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Sample records for dien bien phu

  1. Quaternary basin formation along the Dien Bien Phu fault zone and its neotectonic implication of northwestern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, K.; Chen, Y.; Chung, L.; Li, P.; Lam, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Dien Bien Phu (DBP) fault zone is one of the most conspicuous fault systems in the Indochina, extending over a distance of 150 km from Yunnan, China through the NW Vietnam into Laos. Recent Global Positioning system (GPS) data in China yielded that the present clockwise rotation of the southeastern Tibet block geologically corresponds to a region of left-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Xianshuihe-Xiaojang fault and Dien Bien Phu fault, which appear to have accommodated clockwise rotation; whereas other GPS data from the network of Southeast Asia proposed that Indochina constitutes a stable tectonic block moving approximately east with respect to Eurasia. Although above GPS data show insignificant differential motion along DBP fault, active sinistral slip can be identified by clear geomorphic features, focal solutions and seismicity distribution in a NNE-striking zone parallel to the fault zone. Mapping of surface fault traces along the DBP fault zone using field outcrops, geophysical data, and geomorphologic features recognized by the aerial photos, SRTM, ASTER imageries and derived digital elevation models shows that virtually all active faults are reactivated structures sub-parallel to chronostratigraphic boundary. Along the DBF fault, three larger basins have been developed by different kinematics from north to south. The northern one at Chan Nua is rhomboidal in shape with a dimension of 2.5 km?.5 km, which can be defined as a pull-apart basin resulted by the strike-slip motion of the DBP fault. The fault configuration associated with the central one changes to two parallel sinistral and sinistral-normal faults forming a narrow subsiding weak zone (10 km?.5 km) filled with Quaternary deposits. The southern one is, however, created by that the main DBP fault bends the strike from NNE to NE where branches out a sinistral- normal fault with N-striking controlling a half-graben basin (17 km? km) filled with Quaternary deposits about 200 m in depth above

  2. Episodes of brittle deformation within the Dien Bien Phu Fault zone, Vietnam: Evidence from K-Ar age dating of authigenic illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Hoang Bac; Ngo, Xuan Thanh; Khuong, The Hung; Golonka, Jan; Nguyen, Tien Dung; Song, Yungoo; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Yagi, Koshi

    2017-01-01

    Constraining the timing of fault zone origin and movement history is of fundamental geotectonic importance to understand the evolution and processes of the brittle fault structures. The authors present in this paper authigenic illite K-Ar age data from the fault gouge samples, collected from the Dien Bien Phu Fault (DBPF) in the Dien Bien province, Vietnam as well as in a major strike-slip fault zone in South-East Asia; all of which played important roles in the structural formation and geotectonic development of northwestern Vietnam. The gouge fault samples were separated into four grain-size fractions (< 0.1 μm, 0.1-0.4 μm, 0.4-1.0 μm and 1.0-2.0 μm). The K-Ar ages of the fractions were divided into two age groups, from 26 to 29 Ma and 130 Ma. The timing of the fault movements is defined at 26 ± 0.24 Ma, 29 ± 0.61 Ma, 130.1 ± 1.27 Ma and 130.7 ± 1.29 Ma. This indicates that the Dien Bien Phu Fault underwent two movements, first in the Early Cretaceous, with an age of about 130 Ma and second in the Oligocene (Paleogene), with an age of about 26-29 Ma. The ductile deformation of the DBPF terminated during the Early Cretaceous. These studies also indicate slow exhumation of the Dien Bien granitoid complex during the Cretaceous times. The Oligocene ages indicate that the DBPF had been reactivated by the SE extrusion and clock-wise rotation of the Indochina block, caused by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. This tectonic event led to the DBPF brittle-sinistral movement, causing the exhumation phase along the fault. This movement period (ca. 26-29 Ma) is coexistent with 600-700 km sinistral shearing along the Red River-Ailao Shan fault. This is the first report determining the absolute age constraints of multi-activated tectonic events, affecting the Dien Bien Phu Fault using the K-Ar dating method for the gouge samples.

  3. The Generalship of General Henri E. Navarre during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    Legionnaires were described as men who were paid "six times what they received in North Africa" while "junior Lieutenants, who could barely make...ends meet in France, were able to keep three servants in Tonkin . . . most legionnaires counted over ten years service." 30 The French Army that Navarre...military leader in the true sense, and not a guerrilla leader . . . . In 1952 they sent another forty thousand rifles, four thousand machine guns, some 120

  4. A Description and Analysis of the Sieges of Dien Bien Phu and Khe Sanh

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    ability to meet resupply requirements. 21 hi ’"_ _’BIBLIOGRAPHY A. REFERENCES CITED Books 1. Bowman, John S. The Vietnam War Almanac. New York: World ... Almanac Publications, 1985. 2. Buttinger, Joseph. Vietnam; A Political History. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1968. 3. Fall, Bernard B

  5. Ecoutez bien (Listen Well)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the organization and content of a brochure on the development of understanding while hearing (Ecoutez bien. Texte zur Entwicklung des verstehenden Hoerens. Collected by E. Vollmer and L. Pohl. Volk und Wissen, Berlin, 1974). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  6. Close Air Support: Why All the Fuss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-02

    column, and hamlet defense in Indochina and South Vietnam; and siege-breaking at Dien Bien Phu and Khe Sanh. In all of these cases, CAS substituted...the Dien Bien Phu experience, and, indeed, enabled Khe Sanh to accomplish what the French at Dien Blien Phu had tried and failed to achieve: create a...technological frontiers on which the Air Force has always sought leadership. It fits nicely their service " persona ." But, is it in the Army’s interest to take

  7. Into the Wind, Against the Tide: Change and the Operational Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-08

    examples and studies in comunication , psychology, organizational behavior, and decision making. The paper concludes by noting that commanders can...thinking by decision makers. These works include Yuen Foong Khong, Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decision of 1965...Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965, Princeton: Princeton, 1992. Koda, Yoji. "A Canmander’s DilemTna: Admiral Yamamoto and the ’Gradual

  8. A Conversation with Zoltan P. Dienes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath; Lesh, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The name of Zoltan P. Dienes (1916- ) stands with those of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Edward Begle, and Robert Davis as a legendary figure whose work left a lasting impression on the field of mathematics education. Dienes' name is synonymous with the multibase blocks that he invented for the teaching of place value. Among numerous other things,…

  9. A Conversation with Zoltan P. Dienes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath; Lesh, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The name of Zoltan P. Dienes (1916- ) stands with those of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Edward Begle, and Robert Davis as a legendary figure whose work left a lasting impression on the field of mathematics education. Dienes' name is synonymous with the multibase blocks that he invented for the teaching of place value. Among numerous other things,…

  10. Predictors for dioxin accumulation in residents living in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam, many years after Agent Orange use.

    PubMed

    Pham, Diem T; Nguyen, Hang M; Boivin, Thomas G; Zajacova, Anna; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Bergman, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was the main defoliant used by the US in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971; AO was contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD). Three major dioxin “hot spots” remain from previous AO storage and use at former US bases at Bien Hoa, Da Nang, and Phu Cat, posing potential health risks for Vietnamese living on or near these hot spots. We evaluated potential risk factors contributing to serum TCDD levels in Vietnamese residents at and near contaminated sites in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam. We used multiple linear regression to analyze possible associations of blood dioxin concentrations with demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors for residents living on or near these hot spots. For the Da Nang study, fish farming on the site, living on property flooded from monsoon rains, and age were among the factors showing significant positive associations with serum TCDD concentrations. For the Bien Hoa study, fish farmers working at this site and their immediate family members had significantly higher serum TCDD concentrations. Our results suggest that water-related activities, especially fish-farming, at the hot spots increased the risk of exposure to dioxin.

  11. Processing Conjugated-Diene-Containing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    Diels-Alder reaction used to cross-linked thermoplastics. Process uses Diels-Alder reaction to cross-link and/or extend conjugated-diene-containing polymers by reacting them with bis-unsaturated dienophiles results in improved polymer properties. Quantities of diene groups required for cross-linking varies from very low to very high concentrations. Process also used to extend, or build up molecular weights of, low-molecular-weight linear polymers with terminal conjugated dienic groups.

  12. Induced fit on heme binding to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytoplasmic protein (PhuS) drives interaction with heme oxygenase (HemO).

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Maura J; Bhakta, Mehul N; Fleming, Karen G; Wilks, Angela

    2012-04-10

    Iron, an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability, requires specialized cellular mechanisms for uptake. Although iron uptake into the cytoplasm in the form of heme has been well characterized in many bacteria, the subsequent trafficking is poorly understood. The cytoplasmic heme-binding proteins belong to a structurally related family thought to have evolved as "induced fit" ligand-binding macromolecules. One member, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytoplasmic protein (PhuS), has previously been shown to be important for delivering heme to the iron regulated heme oxygenase (HemO). Spectroscopic investigations of the holo-PhuS complex revealed a dynamic heme environment with overlapping but distinct heme-binding sites with alternative coordinating heme ligands, His-209 or His-212. In the present work we establish a mechanism for how heme is transferred from PhuS to its partner, HemO. Using surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have discovered that holo-PhuS, but not apo-PhuS, forms a 1:1 complex with HemO. Sedimentation velocity and limited proteolysis experiments suggest that heme binding to PhuS induces a conformational rearrangement that drives the protein interaction with HemO. Hydrodynamic analysis reveals that the holo-PhuS displays a more expanded hydrodynamic envelope compared with apo-PhuS, and we propose that this conformational change drives the interaction with HemO. We further demonstrate that replacement of His-212 by Ala disrupts the interaction of holo-PhuS with HemO; in contrast, the His-209-Ala variant can still complex with HemO, albeit more weakly. Together, the present studies reveal a mechanism that couples a heme-dependent conformational switch in PhuS to protein-protein interaction, the subsequent free energy of which drives heme release to HemO.

  13. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  14. Sequence stratigraphy and hydrocarbon potential of the Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam, South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.H. ); Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Phu Khanh Basin offshore central Vietnam is one of the few untested basins on the Vietnam margin of the South China Sea. Analysis of over 1,600 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data indicates that the Phu Khanh Basin follows a typical rift-margin order: faulted basement, synrift sedimentation, a breakup unconformity, and postrift sedimentation. Postrift sedimentation consists of a transgressive phase characterized by ramp-like depositional geometries followed by a regressive phase characterized by prograding sequences. An early middle Miocene unconformity separates these two phases. During the transgressive phase rising sea level provided favorable conditions for carbonate buildup development. The regressive interval contains a number of third-order depositional sequences composed of seismically resolvable lowstand, highstand, and rarely, transgressive systems tracts. Lacustrine sediments deposited in graben and half-graben lakes during the rifting stage are probably the principal source rocks. Fractured and/or weathered basement, carbonate complexes, basinfloor fans, and shallows water sands may have good reservoir quality. Potential traps include basement hills, carbonate complexes, fault taps, and stratigraphic traps within lowstand systems tracts. Hydrocarbon indicators such as flat spots, bright spots, gas chimneys with gas mounds on the seafloor occur at a number of locations.

  15. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing wild carnivores in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Grassman, L I; Sarataphan, N; Tewes, M E; Silvy, N J; Nakanakrat, T

    2004-06-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected and identified from 8 wild carnivore species in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern Thailand. Six tick species belonging to 4 genera were recovered and identified from 132 individuals. These included Amblyomma testudinarium (n = 36), Haemaphysalis asiatica (n = 58), H. hystricis (n = 31), H. semermis (n = 3), Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides (n = 3), and Ixodes granulatus (n = 1). Leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis) (n = 19) were infested with 4 tick species, whereas yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula) (n = 4), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) (n = 2), and dhole (Cuon alpinus) (n = 1) were infested with 3 tick species, Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temmincki) (n = 2) with 2 species, and marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata), binturong (Arctictis binturong), and large Indian civet (Viverra zibetha) each infested with 1 species. This information contributes to the knowledge available on the ectoparasites of wild carnivores in Southeast Asia.

  16. Stereoselective Borylative Ketone-Diene Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P.

    2011-01-01

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)2 and P(t-Bu)3, ketones, dienes, and B2(pin)2 undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. PMID:21905748

  17. Stereoselective borylative ketone-diene coupling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P

    2011-10-07

    In the presence of catalytic Ni(cod)(2) and P(t-Bu)(3), ketones, dienes, and B(2)(pin)(2) undergo a stereoselective multicomponent coupling reaction. Upon oxidation, the reaction furnishes 1,3-diols as the major reaction product. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Characterization on mosaic glass found at Phu Khao Thong, southern area of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongkam, Y.; Dhanmanonda, W.; Tancharakorn, S.; Tanthanuch, W.; Kamwanna, T.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-03-01

    Glasses in forms of ornament and decorative objects have been found in Thailand for several hundred years. The mosaic glass used in this work was only one piece that excavated at Phu Khao thong archaeological site in Ranong Province, southern area of Thailand. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF) based on synchrotron radiation was firstly carried out to analyze its elemental composition and distribution. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and (PIXE) were also used to characterize the composition. The main composition of this mosaic glass sample found in Thailand was a lead-based silicate glass. The colorations were affected from transition metals, especially iron, copper and manganese. It was shown that although it look-liked the same, but the main composition was differ to that of Persia and South Asia, especially the lead content. However, it demonstrated the long distance trade or exchange network of the ancient time.

  19. Explaining the Bay of Pigs and Vietnam, 1965 Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-05

    time of the battle of Dien Bien Phu, Eisenhower referred to the situation in the often to be repeated "falling dminoes" vein. Indeed, Ho Chi Minh’s...Secret History in Vietnam War Literature." ConteMporarv Literature, 22 (Spring 1981), 187--204. Morris, S.J. "Vietnam Under Comunism ." _g stgrj, 74 (Sept

  20. Toward an Air and Space Force: Can We Get There From Here? Naval Aviation and the Implications for Space Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    5 Dramatis Personae : Rear Admiral William A. Moffett ................................................ 6...and influence, and the ones capable of shaping policy are the officers, especially those holding flag ranks. 6 Dramatis Personae : Rear Admiral William...Dien Bien Phu, and the Korean War influenced the perspectives of the cabinet members and essentially determined U.S. intervention policy.20 There is

  1. Close Air Support: Which Way Do We Go?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Reservoir fighting in 1950; outpost, column, and Parameters hamlet defense in Indochina and South Vietnam; and siege-breaking at Dien Bien Phu and Khe...Air Force has always sought leadership. It fits nicely their service persona . But is it in the Army’s interest to take over CAS, much less all of

  2. Center of Gravity in the Asymmetric Environment: Applicable or Not

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    the first meeting of the Comite Revolutionnaire occurred on the day the French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu. The atmosphere changed and became...the same type of persona that was to create big problems in the Battle of Algiers. 1. Massu’s First Clash with the FLN The FLN planned a general

  3. Expression of the Potato Late Blight Resistance Gene Rpi-phu1 and Phytophthora infestans Effectors in the Compatible and Incompatible Interactions in Potato.

    PubMed

    Stefańczyk, Emil; Sobkowiak, Sylwester; Brylińska, Marta; Śliwka, Jadwiga

    2017-06-01

    This study describes late blight resistance of potato breeding lines resulting from crosses between cultivar 'Sárpo Mira' and Rpi-phu1 gene donors. The progeny is investigated for the presence of Rpi-Smira1 and Rpi-phu1 resistance (R) genes. Interestingly, in detached-leaflet tests, plants with both R genes withstood the infection of the Phytophthora infestans isolate virulent to each gene separately, due to either interaction of these genes or the presence of additional resistance loci. The interaction was studied further in three chosen breeding lines on the transcriptional level. The Rpi-phu1 expression, measured over 5 days, revealed different patterns depending on the outcome of the interaction with P. infestans: it increased in infected plants whereas it remained low and stable when infection was unsuccessful. The expression patterns of P. infestans effectors Avr-vnt1, AvrSmira1, and Avr8, recognized by the Rpi-phu1, Rpi-Smira1, and Rpi-Smira2 genes, respectively, were evaluated in the same experimental setup. This is the first report that the Avr-vnt1 effector expression is not switched off permanently in virulent isolates to avoid recognition by an R protein but can reappear in a postbiotrophic phase and is present constantly when infecting plants without the corresponding R gene. Both a plant and a pathogen can react to the other interacting side by changing the transcript accumulation of R genes or effectors.

  4. Cobalt-Catalysed Asymmetric Hydrovinylation of 1,3-Dienes

    PubMed Central

    Timsina, Yam N.; Sharma, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of bidentate 1,n-bis-diphenylphosphinoalkane-CoCl2 complexes {Cl2Co[P~P]} and Me3Al or methylaluminoxane, acyclic (E)-1,3-dienes react with ethylene (1 atmosphere) to give excellent yields of hydrovinylation products. The regioselectivity (1,4- or 1,2-addition) and the alkene configuration (E- or Z-) of the resulting product depend on the nature of the ligand and temperature at which the reaction is carried out. Cobalt(II)-complexes of 1,1-diphenylphosphinomethane and similar ligands with narrow bite angles give mostly 1,2-addition, retaining the E-geometry of the original diene. Complexes of most other ligands at low temperature (−40 °C) give almost exclusively a single branched product, (Z)-3-alkylhexa-1,4-diene, which arises from a 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction. A minor product is the linear adduct, a 5-alkyl-hexa-1,4-diene, also arising from a 1,4-addition of ethylene. As the temperature is increased, a higher proportion of the major 1,4-adduct appears as the (E)-isomer. The unexpectedly high selectivity seen in the Co-catalysed reaction as compared to the corresponding Ni-catalysed reaction can be rationalized by invoking the intermediacy of an η4-[(diene)[P~P]CoH]+-complex and its subsequent reactions. The enhanced reactivity of terminal E-1,3-dienes over the corresponding Z-dienes can also be explained on the basis of the ease of formation of this η4-complex in the former case. The lack of reactivity of the X2Co(dppb) (X = Cl, Br) complexes in the presence of Zn/ZnI2 makes the Me3Al-mediated reaction different from the previously reported hydroalkenylation of dienes. Electron-rich phospholanes, bis-oxazolines and N-heterocyclic carbenes appear to be poor ligands for the Co(II)-catalysed hydrovinylation of 1,3-dienes. An extensive survey of chiral ligands reveals that complexes of DIOP, BDDP and Josiphos ligands are quite effective for these reactions even at −45 °C and enantioselectivities in the range of 90–99 % ee can be realized

  5. Cyclization–endoperoxidation cascade reactions of dienes mediated by a pyrylium photoredox catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Gesmundo, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Summary Triarylpyrylium salts were employed as single electron photooxidants to catalyze a cyclization–endoperoxidation cascade of dienes. The transformation is presumed to proceed via the intermediacy of diene cation radicals. The nature of the diene component was investigated in this context to determine the structural requirements necessary for successful reactivity. Several unique endoperoxide structures were synthesized in yields up to 79%. PMID:24991279

  6. Cu(I)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Diamination of Conjugated Dienes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Haifeng; Zhao, Baoguo; Yuan, Weicheng; Shi, Yian

    2009-01-01

    A Cu(I)-catalyzed asymmetric diamination for a variety of conjugated dienes and a triene with encouraging ee’s has been effectively achieved using (R)-DTBM-SEGPHOS as chiral ligand and di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source. PMID:18763785

  7. Synthetic Methods for Cyclohexa-1,3-dienes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, V. A.; Fedorovich, A. D.; Akhrem, A. A.

    1983-01-01

    The review gives a systematic account of the methods of synthesis of cyclohexa-1,3-diene, its homologues, and derivatives with functional groups. The purity of the preparations obtained by each method is considered on the basis of modern data. The bibliography includes 221 references.

  8. Diffusion of helium (1); buta-1,3-diene (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) helium; (2) buta-1,3-diene

  9. Diffusion of buta-1,3-diene (1); air (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) buta-1,3-diene; (2) air

  10. Multicomponent Diene-Transmissive Diels-Alder Sequences Featuring Aminodendralenes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siu Min; Willis, Anthony C; Paddon-Row, Michael N; Sherburn, Michael S

    2016-02-24

    1-Aminodecalins were prepared from acyclic precursors by combining the powerful twofold diene-transmissive Diels-Alder chemistry of [3]dendralenes with the simplicity of enamine formation. On mixing at ambient temperature, a simple dienal condenses with a primary or secondary amine to generate the enamine, a 1-amino-[3]dendralene in situ, and this participates as a double diene in a sequence of two Diels-Alder events with separate dienophiles. Overall, four C-C bonds and one C-N bond are formed. Mechanistic insights into these reactions are provided by means of density functional theory calculations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Process for crosslinking and extending conjugated diene-containing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A process using a Diels-Alder reaction which increases the molecular weight and/or crosslinks polymers by reacting the polymers with bisunsaturated dienophiles is developed. The polymer comprises at least 75% by weight based on the reaction product, has a molecular weight of at least 5000 and a plurality of conjugated 1,3-diene systems incorporated into the molecular structure. A dienophile reaction with the conjugated 1,3-diene of the polymer is at least 1% by weight based on the reaction product. Examples of the polymer include polyesters, polyamides, polyethers, polysulfones and copolymers. The bisunsaturated dienophiles may include bis-maleimides, bis maleic and bis tumaric esters and amides. This method for expanding the molecular weight chains of the polymers, preferable thermoplastics, is advantageous for processing or fabricating thermoplastics. A low molecular weight thermoplastic is converted to a high molecular weight plastic having improved strength and toughness for use in the completed end use article.

  12. Stereocontrolled intramolecular iron-mediated diene/olefin cyclocoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorange, Ismet B.

    A methodology for stereocontrol during the intramolecular coupling between cyclohexadiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes and pendant alkenes is presented. Introduction of a methoxy group at the C(3) position of the diene moiety controls pre- and post-cyclization rearrangements of the diene Fe(CO)3 unit, allowing the preparation of spirolactams with defined relative stereochemistry and with a cyclohexenone framework, thus making this reaction a potentially valuable tool for the construction of quaternary carbon centers.* A new methodology for the formation of tricarbonyl(cyclohexadienyl)ketone iron complexes was also developed. This method involves the coupling of a Grignard reagent with an acyl mesylate iron complex, giving rise to ketone derivatives in excellent yields. The possibility of intramolecular coupling between diene-Fe(CO)3 complexes and homoallylic olefin was demonstrated. The stereospecific formation of spiroketones occurred in excellent yields under thermal conditions, but appeared to be limited to the simpler, less substituted pendant alkenes. The control of the stereochemical outcome of these spirocyclization was achieved using the "C(3) substitution method" previously described. The same trends were observed in these series. Also illustrated in these studies is the extension of this spirocoupling to the formation of a spiro[5.5]undecane framework. It is the first time that this framework has been accessed using this intramolecular coupling.* *Please refer to dissertation for diagram.

  13. Increasing Airpower’s Effectiveness: Applying the U.S. Army’s Operational Design Methodology to Airpower in Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Oil , Lubricants ] supplies by one-fourth.”128 Although the psychological impact is difficult to assess, “some reports indicated that for the first...U.S. Army reveals some interesting conclusions. Operation CASTOR and the subsequent battle for Dien Bien Phu demonstrate that airpower’s...leveraging the framework provided by the U.S. Army reveals some interesting conclusions. The first study analyzed Operation CASTOR and the subsequent

  14. The novel, major locus Rpi-phu1 for late blight resistance maps to potato chromosome IX and is not correlated with long vegetation period.

    PubMed

    Sliwka, J; Jakuczun, H; Lebecka, R; Marczewski, W; Gebhardt, C; Zimnoch-Guzowska, E

    2006-08-01

    Despite the long history of breeding potatoes resistant to Phytophthora infestans, this oomycete is still economically the most important pathogen of potato worldwide. The correlation of high levels of resistance to late blight with a long vegetation period is one of the bottlenecks for progress in breeding resistant cultivars of various maturity types. Solanum phureja was identified as a source of effective late blight resistance, which was transferred to the cultivated gene pool by interspecific crosses with dihaploids of Solanum tuberosum. A novel major resistance locus, Rpi-phu1, derived most likely from S. phureja and conferring broad-spectrum resistance to late blight, was mapped to potato chromosome IX, 6.4 cM proximal to the marker GP94. Rpi-phu1 was highly effective in detached leaflet, tuber slice and whole tuber tests during 5 years of quantitative phenotypic assessment. The resistance did not show significant correlation with vegetation period length. Our findings provide a well-characterized new source of resistance for breeding early and resistant-to-P. infestans potatoes.

  15. Rapid assembly of structurally defined and highly functionalized conjugated dienes via tethered enyne metathesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Q

    2001-06-28

    [reaction: see text] Conjugated dienes are versatile building blocks in organic synthesis, and the development of new methods for their synthesis remains an important topic in modern synthetic organic chemistry. We describe here an expedient synthesis of highly functionalized conjugated dienes through sequential silicon-tethered ring-closing enyne metathesis mediated by Grubbs' Ru carbene catalysts and Tamao oxidation. Notable attributes of this methodology include short synthetic manipulations and the structural complexity it confers on the resulting diene moiety.

  16. Ene-diene transmissive cycloaddition reactions with singlet oxygen: the vinylogous gem effect and its use for polyoxyfunctionalization of dienes.

    PubMed

    Eske, Angelika; Goldfuss, Bernd; Griesbeck, Axel G; de Kiff, Alan; Kleczka, Margarethe; Leven, Matthias; Neudörfl, Jörg-M; Vollmer, Moritz

    2014-02-21

    The singlet oxygen reactivities and regioselectivities of the model compounds 1b-d were compared with those of the geminal (gem) selectivity model ethyl tiglate (1a). The kinetic cis effect is k(E)/k(Z) = 5.2 for the tiglate/angelate system 1a/1a' without a change in the high gem regioselectivity. Further conjugation to vinyl groups enabled mode-selective processes, namely, [4 + 2] cycloadditions versus ene reactions. The site-specific effects of methylation on the mode selectivity and the regioselectivity of the ene reaction were studied for dienes 1e-g. A vinylogous gem effect was observed for the γ,δ-dimethylated and α,γ,δ-trimethylated substrates 1h and 1i, respectively. The corresponding phenylated substrates 1j-l showed similar mode selectivity, as monomethylated 1j exhibited exclusively [4 + 2] reactivity while the tandem products 12 and 14 were isolated from the di- and trimethylated substrates 1k and 1l, respectively. The vinylogous gem effect favors the formation of 1,3-dienes from the substrates, and thus, secondary singlet oxygen addition was observed to give hydroperoxy-1,2-dioxenes 19 and 20 in an ene-diene transmissive cycloaddition sequence. These products were reduced to give alcohols (16, 17, and 18) or furans (24 and 25), respectively, or treated with titanium(IV) alkoxides to give the epoxy alcohols 26 and 27. The vinylogous gem effect is rationalized by DFT calculations showing that biradicals are the low-energy intermediates and that no reaction path bifurcations compete.

  17. Biotransformation of two ent-Pimara-9(11),15-diene derivatives by Gibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; Guillermo, Ricardo; Hernández, Melchor G; Chamy, María C; Garbarino, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    The incubation of 19-hydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-9(11),15-diene (4) with Gibberella fujikuroi gave 8 alpha,19-dihydroxy-9 alpha,11alpha-epoxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-15-ene (6), 7-oxo-11 alpha,19-dihydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-8(9),15-diene (7), 7-oxo-11beta,19-dihydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-8(9),15-diene (9), and 8 alpha,19-dihydroxy-9 alpha,11 alpha:15,16-diepoxy-13-epi-ent-pimarane (11), while the feeding of 13-epi-ent-pimara-9(11),15-diene-19-oic acid (5) with this fungus afforded 1-oxo-2 alpha,9 alpha-dihydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-11,15-dien-19-oic acid (13), 1-oxo-2 beta,9 alpha-dihydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-11,15-dien-19-oic acid (14), 13-epi-ent-pimara-9(11),15-dien-1,19-dioic acid 1,2-lactone (15), and 1-oxo-12 beta-hydroxy-13-epi-ent-pimara-9(11),15-dien-19-oic acid (16). In both biotransformations, the main reaction was the epoxidation of the 9(11)-double bond, followed by rearrangement to afford allylic alcohols. The formation of lactone 15 represents the first time that a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation has been observed in a microbiological transformation with this fungus.

  18. Archie to SAM: A Short Operational History of Ground-Based Air Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    WAR II 62 37. Air Ministry Weekly Intelligence Summary, 289, HRA; Benjamin King and Timothy Kutta, Impact: The History of Germany’s V-Weapons in World...that could not be sup- pressed. See Kuehl, “The Radar Eye Blinded,” 150–51; and A. Timothy Warnock, ed., The USAF in Korea: A Chronology, 1950–53...a Very Small Place: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu (Philadelphia, Pa.: J. P. Lippincott, 1966), 31–34, 49, 133, 144, 454–55; William Leary , “CAT at Dien

  19. Ab initio vibrational analysis of trans- and gauche-2,3-dimethylbuta-1,3-diene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Charles W.; Panchenko, Yurii N.

    1990-04-01

    The harmonic force fields of the s- trans( anti) and gauche conformers of 2,3-dimethylbuta-1,3-diene have been calculated ab initio at the RHF/6-31G//RHF/6-31G level. These force fields have been further refined using scale factors transferred from analogous calculations at the RHF/6-31G level for s- trans-buta-1,3-diene and ethane. A complete assignment of the experimental vibrational frequencies is given. Regularities in the vibrational spectra of the stable conformers of buta-1,3-diene, isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) and 2,3-dimethylbuta-1,3-diene are discussed.

