID:24167628

  20. Single amino acid (arginine) deprivation: rapid and selective death of cultured transformed and malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Scott, L; Lamb, J; Smith, S; Wheatley, D N

    2000-01-01

    The effects of arginine deprivation (–Arg) has been examined in 26 cell lines. Less than 10% of those with transformed or malignant phenotype survived for > 5 days, and many died more rapidly, notably leukaemic cells. Bivariate flow cytometry confirmed that vulnerable cell lines failed to move out of cell cycle into a quiescent state (G0), but reinitiated DNA synthesis. Many cells remained in S-phase, and/or had difficulty progressing through to G2 and M. Two tumour lines proved relatively ‘resistant’, A549 and MCF7. Although considerable cell loss occurred initially, both lines showed a ‘cell cycle freeze’, in which cells survived for > 10 days. These cells recovered their proliferative activity in +Arg medium, but behaved in the same manner to a second –Arg episode as they did to the first episode. In contrast, normal cells entered G0 and survived in –Arg medium for several weeks, with the majority of cells recovering with predictable kinetics in +Arg medium. In general, cells from a wide range of tumours and established lines die quickly in vitro following –Arg treatment, because of defective cell cycle checkpoint stringency, the efficacy of the treatment being most clearly demonstrated in co-cultures in which only the normal cells survived. The findings demonstrate a potentially simple, effective and non-genotoxic strategy for the treatment of a wide range of cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10952786

  1. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    this is radiation from a SiO maser in the atmosphere of the star. If it would not have been a maser, it would have been far too weak to have been detected. Although we know several hundred masers of this type in the Milky Way, this is the first discovery of a SiO maser in another galaxy than our own . Since then, the observations have been continued in collaboration with Australian astronomers, using radio telescopes at Parkes and Mopra on that continent. A most unusual star When Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund and his colleagues first observed this LMC maser star in 1981 with optical telescopes, they thought that it was a rather normal, cool and not particularly bright star. However, a few years later, the Dutch-British-USA InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revealed its true nature. The IRAS measurements showed that the star radiates most of its light in the form of infrared radiation [4], making it one of the most powerful stars in the LMC; in fact, it emits about half a million times more energy than the Sun. On this occasion, it was given the designation IRAS 04553-6825 , the number indicating its position in the sky. IRAS 04553-6825 is unusual in other ways. It is some fifty times as heavy as our Sun, and it is the biggest known star in the LMC: if it were to take the place of our Sun, it would fill the solar system out to the planet Neptune, thirty times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is rather cool when compared to other stars - although it still has a temperature of about 2,000 C - and it therefore has a very red colour [5]. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 15/96 which demonstrates that while the star is hardly visible in blue light, it shines brightly in red and infrared light. Stars like IRAS 04553-6825 are known as red supergiants. It has been unofficially dubbed `The Monster', and having reached the end of a short and hectic life, it is now dying. The nuclear reactions deep inside are undergoing important changes at

  2. Diagnosis of susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia with flanking DNA markers.

    PubMed Central

    Healy, S J; Heffron, J J; Lehane, M; Bradley, D G; Johnson, K; McCarthy, T V

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To define the region on human chromosome 19 carrying the gene for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and to evaluate the use of flanking DNA markers in diagnosing susceptibility. DESIGN--Prospective molecular genetic linkage studies in a large malignant hyperthermia pedigree. SETTING--Irish malignant hyperthermia testing centre. SUBJECTS--A large Irish malignant hyperthermia pedigree. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Routine diagnosis of susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia with in vitro contracture test on muscle biopsy specimens and genetic linkage between susceptibility and polymorphic DNA markers in a malignant hyperthermia family. RESULTS--Genetic typing of polymorphic DNA markers in a large Irish malignant hyperthermia pedigree generated a lod score of greater than 3 for the marker D19S9 and showed that the gene for susceptibility is flanked by the markers D19S9 and D19S16. These tightly linked flanking markers allowed non-invasive presymptomatic diagnosis of susceptibility in five untested subjects in the large pedigree with an accuracy of greater than 99.7%. CONCLUSIONS--DNA markers flanking the gene for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia can be used with high accuracy to diagnose susceptibility in subjects in large known malignant hyperthermia pedigrees and may replace the previous in vitro contracture test for diagnosing this inherited disorder in large families with malignant hyperthermia. PMID:1684123