  20. Enantioselective Diels-Alder-lactamization organocascades employing a furan-based diene.

    PubMed

    Abbasov, Mikail E; Hudson, Brandi M; Kong, Weixu; Tantillo, Dean J; Romo, Daniel

    2017-04-11

    α,β-Unsaturated acylammonium salts are useful dienophiles enabling highly enantioselective and stereodivergent Diels-Alder-initiated organocascades with furan-based dienes. Complex polycyclic systems can thus be obtained from readily prepared dienes, commodity acid chlorides, and a chiral isothiourea organocatalyst under mild conditions. We describe the use of furan-based dienes bearing pendant sulfonamides leading to the generation of oxa-bridged, trans-fused tricyclic γ-lactams. This process constitutes the first highly enantio- and diastereoselective, organocatalytic Diels-Alder cycloadditions with these typically problematic dienes due to their reversibility. Computational studies suggest that the high diastereoselectivity with these furan dienes may be due to a reversible Diels-Alder cycloaddition for the endo adducts. In addition, the utility of this methodology is demonstrated through a concise approach to a core structure with similarity to the natural product isatisine A and a nonpeptidyl ghrelin-receptor inverse agonist.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of ruthenium diene/diamine complexes including catalytic hydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Morilla, M Esther; Rodríguez, Pilar; Belderrain, Tomas R; Graiff, Claudia; Tiripicchio, Antonio; Nicasio, M Carmen; Pérez, Pedro J

    2007-10-29

    Thermal reactions between [RuCl2(diene)]n (diene = 2,5-norbornadiene, nbd; 1,5-cyclooctadiene, cod) with an excess of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylene diamine (tmeda) afforded derivatives [RuCl2(diene)(tmeda)] (diene = nbd, 1; cod, 2) as a mixture of cis and trans isomers. When thermolysis was performed under H2 mixtures of hydride species [RuCl(H)(diene)(tmeda)] (diene = nbd, 3; cod, 4) and the bis-tmeda adduct trans-[RuCl2(tmeda)2] (5) were obtained in different ratios depending upon the reaction conditions and reaction times. Heating polymeric Ru(II) precursors in toluene in the presence of a 5-fold excess of the bulkier N,N,N',N'-tetraethylethylene diamine (teeda) resulted in a rare diamine dealkylation process with formation of trans-[RuCl2(nbd)(Et2NCH2CH2NHEt)] (6) and trans-[RuCl2(cod)(EtHNCH2CH2NHEt)] (7) in high yields. The presence of N-H functionalities in the coordinated diamine ligands of 6 and 7 was unambiguously established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The dealkylation process of the teeda ligand seems to proceed intramolecularly as shown by solution NMR studies performed with the soluble Ru(II) precursors trans-[RuCl2(amine)2(diene)] (diene = nbd, amine = morpholine, 9; diene = cod, amine = Et2NH, 10). The above complexes [RuCl2(diene)(diamine)] have been tested as precatalysts in the hydrogenation of ketones both for transfer as well as direct hydrogenation, the latter route being the most effective.

  2. Recent Advances in Boron-Substituted 1,3-Dienes Chemistry: Synthesis and Application.

    PubMed

    Pyziak, Jadwiga; Walkowiak, Jędrzej; Marciniec, Bogdan

    2017-03-13

    In the syntheses developed to access naturally occurring compounds, especially bioactive substances, boron-functionalized dienes (also "linchpin" reagents) are used as key reagents. Structurally unique dienes are found in nature, and play important biological and chemical roles. Recently, linchpin moieties have been proved as useful substrates for a variety of highly functionalized chemical transformations. The products of these processes are potentially of some use for the syntheses of an important class of natural products showing a wide range of biological activities. This review describes progress in the synthesis of borylsubstituted buta-1,3-dienes as well as their application in organic chemistry.

  3. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-07-07

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes.

  4. Biaxial ordering of terminal diene groups in lipid membranes: an infrared linear dichroism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, H.; Gutberlet, T.; Anikin, A.

    1999-11-01

    The molecular order within the hydrophobic core of membranes of the diene lipid di-tetradecadienoylphosphatidylcholine was studied by means of infrared spectroscopy on multibilayer assemblies which orient macroscopically on the surface of an attenuated total reflection crystal. The relative humidity and temperature were used as variable parameters to demonstrate that there were profound differences in the melting transition of lipids possessing predominantly cis and trans diene groups. The cis isomer undergoes the phase transition at a vapor pressure which is increased by ∽0.15 GPa when compared with that of the trans isomer. The methylene wagging band progression gives no indication of differences between the acyl chain conformation of the cis and trans forms in the gel state. The frequencies of a number of absorption bands of the diene groups reveal that these moieties are predominantly in the s-trans conformation to accommodate a favorable packing within the bilayer. The linear dichroism of selected in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of the diene groups gives indications of the biaxial ordering of these moieties. We present the basic equations for the quantitative analysis of IR dichroism data of lamellar structures in terms of transverse and longitudinal molecular order parameters. It turns out that the planes of the rigid diene groups orient preferentially in a perpendicular direction with respect to the bilayer surface and parallel to each other forming in this way a layer of well-aligned diene groups in the bilayer center. This finding is confirmed by the results of X-ray measurements. We suggest that the partial interdigitation of the diene groups of the sn-1 acyl chains promotes the formation of the inverse H II phase and/or enables the formation of covalent bonds between both the monolayers upon polymerization of diene lipids.

  5. Spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes: synthesis and application in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchikov, L. G.; Nefedov, O. M.

    2016-03-01

    This review integrates and describes systematically the data in the field of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes published in the past 15 years. The changes in the development of studies that took place during this period are noted. The methods for the synthesis, the reactivity details and key chemical transformations of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes are considered, with the emphasis on applications of these compounds in organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 207 references.

  6. Diels-Alder cycloaddition of chiral nonracemic 2,5-diketopiperazine dienes.

    PubMed

    Morris, Erin N; Nenninger, E Katherine; Pike, Robert D; Scheerer, Jonathan R

    2011-08-19

    Preparation of a chiral, nonracemic 2,5-diketopiperazine diene has enabled the investigation of intermolecular hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadditions. The diketopiperazine diene is reactive with both electron-rich and -deficient alkene substrates. Diastereofacial control in the cycloaddition is enforced with a removable aminal substituent. This study partly illuminates the regiochemical, stereoelectronic, and reactivity preferences of the diketopiperazine cycloaddition as well as provides a direct diastereoselective synthetic route to bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane structures. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. 1,4-Diiodo-1,3-dienes: versatile reagents in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ananikov, Valentine P; Hazipov, Oleg V; Beletskaya, Irina P

    2011-02-01

    1,4-Diiodo-1,3-dienes are unique reagents in organic synthesis and have been employed in several well-known and recently developed areas of application. Furthermore, these dienes are easily accessible, starting from the alkynes and iodine, and they have demonstrated high reactivity in cross-coupling reactions, organometallic synthesis, in the preparation of heterocyclic compounds, and several other transformations. The high reactivity of the 1,4-diiodo-1,3-dienes allows for the development of synthetic procedures that use mild conditions (room temperature). The key advantages in assembling complex organic molecules, natural products, and compounds for material science using 1,4-diiodo-1,3-dienes as building blocks include high yields, excellent selectivity, and diverse reactivity in carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formation. This Focus Review describes the scope and application of the 1,4-diiodo-1,3-dienes in organic synthesis as well as summarizes the methods for preparation of the dienes.

  8. Plasmodium knowlesi and human malaria parasites in Khan Phu, Vietnam: Gametocyte production in humans and frequent co-infection of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Y; Culleton, R; Quang, N T; Kawai, S; Marchand, R P; Nakazawa, S

    2017-04-01

    Four species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi infect humans living in the Khanh Phu commune, Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. The latter species also infects wild macaque monkeys in this region. In order to understand the transmission dynamics of the three species, we attempted to detect gametocytes of the three species in the blood of infected individuals, and sporozoites in the salivary glands of mosquitoes from the same region. For the detection of gametocyte-specific mRNA, we targeted region 3 of pfg377, pvs25, pmg and pks25 as indicators of the presence of P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. knowlesi gametocytes, respectively. Gametocyte-specific mRNA was present in 37, 61, 0 and 47% of people infected with P. falciparum (n = 95), P. vivax (n = 69), P. malariae (n = 6) or P. knowlesi (n = 32), respectively. We found that 70% of mosquitoes that had P. knowlesi in their salivary glands also carried human malaria parasites, suggesting that mosquitoes are infected with P. knowlesi from human infections.

  9. Non-Planar Structures of the High-Energy Rotational Conformers of 2-METHYLBUTA-1,3-DIENE (isoprene) and 2,3-DIMETHYLBUTA-1,3-DIENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Bock, Ch. W.; Larkin, J. D.; Abramenkov, A. V.; Kühnemann, F.

    2009-06-01

    Optimization of the geometrical parameters and determination of the force fields for rotamers of the title molecules were performed at the MP2(FC)/aug-cc-pVDZ//MP2(FC)/aug-cc-pVDZ computational level. The vibrational analyses of these conformers were carried out using scaled quantum-mechanical force field methodology. Recent experimental wavenumbers for these conformers and their deuteroisomers were incorporated into these analyses. The theoretical non-planar structures of the high-energy conformers of 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene (isoprene) and 2,3-dimethylbuta-1,3-diene were corroborated by good agreement between the experimental and theoretical wavenumbers of the molecules under investigation. The dihedral angles of the non-planar high-energy conformers for rotation around the =C-C= bond are as follows: 41.6^° for 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene (isoprene) and 47.0^° for 2,3-dimethylbuta-1,3-diene. Previous studies performed at the HF/6-31G level gave 41.0^° and 48.5^° for the first and second compounds, respectively. Yu. N. Panchenko, Ch. W. Bock, J. D. Larkin, A. V. Abramenkov, F. Kühnemann, Struct. Chem. 19, 421 (2008). Yu. N. Panchenko, Ch. W. Bock, J. D. Larkin, A. V. Abramenkov, Struct. Chem. 19, 793 (2008)

  10. Polybromocyclopentadienes in the diene synthesis reaction. VI. The reactivity of hexabromo- and 5,5-dimethoxytetrabromo-1,3-cyclopentadienes in the diene synthesis reaction with bismaleimides

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafaev, A.M.; Guseinov, M.M.; Gasanova, K.M.; Gadzhieva, S.T.

    1987-10-10

    The adducts from the diene condensation of hexabromo- and 5,5-dimethoxytetrabromo-1,3-cyclopentadienes with bismaleimides were obtained and characterized. The reactivity of hexabromo- and 5,5-dimethoxytetrabromo-1,3-cyclopentadienes in the diene synthesis reactions with bismaleimides and with the monoadducts 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexabromo- and 1,4,5,6-tetrabromo-7,7-dimethoxybicyclo-(2.2.1)-hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboximides was studied. In these reactions hexabromo-1,3-cyclopentadiene acts as diene-acceptor, while 5,5-dimethoxytetrabromo-1,3-cyclopentadiene acts as diene-donor. It is suggested that the reactivity of the addends in the investigated reaction series depends not only on their donor-acceptor characteristics but also on the localization energy. The IR spectra of the adducts were recorded in Vaseline oil on a UR-20 spectrophotometer. The PMR spectra were measured on a Tesla BS-487B instrument at 80 MHz with DMFA-d/sub 7/ as solvent and TMS as internal standard.

  11. Solvent-free cyclization of linear dienes using olefin metathesis and the Thorpe-Ingold effect

    SciTech Connect

    Forbees, M.D.E.; Myers, T.L.; Maynard, H.D.; Schulz, G.R. ); Patton, J.T.; Smith, D.W. Jr.; Wagener, K.B. )

    1992-12-30

    The olefin metathesis reaction is of great synthetic utility in polymer chemistry. The recent development of ring-opening (ROMP) and acyclic diene (ADMET) metathesis polymerization reactions has opened new avenues for the synthesis of novel polymeric materials. Recently the authors used ADMET to synthesize several photochemically active poly(keto olefins) using the catalyst Mo(CHCMe[sub 2]Ph)(NAr)(OCMe(CF[sub 3])[sub 2])[sub 2] (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) (1) developed by Schrock and co-workers in 1990. In the course of that work, they discovered that neat samples of highly substituted dienes will cyclize quantitatively via metathesis to give difunctional five- and seven-membered rings instead of the expected linear polymer. Examples of substituted diene cyclizations by metathesis even in the presence of a solvent are rare. Their systematic exploitation in organic synthesis has therefore been limited to two recent studies by Fu and Grubbs, who cyclized several substituted diene ethers, amines, and amides to unsaturated oxygen and nitrogen heterocycles. Cyclization of unsubstituted dienes in various solvents has been reported, but complete conversion occurred in only a few cases. Formation of cyclic alkene oligomers from back-biting during the ROMP reaction is also known. The reactions reported here are unusual in that they are intermolecular between catalyst and substrate, yet can give 100% yield of product solely from the monomer in the absence of solvent. 13 refs.

  12. Silicon-containing alka-1,3-dienes and their functional derivatives in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnichuk, M. D.; Voropaeva, T. I.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the synthesis and chemical reactions of silicon-containing 1,3-dienes are surveyed for the first time in the present review. It is shown that the addition reactions of 1- and 2-triorganosilylalka-1,3-dienes and their derivatives are the most interesting and promising in fine organic synthesis. The application of the trialkylsilyl group as a protecting group and as a new reaction centre, which makes it possible to obtain carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bonds, is examined. It has been found that the double bonds remote from the silicon atom are the most reactive in addition reactions and that regardless of the nature of the reagent the attacking species always binds to the terminal carbon atom of the buta-1,3-diene fragment. The bibliography includes 329 references.

  13. Oxidative Heck vinylation for the synthesis of complex dienes and polyenes.

    PubMed

    Delcamp, Jared H; Gormisky, Paul E; White, M Christina

    2013-06-12

    We introduce an oxidative Heck reaction for selective complex diene and polyene formation. The reaction proceeds via oxidative Pd(II)/sulfoxide catalysis that retards palladium-hydride isomerizations which previously limited the Heck manifold's capacity for furnishing stereodefined conjugated dienes. Limiting quantities of nonactivated terminal olefins (1 equiv) and slight excesses of vinyl boronic esters (1.5 equiv) that feature diverse functionality can be used to furnish complex dienes and polyenes in good yields and excellent selectivities (generally E:Z = >20:1; internal:terminal = >20:1). Because this reaction only requires prior activation of a single vinylic carbon, improvements in efficiency are observed for synthetic sequences relative to ones featuring reactions that require activation of both coupling partners.

  14. [2+2] cycloaddition of 1,3-dienes by visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hurtley, Anna E; Lu, Zhan; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2014-08-18

    [2+2] photocycloadditions of 1,3-dienes represent a powerful yet synthetically underutilized class of reactions. We report that visible light absorbing transition metal complexes enable the [2+2] cycloaddition of a diverse range of 1,3-dienes. The ability to use long-wavelength visible light is attractive because these reaction conditions tolerate the presence of sensitive functional groups that might be readily decomposed by the high-energy UVC radiation required for direct photoexcitation of 1,3-dienes. The resulting vinylcyclobutane products are poised for a variety of further diversification reactions, and this method is consequently expected to be powerfully enabling in the synthesis of complex organic targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Preparation and Reaction Chemistry of Novel Silicon-Substituted 1,3-Dienes.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Partha P; Welker, Mark E

    2015-09-16

    2-Silicon-substituted 1,3-dienes containing non transferrable groups known to promote transmetallation were prepared by Grignard chemistry and enyne metathesis. These dienes participated in one pot metathesis/Diels-Alder reactions in regio- and diastereoselective fashions. Electron-rich alkenes showed the fastest rates in metathesis reactions, and ethylene, a commonly used metathesis promoter slowed enyne metathesis. 2-Pyridyldimethylsilyl and 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted Diels-Alder cycloadducts participated in cross-coupling chemistry and the 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted cycloadducts underwent cross-coupling under very mild reaction conditions.

  16. Remembering Zoltan Dienes, a Maverick of Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Applying the Variability Principles to Teach Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gningue, Serigne Mbaye

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written in honor of Zoltan Paul Dienes, an internationally renowned mathematician and educator, who passed away in January 2014. It is an attempt to describe, analyze and apply Dienes' theory on how mathematical structures can be taught by applying his four principles of learning upon which he believed a teacher can base concept…

  17. Reversal of the Regiochemistry in the Rhodium-Catalyzed [4+3] Cycloaddition Between Vinyldiazoacetates and Dienes

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Pablo E.; Lian, Yajing

    2015-01-01

    A regio-, diastereo- and enantioselective [4+3] cycloaddition between vinylcarbenes and dienes has been achieved using the dirhodium tetracarboxylate catalyst Rh2(S-BTPCP)4. This methodology provides facile access to 1,4-cycloheptadienes that are regioisomers of those formed from the tandem cyclopropanation/Cope rearrangement reaction of vinylcarbenes with dienes. PMID:25266984

  18. Remembering Zoltan Dienes, a Maverick of Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Applying the Variability Principles to Teach Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gningue, Serigne Mbaye

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written in honor of Zoltan Paul Dienes, an internationally renowned mathematician and educator, who passed away in January 2014. It is an attempt to describe, analyze and apply Dienes' theory on how mathematical structures can be taught by applying his four principles of learning upon which he believed a teacher can base concept…

  19. STUDY ON BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HETEROTROPHIC MARINE MICROALGA-SCHIZOCHYTRIUM MANGROVEI PQ6 ISOLATED FROM PHU QUOC ISLAND, KIEN GIANG PROVINCE, VIETNAM(1).

    PubMed

    Hong, Dang Diem; Anh, Hoang Thi Lan; Thu, Ngo Thi Hoai

    2011-08-01

    Schizochytrium sp. PQ6, a heterotrophic microalga isolated from Phu Quoc (PQ) Island in the Kien Giang province of Vietnam, contains a high amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). In this study, the culture conditions are developed to maximize biomass and DHA production. Nucleotide sequence analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene from genomic DNA showed that PQ6 has a phylogenetic relationship close to Schizochytrium mangrovei Raghu-Kumar. The highest growth rate and DHA accumulation of this strain were obtained in 6.0% glucose, 1.0% yeast extract, 50% artificial seawater (ASW), and pH 7 at 28°C. In addition, carbon and nitrogen sources could be replaced by glycerol, ammonium acetate, sodium nitrate, or fertilizer N-P-K. Total lipid content reached 38.67% of dry cell weight (DCW), in which DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) contents accounted for 43.58% and 0.75% of the total fatty acid (TFA), respectively. In 5 and 10 L fermenters, the cell density, DCW, total lipid content, and maximum DHA yield were 46.50 × 10(6)  cells · mL(-1) , 23.7 g · L(-1) , 38.56% of DCW, and 8.71 g · L(-1) (in 5 L fermenter), respectively, and 49.71 × 10(6)  cells · mL(-1) , 25.34 g · L(-1) , 46.23% of DCW, and 11.55 g · L(-1) (in 10 L fermenter), respectively. Biomass of PQ6 strain possessed high contents of Na, I, and Fe (167.185, 278.3, and 43.69 mg · kg(-1) DCW, respectively). These results serve as a foundation for the efficient production of PQ6 biomass that can be used as a food supplement for humans and aquaculture in the future.

  20. Implicit Learning of Nonlocal Musical Rules: A Comment on Kuhn and Dienes (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmet, Charlotte; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Lalitte, Philippe; Perruchet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study, G. Kuhn and Z. Dienes (2005) reported that participants previously exposed to a set of musical tunes generated by a biconditional grammar subsequently preferred new tunes that respected the grammar over new ungrammatical tunes. Because the study and test tunes did not share any chunks of adjacent intervals, this result may be…

  1. Oxazole as an electron-deficient diene in the Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Moreno, Galdina Vanessa; González-Zamora, Eduardo; Méndez, Francisco

    2011-12-16

    The Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of oxazole with ethylene is facilitated by addition of an alkyl group or Brønsted or Lewis acids to the oxazole nitrogen atom. The efficacy consists of stabilizing the transition state, lowering the activation barrier and the HOMO(dienophile)-LUMO(diene) gap, and increasing the reaction exothermicity.

  2. Asymmetric Cyclization of N-Sulfonyl Alkenyl Amides Catalyzed by Iridium/Chiral Diene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Midori; Yanagi, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Takahiro; Yorimitsu, Hideki

    2016-09-16

    Iridium/chiral diene complexes efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric cyclization of N-sulfonyl alkenyl amides to give the corresponding 2-pyrrolidone derivatives with high enantioselectivity. A mechanistic study revealed that the reaction proceeds via nucleophilic attack of the amide on the alkene moiety.

  3. Implicit Learning of Nonlocal Musical Rules: A Comment on Kuhn and Dienes (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmet, Charlotte; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Lalitte, Philippe; Perruchet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study, G. Kuhn and Z. Dienes (2005) reported that participants previously exposed to a set of musical tunes generated by a biconditional grammar subsequently preferred new tunes that respected the grammar over new ungrammatical tunes. Because the study and test tunes did not share any chunks of adjacent intervals, this result may be…

  4. Diffusion of 2-methyl-buta-1,3-diene (1); air (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) 2-methyl-buta-1,3-diene; (2) air

  5. Concerning the reactivity of PTAD with isomeric dienes: the mechanism of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Mariza N; Orfanopoulos, Michael

    2009-04-02

    Cyclopropyl substituted dienes are employed as mechanistic probes in the triazolinedione Diels-Alder (DA) reaction. In aprotic and protic solvents, apart from the DA adducts that bear an intact cyclopropyl group, complicated and rearranged products are also obtained. These results provide solid evidence for the involvement of an open intermediate with a lifetime greater than 2 x 10(-12) s.

  6. Diene-modified nucleotides for the Diels–Alder-mediated functional tagging of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Borsenberger, Vinciane; Howorka, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We explore the potential of the Diels–Alder cycloaddition for the functional tagging of DNA strands. A deoxyuridine triphosphate derivative carrying a diene at position 5 of the pyrimidine base was synthesized using a two-step procedure. The derivative was efficiently accepted as substrate in enzymatic polymerization assays. Diene carrying strands underwent successful cycloaddition with maleimide-terminated fluorescence dyes and a polymeric reagent. Furthermore, a nucleotide carrying a peptide via a Diels–Alder cyclohexene linkage was prepared and sequence-specifically incorporated into DNA. The Diels–Alder reaction presents a number of positive attributes such as good chemoselectivity, water compatibility, high-yield under mild conditions and no additional reagents apart from a diene and a dienophile. Furthermore, suitable dienophiles are commercially available in the form of maleimide-derivatives of fluorescent dyes and bioaffinity tags. Based on these advantages, diene- and cyclohexene-based nucleotide triphosphates are expected to find wider use in the area of nucleic acid chemistry. PMID:19139071

  7. Synthetic trehalose esters of cis-alkene and diene α'-mycolic acids of Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Taher, Salam G; Muzael, Maged; Al Dulayymi, Juma'a R; Baird, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of an α'-mycolic acid of Mycobacterium smegmatis and other mycobacteria, containing a cis,cis-diene, and of the trehalose mono- and di-mycolates of this, and of a related α'-mycolic acid containing one cis-alkene, is reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Domino reactions of 2-methyl chromones containing an electron withdrawing group with chromone-fused dienes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Xie, Fuchun; Ren, Wenming; Chen, Hong; Hu, Youhong

    2012-01-21

    Domino reactions of 2-methyl substituted chromones containing an electron withdrawing group at the 3-position with chromone-fused dienes synthesized a diverse range of benzo[a]xanthones and complicated chromone derivatives. These multiple-step reactions result in either two or three new C-C bonds without a transition metal catalyst or an inert atmosphere.

  9. Regio- and enantioselective hydroamination of dienes by gold(I)/menthol cooperative catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Osamu; Kuriyama, Wataru; Wang, Z Jane; Toste, F Dean

    2011-10-10

    Alcohol is key: regio- and enantioselective hydroamination of 1,3-dienes has been achieved with the dinuclear catalyst (R)-DTBM-SEGPHOS. The rate and selectivity of the reaction are enhanced by alcohol additives like menthol, which coordinates the cationic gold(I) to generate a Brønsted acid that can participate in catalysis. Mbs=p-methoxybenzenesulfonyl.

  10. Synthesis and chiroptical properties of ferrocene-[4]-helicenequinones: kinetic resolution of a planar-chiral diene.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Alfonso; Urbano, Antonio; Carreño, M Carmen

    2011-07-28

    Both enantiomers of ferrocene [4]-helicenequinone 6, showing planar and helical chiralities, have been synthesized with very high optical purities using, as the key step, a kinetic resolution process between planar-chiral racemic ferrocene diene 2 and enantiopure sulfinyl benzoquinone (S)-3.

  11. A Study of Strategic Lessons Learned in Vietnam. Volume 4. US Domestic Factors Influencing Vietnam War Policy Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    2 / Bi I l Moyers A . INTRODUCTION The war in Vietnam was perceived by many in the United States to be a test of wills that set the US in opposition...CORPORATION / ,/ DIEN BIEN PHU HANOI HAIPHONG A Study of c Lessons Learned in e am VOLU E IV U.S. DOMESTI CTORS INFLUENCING VI T M WAR POLICY AM 1(1...developing definitive analysis of them. The two issues are: (1) The gener- l importance of public sentiment to the foreign policy- making process. (

  12. 1,3-Dien-5-ynes: Versatile Building Blocks for the Synthesis of Carbo- and Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Enrique; Sanz, Roberto; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; García-García, Patricia

    2016-07-27

    1,3-Dien-5-ynes have been extensively used as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide number of different carbo- and heterocycles. The aim of this review is to give an overview of their utility in organic synthesis, highlighting the variety of compounds that can be directly accessed from single reactions over these systems. Thus, cycloaromatization processes are initially commented, followed by reactions directed toward the syntheses of five-membered rings, other carbocycles and, finally, heterocycles. The diverse methodologies that have been developed for the synthesis of each of these types of compounds from 1,3-dien-5-ynes are presented, emphasizing the influence of the reaction conditions and the use of additional reagents in the outcome of the transformations.

  13. Concerted Ring Opening and Cycloaddition of Chiral Epoxy Enolsilanes with Dienes.

    PubMed

    Krenske, Elizabeth H; Lam, Sarah; Ng, Jerome P L; Lo, Brian; Lam, Sze Kui; Chiu, Pauline; Houk, Kendall N

    2015-06-15

    Silyl-triflate-catalyzed (4+3) cycloadditions of epoxy enolsilanes with dienes provide a mild and chemoselective synthetic route to seven-membered carbocycles. Epoxy enolsilanes containing a terminal enolsilane and a single stereocenter undergo cycloaddition with almost complete conservation of enantiomeric purity, a finding that argues against the involvement of oxyallyl cation intermediates which have been previously proposed for these types of reactions. Reported are theoretical and experimental investigations of the cycloaddition mechanism. The major enantiomers of the cycloadducts are derived from S(N)2-like reactions of the silylated epoxide with the diene, in which stereospecific ring opening and formation of the two new C-C bonds occur in a single step. Calculations predict, and experiments confirm, that the observed small losses of enantiomeric purity are traced to a triflate-mediated double S(N)2 cycloaddition pathway.

  14. Photochemical reactivity of polyenes: from dienes to rhodopsin, from microseconds to femtoseconds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Robert S H; Hammond, George S

    2003-08-01

    In reviewing the photochemistry of polyenes (from dienes and trienes to the visual retinyl chromophore), we categorize condensed-phase photochemical reactivity of molecules into two groups: those from thermally equilibrated excited species and those from unequilibrated excited species. Classical theories on radiationless transitions are useful for rationalizing the reactivity of molecules belonging to the first set only. The second group includes many of the exciting ultrafast photochemical reactions reported recently for polyenes (including dienes and trienes), in some cases with rates faster than vibrational relaxation. Much of the excited singlet-state reactions of polyenes, including the Hula-twist mechanism of photoisomerization, have been integrated with concepts introduced in other ultrafast spectroscopic/photochemical studies. Taking into consideration the special environment of the retinyl chromophore in rhodopsin, we propose a new mechanism for the phototrigger that accounts for its unusually fast rate of isomerization.

  15. Diastereoselective Synthesis of γ-Substituted 2-Butenolides via (CDC)-Rh-Catalyzed Intermolecular Hydroalkylation of Dienes with Silyloxyfurans.

    PubMed

    Goldfogel, Matthew J; Roberts, Courtney C; Manan, Rajith S; Meek, Simon J

    2017-01-06

    Catalytic intermolecular hydroalkylation of dienes with silyloxyfuran nucleophiles is reported. Reactions are catalyzed by 5 mol % of a (CDC)-Rh complex and proceed in up to 87% yield and 6:1 dr (syn/anti) to provide allylic butenolides bearing vicinal stereocenters. Reactions proceed with terminal aryl and alkyl dienes and with modified silyl enol ether nucleophiles including a thiophenone variant. Utility of the products is demonstrated in the synthesis of a polypropionate anti,syn-stereotriad.

  16. Use of a methoxy substituent in controlling the stereochemistry of intramolecular iron-mediated diene/olefin cyclocoupling.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A J; Dorange, I B

    2001-05-04

    A methodology for stereocontrol during the intramolecular coupling between cyclohexadiene--Fe(CO)(3) complexes and pendant alkenes is presented. Introduction of a methoxy group at the C(3) position of the diene moiety controls pre- and postcyclization rearrangements of the diene Fe(CO)(3) unit, allowing the preparation of spirolactams with defined relative stereochemistry and with a cyclohexenone framework, thus making this reaction a potentially valuable tool for the construction of quaternary carbon centers.

  17. A palladium-catalyzed three-component-coupling strategy for the differential vicinal diarylation of terminal 1,3-dienes.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Benjamin J; Liao, Longyan; de Andrade, Aline Mendes; Wang, Qiaofeng; Sigman, Matthew S

    2014-09-05

    A palladium-catalyzed intermolecular vicinal diarylation of terminal 1,3-dienes using aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates and arylboronic acids is reported. Using this technology, two different arenes are regioselectively introduced in a vicinal fashion across the terminal alkene of a variety of terminal 1,3-dienes at ambient temperature. Through the action of a chiral bicyclo[2.2.2]octadienyl ligand at -20 °C, good enantioselectivity has also been achieved.