  3. Adoptive cell transfer therapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Eiichi; Takano, Shingo; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuboi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To date, various adoptive immunotherapies have been attempted for treatment of malignant gliomas using nonspecific and/or specific effector cells. Since the late 1980s, with the development of rIL-2, the efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell therapy with or without rIL-2 for malignant gliomas had been tested with some modifications in therapeutic protocols. With advancements in technology, ex vivo expanded tumor specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) or those lineages were used in clinical trials with higher tumor response rates. In addition, combinations of those adoptive cell transfer using LAK cells, CTLs or natural killer (NK) cells with autologous tumor vaccine (ATV) therapy were attempted. Also, a strategy of high-dose (or lymphodepleting) chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer has been drawing attentions recently. The most important role of these clinical studies using cell therapy was to prove that these ex vivo expanded effector cells could kill tumor cells in vivo. Although recent clinical results could demonstrate radiologic tumor shrinkage in a number of cases, cell transfer therapy alone has been utilized less frequently, because of the high cost of ex vivo cell expansion, the short duration of antitumor activity in vivo, and the recent shift of interest to vaccine immunotherapy. Nevertheless, NK cell therapy using specific feeder cells or allergenic NK cell lines have potentials to be a good choice of treatment because of easy ex vivo expansion and their efficacy especially when combined with vaccine therapy as they are complementary to each other. Also, further studies are expected to clarify the efficacy of the high-dose chemotherapy followed by a large scale cell transfer therapy as a new therapeutic strategy for malignant gliomas.

  4. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area.

  5. Otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans

    PubMed Central

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    L’otite externe maligne est une ostéomyélite de la base du crane. Le Pseudomonas aeruginosa est le germe le plus incriminé. Cependant l’origine fongique n’est pas rare. Patiente âgée de 80 ans avait présenté une otalgie gauche persistante depuis deux mois malgré un traitement bien conduit. L’examen otologique mettait en évidence des signes inflammatoires au niveau du pavillon, une sténose du conduit avec des granulomes, et otorrhée d’allure purulente. Le scanner montrait un comblement otomastoïdien, un processus inflammatoire extensif des tissus pré et rétro-auriculaire et une lyse du tympanal. Vu l’absence d’amélioration un examen mycologique a été réalisé et qui a révélé la présence de Candida Albicans. Les cas d’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans sont rarement rapportés. L’origine fongique doit être suspecté devant la négativité des prélèvements bactériologiques et la non amélioration malgré un traitement antibiotique bien conduit, et confirmée par des prélèvements mycologiques parfois multiples. L’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans est une infection rare potentiellement mortelle. PMID:28154677

  6. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  7. Molecular targeting in childhood malignancies using nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Noriko; Barisone, Gustavo; Diaz, Elva; Nitin, Nitin; Nolta, Jan; Lam, Kit

    2012-06-01

    The goal of our project is to develop a new therapy for childhood malignancies using nanoformulated siRNA targeting Mxd3, a molecule in the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway, which we believe is important for cell survival. We plan to use cancer-specific ligands and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) to carry siRNA. This delivery system will be tested in mouse xenograft models that we developed with primary cancer tissues. Our current focus is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children. We report our progress to date.

  8. [Malignant thymoma associated with severe aplastic anaemia].

    PubMed

    Escobosa Sánchez, O M; Herrero Hernández, A; Acha García, T

    2009-01-01

    Malignant thymoma is a very rare neoplasm in paediatric patients; it is usually associated with para-neoplastic syndromes, the most frequent is myasthenia gravis; some haematological abnormalities may also be present, such as pure red cell aplasia or aplastic anaemia. We report a 12-year-old boy suffering from a very large thymoma, treated with multiple chemotherapy, and who developed a severe aplastic anaemia after surgery. He had a poor response to immunosuppressive treatment and later developed massive pulmonary bleeding as a complication.

  9. [Oral complications of chemotherapy of malignant neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S

    1999-01-01

    Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.

  10. Breast feeding and childhood hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, A K; Mishra, L; Bakhshi, Sameer; Arya, L S

    2004-05-01

    Breast milk is known to have anti-infective and immunomodulating effects on infants, but its association with childhood cancer has not been well studied. Artificial feeding may affect the immune response in carcinogenesis. In this communication the authors have reviewed different articles describing the association between breast feeding (BF) and subsequent development of childhood hematological malignancy. It appears that BF may have a protective effect on childhood cancer, both the duration of BF as well as the quantity of milk ingested is probably critical to the beneficial immunological effects of BF against childhood cancer if any.

  11. Radiation therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, K E; Giraud, P

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma with radiation has always been a technical challenge. For many years, conventional radiation therapy was delivered after extrapleural pneumonectomy with acceptable results. Novel radiation treatment techniques, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were introduced, but the early experience with IMRT demonstrated troubling toxicity. Recent reports from institutions have demonstrated that with greater experience, IMRT, both in the setting of extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy, can be delivered safely. A recent study, SAKK 17/04, questions the role of using radiation after extrapleural pneumonectomy.

  12. Cutaneous aspergillosis in patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, D; Pagano, L; Girmenia, C; Parruti, G; Mele, L; Candoni, A; Ricci, P; Martino, P

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate skin infections caused by Aspergillus in patients with haematological malignancies. Fifteen cases of cutaneous aspergillosis are reported, 12 of which occurred among 4448 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia. Cutaneous involvement occurred in 4% of patients with documented Aspergillus infection. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis was diagnosed in five cases. Infection was fatal in 11 of 15 cases; the absence of additional sites of infection other than cutis at presentation appeared to be the only factor related to a favourable outcome.

  13. Toward automated detection of malignant melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Billy; Gareau, Daniel S.

    2009-02-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy shows promise for the early detection of malignant melanoma (MM). Two hallmarks of MM have been identified: the presence of pagetoid melanocytes in the epidermis and the breakdown of the dermal papillae. For detection of MM, these features must be identified qualitatively by the clinician and qualitatively through automated pattern recognition. A machine vision algorithm was developed for automated detection. The algorithm detected pagetoid melanocytes and breakdown of the dermal/epidermal junction in a pre-selected set of five MMs and five benign nevi for correct diagnosis.

  14. Non-asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Asiye; Ozer Simsek, Zuhal; Tutar, Nuri; Yılmaz, Insu; Buyukoglan, Hakan; Canoz, Ozlem; Demir, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon tumor derived from mesothelial lining cells. MPM has been described as an insidious neoplasm because of its long latency period. The tumor is typically found in patients several decades after asbestos exposure. We herein describe a 26-year-old patient with MPM who presented with pleural effusion. The patient had not been exposed to asbestos or erionite. There are few case reports of non-asbestos-related MPM in young patients. We report this case to remind physicians to consider MPM in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion in young patients without exposure to asbestos or erionitis.

  15. Chemotherapy in advanced malignant diseases in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Hussein

    1971-01-01

    This work discusses the experience of one surgical team in the Third Surgical Unit at the Republican Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, from 1967 to 1970. 112 patients with advanced malignant lesions in various parts of the body were dealt with. In 84, the intra-arterial route was adopted; in the remaining, systemic administration of cytotoxic agents either singly or in combination was employed. The results are reported in terms of subjective and objective response, and the various complications are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5137574

  16. Malignant colo-duodenal fistula; case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Soulsby, Ruth; Leung, Edmund; Williams, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    Background Colo-duodenal fistula is a rare complication of malignant and inflammatory bowel disease. Cases with malignant colo-duodenal fistulae can present with symptoms from the primary, from the fistula or from metastatic disease. The fistula often results in diarrhoea and vomiting with dramatic weight loss. Upper abdominal pain is usually present as is general malaise both from the presence of the disease and from the metabolic sequelae it causes. The diarrhoea relates to colonic bacterial contamination of the upper intestines rather than to a pure mechanical effect. Vomiting may be faeculant or truly faecal and eructation foul smelling but in the case reports this 'classic' symptomatology was often absent despite a fistula being present and patent enough to allow barium through it. Occasionally patients will present with a gastro-intestinal bleed. Case presentation We present an unusual case of colorectal carcinoma, where a 65 year old male patient presented with diarrhoea and vomiting secondary to a malignant colo-duodenal fistula near the hepatic flexure. Adenocarcinoma was confirmed on histology from a biopsy obtained during the patient's oesophageogastroduodenoscopy, and the fistula was demonstrated in his barium enema. Staging computed tomography showed a locally advanced carcinoma of the proximal transverse colon, with a fistula to the duodenum and regional lymphadenopathy. The patient was also found to have subcutaneous metastasis. Following discussions at the multidisciplinary meeting, this patient was referred for palliation, and died within 4 months after discharge from hospital. Conclusion We present the case, discuss the management and review the literature. Colo-duodenal fistulae from colonic primaries are rare but early diagnosis may allow curative surgery. This case emphasises the importance of accurate staging and repeated clinical examination. PMID:17147825

  17. Malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A; Norton, A; Baithun, S

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To report the clinical and histological features and outcome of primary and secondary malignant lymphomas of the urinary bladder. Methods—Eleven cases of malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder were obtained from the registry of cases at St Bartholomews and the Royal London Hospitals. The lymphomas were classified on the basis of their morphology and immunophenotype, and the clinical records were reviewed. Results—There were six primary lymphomas: three extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and three diffuse large B cell lymphomas. Of the five secondary cases, four were diffuse large B cell lymphomas, one secondary to a systemic follicular follicle centre lymphoma, and one nodular sclerosis Hodgkins disease. Four patients with secondary lymphoma for whom follow up was available had died of disease within 13 months of diagnosis. Primary lymphomas followed a more indolent course. In one case, there was evidence of transformation from low grade MALT-type to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The most common presenting symptom was haematuria. Cystoscopic appearances were of solid, sometimes necrotic tumours resembling transitional cell carcinoma, and in one case the tumours were multiple. These cases represented 0.2% of all bladder neoplasms. Conclusions—Diffuse large B cell lymphoma and MALT-type lymphoma are the most common primary malignant lymphomas of the bladder. Lymphoepithelial lesions in MALT-type lymphoma involve transitional epithelium, and their presence in high grade lymphoma suggests a primary origin owing to transformation of low grade MALT-type lymphoma. Primary and secondary diffuse large B cell lymphomas of the bladder are histologically similar, but the prognosis of the former is favourable. Key Words: bladder • lymphoma • mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma PMID:10911804