  18. An atom-economical and stereoselective domino synthesis of functionalised dienes.

    PubMed

    Souris, Caroline; Luparia, Marco; Frébault, Frédéric; Audisio, Davide; Farès, Christophe; Goddard, Richard; Maulide, Nuno

    2013-05-17

    Open sesame: A direct synthesis of functionalised and stereodefined dienes, relying on a domino allylic alkylation/electrocyclic ring-opening sequence, is reported. This method allows concise access to doubly vinylogous esters. A further systematic study of ring-opening rates of carbon-substituted cyclobutenes allowed the design of substrates amenable to sequential pericyclic reactions (see scheme). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Direct synthesis of stereodefined and functionalized dienes as valuable building blocks.

    PubMed

    Maulide, Nuno; Souris, Caroline; Frébault, Frédéric; Luparia, Marco; Audisio, Davide

    2014-01-01

    We have reported a direct and stereoselective synthesis of functionalized dienoic carboxylates from the simple bicyclic lactone 1. The use of oxygen- or nitrogen-based nucleophiles in a domino allylic alkylation/4π-electrocyclic ring opening affords reliable access to dienes with interesting functionalities. Alternatively, halide substitution offers synthesis of other classes of functionalized dienoic acids. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of such dienoic products as key building blocks in various transformations as well as natural product synthesis.

  20. Enantioselective fluoroamination: 1,4-addition to conjugated dienes using anionic phase-transfer catalysis.

    PubMed

    Shunatona, Hunter P; Früh, Natalja; Wang, Yi-Ming; Rauniyar, Vivek; Toste, F Dean

    2013-07-22

    Chiral-anion phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) has been applied towards the enantioselective fluorocyclization reactions of 1,3-dienes. The method affords unprecedented fluorinated benz[f]isoquinoline and octahydroisoquinoline products in high yields and up to 96 % ee. New fluorinated amine reagents outperformed Selectfluor in the desired transformation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Acid-free aza Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky's diene with imines.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu; Li, Xin; Ding, Kuiling

    2002-09-19

    [reaction: see text] A highly efficient aza Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky's diene with imines was found to occur in methanol in the absence of any acids at room temperature to give corresponding 2-substituted dihydro-4-pyridone derivatives in high yields. This reaction can be also carried out in a three-component one-pot reaction manner. The reaction was found to proceed through a Mannich-type condensation mechanism.

  2. Rhodium(I)/Diene-Catalyzed Addition Reactions of Arylborons with Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Xing, Chun-Hui; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Rh(I)/diene-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboroxines/arylboronic acids with unactivated ketones to form tertiary alcohols in good to excellent yields are described. By using C2-symmetric (3aR,6aR)-3,6-diaryl-1,3a,4,6a-tetrahydropentalenes as ligands, the asymmetric version of such an addition reaction, with up to 68% ee, was also realized. PMID:22376059

  3. Diene-ligated iridium catalyst for allylation reactions of ketones and imines.

    PubMed

    Barker, Timothy J; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2009-03-05

    [Ir(cod)Cl](2) is a highly reactive catalyst for allylation reactions of ketones using allylboronic ester. Mechanistic experiments are consistent with formation of a nucleophilic allyliridium(I) complex that is activated by the diene ligand toward attack of a ketone. Aryl and alkyl ketones react smoothly at room temperature. Aldimines also undergo allylation under these reaction conditions, requiring increased reaction times relative to the corresponding ketones.

  4. Linchpin dienes: key building-blocks in the synthesis of polyenic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Cornil, J; Guérinot, A; Cossy, J

    2015-04-14

    A myriad of biologically active products incorporates polyenic frameworks. Among the syntheses developed to access these moieties, metal-catalyzed cross-couplings emerged as reactions of choice especially due to their high stereoselectivity. Particularly, the use of bifunctionalized compounds (linchpin reagents) allows a fast, modular and efficient access to polyenic chains. In this review, we will focus on the preparation of bifunctionalized dienes and on their utilization in the synthesis of polyenes.

  5. Catalytic cascade hydroalkoxylation/isomerization/ [4 + 2] cycloaddition using enyne alcohols as latent dienes or dienophiles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Li, Kang-Nan; Gong, Liu-Zhu

    2013-10-21

    Enyne alcohols can react as precursors of either dienes or dienophiles with different substrates after hydroxylation and isomerization by gold catalysis. As such, oxa-bridged tricyclo[5.2.2.02,6]-undec-8-ene-3,5-dione derivatives have been obtained by the Diels–Alder reaction and tetrahydro-1H-furo[3,4-c]pyran derivatives could be accessed by the hetero-Diels–Alder cycloaddition.

  6. Food as a source of dioxin exposure in the residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Quynh, Hoang Trong; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Malisch, Rainer; Constable, John D

    2003-08-01

    Recently, elevated dioxin levels, over 5 parts per trillion (ppt) 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), from Agent Orange was reported in 95% of 43 selected residents of Bien Hoa City, a city in southern Vietnam near a former air base used for Agent Orange-spraying missions. Agent Orange herbicide, contaminated with TCDD, was sprayed in Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 primarily for use as a defoliant. Typical blood TCCD levels are 2 ppt in Vietnamese, but levels are as high as 413 ppt in Bien Hoa City. Elevated TCDD was found in children born many years after Agent Orange spraying ended and in immigrants from non-Agent Orange-sprayed parts of Vietnam, which documented new exposures. Extremely elevated soil TCDD samples, over 1 million ppt, and elevated TCDD in sediment were found in some nearby areas such as Bien Hung Lake. The primary route of intake of almost all dioxins in humans is food. However, in our prior studies in Bien Hoa, food was unavailable for dioxin analysis so the route of intake was not confirmed. In the 1970s, while Agent Orange was still being sprayed, elevated human milk TCDD levels as high as 1850 were detected in milk from Vietnamese people living in Agent Orange-sprayed areas where consumption of fish was high. Furthermore, also in the 1970s, elevated TCDD levels (up to 810 ppt) were found in fish and shrimp from the same area as the milk donors. In the 1980s, we found elevated TCDD and also other organohalogen levels in human tissue, pork, fish, a turtle, and a snake in Southern Vietnam. For these reasons, we recently collected food from Bien Hoa and analyzed it for dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and other organochlorines. We found marked elevation of TCDD, the dioxin characteristic of Agent Orange, in some of the food products, including ducks with 276 ppt and 331 ppt wet weight, chickens from 0.031-15 ppt wet weight, fish from 0.063-65 ppt wet weight, and a toad with 56 ppt wet weight. Usual TCDD

  7. Polymerization of 1,3-Conjugated Dienes with Rare-Earth Metal Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Cui, Dongmei; Wang, Baoli; Liu, Bo; Yang, Yi

    This chapter surveys the publications except patents related to cis-1,4-, trans-1,4-, 3,4-regio-, and stereoselective polymerizations of 1,3-conjugated dienes with rare-earth metal-based catalytic systems during the past decade from 1999 to 2009. The concerned catalyst systems are classified into the conventional Ziegler-Natta catalysts, the modified Ziegler-Natta catalysts, and the single-site cationic systems composed of lanthanocene and noncyclopentadienyl precursors, respectively. For the conventional Ziegler-Natta catalysts of the most promising industry applicable recipe, the multicomponents based on lanthanide carboxylate or phosphate or alkoxide precursors, research works concern mainly about optimizing the catalyst preparation and polymerization techniques. Special emphases are put on the factors that influence the catalyst homogeneority, catalytic activity and efficiency, as well as cis-1,4-selectivity. Meanwhile, tailor-made lanthanide aryloxide and amide complexes are designed and fully characterized to mimic the conventional Ziegler-Natta catalysts, anticipated to elucidate the key processes, alkylation and cationization, for generating the active species. Regarding to the single-site catalytic systems generally comprising well-defined complexes containing lanthanide-carbon bonds, investigations cover their versatile catalytic activity and efficiency, and the distinguished regio- and stereoselectivity for both polymerization of dienes and copolymerization of dienes with alkenes. The correlation between the sterics and electronics of ligands and the molecular structures of the complexes and their catalytic performances are highlighted. The isolation of the probable active species in these polymerization processes from the stoichiometric reactions of the precursors with activators will be presented.

  8. Regioselectivity in the Cu(I)-catalyzed [4 + 2]-cycloaddition of 2-nitrosopyridine with unsymmetrical dienes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T; Liu, Peng; Houk, K N; Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2014-06-20

    The thermal (uncatalyzed) and Cu(I)-catalyzed reactions of 2-nitrosopyridine (PyrNO) with the dienes 1,3-pentadiene, E,E-2,4-hexadienol, and 1-phenylbutadiene are investigated experimentally and computationally. The uncatalyzed reactions of the first two dienes occur with low regioselectivity, while the latter proceeds with complete proximal selectivity. Using the M06/6-311+G(d,p)-SDD method, various concerted transition states for the reactions of 2-nitrosopyridine with (E)-1,3-pentadiene and 1-phenylbutadiene were computed. In quantitative agreement with the experimental findings, (a) no energy difference (0.0 kcal/mol) is found between the most stable transition states, endo-prox-anti and endo-dist-anti, in the pentadiene/PyrNO reaction, leading to nearly equal amounts of prox and dist cycloadducts, and (b) the proximal transition state is strongly favored (by 3.7 kcal/mol) over the distal for the highly selective phenylbutadiene/PyrNO reaction. The regioselectivity of the pentadiene/PyrNO reaction is improved markedly (90:10 dist/prox) when catalyzed by Cu(CH3CN)4(+); (diimine)2Cu(+) catalysts increase selectivity for the proximal product (55-65%). Modest effects of the catalyst nature on regioselectivity are observed in the sorbyl alcohol and 1-phenylbutadiene reactions. The relative affinity of an equilibrating set of (diimine)2Cu(+) complexes for the prox and dist cycloadducts, assessed by ESI-MS, is marginally correlated with the prox/dist product regioselectivity produced by the corresponding catalysts. Transition states in the Cu(CH3CN)4(+)- and Cu(diimine)2(+)-catalyzed reactions are located that account for the observed regioselectivities. Coordination effects on the regioselectivity are derived from FMO orbital interactions and the extent of electron transfer between the Cu center and the coordinated nitroso and diene units.

  9. Stereo- and regioselectivity of the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of nitroso derivatives with conjugated dienes.

    PubMed

    Brulíková, Lucie; Harrison, Aidan; Miller, Marvin J; Hlaváč, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The hetero-Diels-Alder reaction between a nitroso dienophile and a conjugated diene to give the 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazine scaffold is useful for the synthesis of many biologically interesting molecules due to the diverse opportunities created by subsequent transformations of the resulting 1,2-oxazine ring. This review discusses the rationale for the observed regio- and stereoselectivity and the methods developed in recent years used to control and improve the stereo- and regioselectivity for the synthesis of 1,2-oxazine scaffolds.

  10. Catalyst-Controlled Regioselectivity in the Synthesis of Branched Conjugated Dienes via Aerobic Oxidative Heck Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Changwu; Wang, Dian; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2012-01-01

    Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling of vinylboronic acids and electronically unbiased alkyl olefins provides regioselective access to 1,3-disubstituted conjugated dienes. Catalyst-controlled regioselectivity is achieved by using 2,9-dimethylphenanthroline as a ligand. The observed regioselectivity is opposite to that observed from a traditional (non-oxidative) Heck reaction between a vinyl bromide and an alkene. DFT computational studies reveal that steric effects of the 2,9-dimethylphenanthroline ligand promote C–C bond-formation at the internal position of the alkene. PMID:22998540

  11. The direct oxidative diene cyclization and related reactions in natural product synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary The direct oxidative cyclization of 1,5-dienes is a valuable synthetic method for the (dia)stereoselective preparation of substituted tetrahydrofurans. Closely related reactions start from 5,6-dihydroxy or 5-hydroxyalkenes to generate similar products in a mechanistically analogous manner. After a brief overview on the history of this group of transformations and a survey on mechanistic and stereochemical aspects, this review article provides a summary on applications in natural product synthesis. Moreover, current limitations and future directions in this area of chemistry are discussed. PMID:27829917

  12. Stereo- and regioselectivity of the hetero-Diels–Alder reaction of nitroso derivatives with conjugated dienes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marvin J

    2016-01-01

    Summary The hetero-Diels–Alder reaction between a nitroso dienophile and a conjugated diene to give the 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazine scaffold is useful for the synthesis of many biologically interesting molecules due to the diverse opportunities created by subsequent transformations of the resulting 1,2-oxazine ring. This review discusses the rationale for the observed regio- and stereoselectivity and the methods developed in recent years used to control and improve the stereo- and regioselectivity for the synthesis of 1,2-oxazine scaffolds. PMID:27829901

  13. Le facteur XII de la coagulation: bien plus qu’un stabilisant de la fibrine

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, N.; Lamaalmi, F.; Chakour, M.; Belmekki, A.; Naji, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs considèrent le rôle du facteur XIII de la coagulation dans la cicatrisation. Identifié depuis 1923, le rôle du facteur XIII ou le facteur stabilisant de la fibrine dans la coagulation a été bien élucidé. Son rôle dans la cicatrisation suggéré dès 1960 est méconnu par les hématologistes et les médecins prenant en charge les brûlés. Les Auteurs se proposent de mettre la lumière sur ce rôle, qui reste encore mystérieux et mérite d’être élucidé. PMID:21991236

  14. Unprecedented Intramolecular [4 + 2]-Cycloaddition between a 1,3-Diene and a Diazo Ester.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huang; Srinivas, Harathi D; Zavalij, Peter Y; Doyle, Michael P

    2016-02-17

    Diazo compounds that are well-known to undergo [3 + 2]-cycloaddition provide the first examples of the previously unknown [4 + 2]-cycloaddition with dienes that occur thermally under mild conditions and in high yields. Reactions are initiated from reactants prepared from propargyl aryldiazoacetates that undergo gold(I)-catalyzed rearrangement to activated 1,3-dienyl aryldiazoacetates. These reactions proceed to mixtures of both [4 + 2]-cycloaddition and the 1,3-dienyl aryldiazoacetate after long reaction times. At short reaction times, however, both E- and Z-1,3-dienyl aryldiazoacetates are formed and, after isolation, thermal reactions with the E-isomers form the products from [4 + 2]-cycloaddition with ΔH(‡)298 = 15.6 kcal/mol and ΔS(‡)298 = -27.3 cal/(mol·°C). The Z-isomer is inert to [4 + 2]-cycloaddition under these conditions. The Hammett relationships from aryl-substituted diazo esters (ρ = +0.89) and aryl-substituted dienes (ρ = -1.65) are consistent with the dipolar nature of this transformation.

  15. Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies on Pd(0)-Catalyzed Diamination of Conjugated Dienes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoguo; Du, Haifeng; Cui, Sunliang; Shi, Yian

    2010-01-01

    Various dienes and a triene can be regioselectively diaminated at the internal double bond with good yields and high diastereoselectivity using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone (5) as nitrogen source and Pd(PPh3)4 (1–10 mol%) as catalyst. Kinetic studies with 1H NMR spectroscopy show that the diamination is first-order in total Pd catalyst and inverse first-order in PPh3. For reactive dienes, such as 1-methoxybutadiene (6g) and alkyl 1,3-butadienes (6a, 6j), the diamination is first order in di-tert-butyldiaziridinone (5) and zero-order in the olefin. For olefins with relatively low reactivity, such as (E)-1-phenyl-butadiene (6b) and (3E,5E)-1,3,5-decatriene (6i), similar diamination rates were observed when 3.5 equivalents of olefins were used. Pd(PPh3)2 is likely to be the active species for the insertion of Pd(0) into the N-N bond of di-tert-butyldiaziridinone (5) to form a four-membered Pd(II) complex (A), which can be detected by NMR spectroscopy. Olefin complex (B), formed from intermediate A via ligand exchange between the olefin substrate and the PPh3, undergoes migratory insertion and reductive elimination to give the diamination product and regenerate the Pd(0) catalyst. PMID:20166669

  16. Synergistic hypergolic ignition of blends of dienes and dienophiles with red fuming nitric acid as oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, S.P.; Kulkarni, S.G.; Prabhakaran, C.

    1989-04-01

    Synergistic hypergolic ignition of several fuel blends and mixtures with red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) as oxidizer has been reported previously. The liquid fuels consisted of blends of 3-carene, cyclopentadiene, or norbornadiene with cardanol in the weight ratio 70:30 for the first two and 85:15 for norbornadiene. In all these cases, synergism in ignition was believed to be due to the fast and exothermic oligomerization of 3-carene, cyclopentadiene, and norbornadiene in the presence of acid. The exothermicity of the systems was enhanced by the addition of cardanol to the unsaturation of oligomers, leading to the formation of highly oxidizable phenolic ethers. Two more important reactions at the preignition stage were nitration and oxidation of the ethers leading to the production of gaseous combustibles and heat. In this case, an attempt has been made to extend the range of possible preignition reactions by introducing diene-dienophile Diels-Alder cycloaddition with low activation energy by replacing cardanol with furfuryl alcohol or furfurylideneacetone having a furan ring to behave as acid polymerizable dienes in the above systems.

  17. Inverse Vulcanization of Sulfur using Natural Dienes as Sustainable Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Iñaki; Leonet, Olatz; Blazquez, J Alberto; Mecerreyes, David

    2016-12-20

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are among the most promising next-generation battery systems due to the high capacity of sulfur as cathodic material. Beyond its interesting intrinsic properties, sulfur possesses a very low conductivity and complex electrochemistry, which involves the high solubility of the lithium sulfides in the electrolyte. These two characteristics are at the core of a series of limitations of its performance as active cathode material, which leads to batteries with low cyclability. Recently, inverse vulcanized sulfur was shown to retain capacity far better than elemental sulfur, leading to batteries with excellent cyclability. Nevertheless, the diene co-monomers used so far in the inverse vulcanization process are man-made molecules. Herein, a tentative work on exploring inverse vulcanization using two naturally available monomers, diallyl sulfide and myrcene, is presented. The inverse vulcanization of sulfur was successfully completed, and the resulting polymers were characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Afterwards these polymers were tested as cathodic materials in lithium-sulfur cells. The sulfur-natural dienes materials exhibited high capacity at different C rates and high lifetime over 200 cycles with very high capacity retention at a moderate C rate of C/5. Altogether, these materials made from inexpensive and abundant chemicals are an excellent option as sustainable materials for electrochemical energy storage.

  18. Nitroso Diels-Alder (NDA) Reaction as an Efficient Tool for the Functionalization of Diene-Containing Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Carosso, Serena; Miller, Marvin J.

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the use of nitroso Diels-Alder reactions for the functionalization of complex diene-containing natural products in order to generate libraries of compounds with potential biological activity. The application of this methodology to the structural modification of a series of natural products (thebaine, steroidal dienes, rapamycin, leucomycin, colchicine, isocolchicine and piperine) is discussed using relevant examples from the literature from 1973 onwards. The biological activity of the resulting compounds is also discussed. Additional comments are provided that evaluate the methodology as a useful tool in organic, bioorganic and medicinal chemistry. PMID:25119424

  19. 1-(Triethoxysilyl)buta-1,3-dienes—New Building Blocks for Stereoselective Synthesis of Unsymmetrical (E,E)-1,4-Disubstituted 1,3-dienes

    PubMed Central

    Szudkowska-Frątczak, Justyna; Taczała, Mariusz; Pawluć, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    A convenient methodology for the highly stereoselective synthesis of unsymmetrical (1E,3E)-1,4-disubstituted 1,3-dienes based on palladium-catalyzed Hiyama cross-coupling reaction of 1-(triethoxysilyl)-substituted buta-1,3-dienes with aryl iodides is reported. PMID:28793635

  20. The conformation and molecular structure of a 2,3-diazacyclohepta-1,3-diene derivative. A gas-phase electron diffraction study of perfluoro-(1,4-dimethyl-2,3-diazacyclohepta-1,3-diene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beagley, B.; Pritchard, R. G.

    1985-08-01

    The molecular structure of the perfluoro-(1,4-dimethyl-2,8-diazacyclohepta-1,3-diene) molecule has been studied using gas-phase electron diffraction data collected on the Balzers KDG2 instrument at UMIST. The data are compatible with a C2 conformer with a torsion angle around the single NN bond of 52.4° ( gauche-diene geometry). The NNC(C 2) fragments are planar; each of these olefin planes also contains a CF bond of a -CF 3 group, with torsion angle NCCF = 0°. The ring conformation closely resembles that of the cyclohepta-1,3-diene ring in 1-hydroxy-2,3-dicarbomethyoxycyclohepta-1,3-diene, rather than that of the parent hydrocarbon. The principal structural parameters are NN = 1.349(19) Å, NC = 1.257(11) Å, CC(mean) = 1.536(3) Å, CF(mean) = 1.340(2) Å, ∠NNC = 121.9(7)°, ∠NCC(F 2) = 124.0(6)°, ∠NCC(F 3) = 117.8(7)°, ∠CCF(CF 3) = 111.1(3)°, ∠FCF(CF 2) = 107.8(6)°.

  1. Vertical distribution of dioxins in soil of Bien Hoa airbase, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huyen, Dang Thuong; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Shiraiwa, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Bien Hoa airbase is a known dioxin-contaminated hotspot in Vietnam. The contamination occurred during the Vietnam War at the site where dioxins were transported, stored, sprayed, and spilled in the area. Dioxins, which are cancer inducing substances, may transfer from the soil to food crops and finally to human beings living around the area. Many surveys of dioxins in soil, water, organisms, and human have been carried out in this study area since 2002. In this paper vertical distribution of dioxins in undisturbed soil cores were examined. Twelve soil samples from three drilled cores were collected to analyze dioxin levels according to the standard Japanese analytical method. The results showed that the toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ) in one soil sample at a depth of 2.6 m reached 3,300 pg-TEQ/g-dw. High TEQs were also observed in the clay layer. This anomaly of dioxin concentrations could be attributed to the affinity of dioxins for the clay layer. The isomer patterns in the soils were different from those in the soil of Hokkaido in that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was the most dominant in the soil sample. This indicates that the dioxins originate from a defoliant Agent Orange disposed at the site after the Vietnam War.

  2. High-level production of amorpha-4,11-diene, a precursor of the antimalarial agent artemisinin, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Hiroko; Paddon, Christopher J; Eng, Diana; Lenihan, Jacob R; Horning, Tizita; Anthony, Larry C; Regentin, Rika; Keasling, Jay D; Renninger, Neil S; Newman, Jack D

    2009-01-01

    Artemisinin derivatives are the key active ingredients in Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), the most effective therapies available for treatment of malaria. Because the raw material is extracted from plants with long growing seasons, artemisinin is often in short supply, and fermentation would be an attractive alternative production method to supplement the plant source. Previous work showed that high levels of amorpha-4,11-diene, an artemisinin precursor, can be made in Escherichia coli using a heterologous mevalonate pathway derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), though the reconstructed mevalonate pathway was limited at a particular enzymatic step. By combining improvements in the heterologous mevalonate pathway with a superior fermentation process, commercially relevant titers were achieved in fed-batch fermentations. Yeast genes for HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA reductase (the second and third enzymes in the pathway) were replaced with equivalent genes from Staphylococcus aureus, more than doubling production. Amorpha-4,11-diene titers were further increased by optimizing nitrogen delivery in the fermentation process. Successful cultivation of the improved strain under carbon and nitrogen restriction consistently yielded 90 g/L dry cell weight and an average titer of 27.4 g/L amorpha-4,11-diene. Production of >25 g/L amorpha-4,11-diene by fermentation followed by chemical conversion to artemisinin may allow for development of a process to provide an alternative source of artemisinin to be incorporated into ACTs.

  3. Liquid marbles as a micro-reactor for efficient radical alternating copolymerization of diene monomer and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Sato, E; Yuri, M; Fujii, S; Nishiyama, T; Nakamura, Y; Horibe, H

    2015-12-18

    Liquid marbles have been shown to be a novel micro-reactor to synthesize polyperoxides by the radical alternating copolymerization of the 1,3-diene monomer with oxygen in a good yield. Oxygen gas is effectively absorbed as a comonomer by the large and permeable gas-liquid interface of the liquid marbles.

  4. Diastereoselective Construction of Functionalized Homoallylic Alcohols by Ni-Catalyzed Diboron-Promoted Coupling of Dienes and Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Morken, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The nickel-catalyzed reaction of carbonyls and dienes was accomplished in a regio- and stereo-selective fashion employing a stoichiometric amount of bis(pinacolato)diboron. This reductive coupling furnishes an allyl boronic esters as the reaction product, a compound which was readily converted to the derived allylic alcohol by oxidative work-up. PMID:18998642

  5. Novel polymer composites from waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber by supercritical CO2 foaming technology.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keuk Min; Hong, Yeo Joo; Saha, Prosenjit; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a composite has been prepared by mixing waste rubber, such as ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer and low-density poly ethylene foaming, with supercritical carbon dioxide. In order to optimise the foaming process of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer-low-density poly ethylene composite, the variations of pressure and temperature on the foamed Microcell formation were studied. As indicated in scanning electron microscope photographs, the most uniform microcellular pattern was found at 200 bar and 100 °C using 30% by weight of waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer. Carbon dioxide could not be dissolved uniformly during foaming owing to extensive cross-linking of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer used for the composite. As a result the presence of un-uniform microcells after foaming were observed in the composite matrix to impart inferior mechanical properties of the composite. This problem was solved with uniform foaming by increasing the cross-link density of low-density poly ethylene using 1.5 parts per hundred dicumyl peroxide that enhances composite tensile and compressive strength up to 57% and 15%, respectively. The composite has the potential to be used as a foaming mat for artificial turf. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Efficient preparation of terminal conjugated dienes by coupling of dienol phosphates with grignard reagents under iron catalysis.

    PubMed

    Cahiez, Gérard; Habiak, Vanessa; Gager, Olivier

    2008-06-19

    An efficient new route to prepare stereoselectively terminal conjugated dienes by coupling Grignard reagents and dienol phosphates in the presence of Fe(acac)3 is described. The synthetic utility of this new iron-catalyzed procedure is illustrated by the synthesis of the pheromone of Diparopsis castanea according to a very expeditious strategy.

  7. High-Level Production of Amorpha-4,11-Diene, a Precursor of the Antimalarial Agent Artemisinin, in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, Hiroko; Paddon, Christopher J.; Eng, Diana; Lenihan, Jacob R.; Horning, Tizita; Anthony, Larry C.; Regentin, Rika; Keasling, Jay D.; Renninger, Neil S.; Newman, Jack D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Artemisinin derivatives are the key active ingredients in Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), the most effective therapies available for treatment of malaria. Because the raw material is extracted from plants with long growing seasons, artemisinin is often in short supply, and fermentation would be an attractive alternative production method to supplement the plant source. Previous work showed that high levels of amorpha-4,11-diene, an artemisinin precursor, can be made in Escherichia coli using a heterologous mevalonate pathway derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), though the reconstructed mevalonate pathway was limited at a particular enzymatic step. Methodology/ Principal Findings By combining improvements in the heterologous mevalonate pathway with a superior fermentation process, commercially relevant titers were achieved in fed-batch fermentations. Yeast genes for HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA reductase (the second and third enzymes in the pathway) were replaced with equivalent genes from Staphylococcus aureus, more than doubling production. Amorpha-4,11-diene titers were further increased by optimizing nitrogen delivery in the fermentation process. Successful cultivation of the improved strain under carbon and nitrogen restriction consistently yielded 90 g/L dry cell weight and an average titer of 27.4 g/L amorpha-4,11-diene. Conclusions/ Significance Production of >25 g/L amorpha-4,11-diene by fermentation followed by chemical conversion to artemisinin may allow for development of a process to provide an alternative source of artemisinin to be incorporated into ACTs. PMID:19221601

  8. Gas-Phase Synthesis of 1-Silacyclopenta-2,4-diene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B; Thomas, Aaron M; Sun, Bing-Jian; Chou, Tzu-Jung; Chang, Agnes H H; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2016-07-04

    Silole (1-silacyclopenta-2,4-diene) was synthesized for the first time by the bimolecular reaction of the simplest silicon-bearing radical, silylidyne (SiH), with 1,3-butadiene (C4 H6 ) in the gas phase under single-collision conditions. The absence of consecutive collisions of the primary reaction product prevents successive reactions of the silole by Diels-Alder dimerization, thus enabling the clean gas-phase synthesis of this hitherto elusive cyclic species from acyclic precursors in a single-collision event. Our method opens up a versatile and unconventional path to access a previously rather obscure class of organosilicon molecules (substituted siloles), which have been difficult to access through classical synthetic methods.

  9. Evaluation of some antioxidants in radiation vulcanized ethylene-propylene diene (EPDM) rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Basfar, A. A.

    2001-12-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the oxidation of γ-ray vulcanized ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) stabilized with various types of antioxidants. The antioxidants used were pentaerythrityl tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl(-4-hydroxyphenyl))propionate (Irganox 1010), Irganox 1035, Irganox 1520D, as primary antioxidants; Irganox B561 and Irganox B900, as synergistic blends; hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), i.e. Tinuvin 622 LD; N-isopropyl- N-phenyl- p-phenylene diamine (IPPD) and trimethyl quinoline (TMQ) and their mixtures. The measurements were carried out under atmospheric conditions. The effects of antioxidant type and its selected concentration were determined and mechanism of reaction proposed.

  10. A solution blending route to ethylene propylene diene terpolymer/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, H; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM)/MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites have been synthesized by solution intercalation using organically modified LDH (DS-LDH). The molecular level dispersion of LDH nanolayers has been verified by the disappearance of basal XRD peak of DS-LDH in the composites. The internal structures, of the nanocomposite with the dispersion nature of LDH particles in EPDM matrix have been studied by TEM and AFM. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows thermal stability of nanocomposites improved by ≈40 °C when 10% weight loss was selected as point of comparison. The degradation for pure EPDM is faster above 380 °C while in case of its nanocomposites, it is much slower.