  18. Double-Layered PTFE-Covered Nitinol Stents: Experience in 32 Patients with Malignant Esophageal Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jung Gu; Jung, Gyoo-Sik Oh, Kyung Seung; Park, Seon-Ja

    2010-08-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a double-layered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered nitinol stent in the palliative treatment of malignant esophageal strictures. A double-layered PTFE-covered nitinol stent was designed to reduce the propensity to migration of conventional covered stent. The stent consists of an inner PTFE-covered stent and an outer uncovered nitinol stent tube. With fluoroscopic guidance, the stent was placed in 32 consecutive patients with malignant esophageal strictures. During the follow-up period, the technical and clinical success rates, complications, and cumulative patient survival and stent patency were evaluated. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients, and no procedural complications occurred. After stent placement, the symptoms of 30 patients (94%) showed improvement. During the mean follow-up of 103 days (range, 9-348 days), 11 (34%) of 32 patients developed recurrent symptoms due to tumor overgrowth in five patients (16%), tumor ingrowth owing to detachment of the covering material (PTFE) apart from the stent wire in 3 (9%), mucosal hyperplasia in 2 (6%), and stent migration in 1 (3%). Ten of these 11 patients were treated by means of placing a second covered stent. Thirty patients died, 29 as a result of disease progression and 1 from aspiration pneumonia. The median survival period was 92 days. The median period of primary stent patency was 190 days. The double-layered PTFE-covered nitinol stent seems to be effective for the palliative treatment of malignant esophageal strictures. We believe that the double-layer configuration of this stent can contribute to decreasing the stent's migration rate.

  19. Malignant catarrhal fever in a bison (Bison bison) feedlot, 1993-2000.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D; Li, H; Sourk, C; Montgomery, D L; Crawford, T B

    2002-05-01

    A fatal enteric syndrome was identified in American bison (Bison bison) at a large feedlot in the American Midwest in early 1998. An estimated 150 bison died of the syndrome between January 1998 and December 1999. The syndrome was identified as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), primarily the alimentary form. Clinical onset was acute, and most affected bison died within 1-3 days; none recovered. Consistent lesions were hemorrhagic cystitis, ulcerative enterotyphlocolitis, and arteritis-phlebitis. Vasculitis was milder and more localized than that in cattle with MCF, and in contrast to the situation in cattle, lymphadenomegaly was minimal. Virtually all affected bison examined were positive for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. A retrospective study of archived tissues established that MCF occurred in the yard as early as 1993. A prospective study was undertaken to establish the importance of MCF relative to other fatal diseases at the feedlot. The fate of a group of 300 healthy male bison in a consignment of 1,101 animals was followed for up to 7 months to slaughter. At entry, 23% (71/300) of bison were seropositive for MCF viruses, and 11% (8/71) of these seropositive bison were PCR positive for OvHV-2. Forty seronegative bison were selected at random from the group, and all were PCR negative for OvHV-2. There was no change in seroprevalence in the group during the investigation. The minimum infection rate for MCF virus was 36.3% (93/256). Twenty-two (7.3%) of the 300 bison in the feedlot died. Of these, 15 had MCF, 4 had acute or chronic pneumonia, and 3 were unexamined. Losses in the entire consignment were higher (98/1,101; 8.8% death loss); 76% of deaths were attributable to MCF. The study failed to reveal a relationship between subclinical infection and development of clinical disease.

  20. Datenkompression, Prozessoptimierung, Aerodynamik: Eine Tour Durch die Skalen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, Wolfgang; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    Enorm gestiegene Rechnerkapazitäten ermutigen zu einer immer genaueren Erschließung komplexer Prozesse in Natur- und Ingenieurwissenschaften durch numerische Simulation. Die Mathematik als Schnittstelle zwischen realer und digitaler Welt liefert einerseits die Grundlagen zur Formulierung notwendigerweise vereinfachter Modelle der Realität. Andererseits bietet sie aber auch die methodischen Grundlagen für den Entwurf effizienter Algorithmen, die aus solchen Modellen quantitative Information gewinnen können. Eine zentrale Herausforderung liegt dabei in der Tatsache, dass reale Prozesse meist durch relevante Anteile auf einer riesigen Spannweite von Längenskalen getrieben werden. Die Entwicklung mathematischer Methoden zur Behandlung von Mehrskaligkeit ist daher von wesentlicher Bedeutung. In diesem Artikel wird dies anhand jüngster Entwicklungen in ganz unterschiedlichen Anwendungsbereichen erklärt und illustriert, auch um deutlich zu machen, wieviele "Fliegen“ man mit einer "mathematischen Klappe“ schlagen kann. Insbesondere werden grundlegende, auf Waveletzerlegung beruhende Prinzipien zunächst im Rahmen der Bildkompression und -kodierung auf weitgehend elementare Weise erklärt. Es wird dann aufgezeigt, dass diese Konzepte in ganz ähnlicher Weise bei der Datenanalyse im Zusammenhang mit verfahrenstechnischen Anwendungen, bei großskaligen Optimierungsproblemen der Prozessindustrie sowie bei komplexen Strömungsproblemen wie in aerodynamischen Anwendungen zum Tragen kommen. Stabile Zerlegungen in Anteile unterschiedlicher Längenskalen eröffnen dabei einen Zugang zu adaptiven Lösungskonzepten, die in der Lage sind, automatisch Rechnerresourcen dort zu plazieren, wo sie zu einer ökonomischen Realisierung der gewünschten Lösungsqualität, etwa in Form von Genauigkeitstoleranzen, benötigt werden.

  1. A comparison of vitamin D activity in paired non-malignant and malignant human breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Suetani, Rachel J; Ho, Kristen; Jindal, Shalini; Manavis, Jim; Neilsen, Paul M; Pishas, Kathleen I; Rippy, Elisabeth; Bochner, Melissa; Kollias, James; Gill, P Grantley; Morris, Howard A; Callen, David F

    2012-10-15

    Links between a low vitamin D status and an increased risk of breast cancer have been observed in epidemiological studies. These links have been investigated in human tissue homogenates and cultured cell lines. We have used non-malignant, malignant and normal reduction mammoplasty breast tissues to investigate the biological and metabolic consequences of the application of vitamin D to intact ex vivo human breast tissue. Tissues were exposed to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) (1,25D; active metabolite) and 25(OH)D (25D; pre-metabolite). Changes in mRNA expression and protein expression after vitamin D exposure were analysed. Results indicate that while responses in normal and non-malignant breast tissues are similar between individuals, different tumour tissues are highly variable with regards to their gene expression and biological response. Collectively, malignant breast tissue responds well to active 1,25D, but not to the inactive pre-metabolite 25D. This may have consequences for the recommendation of vitamin D supplementation in breast cancer patients.

  2. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  3. Malignant transformation of biliary adenofibroma: a rare biliary cystic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zendejas-Mummert, Benjamin; Hartgers, Mindy L.; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Mahipal, Amit; Smoot, Rory L.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary adenofibromas (BAFs) are rare, benign biliary cystic tumors with potential for malignant transformation. Of the eleven prior cases of BAF reported in the literature, six showed evidence of malignant transformation. We describe the clinical, imaging and pathology features of two cases of malignant BAF and review the existing literature to raise awareness of this entity and provide additional tools for diagnosing this rare tumor Additionally, we identified a loss of function mutation in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) tumor suppressor gene in a malignant caudate lobe BAF, thereby providing potential insight into the molecular pathogenesis of BAF malignant transformation. Although additional cases and longer-term follow-up are needed, our cases suggest that recurrence or metastasis of malignant BAF is not common and that complete surgical resection can be curative. PMID:28078134

  4. Cervical chondrosarcoma- rare malignancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Shuaib; Mohiyuddin, S M Azeem; Rudrappa, Satish; Deo, R P; A, Sagayaraj; Menon, Lakshmi R

    2014-12-01

    To highlight an uncommon bone malignancy, which presented to our institute, as a neck swelling in the supraclavicular region. A 30 year old man presented with history of swelling on the left side of neck since 1 year and numbness of left upper limb since 6 months. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cervical spine & MR Angiography showed a 7.4 × 4.6 cm expansile lesion involving transverse process of C5-C7 vertebrae. As the tumour was found to be deep to the phrenic nerve & brachial plexus, a dual approach was used, anteriorly via neck incision and posteriorly via the spine. The tumour was resected & iliac crest grafted along with stabilization of the cervical spine. Patient is disease free and the cervical spine stabilized with normal movements at two and half years follow up. We need to consider tumour arising from the vertebra as a differential diagnosis for any deep seated hard neck swelling in the supraclavicular region. Even low grade malignancy of this region when resected en-bloc will have a good prognosis.

  5. Recurrent chromosome 6 abnormalities in malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Ribotta, M; Roseo, F; Salvio, M; Castagneto, B; Carbone, M; Procopio, A; Giordano, A; Mutti, L

    1998-04-01

    The long latency period between asbestos exposure and the onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) suggests that a multistep tumorigenesis process occurs whilst the capability of asbestos fibres to interfere directly with chromosomes focuses on the critical role of the chromosomal abnormalities in this neoplasm. The aim of our study was to identify any recurrent chromosomal changes in ten primary MM cell cultures derived from pleural effusions of patients with MM from the same geographic area and environmental and/or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in accordance with International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our results confirmed a great number of cytogenetic abnormalities in MM cells. Recurrent loss of the long arms of chromosome 6 (6q-) was the most frequent abnormality detected (four epithelial and two mixed subtypes) while, on the whole, abnormalities of chromosome 6 were found in nine out of ten cases whereas chromosome 6 was normal only in the case with fibromatous subtype. Monosomy 13 and 17 was found in five cases, monosomy 14 in four cases and 22 in three cases. Since deletion of 6q- was detected even in relatively undisturbed karyotype, we hypothesize a multistep carcinogenic process in which deletion of 6q- is an early event in the development and progression of malignant mesothelioma.