  11. Surface characterisation of ethylene propylene diene rubber upon exposure to aqueous acidic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Susanta; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Kingshott, Peter; Hvilsted, Søren; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2006-07-01

    Two types of pure ethylene propylene diene rubbers were exposed to two different acids for varying period of time. Surface characterisation was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Two EPDM rubbers selected for this study were comparable in co-monomer compositions but significantly different with respect to molar mass and the presence of long chain branching. Both rubbers contained 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) as diene. Solution cast films of pure EPDM samples were exposed in two different acidic solutions, viz. chromosulphuric (Cr (VI)/H 2SO 4) and sulphuric acid (H 2SO 4) (20%, v/v) at ambient temperature from 1 to 12 weeks. XPS analysis indicated that several oxygenated species were formed on the surface of both rubbers after exposure. It was postulated from the XPS analyses that both aqueous acidic solutions attacked the olefinic double bonds (C dbnd C) of ENB. Furthermore, 20% Cr (VI)/H 2SO 4 also attacked the allylic carbon-hydrogen (C sbnd H) bonds of ENB resulting in more oxygenated species on the surface compared to 20% H 2SO 4 under identical conditions. Cr (VI) in the 20% Cr (VI)/H 2SO 4 was found to play an important role in alteration of surface chemistry. Studies using a model system consisting of EPDM mixed with Cr (VI) and Cr (III) salts revealed that the change of oxidation state from Cr (VI) to Cr (III) as a consequence of direct involvement of Cr (VI) in the chemical alteration of EPDM surfaces. Interestingly, the presence of long chain branching and molar mass did not significantly influence the chemical processes owing to the acid treatment.

  12. Catalyst-free synthesis of skipped dienes from phosphorus ylides, allylic carbonates, and aldehydes via a one-pot SN2' allylation-Wittig strategy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Silong; Zhu, Shaoying; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Junjie; Tang, Yuhai; Dou, Jianwei

    2014-04-18

    A catalyst-free allylic alkylation of stabilized phosphorus ylides with allylic carbonates via a regioselective SN2' process is presented. Subsequent one-pot Wittig reaction with both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as ketenes provides structurally diverse skipped dienes (1,4-dienes) in generally high yields and moderate to excellent stereoselectivity with flexible substituent patterns. This one-pot SN2' allylation-Wittig strategy constitutes a convenient and efficient synthetic method for highly functionalized skipped dienes from readily available starting materials.

  13. Gold-catalyzed reactions of propargylic esters with vinylazides for the synthesis of Z- or E-configured buta-1,3-dien-2-yl esters.

    PubMed

    Wagh, Sachin Bhausaheb; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2015-10-28

    Gold-catalyzed synthesis of buta-1,3-dien-2-yl esters by the reaction of propargyl esters with vinylazides is described; the reaction mechanism is postulated to involve a vinyl attack of vinylazides at alkenyl gold carbenes.

  14. Total Synthesis of the Galbulimima Alkaloids Himandravine and GB17 Using Biomimetic Diels–Alder Reactions of Double Diene Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Reed T.; Pemberton, Ryan P.; Franke, Jenna M.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Thomson, Regan J.

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective total syntheses of himandravine and GB17 were completed through a common biomimetic strategy involving Diels–Alder reactions of unusual double diene containing linear precursors. The double diene precursors, containing or lacking a C12 substituent as required to produce GB17 or himandravine, respectively, were found to undergo Diels–Alder reactions to afford mixtures of regioisomeric cycloadducts that map onto the alternative carbocyclic frameworks of both himandravine and GB17. Computational investigations revealed that these Diels–Alder reactions proceed via transition state structures of similar energy that have a high degree of bispericyclic character and that the low levels of regioselectivity observed in the reactions are a consequence of competing orbital interaction and distortion energies. The combined experimental and computational results provide valuable insights into the biosynthesis of the Galbulimima alkaloids. PMID:26305231

  15. Total Synthesis of the Galbulimima Alkaloids Himandravine and GB17 Using Biomimetic Diels-Alder Reactions of Double Diene Precursors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Reed T; Pemberton, Ryan P; Franke, Jenna M; Tantillo, Dean J; Thomson, Regan J

    2015-09-02

    The enantioselective total syntheses of himandravine and GB17 were completed through a common biomimetic strategy involving Diels-Alder reactions of unusual double diene containing linear precursors. The double diene precursors, containing or lacking a C12 substituent as required to produce GB17 or himandravine, respectively, were found to undergo Diels-Alder reactions to afford mixtures of regioisomeric cycloadducts that map onto the alternative carbocyclic frameworks of both himandravine and GB17. Computational investigations revealed that these Diels-Alder reactions proceed via transition state structures of similar energy that have a high degree of bispericyclic character and that the low levels of regioselectivity observed in the reactions are a consequence of competing orbital interaction and distortion energies. The combined experimental and computational results provide valuable insights into the biosynthesis of the Galbulimima alkaloids.

  16. Ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular metathesis of dienes and its application in the synthesis of bridged and spiro azabicycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, N. Yu; Bubnov, Yu N.

    2015-07-01

    The review presents a historical excursion into catalytic alkene metathesis, covering the problems of history of the discovery of this process, as well as investigations on the properties, structure and reactivity of the most popular ruthenium catalysts for metathesis, mechanism of their action and decomposition. The main part covers studies devoted to the syntheses of bridged azabicyclic and 1-azaspirocyclic compounds comprising the intramolecular metathesis of dienes as the key step. The formation of a bicyclic skeleton of a series of natural bridged (cocaine, ferruginine, calystegines, and anatoxin-a) and spiro (pinnaic acids, halichlorine, hystrionicotoxin, and cephalotaxine) azabicycles, as well as their analogues and compounds with larger rings is demonstrated. The methods for the synthesis of diene precursors and the conditions for final assembling of the bicyclic compounds are considered in detail. The generalization of the literature data allows one to efficiently carry out the mentioned process taking into account the most important features. The bibliography includes 129 references.

  17. From Stereodefined Cyclobutenes to Dienes: Total Syntheses of Ieodomycin D and the Southern Fragment of Macrolactin A.

    PubMed

    Souris, Caroline; Misale, Antonio; Chen, Yong; Luparia, Marco; Maulide, Nuno

    2015-09-18

    A copper-promoted flexible synthesis of cyclobutenes carrying simple alkyl chains, enabling even the most hindered nucleophiles to be employed, has been developed. The versatility of this approach was exemplified by a short total synthesis of ieodomycin D and a straightforward preparation of the southeastern fragment of macrolactin A. The latter features a late-stage, double cyclobutene electrocyclic ring opening that directly delivers a bis-diene of defined geometry.

  18. Synthesis of 2,5-Diaryl-1,5-Dienes from Allylic Bromides Using Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Pratsch, Gerald; Overman, Larry E.

    2015-01-01

    Visible-light photoreductive coupling of 2-arylallyl bromides in the presence of the photocatalyst Ru(bpy)3(PF6)2, a Hantzsch ester, and i-Pr2NEt gives 2,5-diaryl-1,5-dienes in high yield. This method avoids the use of stoichiometric metal reductants and is compatible with the presence of halogen, alkyl, electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents on the aromatic ring. PMID:26514061

  19. Synthesis of 2,5-Diaryl-1,5-dienes from Allylic Bromides Using Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pratsch, Gerald; Overman, Larry E

    2015-11-20

    Visible-light photoreductive coupling of 2-arylallyl bromides in the presence of the photocatalyst Ru(bpy)3(PF6)2, a Hantzsch ester, and i-Pr2NEt gives 2,5-diaryl-1,5-dienes in high yield. This method avoids the use of stoichiometric metal reductants and is compatible with the presence of halogen, alkyl, electron-donating, and electron-withdrawing substituents on the aromatic ring.

  20. Enantioselective Aminomethylamination of Conjugated Dienes with Aminals Enabled by Chiral Palladium Complex-Catalyzed C-N Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Xie, Yinjun; Wang, Hongli; Huang, Hanmin

    2016-04-06

    A novel highly enantioselective aminomethylamination of conjugated dienes with aminals catalyzed by a chiral palladium complex ligated with BINOL-derived chiral diphosphinite has been successfully developed. This reaction proceeds via a Pd-catalyzed cascade C-N bond activation, aminomethylation, and asymmetric allylic amination reaction under mild reaction conditions, providing a unique and efficient strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure allylic 1,3-diamines.

  1. Intramolecular alkylative arylation of oxabicylic alkene: a potential diene approach for the synthesis of estrone and analogous steroid structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Dong Z; Wei, Kun

    2004-04-15

    Regioselective and stereospecific intramolecular alkylative arylation of unsaturated oxabicyclic diol 6, mediated by Lewis acid or strong protic acid to give the tetracyclic products 7a and 7b, as shown above, represents the first example of an electrophilic (cationic in character) ring-opening-cyclization of oxabicyclic alkene. This constitutes the key cyclization step for a long-standing and potentially useful diene approach for the synthesis of estrone and analogous steroid structures. [structure: see text

  2. FEMA expert panel review of p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al genotoxicity testing results.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Guengerich, F Peter; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Taylor, Sean V

    2016-12-01

    p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al is a naturally occurring cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is used as a flavoring substance throughout the world. Due to the chemical structure and the potential DNA reactivity of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, a battery of genotoxicity assays was requested by the European Food Safety Authority. Previous genotoxicity studies on the substance gave mixed results, but both positive and negative results were hampered by not always being performed to any standard guideline. The new test battery data indicated some evidence of mutagenicity in vitro, but an in vivo comet/micronucleus combination assay performed in rats was concluded by the study directors to not result in any biologically relevant positive responses. However, EFSA concluded that the in vivo assay gave evidence that p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al was of potential genotoxic concern. The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) has reviewed the newly available data and considered its interpretation relative to standard guidelines such as that established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and has concluded that the results in the comet/micronucleus combination assay are consistent with the interpretation by the study directors; namely, that p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al does not appear to have any in vivo genotoxic potential. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [(dien)2Mn]Ge2S4 with mixed-valent Ge centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo; Lei, Xiao-Wu

    2013-10-01

    One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien)2Mn]Ge2S4 (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P212121 (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) Å, b=12.475(5) Å, c=17.077(7) Å, V=1941.5(15) Å3 and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge2S4]2- anionic chain and a [(dien)2Mn]2+ complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge2S4]2- chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UV-vis spectra.

  4. Functionalized acetylenic compounds via 1-bromo- 1,2-dienes and organocopper reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Caporusso, A.M.; Iodice, A.; Lardicci, L.; Salvadori, P.

    1995-12-31

    The acetylenic unity provides a convenient handle which may be converted into a variety of functionalities. In this frame, the authors developed a general and efficient method for the synthesis of chiral 1-alkynes, with a tertiary or a quaternary asymmetric carbon atom in the {alpha} position to the triple bond, by stereoselective cross-coupling of bromocuprates [(RCuBr)MaBr LiBr R=Alkyl, aryl] with optically active 1-bromo-1,2-dienes. This method provides terminal acetylenes which can easily converted into biologically active compounds, such as the antiphlogistic (+)-Ibuprofen. The authors report here that this procedure can be extended to the preparation of a large variety of functionalized acetylenic systems. In fact, bromocuprates, obtained from protected functionalized Grignard reagents and LiCuBr{sub 2}, react with bromoallenes affording the 1-alkynes with high yields, regio- and stereoselectivity. Compounds are also conveniently obtained from cyanocuprates, prepared by reaction of functionalized zinc reagents with the cuprous cyanide/lithium chloride complex; the organozinc derivatives are directly obtained from organic halides and highly activated zinc powder, prepared by metal vapour technique.

  5. Response of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) to simulant Hanford tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the author performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. The author has determined that EPDM rubber has excellent resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that EPDM is an excellent seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  6. Synthesis of brominated acenaphthylenes and their flame-retardant effects on ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Y.; Hagiwara, M.

    1982-09-01

    Bromoacenaphthylenes and their condensates as flame-retardant reagents were synthesized by bromination of acenaphthylene using ZnCl/sub 2/ - CF/sub 3/COOH or FeCl/sub 3/ as catalysts and subsequent dehydrobromination. The chief components were identified as bromoacenaphthylene monomers when ZnCl/sub 2/ - CF/sub 3/COOH were used, and as their condensates (mostly trimers) in the case of FeCl/sub 3/. Their performance as flame-retardant reagents for ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) was evaluated by measuring the oxygen index of finished compounds, and flammability by a vertical flammability test based on UL-94-VO. Both the monomers and the condensates demonstrated high flame-retardant effectiveness. The high efficiency was attributed to their excellent dispersity in the base polymer and their characteristic thermal decomposition behavior. In thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), they decomposed in a very wide range of temperature (ca.200-560/sup 0/C), which covers the decomposition range of EPDM. This was attributed to the existence of bromines of different thermal stabilities in one molecule. This paper is a part of a series of studies to develop new flame retardants which can give high flame retardancy as well as stabilty against ionizing radiation to EPDM.

  7. Protection effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene on radiation deterioration of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Kasai, N.

    1982-09-01

    As a continuation of a series of the studies on the flame and ..gamma..-radiation resistant modification of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM), condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant was synthesized and its effects on the radiation resistance of EPDM were investigated. The radiation resistance evaluated by measuring tensile properties of irradiated sheets of 2 mm thick was found improved greatly by adding con-BACN together with ordinary rubber ingredients but decreased by decabromodiphenylether (DBDPE) that has bromins in aromatic rings as con-BACN. When EPDM sheets of 1 mm thick were irradiated in oxygen at a dose rate of 1 X 10/sup 5/ rad/h, the weight swelling ratio increased with increasing dose, indicating that oxidative main chain scission is predominant under the irradiation conditions. On the other hand, crosslinking was shown to be predominant in nitrogen. From the results of the swelling experiments with different additives, it was concluded that DBDPE accelerates both the main chain scission in oxygen and the crosslinking in nitrogen. In contrast to this, con-BACN reduced the chain scission in oxygen. This observation was accounted by the assumption that the influence of the oxidative chain scission is partly compensated by the concurrent crosslinking which takes place through additions of con-BACN to substrate polymers even in the presence of oxygen.

  8. Combined NMR and quantum chemical studies on the interaction between trehalose and dienes relevant to the antioxidant function of trehalose.

    PubMed

    Oku, Kazuyuki; Kurose, Mayumi; Kubota, Michio; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kurimoto, Masashi; Tujisaka, Yoshio; Okabe, Atsutoshi; Sakurai, Minoru

    2005-02-24

    In a previous study (Oku, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kubota, M.; Fukuda, S.; Kurimoto, M.; Tujisaka, Y.; Komori, M.; Inoue, Y.; Sakurai, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 12739), we investigated the mechanism of the antioxidant function of trehalose against unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and revealed that the key factor relevant to the function is the formation of OH...pi and CH...O hydrogen bonds between trehalose and the cis double bonds of the UFA. Here, we investigate whether such intriguing interactions also occur between this sugar and cis double bonds in other unsaturated compounds. For this purpose, we selected various diene compounds (1,3-butadiene, 1,3-pentadiene, 1,4-pentadiene, and 2,5-heptadiene) as interaction partners. All NMR experiments performed, including 1H-1H NOESY measurements, indicated that trehalose selectively interacts with the cis-olefin proton pair in the above diene with a 1:1 stoichiometry, and the C-3 (C-3') and C-6' (C-6) sites of the sugar are responsible for the interaction. Similar interactions were not observed for the mixtures of the diene and other saccharides (neotrehalose, kojibiose, nigerose, maltose, isomaltose, sucrose, maltitol, and sorbitol). Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the OH-3 and OH-6 groups bind to the olefin double bonds of the diene through OH...pi and CH...O types of hydrogen bonds, respectively, and the stabilization energy of the resulting complex is 5-6 kcal mol(-1). These results strongly support the above NMR results. Finally, the activation energies were calculated for the hydrogen abstraction reactions from the activated methylene group of heptadiene. In particular, when the reaction was initiated by a methyl radical, the activation energy was only 10 kcal mol(-1) for the free heptadiene, but on complexation with trehalose it drastically increased to ca. 40 kcal mol(-1). This indicates that trehalose has a significant depression effect on the oxidation of the diene compounds. These results strongly

  9. Reaction of ketones with 1,4-diaza-1,3-diene zirconium and hafnium complexes: First example of a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of 1,4-diaza-1,3-diene complexes of early transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, J.; Goerls, H.

    1996-07-17

    The chemical preparation of M[O(R)PhCH(CH{double_bond}N(tBu))N(tBu)]{sub 2} (M = Zr, R = Me (4a), R = Ph (4b) and M = Hf, R = Me (5a), R = Ph (5b)) complexes is described. The reaction can be described as a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of C{double_bond}O across the M-N-C portion of Zr and Hf 1,4-diaza-1,3-diene complexes. The crystal structures of 4a and 5b are reported.

  10. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian

    2013-10-01

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln2O3, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln2O3 oxides were converted to [Ln(dien)2]3+ complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS4 unit. In 1-3, the AsS4 units interconnect the [Ln(dien)2]3+ cations via Ln-S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4 bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien)2(μ-1κ,2κ2-AsS4)]n (Ln1). In 4-6, the AsS4 units coordinate with the Ln3+ ion of [Ln(dien)2]3+ as 1κ2-AsS4 chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien)2(1κ2-AsS4)] (Ln2). The Ln3+ ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln3+ ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1-6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18-3.21 eV.

  11. Low-lying excited states and primary photoproducts of [Os3(CO)10(s-cis-L)] (L=cyclohexa-1,3-diene, buta-1,3-diene)] clusters studied by picosecond time-resolved UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy and by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, Frank W; Matousek, Pavel; Towrie, Michael; Costa, Paulo J; Calhorda, Maria J; Hartl, Frantisek

    2004-07-19

    Combined picosecond transient absorption and time-resolved infrared studies were performed, aimed at characterising low-lying excited states of the cluster [Os(3)(CO)(10)(s-cis-L)] (L=cyclohexa-1,3-diene, 1) and monitoring the formation of its photoproducts. Theoretical (DFT and TD-DFT) calculations on the closely related cluster with L=buta-1,3-diene (2') have revealed that the low-lying electronic transitions of these [Os(3)(CO)(10)(s-cis-1,3-diene)] clusters have a predominant sigma(core)pi*(CO) character. From the lowest sigmapi* excited state, cluster 1 undergoes fast Os-Os(1,3-diene) bond cleavage (tau=3.3 ps) resulting in the formation of a coordinatively unsaturated primary photoproduct (1 a) with a single CO bridge. A new insight into the structure of the transient has been obtained by DFT calculations. The cleaved Os-Os(1,3-diene) bond is bridged by the donor 1,3-diene ligand, compensating for the electron deficiency at the neighbouring Os centre. Because of the unequal distribution of the electron density in transient 1 a, a second CO bridge is formed in 20 ps in the photoproduct [Os(3)(CO)(8)(micro-CO)(2)(cyclohexa-1,3-diene)] (1 b). The latter compound, absorbing strongly around 630 nm, mainly regenerates the parent cluster with a lifetime of about 100 ns in hexane. Its structure, as suggested by the DFT calculations, again contains the 1,3-diene ligand coordinated in a bridging fashion. Photoproduct 1 b can therefore be assigned as a high-energy coordination isomer of the parent cluster with all Os-Os bonds bridged.

  12. Synthesis of Silyloxy Dienes by Silylene Tranfer to Divinyl Ketones: Application to the Asymmetric Sythesis of Substituted Cyclohexanes

    PubMed Central

    Ventocilla, Christian C.; Woerpel, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Silver-catalyzed silylene transfer to divinyl ketones provided 2-silyloxy-1,3-dienes with control of stereochemistry and regioselectivity. The products participated in Diels–Alder reactions with electron-deficient alkenes and imines to form six-membered ring products diastereoselectively. Cycloaddition reactions with alkenes bearing chiral auxiliaries provided access to chiral, non-racemic cyclohexenes. The methodology therefore represents a synthesis of diastereomerically and enantiomerically pure products in a single flask. The highly substituted cyclohexene products could be functionalized stereoselectively to provide cyclohexanols after oxidation of the carbon–silicon bond. PMID:22372733

  13. Palladium-catalyzed stereospecific homocoupling of vinylstannanes as a suitable method for the synthesis of symmetrical 1,3-dienes

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstikov, G.A.; Miftakhov, M.S.; Danilova, N.A.; Vel'der, Ya.L.

    1988-07-20

    The authors have found that functionally substituted vinylstannanes readily enter into a homocoupling reaction in the presence of 5 mole % of PdCl/sub 2/(MeCN)/sub 2/ (in HMPTA at 20/degree/C), giving 85-95% yields of symmetrical 1,3-dienes with retention of the configuration of the substituents at the double bonds. It should be noted that the rate of this reaction is determined by the configuration of the isomers with respect to the double bond and by the structure of the substituent at the double bond.

  14. Spectroscopic properties and photochemistry of [Fe(CO) 3(1,4-Diazabuta-1,3-diene)] complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stufkens, D. J.; Kokkes, M. W.; Oskam, A.

    1984-03-01

    Different photochemical reactions are found for [Fe(CO) 3(dab)] (dab = 1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene) in matrices at 10 K and in solutions at room temperature. Matrix photolysis results in loss of CO via an intermediate in which the dab-ligand is π,π-coordinated to the metal, whereas photolysis in solution leads to CO-substitution after breaking of a metal-nitrogen bond. This behaviour is discussed in relationship to the spectroscopic properties of [Fe(CO) 3(dab)].

  15. Synthesis of tri-, tetra-, and pentacarbonyl derivatives via ozonolysis of 1,4-dienes and cyclization to polyaromatic systems.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Laura; Harms, Klaus; Hilt, Gerhard

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this work was the synthesis of polyaromatic systems by cyclization of β-polycarbonyls. Useful synthons for β-polycarbonyl derivatives are branched 1,4-dienes generated by cobalt-catalyzed hydrovinylation of terminal alkenes and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Thus, a series of tri-, tetra-, and pentacarbonyl synthons was successfully synthesized. Subsequently, these synthons were examined in an ozonolysis/cyclization reaction sequence. Polyaromatic derivatives were obtained in good yields and the method was applied in the synthesis of the natural product Kwanzoquinone A.

  16. Synthesis and behavior of novel sulfonated water-soluble N-heterocyclic carbene (η(4)-diene) platinum(0) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Varilla, Andrea M; Baquero, Edwin A; Silbestri, Gustavo F; Gonzalez-Arellano, Camino; de Jesús, Ernesto; Flores, Juan C

    2015-11-14

    A series of water-soluble (NHC)Pt(0)(dvtms) and (NHC)Pt(0)(AE) complexes containing different sulfonated NHC ligands (dvtms = divinyltetramethyldisiloxane and AE = diallyl ether) are reported. The dvtms compounds have been found to be quite robust and to display some conformational rigidity, whereas their AE counterparts are less stable and more flexible. The catalytic evaluation of these complexes in the hydrosilylation of alkynes in water revealed no benefits in favor of the complexes containing the more labile spectator diene (AE), and a fairly regular catalytic behavior for all complexes that restricts the location of the sulfonate group to the proximity of the metal site.

  17. Influence of the chemical structure on odor qualities and odor thresholds in homologous series of alka-1,5-dien-3-ones, alk-1-en-3-ones, alka-1,5-dien-3-ols, and alk-1-en-3-ols.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Katja; Schieberle, Peter; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-02-05

    Odor qualities and odor thresholds in air in homologous series of synthesized alk-1-en-3-ols and alka-1,5-dien-3-ols and their corresponding ketones were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry. In the series of the alk-1-en-3-ols and alk-1-en-3-ones the odor quality changed successively from pungent for the compounds with five carbon atoms via metallic, vegetable-like for the six- and seven-carbon odorants to mushroom-like for the compounds with eight and nine carbon atoms. With further increase in chain length the mushroom-like impression decreased and changed to citrus-like, soapy, or herb-like. In both series, two odor threshold minima were found for the six-carbon and also for the eight- and nine-carbon odorants, respectively. In contrast to this, the odor qualities in the series of the (Z)- and (E)-alka-1,5-dien-3-ols and their corresponding ketones did not change significantly with geranium-like, metallic odors and an increasing mushroom-like odor note with increasing chain length. The lowest thresholds were found for the eight- and nine-carbon (Z)-compounds, respectively.

  18. [Increase of copy number of HMG-CoA reductase and FPP synthase genes improves the amorpha4,11-diene production in engineered yeast].

    PubMed

    Kong, Jian-qiang; Cheng, Ke-di; Wang, Li-na; Zheng, Xiao-dong; Dai, Jun-gui; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    The gene encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase was cloned from Artemisia annua L. Other two genes encoding the FPP synthase (FPPS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) were cloned from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cloned cDNAs were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Two expression vectors were constructed, one is named pGBT9/A/HMG/FPP harboring genes for HMG-CoA reductase and FPP synthase and the other is pYeDP60/G/AS, containing the gene encoding amorpha-4,11-diene synthase. Two kinds of engineered yeast were constructed: the first was named WHT [AS], which contained the plasmid pYeDP60/G/AS; the second was WHT [HMG + FPP + AS], in which the vectors pGBT9/A/ HMG/FPP and pYeDP60/G/AS were introduced by cotransformation mediated with LiOAc and PEG4000. The positive clones were identified for further fermentations. The samples from fermentations were analyzed by GC-MS for amorpha-4,11-diene. The results show that engineered yeasts could produce amorpha-4,11-diene. Moreover, the amorpha-4,11-diene production of WHT[ HMG + FPP + AS] and WHT[ AS] were 23.6 mg x L(-1) and 10 microg x L(-1), respectively. Its concentrations were reported as equivalents of valencene. The results showed the copy number increase of HMGR and FPPS genes can improve the production of amorpha-4, 11-diene in the fermentation of engineered yeasts.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hexadecadienyl compounds with a conjugated diene system, sex pheromone of the persimmon fruit moth and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Takanobu; Vang, Van Le; Yamazawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ryuji; Naka, Hideshi; Tsuchida, Koji; Ando, Tetsu

    2003-04-01

    Hexadecadien-1-ol and the derivatives (acetate and aldehyde) with a conjugated diene system have recently been identified from a pheromone gland extract of the persimmon fruit moth (Stathmopoda masinissa), a pest insect of persimmon fruits distributed in East Asia. The alcohol and acetate showed their base peaks at m/z 79 in a GC-MS analysis by electron impact ionization, but the aldehyde produced a unique base peak at m/z 84, suggesting a 4,6-diene structure. To confirm this inference, four geometrical isomers of each 4,6-hexadecadienyl compound were synthesized by two different routes in which one of two double bonds was furnished in a highly stereoselective manner. Separation of the two isomers synthesized together by each route was facilely accomplished by preparative HPLC. Their mass spectra coincided well with those of natural components, indicating that they were available for use as authentic standards for determining the configuration of the natural pheromone. Furthermore, other hexadecadienyl compounds, including the conjugated diene system between the 3- and 10-positions, were synthesized to accumulate the spectral data of pheromone candidates. 5,7-Hexadecadienal interestingly showed the base peak at m/z 80; meanwhile, the base peaks of its alcohol and acetate were detected at m/z 79 like the corresponding 4,6-dienes. The base peaks of all 6,8-, 7,9-, and 8,10-dienes universally appeared at m/z 67 like 9,11-, 10,12-, and 13,15-dienes, the spectra of which have already been published. Although 3,5-hexadecadienal was not prepared, base peaks at m/z 67 and 79 were recorded for the alcohol and acetate, respectively.

  20. The vibrational spectra, conformational and thermodynamic properties of 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene (chloroprene) and propenoyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, D. A. C.; George, W. O.; Goodfield, J. E.; Maddams, W. F.

    The vibrational spectrum of 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene has been recorded in the gaseous, liquid, solid and solution phases, and also in an argon matrix. Several weak bands present in the i.r. spectrum of the fluid phases and unannealed matrix were observed to be absent after careful annealing. Thermodynamic functions for the ideal gas have been estimated from those of other compounds, and their values, taken together with the spectral changes on annealing, are concluded to be evidence of a conformational equilibrium. The most probable molecular structure has been calculated using previous microwave data, and the asymmetric potential function to internal rotation has also been calculated using a value of Δ Hθ of 8.2 kJ mol -1, as derived by statistical methods. The i.r. spectrum of gaseous propenoyl chloride has been recorded to aid in assignment of the spectral features of the isoelectronic compound 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene, and improved vibrational assignments of both compounds are presented. New values for the thermodynamic functions of propenoyl chloride are presented to take into account the significant changes made to the vibrational assigmnent.

  1. Isolation, characterization and structural studies of amorpha - 4, 11-diene synthase (ADS(3963)) from Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Alam, Pravej; Kiran, Usha; Ahmad, M Mobeen; Kamaluddin; Khan, Mather Ali; Jhanwar, Shalu; Abdin, Mz

    2010-03-31

    With the escalating prevalence of malaria in recent years, artemisinin demand has placed considerable stress on its production worldwide. At present, the relative low-yield of artemisinin (0.01-1.1 %) in the source plant (Artemisia annua L. plant) has imposed a serious limitation in commercializing the drug. Amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) has been reported a key enzyme in enhancing the artemisinin level in Artemisia annua L. An understanding of the structural and functional correlations of Amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) may therefore, help in the molecular up-regulation of the enzyme. In this context, an in silico approach was used to study the ADS₃₉₆₃ (3963 bp) gene cloned by us, from high artemisinin (0.7-0.9% dry wt basis) yielding strain of A. annua L. The full-length putative gene of ADS₃₉₆₃ was found to encode a protein consisting of 533 amino acid residues with conserved aspartate rich domain. The isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight of the protein were 5.25 and 62.2 kDa, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of ADS genes from various species revealed evolutionary conservation. Homology modeling method was used for prediction of the 3D structure of ADS₃₉₆₃ protein and Autodock 4.0 version was used to study the ligand binding. The predicted 3D model and docking studies may further be used in characterizing the protein in wet laboratory.