  6. Myeloid malignancies: mutations, models and management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid malignant diseases comprise chronic (including myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) and acute (acute myeloid leukemia) stages. They are clonal diseases arising in hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells. Mutations responsible for these diseases occur in several genes whose encoded proteins belong principally to five classes: signaling pathways proteins (e.g. CBL, FLT3, JAK2, RAS), transcription factors (e.g. CEBPA, ETV6, RUNX1), epigenetic regulators (e.g. ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1, IDH2, SUZ12, TET2, UTX), tumor suppressors (e.g. TP53), and components of the spliceosome (e.g. SF3B1, SRSF2). Large-scale sequencing efforts will soon lead to the establishment of a comprehensive repertoire of these mutations, allowing for a better definition and classification of myeloid malignancies, the identification of new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets, and the development of novel therapies. Given the importance of epigenetic deregulation in myeloid diseases, the use of drugs targeting epigenetic regulators appears as a most promising therapeutic approach. PMID:22823977

  7. Gynaecological Malignancies from Palliative Care Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    Of the approximately 80,000 new cases of all cancers detected every year in India, 10–15% are gynecological malignancies. As per population-based registries under the National Cancer Registry Program, the leading sites of cancer among women are the cervix uteri, breast, and oral cavity. About 50–60% of all cancers among women in India are mainly of the following four organs: cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri, and ovaries. Over 70% of these women report for diagnostic and treatment services at an advanced stage of disease, resulting in poor survival and high mortality rates. Among all gynecological cancers, ovarian cancer is the deadliest one and, in 2/3rd of the cases, is detected in an advanced stage. But, in India and in other developing countries, due to inadequate screening facilities for the preventable cancer cervix, this kills more women than any other cancer in females. Gynecology Oncologist as a sub-specialist has an immensely important role in curtailing the menace of gynecological malignancies by providing comprehensive preventive, curative, palliative and follow-up services, with the aim of assuring a good quality of life to women as a cornerstone of cancer management. PMID:21811372

  8. Steroid requirements during radiotherapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Marantidou, Athina; Levy, Christine; Duquesne, Alyette; Ursu, Renata; Bailon, Olivier; Coman, Irene; Belin, Catherine; Carpentier, Antoine F

    2010-10-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is the standard treatment for high-grade gliomas. However, toxicity may develop during RT, such as brain edema or worsening of neurological symptoms. Surprisingly, no dedicated study had focused on steroid requirements during RT in adult patients with malignant gliomas. We evaluated prospectively all patients with malignant gliomas treated by RT in a single center from July 2006 to May 2009. Age, sex, initial Karnofsky performance status (KPS), tumor localization and histology, type of surgical resection, clinical target volume, total dose and duration of RT, concomitant treatment with temozolomide, and steroid dosage during RT and at 1 and 3 months after RT were recorded in all patients. Most of the 80 patients (70%) were already taking steroids before RT. Half of them (55%) required initiation or further steroids increase during RT. The median time to steroid increase was 8 days. Only 13% of patients remained free of steroids during RT, and the mean maximal dosage of prednisone was 55 ± 48 mg. At 3 months after RT, 29% of patients were free of steroids, and the mean prednisone dosage was 32 ± 50 mg. Unresected tumors and initial KPS ≤80% were the only variables associated with higher steroid requirements on multivariate analysis. In our series, almost all patients required steroids during RT. Poor initial KPS and biopsy were associated with higher steroid requirements.

  9. Nonalcoholic Lipid Accumulation and Hepatocyte Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Juanjuan; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbing; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuli; Yao, Dengfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is steadily increasing, highlighting its status as a public health concern, particularly due to its significant association with other comorbidities, such as diabetes. However, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a primary risk factor, with its own prevalence increasing in recent years, and it has gradually caught up with the historical primary etiological factors of infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, exposure to aflatoxin, or alcohol liver disease. The deeply worrisome aspects of all of these high risk factors, however, are their remarkable presence within populations. Systemic and genetic mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of liver cells, as well as useful biomarkers of early stage HCC are being investigated. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the interrelation of NAFLD and HCC remain largely unknown. In this review, some of the recent advances in our understanding of liver lipid accumulation are summarized and discussed to provide insights into the relationship between NAFLD and hepatocyte malignant transformation. PMID:27350942

  10. Osteogenic sarcoma. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma subtype.

    PubMed

    Ballance, W A; Mendelsohn, G; Carter, J R; Abdul-Karim, F W; Jacobs, G; Makley, J T

    1988-08-15

    A distinctly different entity from the now well-delineated malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is the MFH histopathologic subtype of osteogenic sarcoma. Although uncommon, recently the authors have encountered six cases of this neoplasm, in each of which the soft tissue component was devoid of bone elements and was microscopically indistinguishable from MFH of bone or soft tissue. Neoplastic osteoid and woven bone were present in the osseous component of each tumor, however. Radiologically, the lesions generally were osteoblastic but focally osteolytic with features typical of osteogenic sarcoma. Pain was the most common presenting symptom. There was no age or sex predilection. Immunocytochemical staining showed strong positivity with alpha-1-antichymotrypsin within malignant bizarre giant cells and occasional neoplastic osteoblasts in five cases. The biological behavior followed a very aggressive course. Four of the six patients developed pulmonary metastases 6 to 12 months after initial surgery; one patient presented initially with pulmonary metastases. Adequate tumor sampling as well as optimal correlation with clinical and radiographic information are required to distinguish the MFH subtype of osteogenic sarcoma from MFH of bone, both being high-grade neoplasms, however.

  11. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SAMIR, AHMED; ELGAMAL, BASMA M; GABR, HALA; SABAAWY, HATEM E

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID:26134389

  12. Endoscopic laser palliation for advanced malignant dysphagia.

    PubMed Central

    Bown, S G; Hawes, R; Matthewson, K; Swain, C P; Barr, H; Boulos, P B; Clark, C G

    1987-01-01

    Palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia aims to optimise swallowing for the maximum time possible with the minimum of general distress to these seriously ill patients. Thirty four patients considered unsuitable for surgery because of advanced malignancy, other major pathology or in whom previous surgery had been unsuccessful were treated endoscopically with the Nd YAG laser. Significant improvement was achieved in 29 (85%). On a scale of 0-4 (0 = normal swallowing; 4 = dysphagia for all fluids), mean improvement was 1.7, with 25 patients (74%) able to swallow most, or all solids after treatment. With increasing experience, the average number of treatment sessions required for each patient became less; initial time in hospital became comparable to that needed for intubation. Failures were caused by inappropriate patient selection (3), or laser related perforation (2). The mean survival in the whole group was 19 weeks (range 2-44). Eighteen patients needed further treatment for recurrent dysphagia, a mean of six weeks (range 2-15) after initial therapy. Ten of these responded, but eight eventually required insertion of a prosthetic tube. The duration of good palliation was very variable after initial laser therapy. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2443431

  13. Survival after stereotactic biopsy of malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, R.J.; Lunsford, L.D.; Taylor, F.H.

    1988-03-01

    For many patients with malignant gliomas in inaccessible or functionally important locations, stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy (RT) may be a more appropriate initial treatment than craniotomy and tumor resection. We studied the long term survival in 91 consecutive patients with malignant gliomas diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy: 64 had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 27 had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Sixty-four per cent of the GBMs and 33% of the AAs involved deep or midline cerebral structures. The treatment prescribed after biopsy, the tumor location, the histological findings, and the patient's age at presentation (for AAs) were statistically important factors determining patient survival. If adequate RT (tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 cGy) was not prescribed, the median survival was less than or equal to 11 weeks regardless of tumor histology or location. The median survival for patients with deep or midline tumors who completed RT was similar in AA (19.4 weeks) and GBM (27 weeks) cases. Histology was an important predictor of survival only for patients with adequately treated lobar tumors. The median survival in lobar GBM patients who completed RT was 46.9 weeks, and that in lobar AA patients who completed RT was 129 weeks. Cytoreductive surgery had no statistically significant effect on survival. Among the clinical factors examined, age of less than 40 years at presentation was associated with prolonged survival only in AA patients. Constellations of clinical features, tumor location, histological diagnosis, and treatment prescribed were related to survival time.

  14. Phagocytosis of dying tumor cells by human peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Britta Janina; Lindau, Dennis; Ripper, Dagmar; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Glatzle, Jörg; Witte, Maria; Beck, Henning; Keppeler, Hildegard; Lauber, Kirsten; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Königsrainer, Alfred

    2011-05-15

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is an advanced form of metastatic disease characterized by cancer cell dissemination onto the peritoneum. It is commonly observed in ovarian and colorectal cancers and is associated with poor patient survival. Novel therapies consist of cytoreductive surgery in combination with intraperitoneal chemotherapy, aiming at tumor cell death induction. The resulting dying tumor cells are considered to be eliminated by professional as well as semi-professional phagocytes. In the present study, we have identified a hitherto unknown type of 'amateur' phagocyte in this environment: human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HMCs). We demonstrate that HMCs engulf corpses of dying ovarian and colorectal cancer cells, as well as other types of apoptotic cells. Flow cytometric, confocal and electron microscopical analyses revealed that HMCs ingest dying cell fragments in a dose- and time-dependent manner and the internalized material subsequently traffics into late phagolysosomes. Regarding the mechanisms of prey cell recognition, our results show that HMCs engulf apoptotic corpses in a serum-dependent and -independent fashion and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that diverse opsonin receptor systems orchestrating dying cell clearance are expressed in HMCs at high levels. Our data strongly suggest that HMCs contribute to dying cell removal in the peritoneum, and future studies will elucidate in what manner this influences tumor cell dissemination and the antitumor immune response.