  2. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  3. Catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reactions of unactivated acyclic 1,3-dienes with aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkyl-substituted imines.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yasuo; Nantaku, Shuuto; Nishimura, Yuhki; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Sekikaw, Tohru

    2017-08-08

    A catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated acyclic dienes with aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkyl-substituted imines is described. With 5-10 mol% loadings of a new Brønsted acid catalyst, the aza-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated acyclic dienes proceeded to give the corresponding aza-Diels-Alder adducts in high yields (up to 98%) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). Preliminary DFT calculations suggest that the reaction proceeds through a chiral ion pair intermediate.

  4. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  5. Chain Walking as a Strategy for Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation at Unreactive Sites in Organic Synthesis: Catalytic Cycloisomerization of Various 1,n-Dienes.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Taro; Aoyama, Yuka; Kawasaki, Junichi; Kakiuchi, Fumitoshi; Kochi, Takuya

    2015-12-30

    Carbon-carbon bond formation at unreactive sp(3)-carbons in small organic molecules via chain walking was achieved for the palladium-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,n-dienes. Various 1,n-dienes (n = 7-14) such as those containing cyclic alkenes, acyclic internal alkenes, and a trisubstituted alkene can be used for the chain-walking cycloisomerization/hydrogenation process, and five-membered ring compounds including simple cyclopentane and pyrrolidine derivatives can easily be prepared. Chain walking over a tertiary carbon was also found to be possible in the cycloisomerization. It is not necessary for the linker portion of the diene to contain a quaternary center, and diene substrates with two alkene moieties linked by a tertiary carbon or a nitrogen atom can also be used as substrates. Column chromatography using silica gel containing silver nitrate was found to be effective for isolating some of the cycloisomerization products without hydrogenation. Deuterium-labeling experiments provided direct evidence to show that the reaction proceeds via a chain-walking mechanism.

  6. Microbiological transformation of two 15α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-9(11),16-diene derivatives by the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Braulio M; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Guillermo, Ricardo; Amaro-Luis, Juan M

    2013-05-01

    The incubation of 15α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid (15α-hydroxy-grandiflorenic acid) with the fungus Fusarium fujikuroi gave as main metabolite its 3β,6β-dihydroxy derivative, which by an oxidative decarboxylation afforded a 19-nor compound with a 4,18-double bond. Other substances obtained were a 3α-hydroxy-19,6α-lactone, 3β-hydroxy-6β,7β-epoxy-ent-kaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid and 3β-hydroxy-6-oxo-ent-kaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid. Moreover, the biotransformation of 15α,18-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-9(11),16-diene led to the isolation of the corresponding 3β-, 6β-, 7α- and 12β-hydroxy derivatives. Two metabolites formed by 16β,17-epoxidation of the last compound and of the substrate were also obtained. These results indicated that the presence of the 9,11-double bond in the substrate impedes its 7β-hydroxylation, which is necessary for the formation of gibberellins and seco-ring B ent-kaurenoids. However, this 9,11-unsaturation does not hinder a 6,7-dehydrogenation and further 6β,7β-epoxidation, characteristic steps of the kaurenolide biosynthetic pathway.

  7. Double nucleophilic 1,2-addition of silylated dialkyl phosphites to 4-phosphono-1-aza-1,3-dienes: synthesis of gamma-phosphono-alpha-aminobisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Masschelein, Kurt G R; Stevens, Christian V

    2007-11-23

    gamma-Phosphono-alpha-aminobisphosphonates were synthesized from a new class of 4-phosphono-1-aza-1,3-dienes by the addition of dialkyl trimethylsilyl phosphites to these azadienes in the presence of acid. Depending on the steric demand of the group on nitrogen, double 1,2-addition or tandem 1,4-1,2-addition occurred.

  8. Thermally induced electrocyclic reaction of methylenecyclopropane methylene diketone derivatives: a facile method for the synthesis of spiro[2.5]octa-3,5-dienes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang-Ying; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min

    2010-11-19

    Thermally induced electrocyclic reactions of methylenecyclopropane (MCP) methylene diketone derivatives afford a novel method for the synthesis of spiro[2.5]octa-3,5-dienes in moderate to good yields. Applying this methodology in a one-pot manner for the reactions of MCP aldehydes with 1,3-diketones, catalyzed by l-proline, also afforded the corresponding spiro derivatives.

  9. Formation of stable enols from 1,4-dilithio-1,3-dienes and acid chlorides by a de-aromatization/Michael addition/re-aromatization domino process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaoshu; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongzhen; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2007-07-07

    Stable enols were synthesized from the reaction of (1Z,3Z)-1,4-dilithio-1,3-dienes with acid chlorides and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. These stable enols were formed by a novel de-aromatization/Michael addition/re-aromatization domino process.

  10. Computational Examination of (4 + 3) versus (3 + 2) Cycloaddition in the Interception of Nazarov Reactions of Allenyl Vinyl Ketones by Dienes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Boyd, Russell J; Burnell, D Jean

    2015-12-18

    A computational examination of the tandem Nazarov/cycloaddition process involving an allenyl vinyl ketone with a diene has been carried out using the ωB97X-D/6-311++G(d,p)//ωB97X-D/6-31+G(d,p) method with solvation modeled by SMD-PCM. The barrier for the initial Lewis acid mediated Nazarov reaction, which provided the intermediate cyclic oxylallyl cation, was higher than that for any subsequent cycloaddition. The barrier for the first step of a subsequent stepwise reaction did not vary much with the diene, and the lowest barrier was with the diene in its s-trans conformation. Stepwise formation of a (4 + 3) cycloaddition product was not energetically feasible, but (3 + 2) cycloaddition products could have been produced through low energy pathways. The barrier for a concerted (4 + 3) cycloaddition did depend upon the diene, which was always in an s-cis geometry. The barriers for the compact and the extended geometries for the transition states of (4 + 3) cycloadditions were not much different.

  11. Evaluating acid and base catalysts in the methylation of milk and rumen fatty acids with special emphasis on conjugated dienes and total trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Fellner, V; Dugan, M E; Sauer, F D; Mossoba, M M; Yurawecz, M P

    1997-11-01

    Milk analysis is receiving increased attention. Milk contains conjugated octadecadienoic acids (18:2) purported to be anticarcinogenic, low levels of essential fatty acids, and trans fatty acids that increase when essential fatty acids are increased in dairy rations. Milk and rumen fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared using several acid- (HCl, BF3, acetyl chloride, H2SO4) or base-catalysts (NaOCH3, tetramethylguanidine, diazomethane), or combinations thereof. All acid-catalyzed procedures resulted in decreased cis/trans (delta 9c,11t-18:2) and increased trans/trans (delta 9t,11t-18:2) conjugated dienes and the production of allylic methoxy artifacts. The methoxy artifacts were identified by gas-liquid chromatography (Gl.C)-mass spectroscopy. The base-catalyzed procedures gave no isomerization of conjugated dienes and no methoxy artifacts, but they did not transesterify N-acyl lipids such as sphingomyelin, and NaOCH3 did not methylate free fatty acids. In addition, reaction with tetramethylguanidine coextracted material with hexane that interfered with the determination of the short-chain FAME by GLC. Acid-catalyzed methylation resulted in the loss of about 12% total conjugated dienes, 42% recovery of the delta 9c,11t-18:2 isomer, a fourfold increase in delta 9t,11t-18:2, and the formation of methoxy artifacts, compared with the base-catalyzed reactions. Total milk FAME showed significant infrared (IR) absorption due to conjugated dienes at 985 and 948 cm-1. The IR determination of total trans content of milk FAME was not fully satisfactory because the 966 cm-1 trans band overlapped with the conjugated diene bands. IR accuracy was limited by the fact that the absorptivity of methyl elaidate, used as calibration standard, was different from those of the other minor trans fatty acids (e.g., dienes) found in milk. In addition, acid-catalyzed reactions produced interfering material that absorbed extensively in the trans IR region. No single method or

  12. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Ganesh C.; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Neogi, Sudarsan; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -Cdbnd O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  13. Crystal structure of di-n-but-yl-bis-(η (5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)hafnium(IV).

    PubMed

    Arndt, Perdita; Schubert, Kathleen; Burlakov, Vladimir V; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Hf(C10H15)2(C4H9)2], reveals two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction experiment was performed with a racemically twinned crystal showing a 0.529 (5):0.471 (5) component ratio. Each Hf(IV) atom is coordinated by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl and two n-butyl ligands in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry, with the cyclo-penta-dienyl rings inclined to one another by 45.11 (15) and 45.37 (16)°. In contrast to the isostructural di(n-butyl)bis(η (5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV) complex with a noticeable difference in the Zr-butyl bonding, the Hf-Cbut-yl bond lengths differ from each other by no more than 0.039 (3) Å.

  14. Crystal structure of bis-(η(2)-ethyl-ene)(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt.

    PubMed

    Ramful, Chandika D; Robertson, Katherine N; Ylijoki, Kai E O

    2016-09-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)(C2H4)2], was prepared by Na/Hg reduction of [Co2(C10H15)2(μ-Cl)2] in THF under an ethyl-ene atmosphere and crystallized from pentane at 193 K. The Co-C(olefin) bonds have an average length of 2.022 (2) Å, while the Co-C(penta-dien-yl) bonds average 2.103 (19) Å. The olefin C=C bonds are 1.410 (1) Å. The dihedral angle between the planes defined by the cyclo-penta-dienyl ligand and the two olefin ligands is 0.25 (12)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains by C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  15. Efficacy of volatile oils (curzerene, furanoeudesma-1, 3-diene and lindestrene) on avian coccidiosis under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmed M; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Shalaby, Hatem A; Kutkat, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    The coccidicidal efficacy of volatile oils (curzerene, furanoeudesma-1, 3-diene and lindestrene) against unsporulated and sporulated chicken Eimeria species oocysts was tested in three concentrations: 1, 2 & 3 microg/ml. Marked reduction in the number of living oocysts was recorded in exposed groups. The concentration of 3 microg/ml volatile oils induced the highest destructive effect. 58.1% of viable unsporulated oocysts were destroyed. A mean number of 153,800 oocysts was the difference between the total number of the produced oocysts per gram faeces in the group infected with exposed oocysts and that of the group infected with non exposed oocysts being less in the exposed group with more reduction in the vitality of shedding oocysts in the former group. At the meantime, the postmortem and histopathological microscopical examination of the intestine and caecum of the tested group revealed a reduction in the intestinal lesions in the group infected with the exposed oocysts.

  16. The first chiral diene-based metal-organic frameworks for highly enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sawano, Takahiro; Ji, Pengfei; McIsaac, Alexandra R.; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-02-01

    We have designed the first chiral diene-based metal–organic framework (MOF), E₂-MOF, and postsynthetically metalated E₂-MOF with Rh(I) complexes to afford highly active and enantioselective single-site solid catalysts for C–C bond formation reactions. Treatment of E₂-MOF with [RhCl(C₂H₄)₂]₂ led to a highly enantioselective catalyst for 1,4-additions of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated ketones, whereas treatment of E₂-MOF with Rh(acac)(C₂H₄)₂ afforded a highly efficient catalyst for the asymmetric 1,2-additions of arylboronic acids to aldimines. Interestingly, E₂-MOF·Rh(acac) showed higher activity and enantioselectivity than the homogeneous control catalyst, likely due to the formation of a true single-site catalyst in the MOF. E₂-MOF·Rh(acac) was also successfully recycled and reused at least seven times without loss of yield and enantioselectivity.

  17. A Diels–Alder super diene breaking benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Masaaki; Sekiguchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic polyene with six carbon atoms (benzene) is very stable, whereas cyclic polyene with four carbon atoms (cyclobutadiene) is extremely unstable. The electron-withdrawing pentafluorophenyl group of a substituted cyclobutadiene lowers the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, greatly increasing its reactivity as a diene in Diels–Alder reactions with acetylene, ethylene and even benzene. Here we show that the reaction with benzene occurs cleanly at the relatively low temperature of 120 °C and results in the formal fragmentation of benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units, via a unique Diels–Alder/retro-Diels–Alder reaction. This is a new example of the rare case where breaking the C–C bond of benzene is possible with no activation by a transition metal. PMID:24398593

  18. A Diels-Alder super diene breaking benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Yusuke; Nakamoto, Masaaki; Sekiguchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic polyene with six carbon atoms (benzene) is very stable, whereas cyclic polyene with four carbon atoms (cyclobutadiene) is extremely unstable. The electron-withdrawing pentafluorophenyl group of a substituted cyclobutadiene lowers the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, greatly increasing its reactivity as a diene in Diels-Alder reactions with acetylene, ethylene and even benzene. Here we show that the reaction with benzene occurs cleanly at the relatively low temperature of 120 °C and results in the formal fragmentation of benzene into C2H2 and C4H4 units, via a unique Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder reaction. This is a new example of the rare case where breaking the C-C bond of benzene is possible with no activation by a transition metal.

  19. Synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of 1,5-diphenylpenta-1,4-dien-3-one: An organic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchinathan, K.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Muthu, K.; Meenakshisundaram, S. P.

    2011-11-01

    1,5-Diphenylpenta-1,4-dien-3-one ( dibenzalacetone, DBA) was synthesized by a base-catalyzed aldol condensation reaction between benzaldehyde and acetone. High quality single crystals have been grown by the slow evaporation of ethanol solution and the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group C 2/c. The DBA crystals are transparent in the entire visible region and have a lower optical cutoff at ∼440 nm. It is stable up to 119 °C and has a good chemical stability. The high resolution X-ray diffraction curve (DC) indicates that the specimen is free from structural grain boundaries. Molecular packing leads to a centrosymmetric arrangement resulting in zero second harmonic generation (SHG; χ(2)=0) efficiency.

  20. Cholest-3,5-dien-7-one formation in peroxidized human plasma as an indicator of lipoprotein cholesterol peroxidation potential.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Tang, M; Subbiah, M T

    1995-04-06

    Lipoprotein peroxidation susceptibility is routinely evaluated using products of unsaturated fatty acids as markers (e.g., malonaldehyde). The significance and factors influencing peroxidation of cholesterol moiety of lipoproteins are relatively unknown due to lack of a reliable marker product which can be measured easily. Under the influence of Cu2+ ions, the major product of lipoprotein cholesterol peroxidation (isolated after saponification) was cholest-3-5-dien-7-one (CSD). Apart from gas-liquid chromatography, this compound lends itself for measurement by alternative methods. Due to lack of the 3 beta-hydroxyl group, CSD was separated from the rest of the oxysterols and cholesterol by passing through digitonin-coated silica-gel G and its concentration was determined by absorption at 283 nm. The recovery of CSD by this method exceeded by 87%. The formation of CSD was also sensitive to vitamin E and therefore could be used as an index of lipoprotein cholesterol susceptibility to peroxidation.

  1. Recyclization of 1-amino-3,5-diaryl-2,6,6-tricyanocyclohexa-1,3-dienes to pyridine derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Yu.T.; Ivashchenko, A.V.; Nogaeva, K.A.; Sharanin, Yu.A.

    1986-11-01

    The base-catalyzed recyclization of 1-amino-3,5-diaryl-2,6,6-tricyanocyclohexa-1,3-dienes to 2,4-diaryl-5-cyano-6-dicyanomethylene-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines, 4,6-diaryl-3-cyano-2-dicyanomethylene-1,2-dihydropyridines, and 4,6-diaryl-3-cyano-2-dicyanomethylpyridines has been investigated. The intermediate products of this reaction - cis,trans-2-amino,4,6-diaryl-1,1,3-tricyanohexa-1,3,5-trienes - have been isolated; on heating these are transformed reversibly into the initial cyclohexadienes or they isomerize irreversibly into trans,trans-hexatrienes, while in the presence of a base (piperidine, diethylamine, triethylamine, KOH), they cyclize to form the above-mentioned pyridine derivatives.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} with mixed-valent Ge centers

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo; Lei, Xiao-Wu

    2013-10-15

    One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) Å, b=12.475(5) Å, c=17.077(7) Å, V=1941.5(15) Å{sup 3} and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} anionic chain and a [(dien){sub 2}Mn]{sup 2+} complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UV–vis spectra. - Graphical abstract: One new thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}, contains a one-dimensional [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} anionic chain with two different oxidation states of germanium centers. Display Omitted - Highlights: • One new manganese thiogermanate [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} was prepared. • The compound features 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} chain composed of [Ge{sup II}S{sub 4}] and [Ge{sup IV}S{sub 4}] tetrahedra. • The first example of inorganic–organic hybrid thiogermanates with mixed valent Ge centers.

  3. Activation of aldehydes by exocyclic iridium(i)-η(4):π(2)-diene complexes derived from 1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Rosa; Salazar-Pereda, Verónica; Mendoza-Espinosa, Daniel; Vásquez-Pérez, José M; Andrade-López, Noemí; Tamariz, Joaquín; Alvarado-Rodríguez, José G; Cruz-Borbolla, Julián

    2016-11-14

    The Ir(i) complexes [Tp(Me2)Ir(η(4)-1,4-diene)] 2b and 2c react thermally with a variety of aromatic aldehydes, 3a-e, to generate the metallabicyclic compounds 4e-k and the Fischer-type carbenes 5a-b in moderate yields. These reactions are proposed to take place with the initial formation of η(1)-aldehyde adducts as key intermediates. The formation of the metallabicyclic compounds 4e-k involves a formal decarboxylation process at the exo-2-oxazolidinone diene and an ortho metallation of the aromatic ring. The generation of the Fischer-type carbenes 5a-b is the result of a series of metal-based rearranged intermediates with no decarboxylation observed. Treatment of the η(4)-diene complex 2b with a variety of Lewis bases induces a change in the binding mode of the diene ligand from η(4):π(2) to η(2):σ(2) to form the Ir(iii) derivatives 6b-d of composition Tp(Me2)Ir-(η(4):π(2)-1,4-diene)(L) (L = CO, MeCN, and C5H5N). A study of reactions of complex 2b with either mono- or poly-deuterated aldehydes was performed to understand the mechanisms of such processes. The results of these studies were used to determine plausible formation mechanisms of the metallabicyclic compounds 4e-4k and Fischer-type carbenes 5a-b compound series. These mechanisms were corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the free energy profiles.

  4. Environmental health risk assessment of dioxin exposure through foods in a dioxin hot spot-Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots.

  5. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots. PMID:20623031

  6. Crystal structure of trans-1,4-bis-[(tri-methyl-sil-yl)-oxy]cyclo-hexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dicarbo-nitrile.

    PubMed

    Glöcklhofer, Florian; Fröhlich, Johannes; Stöger, Berthold; Weil, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H22N2O2Si2, contains one half of the mol-ecule, which is completed by inversion symmetry. The cyclo-hexa-2,5-diene ring is exactly planar and reflects the bond-length distribution of a pair of located double bonds [1.3224 (14) Å] and two pairs of single bonds [1.5121 (13) and 1.5073 (14) Å]. The tetra-hedral angle between the sp (3)-C atom and the two neighbouring sp (2)-C atoms in the cyclo-hexa-2,5-diene ring is enlarged by about 3°.

  7. Acyclic diene metathesis with a monomer from renewable resources: control of molecular weight and one-step preparation of block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Anastasiya; Meier, Michael A R

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of a long-chain aliphatic alpha,omega-diene from plant oil derivatives and its subsequent polymerization through acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) is described. The ADMET bulk polymerization of the thus-obtained monomer, undecyl undecenoate, was investigated and optimized by applying ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts from Grubbs and Hoveyda-Grubbs, leading to high-molecular-weight polyesters. Moreover, by applying different amounts of methyl 10-undecenoate as a chain stopper in this ADMET step growth polymerization, the molecular weight of the resulting polyester could be tuned in a range from approximately 10 to 45 kDa. Finally, the application of a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate as the chain stopper led to the preparation of ABA triblock copolymers in a one-step, one-pot procedure.

  8. Oxidative Cyclization of 1,5-Dienes with Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by an Osmium(III) Complex: Synthesis of cis-Tetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Kanetake, Takayuki; Maeda, Kazuki; Itoh, Shinobu

    2016-03-18

    Stereoselective oxidative cyclization of 1,5-dienes with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by [Os(III)(OH)(H2O)(L-N4Me2)](PF6)2 (1: L-N4Me2 = N,N'-dimethyl-2,11-diaza-[3,3](2,6)pyridinophane) is explored. 1,5-Dienes involving geraniol derivatives are converted to the corresponding tetrahydrofurans in modest to high yields. The products exclusively have the cis-conformation with respect to the substituents at the 2- and 5-positions of the tetrahydrofuran ring. The products also have a syn-conformation with respect to the furan oxygen atom and the hydroxyl groups. Mechanistic studies including a direct reaction of the oxo-hydroxo-osmium(V) complex, 2, with a dihydroxylated geraniol derivative are performed.

  9. Tissue specificity and developmental pattern of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) proved by ADS promoter-driven GUS expression in the heterologous plant, Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Hee; Chang, Yung-Jin; Kim, Soo-Un

    2008-02-01

    Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) of Artemisia annua L. is a sesquiterpene cyclase that catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate into amorpha-4,11-diene in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial artemisinin. To explore the mechanisms regulating the tissue-specific and developmental distributions of ADS, a full ADS promoter was generated using PCR, and fused to GUS for introduction into Arabidopsis thaliana. ADSpro::GUS fusion transcripts were organ-specific, mainly present in the anthers and trichomes of the green tissues of the juvenile leaves. This result was consistent with the ADS transcription pattern observed in A. annua as examined by RT-PCR. To determine the subcellular localization of ADS, an open reading frame (ORF) of ADS was fused to the green fluorescent protein (smGFP) gene and introduced into the A. thaliana protoplasts. GFP fluorescence was located exclusively in the cytosol, an indication that ADS is a cytosol-localized protein.

  10. Absolute configuration of falcarinol (9Z-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol) from Pastinaca sativa.

    PubMed

    Corell, Mireia; Sheehy, Emile; Evans, Paul; Brunton, Nigel; Valverde, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Falcarinol (9Z-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol; (1) is a polyacetylene commonly found in several plant families. The absolute configuration of naturally occurring 1 is not clear and contradictory results have been reported in the literature. Determination of the absolute configuration of 1 from Pastinaca sativa L. was carried out. Isolation of 95% pure 1 was performed via successive fractionation and preparative-HPLC. A racemic mixture comprised of 3R-1 and 3S-1 was synthesized in order to confirm the absolute configuration of the isolated natural product using chiral HPLC. Based on a combination of chiral HPLC and specific rotation, 1 present in P. saliva was found to have a 3R absolute configuration (i.e. (3R, 9Z)-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol).

  11. B(C6F5)3: A New Class of Strong and Bulky Lewis Acid for Exo-Selective Intermolecular Diels-Alder Reactions of Unreactive Acyclic Dienes with α,β-Enals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia-Hui; Jiang, Bing; Meng, Fei-Fan; Xu, Yun-He; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2015-09-18

    Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 catalyzed the Diels-Alder reactions of multisubstituted open-chain dienes and α,β-enals to afford the desired products with high exo-selectivities are reported. The substituent effect of the dienes and dienophiles on the product's stereoselectivity was thoroughly investigated, and it was found that most of the desired exo-Diels-Alder products could be obtained in good yields and with high exo-stereoselectivities.

  12. Synthesis of highly functionalized biaryls by condensation of 2-fluoro-1,3-bis(silyloxy) 1,3-dienes with 3-cyanochromones and subsequent domino "retro-Michael/aldol/fragmentation".

    PubMed

    Ibad, Muhammad Farooq; Abid, Obaid-ur-Rahman; Adeel, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad; Wolf, Verena; Villinger, Alexander; Langer, Peter

    2010-12-03

    The Me(3)SiOTf-mediated condensation of 1-ethoxy-2-fluoro-1,3-bis(trimethylsilyloxy) 1,3-dienes with 3-cyanochromones afforded 3-cyano-2-(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-2,4-dioxobutyl)chroman-4-ones. Their reaction with triethylamine afforded fluorinated azaxanthones or biaryls. The product distribution depends on the structure of the diene. The formation of the biaryls can be explained by an unprecedented domino "retro-Michael/aldol/fragmentation" reaction.

  13. Synthesis and biochemical studies of 7 alpha-substituted androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones as enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitors of aromatase.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, S; Chen, H H; Brueggemeier, R W

    1993-09-01

    Several 7 alpha-thiosubstituted derivatives of androstenedione have demonstrated effective inhibition of aromatase, the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex responsible for the biosynthesis of estrogens. Introduction of an additional double bond in the A ring resulted in 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (7 alpha-APTADD), a potent inhibitor that inactivated aromatase by an enzyme-catalyzed process. Additional 7 alpha-thiosubstituted androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione derivatives were designed to further examine enzyme-catalyzed inactivation. Two halogenated and one unsubstituted 7 alpha-phenylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones were synthesized via an acid-catalyzed conjugate Michael addition of substituted thiophenols with androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. Two 7 alpha-naphthylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones were synthesized via either acid-catalyzed or based-catalyzed conjugate Michael addition of substituted thionaphthols with androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. These agents were evaluated for aromatase inhibitory activity in the human placental microsomal preparation. Under initial velocity assay conditions of low product formation, the inhibitors demonstrated potent inhibition of aromatase, with apparent Ki's ranging from 12 to 27 nM. Furthermore, these compounds produced time-dependent, first-order inactivation of aromatase in the presence of NADPH, whereas no aromatase inactivation was observed in the absence of NADPH. This enzyme-activated irreversible inhibition, also referred to as mechanism-based inhibition, can be prevented by the substrate androstenedione. Thus, the apparent Ki values for these inhibitors are consistent with earlier studies on 7 alpha-substituted competitive inhibitors that indicate bulky substituents can be accommodated at the 7 alpha-position.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Phosphine-catalyzed [4+1] annulation of 1,3-(aza)dienes with maleimides: highly efficient construction of azaspiro[4.4]nonenes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Tianyi; Cao, Shixuan; He, Zhengjie

    2014-11-14

    Phosphine-catalyzed [4+1] annulation of electron-deficient 1,3-dienes or 1,3-azadienes with maleimides has been successfully developed under very mild conditions, providing a convenient and highly efficient method for constructing 2-azaspiro[4.4]nonenes and 1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonenes. This reaction represents the first example of [4+1] cyclization between electron-deficient 4π-conjugated systems and non-allylic phosphorus ylides.

  15. Synthesis of Tetraphenylstrannacy-clopentadienes (Stannoles). III. Attempted Route to the Parent Stannoles through Closure of 1,4-Dichlorobuta-1,3-diene.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Journal of Organometallic Chemistry I$. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side /I necessary and Identfly by block naemb.,) Organotin ...Metalloles, Stannoles, Siloles, l,4-Dicblorobuta-1,3-diene, Lithiation, Organochlorosilanes, Organotin chlorides, Dehydrochlorination, Multiple bond...material. The infusible white solid polymer leaves no silicon or tin(IV) oxide residue on burning, and exhibits in its infrared spectrum absorption bands

  16. An efficient approach to functionalized benzo[a]xanthones through reactions of 2-methyl-3-(1-alkynyl)chromones with electron-deficient chromone-fused dienes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Xie, Fuchun; Chen, Hong; Hu, Youhong

    2010-09-03

    An efficient tandem process was developed to synthesize diversified benzo[a]xanthones from 2-methyl-3-(1-alkynyl)chromones with electron-deficient chromone-fused dienes. This unusual reaction, involving multiple steps and not requiring the use of transition metal catalysts or an inert atmosphere, results in the formation of three new C-C bonds and one C-O bond.

  17. Regio-, Diastereo-, and Enantioselective Nitroso-Diels-Alder Reaction of 1,3-Diene-1-carbamates Catalyzed by Chiral Phosphoric Acids.

    PubMed

    Pous, Jonathan; Courant, Thibaut; Bernadat, Guillaume; Iorga, Bogdan I; Blanchard, Florent; Masson, Géraldine

    2015-09-23

    Chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed asymmetric nitroso-Diels-Alder reaction of nitrosoarenes with carbamate-dienes afforded cis-3,6-disubstituted dihydro-1,2-oxazines in high yields with excellent regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities. Interestingly, we observed that the catalyst is able not only to control the enantioselectivity but also to reverse the regioselectivity of the noncatalyzed nitroso-Diels-Alder reaction. The regiochemistry reversal and asynchronous concerted mechanism were confirmed by DFT calculations.

  18. Diene Hydroacylation from the Alcohol or Aldehyde Oxidation Level via Ruthenium Catalyzed C-C Bond Forming Transfer Hydrogenation: Synthesis of β,γ-Unsaturated Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Shibahara, Fumitoshi; Bower, John F.; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Under the conditions of ruthenium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation, isoprene couples to benzylic and aliphatic alcohols 1a–1g to deliver β,γ-unsaturated ketones 3a–3g in good to excellent isolated yields. Under identical conditions, aldehydes 2a–2g couple to isoprene to provide an identical set of β,γ-unsaturated ketones 3a–3g in good to excellent isolated yields. As demonstrated by the coupling of butadiene, myrcene and 1,2-dimethylbutadiene to representative alcohols 1b, 1c and 1e, diverse acyclic dienes participate in transfer hydrogenative coupling to form β,γ-unsaturated ketones. In all cases, complete branch-regioselectivity is observed and, with the exception of adduct 3j, isomerization to the conjugated enone is not detected. Thus, formal intermolecular diene hydroacylation is achieved from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level. In earlier studies employing a related ruthenium catalyst, acyclic dienes were coupled to carbonyl partners from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level to furnish branched homoallylic alcohols. Thus, under transfer hydrogenative coupling conditions, all oxidations levels of substrate (alcohol or aldehyde) and product (homoallyl alcohol or β,γ-unsaturated ketone) are accessible. PMID:18841895

  19. Theoretical investigation of the stereochemistry of the polymerization of. cap alpha. -olefins and dienes with the participation of Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, K.S.; Karpasas, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    The processes involved in the formation of the active polymerization sites in heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts have been investigated with consideration of the real structure of the components by the atom-atom potential method, the Monte-Carlo method, a modified diatomics-in-molecules method, and the CNDO/2 method with the aid of the available experimental facts. It has been shown that three types of bimetallic active sites (AS), which differ with respect to the spatial configuration of the coordination sphere, viz., AS-1, AS-2, and AS-3, form, depending on the electronic structure of the homogeneous component R /SUB n/ M, the ionic radius of M (M is a metal from groups I-III), and the unit-cell parameters of the heterogeneous component MeX /SUB m/ (Me is a transition metal from groups IV-VIII). Only the AS-1 sites are stereospecific in the polymerization of ..cap alpha..-olefins and 1,3-dienes (isotactic polyolefins and 1,4-trans-polydienes form); the AS-2 sites are nonstereospecific in the polymerization of ..cap alpha..-olefins, but they form stereoregular 1,4-cis-polydienes; the AS-3 sites are nonstereospecific in the polymerization of both ..cap alpha..-olefins and 1,3-dienes. The phenomenon of stereoregularization in the polymerization of ..cap alpha..-olefins and 1,3-dienes is determined by the steric and electrostatic factors.