  15. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  16. Infantile or Malignant Osteopetrosis: Case Report of Two Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Rao P., Tarakeswara; V., Sunita; T.P., Gandhi; Harsha, Sri

    2013-01-01

    Infantile or Malignant osteopetrosis is a rare congenital disorder of bone resorption. It is caused by failure of osteoclasts to reabsorb immature bone. Severe infantile or malignant osteopetrosis present at birth or develops within the first few months of life. We are reporting here a case of two siblings with malignant osteopetrosis. Prominent clinical features included marked pallor, noisy respiration, progressive blindness and developmental delay. PMID:24086906

  17. [Malignant tumours of the eye: Epidemiology, diagnostic methods and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Jardel, P; Caujolle, J-P; Gastaud, L; Maschi, C; Sauerwein, W; Thariat, J

    2015-12-01

    Malignant tumours of the eye are not common, barely representing 1 % of all cancers. This article aims to summarise, for each of the main eye malignant diseases, aspects of epidemiology, diagnostic methods and treatments, with a focus on radiation therapy techniques. The studied tumours are: eye metastasis, intraocular and ocular adnexal lymphomas, uveal melanomas, malignant tumours of the conjunctive, of the lids, and retinoblastomas. The last chapter outlines ocular complications of radiation therapy and their management.

  18. Postirradiation sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) following cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, J.A.; Sekine, I.

    1982-02-01

    A case of postirradiation sarcoma is described. The tumor, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurred in the radiation field 11 years following postoperative external beam radiation therapy (7000 rad) for carcinoma of the cervix. Reports of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma are rare, and the occurrence of this neoplasm following treatment of cervix cancer has not previously been described. The literature concerning postirradiation bone and soft tissue sarcomas is briefly reviewed, with special attention to malignant fibrous histiocytomas.

  19. Mobile phone use and the risk for malignant brain tumors: a case-control study on deceased cases and controls.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hansson Mild, Kjell

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the use of mobile or cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumors in a group of deceased cases. Most previous studies have either left out deceased cases of brain tumors or matched them to living controls and therefore a study matching deceased cases to deceased controls is warranted. Recall error is one issue since it has been claimed that increased risks reported in some studies could be due to cases blaming mobile phones as a cause of the disease. This should be of less importance for deceased cases and if cancer controls are used. In this study brain tumor cases aged 20-80 years diagnosed during 1997-2003 that had died before inclusion in our previous studies on the same topic were included. Two control groups were used: one with controls that had died from another type of cancer than brain tumor and one with controls that had died from other diseases. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire sent to the next-of-kin for both cases and controls. Replies were obtained for 346 (75%) cases, 343 (74%) cancer controls and 276 (60%) controls with other diseases. Use of mobile phones gave an increased risk, highest in the >10 years' latency group yielding odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.1. The risk increased with cumulative number of lifetime hours for use, and was highest in the >2,000 h group (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6-7.1). No clear association was found for use of cordless phones, although OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.8-3.4 was found in the group with >2,000 h of cumulative use. This investigation confirmed our previous results of an association between mobile phone use and malignant brain tumors.

  20. A study of comparison of efficacy and safety of talc and povidone iodine for pleurodesis of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Das, Sibes Kumar; Saha, Samirendra Kumar; Das, Anirban; Halder, Arup Kumar; Banerjee, Sourindra Nath; Chakraborty, Mukul

    2008-09-01

    Pleurodesis is considered as the best palliative therapy for the treatment of symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. Several chemical agents are used for this purpose with variable efficacy and safety. The present study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of talc and povidone iodine as chemical agents for pleurodesis in patients of malignant pleural effusion. Fifty-two patients with malignant pleural effusion admitted in the department of chest of Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata were selected for the study. Pleurodesis with povidone iodine and talc in slurry was done in 28 and 24 patients respectively. Efficacy and safety of these agents were assessed during a follow-up period of six months. Among the 52 patients, 42 were males and 10 females. Age ranged from 40 to 64 years with mean age of 56.4 years. In 41 patients effusion was secondary to bronchogemic carcinoma, 8 had effusion secondary to breast carcinoma, 1 had effusion due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while primary malignancy was unknown in 2 patients. Among the 24 patients treated with talc pleurodesis, 20 had bronchogenic carcinoma, 3 had breast carcinoma and 1 had unknown primary malignancy. Out of the 28 patients treated with povidone iodine pleurodesis, bronchogenic carcinoma was present in 21 patients, breast carcinoma in 5 patients, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and unknown primary malignancy was present in 1 patient each. Pleurodesis with talc showed complete success in 19 patients, partial success in 3 patients and failure in 2 patients. Pleurodesis with povidone iodine showed complete response in 24 patients, partial response in 1 patient and failure in 3 patients. Chest pain occurred in 4 patients of talc pleurodesis and 5 patients of povidone iodine pleurodesis, 3 patients of each group had fever. There was no death in the peripleurodesis period. During the 6 months follow-up, 12 patients of talc pleurodesis and 18 patients of povidone iodine pleurodesis died. Talc is slurry and