  20. Sulfur monoxide transfer from peri-substituted trisulfide-2-oxides to dienes: substituent effects, mechanistic studies and application in thiophene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Richard S; Patel, Bhaven; Kariuki, Benson M; Male, Louise; Spencer, Neil

    2011-04-20

    Three peri-substituted trisulfide-2-oxides are prepared by treatment of 1,8-naphthalene dithiols with thionyl chloride and pyridine. The 1,2,3-trithiane-2-oxide ring adopts a sofa conformation in the solid state, with a pseudoaxial oxygen and evidence of ring strain (peri-interaction). Heating the trisulfide-2-oxides in the presence of a diene results in formal sulfur monoxide (SO) transfer to form unsaturated cyclic sulfoxides, along with a recyclable 1,8-naphthalene disulfide. The presence of o-methoxy or o-tert-butyl substituents on the naphthalene ring lowers the temperature and increases the rate at which SO transfer occurs. Trapping experiments and kinetic studies are consistent with the generation of triplet SO, followed by in situ trapping by diene. Transfer of SO also occurs upon irradiation at room temperature, but yields of sulfoxide are lower. Dehydration of the sulfoxides under Pummerer conditions gives thiophenes, including the naturally occurring thioperillene. Two dienes form thiophenes directly under the SO transfer conditions. The methodology is applied in a formal synthesis of the antiplatelet medication Plavix.

  1. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of lanthanide(III) thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln==Sm, Eu, Gd) and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln==Tb, Dy, Ho)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fang; Tang, Chunying; Chen, Ruihong; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dingxian

    2013-10-15

    Solvothermal reactions of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As and S in diethylenetriamine (dien) at 170 °C for 6 days afforded two structural types of lanthanide thioarsenates with the general formulae [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3)] and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] [Ln=Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6)]. The Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides were converted to [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} complex units in the solvothermal reactions. The As atom binds four S atoms, forming a tetrahedral AsS{sub 4} unit. In 1−3, the AsS{sub 4} units interconnect the [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} cations via Ln−S bonds as tridentate μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} bridging ligands, resulting in the neutral coordination polymers [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} (Ln1). In 4−6, the AsS{sub 4} units coordinate with the Ln{sup 3+} ion of [Ln(dien){sub 2}]{sup 3+} as 1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4} chelating ligands to form neutral coordination compounds [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] (Ln2). The Ln{sup 3+} ions are in nine- and eight-coordinated environments in Ln1 and Ln2, respectively. The formation of Ln1 and Ln2 is related with ionic size of the Ln{sup 3+} ions. Optical absorption spectra showed that 1−6 have potential use as semiconductors with the band gaps in the range 2.18−3.21 eV. - Graphical abstract: Two types of Ln-thioarsenates [Ln(dien){sub 2}(μ-1κ,2κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})]{sub n} and [Ln(dien){sub 2}(1κ{sup 2}-AsS{sub 4})] were prepared by solvothermal methods and the soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4}{sup 3–} ligand to Ln(III) centers with polyamine co-ligand was obtained. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Lanthanide thioarsenates were prepared by solvothermal methods. • The soft Lewis basic AsS{sub 4} ligand coordinate Ln{sup 3+} ions with coexistence polyamine ligands. • Two structural types of Ln-thioarsenates with structural turnover at Tb were obtained along Ln series. • The Ln-thioarsenates are potential semiconductors

  2. Radiation processed polychloroprene-co-ethylene-propene diene terpolymer blends: Effect of radiation vulcanization on solvent transport kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, K. A.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Kumar, Virendra; Goel, N. K.; Sabharwal, S.

    2009-03-01

    Blends of polychloroprene rubber (PCR) and ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM) of different compositions were made and exposed to different gamma radiation doses. The radiation sensitivity and radiation vulcanization efficiency of blends was estimated by gel-content analysis, Charlesby-Pinner parameter determination and crosslinking density measurements. Gamma radiation induced crosslinking was most efficient for EPDM ( p0/ q0 ˜ 0.08), whereas it was the lowest for blends containing 40% PCR ( p0/ q0 ˜ 0.34). The vulcanized blends were characterized for solvent diffusion characteristics by following the swelling dynamics. Blends with higher PCR content showed anomalous swelling. The sorption and permeability of the solvent were not strictly in accordance with each other and the extent of variation in two parameters was found to be a function of blend composition. The Δ G values for solvent diffusion were in the range -2.97 to -9.58 kJ/mol and indicated thermodynamically favorable sorption for all blends. These results were corroborated by dynamic swelling, experimental as well as simulated profiles and have been explained on the basis of correlation between crosslinking density, diffusion kinetics, thermodynamic parameters and polymer-polymer interaction parameter.

  3. Synergistic interaction between diene valepotriates from Valeriana glechomifolia Meyer (Valerianaceae) and classical antidepressants: an isobolographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Liz G; Stolz, Eveline D; Betti, Andresa H; Herzfeldt, Vivian; Rates, Stela M K

    2015-07-01

    Combinations of different classes of antidepressants (including herbal adjuvants) have been used as an alternative means of achieving better results in the treatment of depressed patients. However, studies characterizing the interactions between herbal adjuvants and antidepressants are lacking. This study is the first to investigate the interaction between diene valepotriates (VAL) from Valeriana glechomifolia, a species with antidepressant-like effects, and imipramine (IMI), desipramine (DESI) and bupropion (BUP). The interactions were assessed via isobolographic analyses, which represent a tool for evaluating interactions between drugs. The interaction between VAL and each antidepressant was evaluated in mice given concurrent oral administration of each drug with fixed ED50 ratios and subjected to a forced swimming test (FST). Spontaneous locomotion was measured in the open field test. The drug combinations produced a dose-dependent anti-immobility effect in the FST without altering mouse locomotor activity. Isobolographic analysis revealed that VAL resulted in synergistic interactions in combination with each of the antidepressants tested. The synergistic interactions between VAL and IMI, DESI and BUP highlight the potential for VAL to serve as adjuvants to antidepressant drugs and suggest that VAL does not directly target the same sites on neuronal transporters as the antidepressants. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Estimating regio and stereoselectivity in [4+2] cycloadditions of vinyl-substituted cyclic dienes with maleic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Gayatri, Gaddamanugu; Sastry, G Narahari

    2009-10-29

    Density functional theory calculations are performed to examine the regio and stereoselective preferences in [4+2] cycloaddition reactions of vinyl cyclopentadiene (1 and 2) and vinyl heterocyclic (1-N, 1-O, 1-S, 2-N, 2-O and 2-S) systems with maleic anhydride. Stepwise and concerted pathways of model systems 1 and 2 as dienes with ethylene as dienophile reveal that the reactions proceed through asynchronous and concerted pathway. 3-Vinyl systems (2) are predicted to be more reactive compared to 2-vinyl systems (1). The regio and stereoselective preferences are evaluated based on activation energies, reaction energies, density functional based descriptors and atoms in molecules analysis. In all cases, extra-annular cycloadducts are more feasible compared to intra-annular cycloadducts. Stereoselectivity depends on the favorable secondary orbital interactions. Solvents such as water, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, and dimethyl sulphoxide are employed to understand the effects of solvents on the cycloadduct formation. The computational results thus obtained are compared with the earlier experimental observations that are available.

  5. Metal Catalysis in Thiolation and Selenation Reactions of Alkynes Leading to Chalcogen‐Substituted Alkenes and Dienes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review covers recent achievements in metal‐catalyzed Z−H and Z−Z (Z=S, Se) bond addition to the triple bonds of alkynes—a convenient and atom‐efficient way to carbon‐element bond formation. Various catalytic systems (both homogeneous and heterogeneous) developed to date to obtain mono‐ and bis‐chalcogen‐substituted alkenes or dienes, as well as carbonyl compounds or heterocycles, starting from simple and available alkynes and chalcogenols or dichalcogenides are described. The right choice of metal and ligands allows us to perform these transformations with high selectivities under mild reaction conditions, thus tolerating unprotected functional groups in substrates and broadening ways of further modification of the products. The main aim of the review is to show the potential of the catalytic methods developed in synthetic organic chemistry. Thus, emphasis is made on the scope of reactions, types of products that can be selectively formed, convenience, and scalability of the catalytic procedures. A brief mechanistic description is also given to introduce new readers to the topic. PMID:27308193

  6. Limitations of using Raman microscopy for the analysis of high-content-carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Almdal, Kristoffer; Kingshott, Peter

    2003-12-01

    The effects of laser irradiation on changes to the surface chemistry and structure of a commercially available ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber sample after Raman microscopy analysis was investigated. The Raman measurements were carried out with different levels of laser power on the sample, ranging from 4.55 mW to 0.09 mW. The surface of the EPDM was analyzed before and after laser exposure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The techniques have surface probe depths of approximately < or = 10 nm and 1 microm, respectively. Both sets of analysis show that ingredients of the blended EPDM rubber "bloom" to the surface as a result of local heating that takes place due to the absorption of laser by carbon black during the Raman analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed on the Raman analyzed areas to visually illustrate the effects created due to laser light exposure (i.e., burning marks). The change in surface chemistry also occurs in regions a few millimeters from the exposed sites, indicating that the effect is quite long range. However, this phenomenon has no major influence, as far as XPS or ATR-FTIR results disclose, on the backbone structure of the rubber sample. The results indicate that precautions should be taken when analyzing complex blended polymer samples using Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Diene Valepotriates from Valeriana glechomifolia Prevent Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sickness and Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Liz G.; Borsoi, Milene; Stolz, Eveline D.; Herzfeldt, Vivian; Viana, Alice F.; Ravazzolo, Ana Paula; Rates, Stela Maris K.

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana glechomifolia, a native species from southern Brazil, presents antidepressant-like activity and diene valepotriates (VAL) contribute to the pharmacological properties of the genus. It is known that depression can develop on an inflammation background in vulnerable patients and antidepressants present anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the effects of VAL (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on sickness and depressive-like behaviors as well as proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and BDNF expression in the cortex of mice exposed to a 5 min swimming session (as a stressful stimulus) 30 min before the E. coli LPS injection (600 µg/kg, i.p.). The forced swim + LPS induced sickness and depressive-like behaviors, increased the cortical expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, and decreased BDNF expression. VAL was orally administered to mice 1 h before (pretreatment) or 5 h after (posttreatment) E. coli LPS injection. The pretreatment with VAL restored the behavioral alterations and the expression of cortical proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-injected animals but had no effects on BDNF expression, while the posttreatment rescued only behavioral alterations. Our results demonstrate for the first time the positive effects of VAL in an experimental model of depression associated with inflammation, providing new data on the range of action of these molecules. PMID:26170871

  8. Assessment of the role of in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-valproic acid in the toxicity of valproic acid and (E)-2-ene-valproic acid in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Surendradoss, Jayakumar; Chang, Thomas K.H.; Abbott, Frank S.

    2012-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) undergoes cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation to form 4-ene-VPA, which subsequently yields (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by β-oxidation. Another biotransformation pathway involves β-oxidation of VPA to form (E)-2-ene-VPA, which also generates (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation. Although the synthetic form of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is more hepatotoxic than VPA as shown in various experimental models, there is no conclusive evidence to implicate the in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA in VPA hepatotoxicity. The present study investigated the effects of modulating the in situ formation of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA on markers of oxidative stress (formation of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein; DCF), steatosis (accumulation of BODIPY 558/568 C{sub 12}), necrosis (release of lactate dehydrogenase; LDH), and on cellular total glutathione (GSH) levels in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes treated with VPA or (E)-2-ene-VPA. Treatment with either of these chemicals alone increased each of the toxicity endpoints. In VPA-treated hepatocytes, (E)-2,4-diene-VPA was detected only at trace levels, even after phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment and there was no effect on the toxicity of VPA. Furthermore, pretreatment with a cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT), did not influence the extent of VPA toxicity in both PB-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated hepatocytes. However, in (E)-2-ene-VPA-treated hepatocytes, PB pretreatment greatly enhanced the levels of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and this was accompanied by a further enhancement of the effects of (E)-2-ene-VPA on DCF formation, BODIPY accumulation, LDH release, and GSH depletion. Pretreatment with 1-ABT reduced the concentrations of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and the extent of (E)-2-ene-VPA toxicity; however, this occurred in PB-pretreated hepatocytes, but not in control hepatocytes. In conclusion, in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is not responsible for the hepatocyte toxicity of VPA, whereas it

  9. The presence of amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase, a key enzyme in artemisinin production in ten Artemisia species

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, R.; Yazdani, N.; Garoosi, GA.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin. Methods The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527). Results The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a) pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b) aspartate rich motif (DDXXD), c) active site final lid and d) active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated. Major conclusion The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction. PMID:22615678

  10. The Labdane Ent-3-Acetoxy-Labda-8(17), 13-Dien-15-Oic Decreases Blood Pressure In Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Simplicio, Janaina A.; Simão, Marilia R.; Ambrosio, Sergio R.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. Objective The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Methods Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Results Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. Conclusion The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats. PMID:27096521

  11. Two coupled effects of sub micron silica particles on the mechanical relaxation behavior of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber chains.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhen; Zhang, Xian; Ding, Xin; Bao, Chao; Fang, Fei; Li, Shiyuan; Zhou, Haifeng; Xue, Meng; Wang, Huan; Tian, Xingyou

    2014-08-28

    This article studied the influence of silica (SiO2) particles on the crosslinked network and the molecular mobility of ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubber chains by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). When SiO2 fraction is lower than 8 phr, the chain segments that participate in the glass-rubber transition (α transition) decrease with increasing the SiO2 content, while the whole crosslinked network is almost unaffected by the presence of SiO2. When the SiO2 fraction increases to about 20 phr, there appears a new tan δ peak (α' transition) above the α transition. This could be because the crosslinking reaction took place only on a small scale and the formed network became gradually incomplete when the content of the particles exceeded some critical value, and the α' transition is attributed primarily to the motion of non-elastic network chains loosely attached to the three-dimensional network. However, at SiO2 loadings higher than 40 phr, the crosslinking density was kept basically constant. The α' transition is hindered by a restriction of the chain mobility due to SiO2. The different changes of α' transition depended on the two coupled effects of SiO2, including restricting the chain mobility and decreasing the crosslinking density. Correspondingly, with increasing the mobility of EPDM chains and SiO2-induced strengthening, the mechanical properties of EPDM composite are dramatically improved. With the addition of 20 phr of SiO2 in the EPDM, a 113% increase in the elongation at break, a 510% increase in the fracture energy, and a 283% increase in the tensile strength are achieved.

  12. On the mechanism of the Di-. pi. -methane rearrangement of bicyclo(3. 2. 1)octa-2,6-diene: Deuterium labeling and generation of diradical intermediates via photolysis and thermolysis of appropriate azoalkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; Doerr, M. ); De Lucchi, O. )

    1989-07-05

    The direct (254 nm) and acetone-sensitized (300 nm) photolyses of 2,4,4-trideuteriobicyclo(3.2.1)octa-2,6-diene (D-1) gave exclusively 3,5,5-trideuteriotricyclo(4.2.0.0)oct-3-ene (D-7) and 2,6,6-trideuteriotricyclo(3.2.1.0)oct-3-ene (D-8) but no rearranged diene, namely, 2,8,8-trideuteriobicyclo(3.2.1)octa-2,6-diene (D-1{prime}). Pyrolysis (400{degree}C) and direct (334 nm) and benzophenone-sensitized (364 nm) photolyses of the azoalkane 3,5,5-trideuterio-9,10-diazatricyclo(4.4.0.0)deca-3,9-diene (D-9) afforded a mixture of tricyclooctenes D-7 (major product) and D-8 and bicyclooctadiene D-1, but no rearranged diene D-1{prime}. These three modes of denitrogenation of the azoalkane 2,2,7-trideuterio-4,5-diazatricyclo(4.3.1.0)deca-4,8-diene (D-10) led only to the tricyclooctene D-8 (major product) and equal amounts of the bicyclooctadienes D-1 and D-1{prime}. Distinct temperature profiles were observed in the product fingerprints of the direct photolysis (334 nm) of the azoalkanes 9 and 10. For both azoalkanes 9 and 10 the quantum yields of denitrogenation increased with rising temperature. In none of these transformations could bicyclo(3.3.0)octa-2,7-diene (2) be detected. These results imply that the di-{pi}-methane rearrangement of the bicyclooctadienes 1 (D-1) and the denitrogenations of the azoalkanes 9 (D-9) and 10 (D-10) are disjoint chemical events. The intervention of diazenyl diradicals (one-bond cleavage of the azoalkanes) is postulated to be responsible for this disparity. The intervention of cyclopropyldicarbinyl diradical 3 as bona fide reaction intermediate in the di-{pi}-methane rearrangement of bicyclooctadiene 1 is questioned.

  13. Assessment of the role of in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-valproic acid in the toxicity of valproic acid and (E)-2-ene-valproic acid in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Surendradoss, Jayakumar; Chang, Thomas K H; Abbott, Frank S

    2012-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) undergoes cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation to form 4-ene-VPA, which subsequently yields (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by β-oxidation. Another biotransformation pathway involves β-oxidation of VPA to form (E)-2-ene-VPA, which also generates (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation. Although the synthetic form of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is more hepatotoxic than VPA as shown in various experimental models, there is no conclusive evidence to implicate the in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA in VPA hepatotoxicity. The present study investigated the effects of modulating the in situ formation of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA on markers of oxidative stress (formation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein; DCF), steatosis (accumulation of BODIPY 558/568 C₁₂), necrosis (release of lactate dehydrogenase; LDH), and on cellular total glutathione (GSH) levels in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes treated with VPA or (E)-2-ene-VPA. Treatment with either of these chemicals alone increased each of the toxicity endpoints. In VPA-treated hepatocytes, (E)-2,4-diene-VPA was detected only at trace levels, even after phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment and there was no effect on the toxicity of VPA. Furthermore, pretreatment with a cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT), did not influence the extent of VPA toxicity in both PB-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated hepatocytes. However, in (E)-2-ene-VPA-treated hepatocytes, PB pretreatment greatly enhanced the levels of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and this was accompanied by a further enhancement of the effects of (E)-2-ene-VPA on DCF formation, BODIPY accumulation, LDH release, and GSH depletion. Pretreatment with 1-ABT reduced the concentrations of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and the extent of (E)-2-ene-VPA toxicity; however, this occurred in PB-pretreated hepatocytes, but not in control hepatocytes. In conclusion, in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is not responsible for the hepatocyte toxicity of VPA, whereas it contributes to

  14. Identification of Syn-Pimara-7,15-Diene Synthase Reveals Functional Clustering of Terpene Synthases Involved in Rice Phytoalexin/Allelochemical Biosynthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Wilderman, P. Ross; Xu, Meimei; Jin, Yinghua; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2004-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) produces momilactone diterpenoids as both phytoalexins and allelochemicals. Accordingly, the committed step in biosynthesis of these natural products is catalyzed by the class I terpene synthase that converts syn-copalyl diphosphate to the corresponding polycyclic hydrocarbon intermediate syn-pimara-7,15-diene. Here, a functional genomics approach was utilized to identify a syn-copalyl diphosphate specific 9β-pimara-7,15-diene synthase (OsDTS2). To our knowledge, this is the first identified terpene synthase with this particular substrate stereoselectivity and, by comparison with the previously described and closely related ent-copalyl diphosphate specific cassa-12,15-diene synthase (OsDTC1), provides a model system for investigating the enzymatic determinants underlying the observed difference in substrate specificity. Further, OsDTS2 mRNA in leaves is up-regulated by conditions that stimulate phytoalexin biosynthesis but is constitutively expressed in roots, where momilactones are constantly synthesized as allelochemicals. Therefore, transcription of OsDTS2 seems to be an important regulatory point for controlling production of these defensive compounds. Finally, the gene identified here as OsDTS2 has previously been mapped at 14.3 cM on chromosome 4. The class II terpene synthase producing syn-copalyl diphosphate from the universal diterpenoid precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate was also mapped to this same region. These genes catalyze sequential cyclization steps in momilactone biosynthesis and seem to have been evolutionarily coupled by physical linkage and resulting cosegregation. Further, the observed correlation between physical proximity and common metabolic function indicates that other such class I and class II terpene synthase gene clusters may similarly catalyze consecutive reactions in shared biosynthetic pathways. PMID:15299118

  15. Rhodium/chiral diene-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-addition of arylboronic acids to chromones: a highly enantioselective pathway for accessing chiral flavanones.

    PubMed

    He, Qijie; So, Chau Ming; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Hayashi, Tamio; Wang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Chromone has been noted to be one of the most challenging substrates in the asymmetric 1,4-addition of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. By employing the rhodium complex associated with a chiral diene ligand, (R,R)-Ph-bod*, the 1,4-addition of a variety of arylboronic acids was realized to give high yields of the corresponding flavanones with excellent enantioselectivities (≥97% ee, 99% ee for most substrates). Ring-opening side products, which would lead to erosion of product enantioselectivity, were not observed under the stated reaction conditions.

  16. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C12H22 Bicyclohexyl (HMSD1111, LB4033_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C12H22 Bicyclohexyl (HMSD1111, LB4033_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C12H16 Cyclohexylbenzene (HMSD1111, LB4039_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C12H16 Cyclohexylbenzene (HMSD1111, LB4039_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Spectroscopic studies of [M(CO) 5M'(CO) 3(1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene)] (M,M' = Mn, Re) and their photolysis products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkes, M. W.; Brouwers, A. M. F.; Stufkens, D. J.; Oskam, A.

    1984-03-01

    Photolysis of [M(CO) 5M'(CO) 3(dab)] (M, M' = Mn, Re; dab = 1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene, RNCHCHNR) in 2-Me-THF leads to both homolytic and heterolytic splitting of the metalmetal bond depending on the solution temperature. In a rigid medium such as a CH 4-matrix no breaking of the metalmetal bond is observed but instead formation of [M(CO) 3M'(CO) 3(dab)] in which compound the dab-ligand is σ,σ,π,π bridging between M and M'.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C12H16 Cyclohexylbenzene (VMSD1211, LB3967_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C12H16 Cyclohexylbenzene (VMSD1211, LB3967_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C12H22 Bicyclohexyl (VMSD1211, LB3961_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C12H22 Bicyclohexyl (VMSD1211, LB3961_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Asymmetric [4 + 3] cycloadditions between vinylcarbenoids and dienes: application to the total synthesis of the natural product (-)-5-epi-vibsanin E.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brett D; Denton, Justin R; Lian, Yajing; Davies, Huw M L; Williams, Craig M

    2009-06-17

    The total synthesis of (-)-5-epi-vibsanin E (2) has been achieved in 18 steps. The synthesis combines the rhodium-catalyzed [4 + 3] cycloaddition between a vinylcarbenoid and a diene to rapidly generate the tricyclic core with an effective end game strategy to introduce the remaining side-chains. The [4 + 3] cycloaddition occurs by a cyclopropanation to form a divinylcyclopropane followed by a Cope rearrangement to form a cycloheptadiene. The quaternary stereogenic center generated in the process can be obtained with high asymmetric induction when the reaction is catalyzed by the chiral dirhodium complex, Rh(2)(S-PTAD)(4).

  2. 1,4-Bis(4-bromo-2,6-diisopropyl­phen­yl)-1,4-diaza­buta-1,3-diene

    PubMed Central

    Guzei, Ilia A.; Hill, Nicholas J.; Van Hout, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The molecule of the title compound, C26H34Br2N2, lies on a crystallographic inversion center and hence the two imine groups are s-trans. The dihedral angle between the central 1,4-diaza­buta-1,3-diene unit and the attached substituted phenyl ring is 88.4 (7)°. The structure features a C—H⋯N close contact. The crystal selected for this study proved to be a non-merohedral twin with a minor component of 21.8 (3)%. PMID:21580146

  3. Crystal structure of dimethyl 3,4,5,6-tetra-phenyl-cyclo-hexa-3,5-diene-1,2-di-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Fred H; Nazarenko, Alexander Y

    2016-07-01

    In the title compound, C34H28O4, the cyclo-hexa-diene ring has a screw-boat conformation with a torsion angle between the double bonds being on average ca 15° [15.2 (3) and -15.3 (3) in the two independent mol-ecules]. All four phenyl rings in both mol-ecules are arranged in a propeller-like conformation. The two mol-ecules exhibit S,R- and R,S- chirality, respectively, and are connected via C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions. In turn, these weakly bound dimers form the mol-ecular crystal.

  4. Synthesis of 2-Aryl- and 2-Vinylpyrrolidines via Copper-Catalyzed Coupling of Styrenes and Dienes with Potassium β-Aminoethyl Trifluoroborates.

    PubMed

    Um, Chanchamnan; Chemler, Sherry R

    2016-05-20

    2-Arylpyrrolidines occur frequently in bioactive compounds, and thus, methods to access them from readily available reagents are valuable. We report a copper-catalyzed intermolecular carboamination of vinylarenes with potassium N-carbamoyl-β-aminoethyltrifluoroborates. The reaction occurs with terminal, 1,2-disubstituted, and 1,1-disubstituted vinylarenes bearing a number of functional groups. 1,3-Dienes are also good substrates, and their reactions give 2-vinylpyrrolidines. Radical clock mechanistic experiments are consistent with the presence of carbon radical intermediates and do not support participation of carbocations.

  5. Subphthalocyanines Axially Substituted with a Tetracyanobuta-1,3-diene-Aniline Moiety: Synthesis, Structure, and Physicochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Winterfeld, Kim A; Lavarda, Giulia; Guilleme, Julia; Sekita, Michael; Guldi, Dirk M; Torres, Tomás; Bottari, Giovanni

    2017-04-06

    A 1,1,4,4-tetracyanobuta-1,3-diene (TCBD)-aniline moiety has been introduced, for the first time, at the axial position of two subphthalocyanines (SubPcs) peripherally substituted with hydrogen (H12SubPc) or fluorine atoms (F12SubPc). Single-crystal X-ray analysis of both SubPc-TCBD-aniline systems showed that each conjugate is a racemic mixture of two atropisomers resulting from the almost orthogonal geometry adopted by the axial TCBD unit, which were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. Remarkably, the single-crystal X-ray structure of one atropisomer of each SubPc-TCBD-aniline conjugate has been solved, allowing to unambiguously assign the atropisomers' absolute configuration, something, to the best of our knowledge, unprecedented in TCBD-based conjugates. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of both SubPc-TCBD-aniline racemates have been investigated using a wide range of electrochemical as well as steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Each of the two SubPc-TCBD-aniline conjugates presents a unique photophysical feature never observed before in SubPc chemistry. As a matter of fact, H12SubPc-TCBD-aniline showed significant ground-state charge transfer interactions between the H12SubPc macrocycle and the electron-withdrawing TCBD unit directly attached at its axial position. In contrast, F12SubPc-TCBD-aniline gave rise to an intense, broad emission, which red shifts upon increasing the solvent polarity and stems from an excited complex (i.e., an exciplex). Such an exciplex emission, which has also no precedent in TCBD chemistry, results from intramolecular interactions in the excited state between the electron-rich aniline and the F12SubPc π-surface, two molecular fragments kept in spatial proximity by the "unique" three-dimensional geometry adopted by the F12SubPc-TCBD-aniline. Complementary transient absorption studies were carried out on both SubPc-TCBD-aniline derivatives, showing the occurrence, in both cases

  6. [Overexpressing 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase for degrading phytosterols into androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lele; Zhang, Xian; Shao, Minglong; Chen, Rongrong; Rao, Zhiming; Li, Hu; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-11-01

    We constructed plasmid pMTac to overexpress 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase (KSDD) in Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12 for improving androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) production. To construct pMTac, pACE promoter on pMF41 was replaced by tac promoter, and then four recombinants were constructed, which were M. neoaurum JC-12/pMF41-gfp, M. neoaurum JC-12/pMTac-gfp, M. neoaurum JC-12/pMF41-ksdd and M. neoaurum JC-12/pMTac-ksdd. Fluorescence detection results show that much more green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in M. neoaurum JC-12/pMTac-ksdd than M. neoaurum JC-12/pMF41-ksdd. The activity of KSDD was 2.41 U/mg in M. neoaurum JC-12/pMTac-ksdd, 6.53-fold as that of M. neoaurum JC-12 and 4.36-fold as that of M. neoaurum JC-12/pMF41-ksdd. In shake flask fermentation, ADD production of M. neoaurum JC-12/pMTac-ksdd was 5.94 g/L, increased about 22.2% compared to the original strain M. neoaurum JC-12 and 12.7% to M. neoaurum JC-12/pMF41-ksdd. AD (4-androstene-3,17-dione) production of JC-12/pMTac-ksdd was 0.17 g/L, decreased 81.5% compared to M. neoaurum JC-12 and 71.2% to M neoaurum JC-12/pMF41-ksdd. In the 5 L fermenter, 20 g/L phytosterols was used as substrate, ADD production of M. neoaurum JC-12/pMTac-ksdd was improved to 10.28 g/L. pMTac is favorable for expressing KSDD in M. neoaurum JC-12, and overexpression of KSDD has beneficial effect on ADD producing, and it is the highest level ever reported using fermentation method in M. neoaurum.

  7. Diels-Alder reactivities of strained and unstrained cycloalkenes with normal and inverse-electron-demand dienes: activation barriers and distortion/interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Paton, Robert S; Kim, Seonah; Liang, Yong; Houk, K N

    2013-10-16

    The Diels-Alder reactions of the cycloalkenes, cyclohexene through cyclopropene, with a series of dienes--1,3-dimethoxybutadiene, cyclopentadiene, 3,6-dimethyltetrazine, and 3,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)tetrazine--were studied with quantum mechanical calculations and compared with experimental values when available. The reactivities of cycloalkenes as dienophiles were found by a distortion/interaction analysis to be distortion controlled. The energies required for cycloalkenes to be distorted into the Diels-Alder transition states increase as the ring size of cycloalkenes increases from cyclopropene to cyclohexene, resulting in an increase in activation barriers. The reactivities of the dienes are controlled by both distortion and interaction energies. In normal Diels-Alder reactions with cycloalkenes, the electron-rich 1,3-dimethoxybutadiene exhibits stronger interaction energies than cyclopentadiene, but the high distortion energies required for 1,3-dimethoxybutadiene to achieve transition-state geometries overtake the favorable interaction, resulting in higher activation barriers. In inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions of 3,6-dimethyltetrazine and 3,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)tetrazine, the reactivities are mainly controlled by interaction energies.

  8. Functional identification of valerena-1,10-diene synthase, a terpene synthase catalyzing a unique chemical cascade in the biosynthesis of biologically active sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Weerasooriya, Aruna D; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A; Coates, Robert M; Watt, David S; Chappell, Joe

    2013-02-01

    Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [(13)C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes.

  9. Role of Heteroatoms in Diastereofacial Control in Cycloaddition to a Dissymmetric Cyclohexa-1,3-diene Moiety in a Polycyclic Framework. Remarkable Stereodirecting Influence of Distal Protective Groups.

    PubMed

    Mehta; Uma

    2000-03-24

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition to several derivatives of a facially dissymmetric diene, the hexacyclo[7.5.1.0.(1,6)0.(6,13)0.(8,12)0(10,14)]pentadeca-2,4-diene-7,15-dione 4a, with a variety of dienophiles such as singlet oxygen, N-phenyltriazolinedione, dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, maleic anhydride, and N-methylmaleimide has been studied. The stereochemistry of the resulting adducts has been unambiguously secured by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data, chemical correlations, and X-ray crystal structure determination. While a variety of dienophiles undergo [4 + 2]-cycloadditions with 4a predominantly from the carbonyl face, protection of the carbonyl groups in 4a as simple mono- or bis-acetals 4b-e or thioacetals 9a,b leads to complete reversal in selectivity, favoring addition from the cyclobutane face, with heterodienophiles and acetylenic dienophiles. The reversal in selectivity observed in mono- and bis-acetals 4b-e has been attributed to unfavorable electrostatic interaction between the oxygen atom and the incoming dienophile. Whereas, in the case of thioacetals 9a,b, apart from unfavorable electrostatic interactions, Cieplak-type hyperconjugative interactions have to be given due consideration in order to account for the observed selectivities. Our studies highlight the role of simple protective groups (acetals in the present case) in modulating diastereoselection during [4 + 2]-cycloadditions.

  10. Fission of the epoxide ring in 6,8-dioxabicyclo[5.1.0]octa-2,4-diene (epoxyoxepin) and in 8-oxabicyclo[5.1.0]octa-2,4-diene: an ab initio molecular orbital study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Philip; Bock, Charles W.; Glusker, Jenny P.

    1996-02-01

    As part of our investigation of the role of 6,8-dioxabicyclo[5.1.0]octa-2,4-diene (6,8-dioxa BCOD; epoxyoxepin) as the precursor of muconaldehyde in the metabolic oxidation of benzene, we have carried out ab initio molecular orbital calculations on the fission of the three-membered (epoxide) ring in 6,8-dioxaBCOD and 8-oxaBCOD in which cyclic enol structures are formed. Electronic energies have been calculated at the {MP2 }/{6-31 G∗} (frozen core, valence orbitals active) level with full geometry optimization at the {RHF}/{6-31 G∗} level. With the inclusion of thermal energies derived from vibrational frequencies obtained at the RHF/6-31G ∗//RHF/6-31G ∗ level, reaction energies and activation energies that would correspond to gas phase data at 298 K have been evaluated. Syn and anti conformers of the enol structures have been identified. The syn conformer from 8-oxaBCOD is more stable than the anti by 2.0 kcal mol -1, in common with other enols, whereas the anti conformer from 6,8-dioxaBCOD is more stable than the syn by 1.9 kcal mol -1; a difference attributable to a hydrogen bonding interaction with O 6 in the seven-membered ring. The ketone formed by the tautomeric shift is 8.4 kcal mol -1 lower in energy than the syn-enol from 8-oxaBCOD, whereas the lactone formed by the corresponding shift in the anti-enol from 6,8-dioxaBCOD is 27.4 kcal mol -1 lower in energy; an enhanced energy difference mainly attributable to the well-known stabilization in an acyl grouping. Transition states for the ring fission have been characterized and found to lead to the syn conformers of the enol structures. The activation energy for the fission in 6,8-dioxaBCOD is far larger than that for the cooperative fission of both rings; 32.7 compared with 16.5 kcal mol -1. Hence, competition with the formation of eZzZz-muconaldehyde in the latter reaction is negligible. The energy barriers for the two fission processes in 8-oxaBCOD, however, favor the former; 33.7 compared with 41

  11. Effect of lanthanide contraction on the mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien): Syntheses and characterizations of lanthanide complexes with a tetraelenidoantimonate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jing; Liang Jingjing; Pan Yingli; Zhang Yong; Jia Dingxian

    2011-06-15

    Mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) (Ln=lanthanide, en=ethylenediamine, dien=diethylenetriamine, trien=triethylenetetramine) were investigated under solvothermal conditions, and novel mixed-coordinated lanthanide(III) complexes [Ln(en){sub 2}(dien)({eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Ce(1a), Nd(1b)), [Ln(en){sub 2}(dien)(SbSe{sub 4})] (Ln=Sm(2a), Gd(2b), Dy(2c)), [Ln(en)(trien)({mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})]{sub {infinity}} (Ln=Ce(3a), Nd(3b)) and [Sm(en)(trien)({eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4})] (4a) were prepared. Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates were obtained across the lanthanide series in both en+dien and en+trien systems. The tetrahedral anion [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} acts as a monodentate ligand mono-SbSe{sub 4}, a bidentate chelating ligand {eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} or a tridentate bridging ligand {mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} to the lanthanide(III) center depending on the Ln{sup 3+} ions and the mixed ethylene polyamines, indicating the effect of lanthanide contraction on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. The lanthanide selenidoantimonates exhibit semiconducting properties with E{sub g} between 2.08 and 2.51 eV. - Graphical Abstract: Two structural types of lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates are formed in both en-dien and en-trien mixed polyamines across lanthanide series, indicating the lanthanide contraction effect on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. Highlights: > Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates are prepared across the lanthanide series in both Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) systems. > The [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} anion acts as a mono-SbSe{sub 4}, a {eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} or a {mu}-{eta}{sup 1},{eta}{sup 2}-SbSe{sub 4} ligand to the Ln{sup 3+} ions. > The soft base ligand [SbSe{sub 4}]{sup 3-} can be controlled to coordinate to the Ln{sup 3+} ions with en+dien and en+trien as co-ligands.

  12. Novel oxazolinyl derivatives of pregna-5,17(20)-diene as 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kuzikov, Alexey V; Dugin, Nikita O; Stulov, Sergey V; Shcherbinin, Dmitry S; Zharkova, Maria S; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Timofeev, Vladimir P; Veselovsky, Alexander V; Shumyantseva, Victoria V; Misharin, Alexander Y

    2014-10-01

    New oxazolinyl derivatives of [17(20)E]-pregna-5,17(20)-diene: 2'-{[(E)-3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-ylidene]methyl}-4',5'-dihydro-1',3'-oxazole 1 and 2'-{[(E)-3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-ylidene]methyl}-4',4'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydro-1',3'-oxazole 2 were evaluated as potential CYP17A1 inhibitors in comparison with 17-(pyridin-3-yl)androsta-5,16-dien-3β-ol 3 (abiraterone). Differential absorption spectra of human recombinant CYP17A1 in the presence of compound 1 (λmax=422 nm, λmin=386 nm) and compound 2 (λmax=416 nm) indicated significant differences in enzyme/inhibitors complexes. CYP17A1 activity was measured using electrochemical methods. Inhibitory activity of compound 1 was comparable with abiraterone 3 (IC50=0.9±0.1 μM, and IC50=1.3±0.1 μM, for compounds 1 and 3, respectively), while compound 2 was found to be weaker inhibitor (IC50=13±1 μM). Docking of aforementioned compounds to CYP17A1 revealed that steroid fragments of compound 1 and abiraterone 3 occupied close positions; oxazoline cycle of compound 1 was coordinated with heme iron similarly to pyridine cycle of abiraterone 3. Configuration of substituents at 17(20) double bond in preferred docked position corresponded to Z-isomers of compounds 1 and 2. Presence of 4'-substituents in oxazoline ring of compound 2 prevents coordination of oxazoline nitrogen with heme iron and worsens its docking score in comparison with compound 1. These data indicate that oxazolinyl derivative of [17(20)E]-pregna-5,17(20)-diene 1 (rather than 4',4'-dimethyl derivative 2) may be considered as potential CYP17A1 inhibitor and template for development of new compounds affecting growth and proliferation of prostate cancer cells.

  13. Bifunctional Organo/Metal Cooperatively Catalyzed [3 + 2] Annulation of para-Quinone Methides with Vinylcyclopropanes: Approach to Spiro[4.5]deca-6,9-diene-8-ones.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhenbo; Wei, Weiwei; Lin, Aijun; Yao, Hequan

    2016-07-15

    A novel [3 + 2] annulation between para-quinone methides and vinylcyclopropanes for the synthesis of spiro[4.5]deca-6,9-diene-8-ones has been described. The palladium and phosphine-thiourea cooperative catalysis system played an important role in high yields and diastereoselectivities. The reaction exhibited good functional group tolerance and scalability.

  14. Photoredox-Catalyzed Intramolecular Difluoromethylation of N-Benzylacrylamides Coupled with a Dearomatizing Spirocyclization: Access to CF2H-Containing 2-Azaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-diene-3,8-diones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuxiao; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Dolbier, William R

    2016-03-04

    A visible light-mediated difluoromethylation of N-benzylacrylamides with HCF2SO2Cl as the HCF2 radical precursor is described. The reaction incorporates a tandem cyclization/dearomatization process to afford various difluoromethylated 2-azaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-diene-3,8-diones bearing adjacent quaternary stereocenters under mild conditions in moderate to excellent yields.

  15. Synthesis, structure of [H{sub 3} dien].(MF{sub 6}).H{sub 2}O (M=Cr, Fe) and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer study of [H{sub 3} dien].(FeF{sub 6}).H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Ali, Amor Trang Dang, Minh; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Hemon-Ribaud, Annie; Leblanc, Marc; Maisonneuve, Vincent

    2007-06-15

    Single crystals of [H{sub 3} dien].(FeF{sub 6}).H{sub 2}O (I) and [H{sub 3} dien].(CrF{sub 6}).H{sub 2}O (II) are obtained by solvothermal synthesis under microwave heating. I is orthorhombic (Pna2{sub 1}) with a=11.530(2) A, b=6.6446(8) A, c=13.787(3) A, V=1056.3(2) A{sup 3} and Z=4. II is monoclinic (P2{sub 1} /c) with a=13.706(1) A, b=6.7606(6) A, c=11.3181(9) A, {beta}=99.38(1){sup o}, V=1034.7(1) A{sup 3} and Z=4. The structure determinations, performed from single crystal X-ray diffraction data, lead to the R {sub 1}/wR {sub 2} reliability factors 0.028/0.066 for I and 0.035/0.102 for II. The structures of I and II are built up from isolated FeF{sub 6} or CrF{sub 6} octahedra, water molecules and triprotonated amines. In both structures, each octahedron is connected by hydrogen bonds to six organic cations and two water molecules. The iron-based compound is also characterized by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrometry: the hyperfine structure confirms the presence of Fe{sup 3+} in octahedral coordination and reveals the existence of paramagnetic spin fluctuations. - Graphical abstract: Moessbauer spectra of [H{sub 3} dien].(FeF{sub 6}).H{sub 2}O.

  16. Separation of n-hexane/acetone mixtures by pervaporation using high density polyethylene/ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber blend membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P V Anil; Anilkumar, S; Varughese, K T; Thomas, Sabu

    2012-01-15

    Polymer membranes were prepared by blending high density polyethylene (HDPE) with ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM). These blend membranes were evaluated for the selective separation of n-hexane from acetone. The flux and selectivity of the membranes were determined both as a function of the blend composition and feed mixture composition. Results showed that polymer blending method could be very useful to develop new membranes with improved selectivity. Pervaporation properties could be optimized by adjusting the blend composition. The effects of blend ratio, feed composition, and penetrant size on the pervaporation process were analyzed. The permeation properties have been explained on the basis of interaction between the membrane and solvents and blend morphology. Flux increases with increasing alkane content in the feed composition.

  17. ([2.2.2]Cryptand-κ(6)O)potassium (η(4)-cyclo-octa-diene)bis-(η(2)-pyrene)cobaltate(1-) pentane hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Brennessel, William W; Ellis, John E

    2012-07-01

    The cation, anion, and solvent in the title compound, [K(C(18)H(36)N(2)O(6))][Co(C(8)H(12))(C(16)H(10))(2)]·0.5C(5)H(12), are well separated. The pentane solvent mol-ecules are found in channels along [100] and were modeled as disordered over crystallographic inversion centers. Using the mid-points of the coordinated olefins, the angle between the C(py)/C(py)-Co-C(py)/C(py) and the C(cod)/C(cod)-Co-C(cod)/C(cod) planes (py is pyrene and cod is cyclo-octa-diene) is 67.6 (2)°. Thus, the overall geometry of the coordination sphere around cobalt is best described as distorted tetra-hedral.

  18. Crystal structure of bis­(η2-ethyl­ene)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt

    PubMed Central

    Ramful, Chandika D.; Robertson, Katherine N.; Ylijoki, Kai E. O.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)(C2H4)2], was prepared by Na/Hg reduction of [Co2(C10H15)2(μ-Cl)2] in THF under an ethyl­ene atmosphere and crystallized from pentane at 193 K. The Co—C(olefin) bonds have an average length of 2.022 (2) Å, while the Co—C(penta­dien­yl) bonds average 2.103 (19) Å. The olefin C=C bonds are 1.410 (1) Å. The dihedral angle between the planes defined by the cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand and the two olefin ligands is 0.25 (12)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into chains by C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:27920922

  19. Cyclobutene vs 1,3-Diene Formation in the Gold-Catalyzed Reaction of Alkynes with Alkenes: The Complete Mechanistic Picture.

    PubMed

    de Orbe, M Elena; Amenós, Laura; Kirillova, Mariia S; Wang, Yahui; López-Carrillo, Verónica; Maseras, Feliu; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2017-08-02

    The intermolecular gold(I)-catalyzed reaction between arylalkynes and alkenes leads to cyclobutenes by a [2 + 2] cycloaddition, which takes place stepwise, first by formation of cyclopropyl gold(I) carbenes, followed by a ring expansion. However, 1,3-butadienes are also formed in the case of ortho-substituted arylalkynes by a metathesis-type process. The corresponding reaction of alkenes with aryl-1,3-butadiynes, ethynylogous to arylalkynes, leads exclusively to cyclobutenes. A comprehensive mechanism for the gold(I)-catalyzed reaction of alkynes with alkenes is proposed on the basis of density functional theory calculations, which shows that the two pathways leading to cyclobutenes or dienes are very close in energy. The key intermediates are cyclopropyl gold(I) carbenes, which have been independently generated by retro-Buchner reaction from stereodefined 1a,7b-dihydro-1H-cyclopropa[a]naphthalenes.

  20. Enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of aldimines with "Danishefsky-type diene" catalyzed by chiral scandium(III)-N,N'-dioxide complexes.

    PubMed

    Shang, Deju; Xin, Junguo; Liu, Yanling; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2008-01-18

    A new kind of complex prepared from scandium(III) triflate and l-proline-derived N,N'-dioxides has been developed to catalyze the enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction between 1,3-butadiene (diene 1) and aldimines 2, affording the corresponding 2,5-disubstituted dihydropyridinones in moderate to high yields (up to 92%) with good enantioselectivities (up to 90% ee) at room temperature. A variety of aldimines including aromatic, heteroaromatic, conjugated, and aliphatic imines were found to be suitable substrates. Enantiopure samples (up to 99% ee) were obtained for some products by a single recrystallization. The absolute configuration of the products was determined by X-ray diffraction and CD analysis. On the basis of the investigation of 1H NMR spectra and the positive nonlinear effect, the catalyst structure was carefully discussed.

  1. Bioactive (3Z,5E)-11,20-Epoxybriara-3,5-dien-7,18-olide Diterpenoids from the South China Sea Gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cui; La, Ming-Ping; Sun, Peng; Kurtan, Tibor; Mandi, Attila; Tang, Hua; Liu, Bao-Shu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Li, Ling; Zhang, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Six new (3Z,5E)-11,20-epoxybriara-3,5-dien-7,18-olide diterpenoids, gemmacolides N–S (1–6), were isolated together with four known analogues, juncenolide D, and juncins R, S and U (7–10), from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by the detailed analysis of spectroscopic data in combination with the comparison with reported data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by a TDDFT calculation of its solution ECD spectrum, affording the determination of absolute configuration of other analogues by simply comparing their ECD spectra with that of 1. The cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of these compounds were evaluated. In preliminary in vitro bioassays, compounds 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed cytotoxicity against A549 and MG63, while compounds 1, 2, 4, 7–10 showed antimicrobial activity against the fungus Septoria tritici and the bacterium Escherichia coli. PMID:21892354

  2. Metalloporphyrin-Based Hypercrosslinked Polymers Catalyze Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of Unactivated Aldehydes with Simple Dienes: A Fascinating Strategy for the Construction of Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhiyu; Xu, Li; Zhi, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yuwei; Xia, Hong; Mu, Ying; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-07-11

    We describe a novel and intriguing strategy for the construction of efficient heterogeneous catalysts by hypercrosslinking catalyst molecules in a one-pot Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. The new hypercrosslinked polymers (HCPs) as porous solid catalysts exhibit the combined advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, owing to their high surface area, good stability, and tailoring of catalytic centers on the frameworks. Indeed, a new class of metalloporphyrin-based HCPs were successfully synthesized using modified iron(III) porphyrin complexes as building blocks, and the resulting networks were found to be excellent recyclable heterogeneous catalysts for the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated aldehydes with 1,3-dienes. Moreover, this new strategy showed wide adaptability, and many kinds of homogeneous-like solid-based catalysts with high catalytic performance and excellent recyclability were also constructed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Antibiotic activity and absolute configuation of 8S-heptadeca-2(Z),9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-1,8-diol from Bupleurum salicifolium.

    PubMed

    Estevez-Braun, A; Estevez-Reyes, R; Moujir, L M; Ravelo, A G; Gonzalez, A G

    1994-08-01

    A polyacetylene has been isolated from Bupleurum salicifolium. Its structure and absolute configuration were determined to be 8S-heptadeca-2(Z),9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-1,8-diol [1] by means of 1H- and 13C-nmr spectroscopic studies, including 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation (HMQC) and long-range correlation spectra with inverse detection (HMBC). Its absolute configuration was determined by application of the Horeau method. This compound exhibited significant antibiotic activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Also isolated during this investigation were the known compounds; betulin, herniarin, 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin, p-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol, pluviatolide, guamaroline, bursehernin, guayadequiol, kaerophyllin, and matairesinol dimethyl ether.

  4. Le traitement anti-VEGF des néovaisseaux choroïdiens juxta-fovéolaires du fort myope: à propos d’une observation

    PubMed Central

    Moustaine, Moulay Omar; Dellali, Foued; Husseini, Abbas El; Hirsch, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Les néovaisseaux choroïdiens constituent une complication redoutable de la forte myopie rapportée dans 5 à 10% des cas. Ils doivent être pris en charge rapidement vu leur pronostic sombre. Les IVT des anti-VEGF constituent actuellement la nouvelle alternative thérapeutique dépassant de loin la thérapie photo-dynamique (PDT). Néanmoins l'algorithme thérapeutique anti-VEGF devant ce type de néovaisseaux reste un sujet de discussion entre les auteurs. A travers cette observation on essaie d'illustrer la difficulté de prise en charge de ces néovaisseaux et de discuter le schéma thérapeutique Anti-VEGF à suivre. PMID:28491229

  5. Neolignans with a Rare 2-Oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one Motif from the Stem Bark of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongji; Liu, Tingting; Sa, Rongjian; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Yonghui; Yao, Guangmin

    2015-07-24

    Two pairs of racemic spirodienone neolignans with a rare 2-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one motif, named (±)-subaveniumins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum subavenium. The chiral separation of the (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers was accomplished via high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral column. Their structures were elucidated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroic spectra. The (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against NO production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide, with IC50 values of 17.9, 5.6, 15.1, and 4.3 μM, respectively.

  6. Enantio- and Stereoselective Cyclopolymerization of Hexa-1,5-diene Catalyzed by Zirconium Complexes Possessing Optically Active Bis(phenolato) Ligands.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Norio; Watanabe, Takanori; Toda, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Akihiko

    2016-09-26

    Enantio- and stereoselective cyclopolymerization of hexa-1,5-diene was achieved by enantiomerically pure dichloro zirconium(IV) pre-catalysts 2 possessing chiral [OSSO]-type bis(phenolate) ligands (-)-1 and (+)-1 in combination with dried methylaluminoxane (dMAO) as an activator. The corresponding activities were recorded with quite high values up to 1,960 g mmol(2)(-1) h(-1) , which are extremely larger than those of the related complexes. The microstructure analysis for the PMCPs furnished by pre-catalysts (Λ,S,S)-2 and (Δ,R,R)-2 showed good isotacticity factors (α = 75-78%) and relatively high proportions of trans-cyclopentane rings (σ = 14-21%). These enantiomeric PMCPs exhibited large specific optical rotations ([α]D = +28 to +32° from (Λ,S,S)-2, -26 to -34° from (Δ,R,R)-2).

  7. Crystal structure of dimethyl 2,5-bis-[(di-phen-oxy-phosphor-yl)-oxy]cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Ma, Zongshan; Yan, Hong

    2015-06-01

    In the title compound, C34H30O12P2, which was synthesized via the esterification of dimethyl 2,5-dioxo-1,4-cyclo-hexa-nedi-carboxyl-ate with diphenyl chloro-phosphate, the mol-ecule has crystallographic inversion symmetry. The dihedral angles between the plane of the cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene ring and those of the two benzene rings of the substituent phosphate groups are 41.0 (1) and 89.5 (1)°, while that with the ester group is 3.1 (3)°. In the crystal, only weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present.

  8. Highly diastereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of chiral non-racemic nitrones to 1,2-diaza-1,3-dienes: an experimental and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Majer, Roberta; Konechnaya, Olga; Delso, Ignacio; Tejero, Tomas; Attanasi, Orazio A; Santeusanio, Stefania; Merino, Pedro

    2014-11-28

    Asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between 1,2-diaza-1,3-dienes and chiral non-racemic nitrones to give 3-substituted-5-diazenyl isoxazolidines were studied both experimentally and theoretically. Whereas cyclic nitrones provide complete selectivity for the cycloaddition reaction (only one isomer is obtained), acyclic nitrones derived from D-glyceraldehyde and D-galactose lead to 1 : 1 mixtures of two isomers. A DFT analysis based on reactivity indices correctly predicts the regiochemistry of the reaction in agreement with the high electron-withdrawing character of the diazenyl group. The same theoretical studies considering solvent effects (PCM model) based on transition state theory are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental results.

  9. Influence of diene substitution on Diels-Alder reactions between vinyl dihydronaphthalenes and (SS)-2-(p-tolylsulfinyl)-1,4-benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; García-Cerrada, Susana; Sanz-Cuesta, M Jesús; Urbano, Antonio

    2003-05-30

    The asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction between 2-(E-2-acetoxyvinyl)-8-tert-butyl-3,4-dihydronaphthalene (8) and enantiopure (SS)-2-(p-tolylsulfinyl)-1,4-benzoquinone (1) takes place exclusively on the unsubstituted C(5)-C(6) double bond of (SS)-1 with a very high control of the chemo-, regio-, and diastereoselectivity of the process affording tetracyclic sulfinyl derivative 13a possessing five stereogenic centers. The analogue diene 9, lacking the tert-butyl group, gave a less chemoselective reaction (C(2)-C(3)/C(5)-C(6): 60/40) in favor of reaction through the sulfoxide-substituted double bond C(2)-C(3) of 1. Steric effects of the remote tert-butyl group and electronic factors due to the OAc substituent are controlling the process.

  10. Crystal structure of chlorido­bis­[(1,2,5,6-η)-cyclo­octa-1,5-diene]iridium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, A. K. Fazlur; Wilklow-Marnell, Miles; Brennessel, William W.; Jones, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The title complex, [IrCl(C8H12)2], was synthesized directly from the reaction of IrCl3·3H2O with a large excess of cod (cod = cyclo­octa-1,5-diene) in alcoholic solvent. Large yellow needles were obtained by the slow cooling of a hot solution. Based on the positions of the chloride ligand and the mid-points of the four C=C bonds, the mol­ecule adopts a five-coordinate geometry that is midway between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal. The material crystallizes in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pbca with one mol­ecule per asymmetric unit in a general position and shows no significant inter­molecular inter­actions. Individual mol­ecules are aligned along [010], and these rows form a pseudo-hexa­gonal packing arrangement. PMID:28217358

  11. (η6-Benzophenone)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Nadin, Kevin; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C13H10O)](C24H20B), consists of discrete [Cp*Ru(II)benzophenone] cations and tetra­phenyl­borate anions (Cp* = penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl). Tethering the Cp*Ru group to one aryl ring of benzophenone results in average values of 1.42 (1) and 1.38 (1) Å for the C—C bond lengths in the Ru-tethered and untethered phenyl rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene and phenyl rings of the benzophenone group is 50.5 (1)°. PMID:21578208

  12. Functional Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase (ADS) Homologs from Non-Artemisinin-Producing Artemisia Species: The Discovery of Novel Koidzumiol and (+)-α-Bisabolol Synthases.

    PubMed

    Muangphrom, Paskorn; Seki, Hikaru; Suzuki, Munenori; Komori, Aya; Nishiwaki, Mika; Mikawa, Ryota; Fukushima, Ery Odette; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2016-08-01

    The production of artemisinin, the most effective antimalarial compound, is limited to Artemisia annua. Enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis include amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), amorpha-4,11-diene 12-monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and artemisinic aldehyde Δ(11)13 reductase (DBR2). Although artemisinin and its specific intermediates are not detected in other Artemisia species, we reported previously that CYP71AV1 and DBR2 homologs were expressed in some non-artemisinin-producing Artemisia plants. These homologous enzymes showed similar functions to their counterparts in A. annua and can convert fed intermediates into the following products along the artemisinin biosynthesis in planta These findings suggested a partial artemisinin-producing ability in those species. In this study, we examined genes highly homologous to ADS, the first committed gene in the pathway, in 13 Artemisia species. We detected ADS homologs in A. absinthium, A. kurramensis and A. maritima. We analyzed the enzymatic functions of all of the ADS homologs after obtaining their cDNA. We found that the ADS homolog from A. absinthium exhibited novel activity in the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to koidzumiol, a rare natural sesquiterpenoid. Those from A. kurramensis and A. maritima showed similar, but novel, activities in the cyclization of FPP to (+)-α-bisabolol. The unique functions of the novel sesquiterpene synthases highly homologous to ADS found in this study could provide insight into the molecular basis of the exceptional artemisinin-producing ability in A. annua. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Thermoplastic vulcanizate nanocomposites based on polypropylene/ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (PP/EPDM) prepared by reactive extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzadeh, Amin

    using the solvent extraction and gravimetry technique. Additionally, the effect of continuity on rheological behaviour of TPE nanocomposites was investigated. The ultimate goal in this field is to maximize the rubber like behaviour by controlling the blend morphology and the level of crosslinking. Therefore, this study also covers the effects of nanoclay presence and its dispersion level on the crosslinking reaction of thermoplastic vulcanizate nanocomposites prepared by reactive extrusion. Here, the rubber phase was dynamically vulcanized using dimethylol phenolic resin or octylphenol-formaldehyde resin along with stannous chloride dihydrate as the catalyst. In the present study, the dynamic vulcanization of the prepared TPVs and corresponding nanocomposites are characterized using different criteria, such as gel content, viscosity and normalized storage modulus in the time sweep tests, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal line width, bound curative content and residual diene concentration. The combination of the above parameters appears to be sufficient to provide a clear description of the systems. The last part of the present study is devoted to find how the dispersion level of nanoclay and consequently the extent of crosslinking change the rubber like behaviour and the morphology of the prepared TPVs. Therefore, recently developed method named temperature scanning stress relaxation (TSSR) was used to estimate the rubber indices of TPVs and TPV nanocomposites. The mentioned method also successfully provided information about the extent of crosslinking reaction. It is shown that the rubber like behaviour of the blends containing 50wt% and 60wt% of EPDM in which morphological studies suggest the presence of the rubber droplets in vicinity of irregular shape rubber particles with a low level of interconnectivity, correlates with the rubber droplet size. Therefore, the nanoclay presence affects the rubber index values mainly through its effect on the size of the

  14. Corot, une mission bien remplie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglin, Annie; Belkacem, Kevin; Chaintreuil, Sylviane; Deleuil, Magali; Lam-Trong, Thien

    2017-03-01

    The CoRoT mission developped since 1993 was dedicated to the observation of ultra high precision measurements of the variations of stellar fluxed on long and continuous durations. His two major objectives were the detection of stellar oscillations and of extrasolar planets. A a pionnier mission, it had to invent several methods and to built the successive steps of the data treatment. They are rapidly described. The low cost 'CNES Petites Missions" programme imposed severe contraints on the instrument concept (Organisation and management, choice of the detectors, of the orbit, reduction of all parasite lights) which have been and will be guides for new generation projects. Some scientific highlights are then presented on both programmes, as for instance the use of the seismic tool as an indicator of the structure and evolution of the Galaxy, the first detection of a super-Earth, and the first precise characterisation of a brown dwarf . CoRoT has opened several avenues in instrumentation as well as science. It is shown how some aspects of this heritage have been used in the design and development of its two major heiress: CHEOPS to be launched in 2018 and the more ambitious PLATO, to be launched in 2025.

  15. Enzymatic conjugation of hexachloro-1,3-butadiene with glutathione. Formation of 1-(glutathion-S-yl)-1,2,3,4,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-diene and 1,4-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobuta-1,3-diene.

    PubMed

    Dekant, W; Vamvakas, S; Henschler, D; Anders, M W

    1988-01-01

    The glutathione-dependent metabolism of the nephrotoxin and nephrocarcinogen hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD) was investigated in subcellular fractions from rat liver and kidney. HCBD was metabolized by hepatic glutathione S-transferases to (E)- and (Z)-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-pentachlorobuta-1,3-diene (GPCB) in a ratio of 20:1, which were identified by secondary ion MS and by GC-MS after acid hydrolysis. The formation of GPCB was dependent on time and on protein and glutathione concentrations. Microsomal glutathione S-transferases from rat liver catalyzed GPCB formation more efficiently than did cytosolic glutathione S-transferases; very low rates of GPCB formation were observed in kidney subcellular fractions. GPCB is also a substrate for glutathione S-transferases and is metabolized to a diglutathione conjugate, which was identified by secondary ion MS and 13C NMR spectrometry as 1,4-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobuta-1,3-diene (BTCB). BTCB formation from GPCB was dependent on time and on protein, glutathione, and GPCB concentrations. Hepatic cytosol catalyzed BTCB formation more efficiently than did hepatic microsomes; significant amounts of BTCB were also formed in kidney cytosol. Hepatic formation of glutathione S-conjugates, translocation of the S-conjugates to the kidney, and renal processing to form reactive intermediates may be the cause of HCBD-induced nephrotoxicity and, perhaps, nephrocarcinogenicity.

  16. Sequential metabolism of 7-dehydrocholesterol to steroidal 5,7-dienes in adrenal glands and its biological implication in the skin.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Semak, Igor; Sweatman, Trevor; Janjetovic, Zorica; Li, Wei; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Tuckey, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Since P450scc transforms 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) to 7-dehydropregnenolone (7DHP) in vitro, we investigated sequential 7DHC metabolism by adrenal glands ex vivo. There was a rapid, time- and dose-dependent metabolism of 7DHC by adrenals from rats, pigs, rabbits and dogs with production of more polar 5,7-dienes as detected by RP-HPLC. Based on retention time (RT), UV spectra and mass spectrometry, we identified the major products common to all tested species as 7DHP, 22-hydroxy-7DHC and 20,22-dihydroxy-7DHC. The involvement of P450scc in adrenal metabolic transformation was confirmed by the inhibition of this process by DL-aminoglutethimide. The metabolism of 7DHC with subsequent production of 7DHP was stimulated by forscolin indicating involvement of cAMP dependent pathways. Additional minor products of 7DHC metabolism that were more polar than 7DHP were identified as 17-hydroxy-7DHP (in pig adrenals but not those of rats) and as pregna-4,7-diene-3,20-dione (7-dehydroprogesterone). Both products represented the major identifiable products of 7DHP metabolism in adrenal glands. Studies with purified enzymes show that StAR protein likely transports 7DHC to the inner mitochondrial membrane, that 7DHC can compete effectively with cholesterol for the substrate binding site on P450scc and that the catalytic efficiency of 3betaHSD for 7DHP (V(m)/K(m)) is 40% of that for pregnenolone. Skin mitochondria are capable of transforming 7DHC to 7DHP and the 7DHP is metabolized further by skin extracts. Finally, 7DHP, its photoderivative 20-oxopregnacalciferol, and pregnenolone exhibited biological activity in skin cells including inhibition of proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes, and melanoma cells. These findings define a novel steroidogenic pathway: 7DHC-->22(OH)7DHC-->20,22(OH)(2)7DHC-->7DHP, with potential further metabolism of 7DHP mediated by 3betaHSD or CYP17, depending on mammalian species. The 5-7 dienal intermediates of the pathway can be a source

  17. Sequential Metabolism of 7-Dehydrocholesterol to Steroidal 5,7-Dienes in Adrenal Glands and Its Biological Implication in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Zmijewski, Michal A.; Semak, Igor; Sweatman, Trevor; Janjetovic, Zorica; Li, Wei; Zjawiony, Jordan K.; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Since P450scc transforms 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) to 7-dehydropregnenolone (7DHP) in vitro, we investigated sequential 7DHC metabolism by adrenal glands ex vivo. There was a rapid, time- and dose-dependent metabolism of 7DHC by adrenals from rats, pigs, rabbits and dogs with production of more polar 5,7-dienes as detected by RP-HPLC. Based on retention time (RT), UV spectra and mass spectrometry, we identified the major products common to all tested species as 7DHP, 22-hydroxy-7DHC and 20,22-dihydroxy-7DHC. The involvement of P450scc in adrenal metabolic transformation was confirmed by the inhibition of this process by DL-aminoglutethimide. The metabolism of 7DHC with subsequent production of 7DHP was stimulated by forscolin indicating involvement of cAMP dependent pathways. Additional minor products of 7DHC metabolism that were more polar than 7DHP were identified as 17-hydroxy-7DHP (in pig adrenals but not those of rats) and as pregna-4,7-diene-3,20-dione (7-dehydroprogesterone). Both products represented the major identifiable products of 7DHP metabolism in adrenal glands. Studies with purified enzymes show that StAR protein likely transports 7DHC to the inner mitochondrial membrane, that 7DHC can compete effectively with cholesterol for the substrate binding site on P450scc and that the catalytic efficiency of 3βHSD for 7DHP (Vm/Km) is 40% of that for pregnenolone. Skin mitochondria are capable of transforming 7DHC to 7DHP and the 7DHP is metabolized further by skin extracts. Finally, 7DHP, its photoderivative 20-oxopregnacalciferol, and pregnenolone exhibited biological activity in skin cells including inhibition of proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes, and melanoma cells. These findings define a novel steroidogenic pathway: 7DHC→22(OH)7DHC→20,22(OH)27DHC→7DHP, with potential further metabolism of 7DHP mediated by 3βHSD or CYP17, depending on mammalian species. The 5–7 dienal intermediates of the pathway can be a source of

  18. Crystal structure of 4,4-di-bromo-1-(3,4-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2-aza-buta-1,3-diene-1-carbo-nitrile.

    PubMed

    Chaabene, Marwa; Khatyr, Abderrahim; Knorr, Michael; Askri, Moheddine; Rousselin, Yoann; Kubicki, Marek M

    2016-08-01

    The title compound, C12H10Br2N2O2, represents an example of a planar π-con-jugated 2-aza-butadiene mol-ecule, which is both an inter-esting starting material for further organic transformations and a potential ligand in organometallic coordination chemistry. Its metric mol-ecular parameters are typical for the family of 2-aza-buta-1,3-dienes not substituted at the (CH) 3-position. In the crystal, the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0658 Å) aza-diene mol-ecules form one-dimensional double-wide ribbons through inter-molecular halogen bonds (C-Br⋯O and C-Br⋯Br-C), which then stack in a slipped manner through weak C-H⋯Br and π-π inter-actions to generate a three-dimensional network.

  19. Ab initio study of the effect of CH ... O hydrogen bonding on the Exo/Endo stereoselectivity of Diels-Alder reactions of 2-substituted-1,3-dienes with sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, D.; Lopex, R.

    1996-02-05

    Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-31G*//HF/3-21G* level have been carried out to study Diels-Alder reactions of 2-substituted-1,3-dienes with sulfur dioxide. The CH ... O electrostatic interaction detected in some of the transition structures located could be decisive in the control of the exo/endo stereoselectivity of this type of reaction. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Expedient synthesis of 17α,21-dihydroxy-9β,11β-epoxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-acetate from prednisolone utilising a novel Mattox rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Hulcoop, David G; Shapland, Peter D P

    2013-12-11

    A six step transformation of prednisolone to 17α,21-dihydroxy-9β,11β-epoxy-16α-amethylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-acetate has been achieved in 13% unoptimised yield. Novel conditions for effecting a Mattox rearrangement and double dehydration of prednisolone were identified. Enhanced knowledge on the oxidation of silyl Δ(19,20)-enol ethers and structural factors that impact the success of the oxidation are also presented.

  1. A Unified Approach to the Daucane and Sphenolobane Bicyclo[5.3.0]decane Core: Enantioselective Total Syntheses of Daucene, Daucenal, Epoxydaucenal B, and 14-p-Anisoyloxydauc-4,8-diene

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Access to the bicyclo[5.3.0]decane core found in the daucane and sphenolobane terpenoids via a key enone intermediate enables the enantioselective total syntheses of daucene, daucenal, epoxydaucenal B, and 14-p-anisoyloxydauc-4,8-diene. Central aspects include a catalytic asymmetric alkylation followed by a ring contraction and ring closing metathesis to generate the five and seven-membered rings respectively. PMID:24302464

  2. Preparative isolation and purification of cuminaldehyde and p-menta-1,4-dien-7-al from the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinqin; Hu, Xuefang; Li, Jingming; Liu, Ping; Yang, Yang; Ni, Yuanying

    2011-03-09

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique in semi-preparative scale was successfully used in isolation and purification of cuminaldehyde and p-menta-1,4-dien-7-al from the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. by using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methanol-water (5:4:1, v/v/v). The targeted compounds were isolated, collected, purified by HSCCC in the head-tail mode, and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). A total of 12.72 ± 0.22 mg of cuminaldehyde and 10.61 ± 0.27 mg of p-menta-1,4-dien-7-al were obtained from 50 mg of the essential oil of C. cyminum L. in less than 6 h, with purities of 95.42% and 97.21%, respectively. In addition to GC-EI/MS, the identity of the cuminaldehyde was further confirmed with the retention time using the method of standard addition, while, the structural identification of p-menta-1,4-dien-7-al was performed with GC-EI/MS, (1)H NMR and (1)H-(1)H COSY.

  3. endo/exo stereoselectivity in Diels-Alder reactions of α,β-dialkylated conjugated enals to cyclic 1,3-dienes: intermediates in the synthesis of (-)-β-santalol and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Christian; Skuy, David; de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Brauchli, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Highly exo-selective [4+2] cycloadditions of cyclopenta-1,3-diene 2a to α,β-dialkyl conjugated enals 5 are compared with the analogous endo-favored Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexa-1,3-diene 7. The exo-stereoselectivity is lower in the homologous case of methylcyclopenta-1,3-diene 9. This diastereoselectivity is discussed either in terms of a retro-homo-Diels-Alder reaction, associated with thermodynamic control, or with respect to either a competing hetero-Diels-Alder/Claisen or Cope domino pathway, or retro-Claisen/retro-hetero-Diels-Alder of the endo-homo-cycloadducts. These hypothetical mechanisms have been examined by DFT calculations at the MPW1K(CH2 Cl2 )/6-31+G** level of theory for the AlCl3 -mediated cycloadditions of 5d to 2a and 7. Application of Corey's methodology to the γ-halogeno-α-methyl-substituted dienophiles 5a and 5b allowed an enantioselective preparation of known and useful intermediates for the synthesis of either the naturally occurring (-)-β-santalol or its potentially olfactive structural analogs. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. An ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of N (1),N (4)-diphenyl-3,6-bis-(phenyl-imino)-cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene-1,4-di-amine.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Keiji; Fujihara, Takashi; Nagasawa, Akira

    2014-04-01

    A new ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the title compound, C30H24N4, with a density of 1.315 Mg m(-3), has been obtained. The mol-ecule is centrosymmetric with the centroid of the cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene ring located on an inversion center. The two unique benzene rings are almost perpendicular to each other [dihedral angle = 86.70 (6)°] and are oriented at dihedral angles of 30.79 (5) and 68.07 (5)° with respect to the central cyclo-hexa-diene ring. In the crystal, π-π stacking is observed between the central cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene-1,4-di-amine unit and a phenyl ring of a neighboring mol-ecule [centroid-centroid distance = 3.7043 (7) Å]. The crystal structure of the triclinic polymorph [Ohno et al. (2014 ▶). Acta Cryst. E70, o303-o304] showed chains running along the b-axis direction through weak C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  5. Dual Regulation of Cell Death and Cell Survival upon Induction of Cellular Stress by Isopimara-7,15-Dien-19-Oic Acid in Cervical Cancer, HeLa Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abu, Nadiah; Yeap, Swee K.; Pauzi, Ahmad Z. Mat; Akhtar, M. Nadeem; Zamberi, Nur R.; Ismail, Jamil; Zareen, Seema; Alitheen, Noorjahan B.

    2016-01-01

    The Fritillaria imperialis is an ornamental flower that can be found in various parts of the world including Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Himalayas. The use of this plant as traditional remedy is widely known. This study aims to unveil the anti-cancer potentials of Isopimara-7,15-Dien-19-Oic Acid, extracted from the bulbs of F. imperialis in cervical cancer cell line, HeLa cells. Flow cytometry analysis of cell death, gene expression analysis via cDNA microarray and protein array were performed. Based on the results, Isopimara-7,15-Dien-19-Oic acid simultaneously induced cell death and promoted cell survival. The execution of apoptosis was apparent based on the flow cytometry results and regulation of both pro and anti-apoptotic genes. Additionally, the regulation of anti-oxidant genes were up-regulated especially thioredoxin, glutathione and superoxide dismutase- related genes. Moreover, the treatment also induced the activation of pro-survival heat shock proteins. Collectively, Isopimara-7,15-Dien-19-Oic Acid managed to induce cellular stress in HeLa cells and activate several anti- and pro survival pathways. PMID:27065873

  6. Solvothermal syntheses, crystal structures, and thermal stability of two new thioantimonates(III) using complex transition metal cations as structure directing agents: the layered compound [Ni(dien) 2]Sb 4S 7·H 2O and the three-dimensional compound [Ni(dien) 2] 3Sb 12S 21·H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähler, Ralph; Näther, Christian; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2003-09-01

    The two new thioantimonates(III) [Ni(dien) 2]Sb 4S 7·H 2O ( I) and [Ni(dien) 2] 3Sb 12S 21·H 2O ( II) were prepared under solvothermal conditions using elemental Ni, Sb, S and an aqueous solution of diethylenetriamine (dien) as solvent. Compound I crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ c, a=9.603(2) Å, b=16.137(3) Å, c=17.272(4) Å, β=91.68(3)°, V=2675.3(9) Å 3, Z=4 and compound II crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/ c with a=12.6072(7) Å, b=14.9967(7) Å, c=41.445(2) Å, β=95.371(6)°, V=7801.4(7) Å 3, Z=4. The two-dimensional ∞2[Sb 4S 72-] anion in I is composed of two SbS 3 trigonal pyramids and two SbS 4 units. The SbS 3 units are connected via one corner to form a Sb 2S 5 unit and the two SbS 4 moieties share a common edge building a trans-Sb 2S 6 unit. The Sb 2S 5 and trans-Sb 2S 6 units have one common S atom to form the layered ∞2[Sb 4S 72-] anion. Within the layers Sb 2S 2, Sb 4S 4 and Sb 8S 8 heterorings are found with the mer-[Ni(dien) 2] 2+ residing above and below the large pores. In compound II the ∞3[Sb 12S 216-] anion is composed of four SbS 3 pyramids and two SbS 4 units. The condensation of the different primary units yields Sb xS x rings with x=2,3,4,8, and 32. The largest ring consists of 64 atoms (Sb 32S 32) and the pores with an ellipsoidal shape are oriented parallel to the [110] direction. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest Sb xS x heteroring found in thioantimonates(III) so far. The cations are located above and below the large ring or within the plane of the ring. Nearly rectangular channels are running along [101] which have dimensions of about 7.6·13.5 Å. The channels are occupied by the water molecule and by the ligands pointing into the channels. The thermal behavior of the compounds was investigated using differential thermoanalysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG) and mass spectroscopy (MS) measurements. Upon heating decomposition of the compounds starts at Tonset=235°C (I) and Tonset

  7. In situ reactive compatibilization of polypropylene/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer thermoplastic vulcanizate by zinc dimethacrylate via peroxide-induced dynamic vulcanization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yukun; Xu, Chuanhui; Liang, Xingquan; Cao, Liming

    2013-09-12

    This work demonstrates an approach of in situ reactive compatibilization between polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) by using zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) as a compatibilizer and, simultaneously, as a very strong reinforcing agent. With the incorporation of 7phr ZDMA in the PP/EPDM (30/70, w/w) thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV), the tensile strength, tear strength, elongation at break, and hardness of PP/EPDM/ZDMA TPV were increased from 5.3 MPa, 31.3 kN/m, 222%, and 78 up to 11.2 MPa, 64.2 kN/m, 396%, and 83, respectively. This tremendous reinforcing as well as the compatibilization effect of the ZDMA was understood by polymerization of ZDMA and ZDMA reacted with EPDM and PP during peroxide-induced dynamic vulcanization. A peculiar phase structure that rubber particles were surrounded and "bonded" by a thick transition zone that contained numerous of nanoparticles with dimensions of about 20-30 nm was observed from transmission electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that incorporation of ZDMA reduced the size of the cross-linked EPDM particles. Moreover, we found that the compatibilized TPV showed a higher tan δ peak temperature for EPDM phase and a lower tan δ peak temperature for PP phase. The suggested method for in situ reactive compatibilization of PP and EPDM offers routes to the design of new TPV-based technical products for diversified applications.

  8. Crystal structure of di-n-but­yl­bis­(η 5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Perdita; Schubert, Kathleen; Burlakov, Vladimir V.; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Hf(C10H15)2(C4H9)2], reveals two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The diffraction experiment was performed with a racemically twinned crystal showing a 0.529 (5):0.471 (5) component ratio. Each HfIV atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl and two n-butyl ligands in a distorted tetra­hedral geometry, with the cyclo­penta­dienyl rings inclined to one another by 45.11 (15) and 45.37 (16)°. In contrast to the isostructural di(n-butyl)bis(η 5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)zirconium(IV) complex with a noticeable difference in the Zr–butyl bonding, the Hf—Cbut­yl bond lengths differ from each other by no more than 0.039 (3) Å. PMID:25878834

  9. Bis[bis-(penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)cobalt(III)] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate(II) di-chloro-methane disolvate.

    PubMed

    Merola, Joseph S; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra-hydro-furan. There are two deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di-chloro-methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di-chloro-methane mol-ecules display significant C-H⋯Cl inter-actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca-methyl-cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4](-2) ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis.

  10. Enhanced Production of Androst-1,4-Diene-3,17-Dione by Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12 Using Three-Stage Fermentation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Minglong; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming; Xu, Meijuan; Yang, Taowei; Li, Hui; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    To improve the androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) production from phytosterol by Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12, fructose was firstly found favorable as the initial carbon source to increase the biomass and eliminate the lag phase of M. neoaurum JC-12 in the phytosterol transformation process. Based on this phenomenon, two-stage fermentation by using fructose as the initial carbon source and feeding glucose to maintain strain metabolism was designed. By applying this strategy, the fermentation duration was decreased from 168 h to 120 h with the ADD productivity increased from 0.071 g/(L·h) to 0.108 g/(L·h). Further, three-stage fermentation by adding phytosterol to improve ADD production at the end of the two-stage fermentation was carried out and the final ADD production reached 18.6 g/L, which is the highest reported ADD production using phytosterol as substrate. Thus, this strategy provides a possible way in enhancing the ADD production in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26352898

  11. Enhanced Production of Androst-1,4-Diene-3,17-Dione by Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12 Using Three-Stage Fermentation Strategy.

    PubMed

    Shao, Minglong; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming; Xu, Meijuan; Yang, Taowei; Li, Hui; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    To improve the androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) production from phytosterol by Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12, fructose was firstly found favorable as the initial carbon source to increase the biomass and eliminate the lag phase of M. neoaurum JC-12 in the phytosterol transformation process. Based on this phenomenon, two-stage fermentation by using fructose as the initial carbon source and feeding glucose to maintain strain metabolism was designed. By applying this strategy, the fermentation duration was decreased from 168 h to 120 h with the ADD productivity increased from 0.071 g/(L·h) to 0.108 g/(L·h). Further, three-stage fermentation by adding phytosterol to improve ADD production at the end of the two-stage fermentation was carried out and the final ADD production reached 18.6 g/L, which is the highest reported ADD production using phytosterol as substrate. Thus, this strategy provides a possible way in enhancing the ADD production in pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Growth and characterization of a new organic nonlinear optical crystal: 1-(3-Nitrophenyl)-5-phenylpenta-2,4-dien-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, P. S.; Kumar, P. Ajay; Venugopal Rao, S.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2015-08-01

    Organic nonlinear optical single crystal of 1-(3-Nitrophenyl)-5-phenylpenta-2,4-dien-1-one (Ci3NC) with dimensions 25×15×10 mm3 was successfully grown for the first time by the slow evaporation solution growth technique (SEST). The structural perfection of the grown crystals has been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curve measurements, and it was found that the crystalline perfection is reasonably good having very low angle (tilt angle ≤1‧) internal structural grain boundary. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study its thermal properties. Powder test with Nd:YAG laser radiation shows second harmonic generation which is about 7 times that of urea. The optical transmittance window and the lower cutoff wavelength of the Ci3NC have been identified by UV-vis-NIR studies. Third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response of Ci3NC has been examined using Z-scan technique with femtosecond (fs), MHz pulses at wavelengths of 870 nm and 900 nm. Various NLO coefficients such as two-photon absorption (2PA) coefficient (β), three photon absorption (3PA) coefficient (γ), and nonlinear refractive index (η2) were evaluated.

  13. First acyclic diene metathesis polymerization under biphasic conditions using a dicationic ruthenium alkylidene: access to high-molecular-weight polymers with very low ruthenium contamination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Dongren; Autenrieth, Benjamin; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization of 6-hydroxy-1,10-undecadiene (M1) and 6-acetoxy-1,10-undecadiene (M2) by the action of two different catalysts, i.e., the second-generation Grubbs-Hoveyda system ([RuCl2(IMesH2)(CH-2-(2-PrO-C6H4)]) (1) and the dicationic ruthenium alkylidene [Ru(DMF)3(IMesH2)(CH-2-(2-PrO-C6H4)] (2, IMesH2 = 1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene) is reported. Biphasic conditions using 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BDMIM(+)BF4(-)]) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) are applied. Under the chosen conditions (T = 75 °C, 20 mbar), the use of catalyst 1 results only in the formation of low-molecular-weight polymers (Mn ≤ 10,000 g mol(-1)), while catalyst 2 allows for the high yield synthesis of high-molecular-weight polymers (Mn ≤ 40,000 g mol(-1), yields ≤ 99%). Irrespective of the catalyst used, all polymers display a high trans-content (>95%). Notably, Ru-contamination of the target polymers without any additional purification is as low as 1.2 ppm with catalyst 2. Together with the high yields and high molecular weights, the low Ru-contaminations clearly illustrate the advantages of the biphasic setup.

  14. New gastroprotective labdeneamides from (4S,9R,10R) methyl 18-carboxy-labda-8,13(E)-diene-15-oate.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Pertino, Mariano Walter; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yesilada, Erdem; Monsalve, Francisco; González, Paulo; Droguett, Daniel; Richomme, Pascal; Hadi, A Hamid; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2012-03-01

    Starting from the diterpene (4S,9R,10R) methyl 18-carboxy-labda-8,13(E)-dien-15-oate (PMD) and its 8(9)-en isomer [PMD 8(9)-en], 11 amides were prepared and assessed for a gastroprotective effect in the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric lesions model in mice. Basal cytotoxicity of the compounds was determined on the following human cell lines: normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS), and hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2). All compounds are described for the first time. At the single oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg, compounds 1, 10, and 11 presented a strong gastroprotective effect, at least comparable with that of the reference compound lansoprazole at 1 mg/kg, reducing gastric lesions by 76.7, 67.7, and 77.2 %, respectively. The leucyl amide methyl ester 3, tryptophanyl amide methyl ester 5, and benzyl amide 6 of PMD presented a selective basal cytotoxicity on Hep G2 cells with IC₅₀ values of 136.8, 105.3, and 94.2 µM, respectively, while the IC₅₀ values towards AGS cells were 439.5, 928.0, and 937.3 µM, respectively. The three compounds did not affect fibroblast viability with IC₅₀ values > 1000 µM. Compounds 7, 8, 10, and 11 showed no toxic effect against the three selected cell lines.

  15. Prise maternelle d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens et fermeture du canal artériel

    PubMed Central

    Ndour, Daouda Diamane

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons un cas de fermeture prématurée in utero du canal artériel diagnostiqué chez un fœtus en état d’anasarque avec insuffisance cardiaque majeure après prise d’anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdiens (AINS) par la mère. Une échographie obstétricale au deuxième trimestre a permis la découverte d’une asymétrie des cavités cardiaques. L’indication de césarienne a été posée à 30 semaines d’aménorrhées devant un fœtus en état d’anasarque avec insuffisance cardiaque majeure sur une fermeture anténatale du canal artériel. A partir de ce cas nous nous proposons de réaliser une revue de la littérature pour illustrer les complications fœtales et néonatales potentielles résultant de la fermeture précoce du canal artériel secondaire à la prise d’AINS pendant la grossesse. PMID:28293367

  16. The electronic states of buta-1,3-diene studied by ab initio configuration interaction and DFT methods, and electron energy loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H., Michael; | Isobel C., Palmer; Walker

    2010-08-01

    The electronic vertical excitation energies for singlet and triplet valence, and Rydberg states of trans-buta-1,3-diene have been computed using ab initio multi-reference multi-root CI procedures with a [4s3p3d3f] set of Rydberg functions. Close numerical agreement between theory and experiment was found for a number of low-lying electronic states. The present CI and CASSCF [8MO,8e] calculations suggest that both the vertical and adiabatic order of the valence (ππ∗) states is: A˜1A

  17. Prostaglandin-induced radioprotection of murine intestinal crypts and villi by a PGE diene analog (SC-44932) and a PGI analog (Iloprost)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Wayne R.; Collins, Paul W.

    The aminothiols exemplified by WR-2721 are effective radioprotectors; however, their toxicity associated with hypotension, nausea, and emesis has limited their development for applications in medicine or in hazardous radiation environments. There is a need for new radioprotectors that have fewer toxic side effects when given alone or combined with reduced amounts of thiols. A variety of prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to be radioprotective agents and some appear to have fewer toxic side effects than the aminothiols. Iloprost, a stable PGI, analog protects the clonogenic epithelial cells of intestinal crypts but does not protect epithelial cells of the villi. In contrast, an E-series omega chain diene analog designated SC-44932 protects epithelial cells of both crypts and villi. When the two are combined, protection of the crypts is additive and the villi are protected to the same degree as when SC-44932 is given alone. Since radioprotection for some PGs has been shown to be dependent upon receptors, we suggest that the pattern of radioprotection seen with these two analogs depend on the location of the respective receptors or on the ability of differentiated villus cells to respond to PGs. By studying different analogs, we hope to identify mechanisms associated with PG-induced radioprotection and to identify the most protective PG analogs for applications of radioprotection.

  18. The Diels-Alder reaction of 4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxan with 1-trimethylsilyloxybuta-1,3-diene: a case example of a stepwise cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Sami; Terrier, François; Vichard, Dominique; Berionni, Guillaume; El Guesmi, Nizar; Goumont, Régis; Boubaker, Taoufik

    2010-05-17

    The reaction of 4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF) with 1-trimethylsilyloxybuta-1,3-diene (8) is shown to afford a mixture of [2+4] diastereomeric cycloadducts (10, 11) through stepwise addition-cyclization pathways. Zwitterionic intermediate sigma-adduct 9, which is involved in the processes, has been successfully characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and UV/visible spectrophotometry in acetonitrile. A kinetic study has been carried out in this solvent that revealed that the rate of formation of 9 nicely fits the three-parameter equation log k=s(E+N) developed by Mayr to describe the feasibility of nucleophile-electrophile combinations. This significantly adds to the NMR spectroscopic evidence that the overall cycloadditions take place through a stepwise mechanism. The reaction has also been studied in dichloromethane and toluene. In these less polar solvents, the stability of 9 is not sufficient to allow direct characterization by spectroscopic methods, but a kinetic investigation supports the view that stepwise processes are still operating. An informative comparison of our reaction with previous interactions firmly identified as prototype stepwise cycloadditions is made on the basis of the global electrophilicity index, omega, defined by Parr within the density functional theory, and highlighted by Domingo et al. as a powerful tool for understanding Diels-Alder reactions.

  19. DFT investigation of the mecahanism and stereochemistry of electrophilic transannular addition reaction of bromine to tricyclo[4.2.2.02,5]deca-3,7-diene.

    PubMed

    Abbasoglu, Rza; Misir, Miraç Nedim

    2012-03-01

    Full geometric optimization of tricyclo[4.2.2.02,5]deca-3,7-diene (TDD) has been done by DFT/B3LYP methods and the structure of the molecule was investigated. Cyclobuten double bond (I) of molecule is syn pyramidalized, and bicyclookten double bond (II) is also exo pyramidalized. The double bond (I) is more pyramidalized than the double bond (II) and it has higher reactivity. The TDD-Br2 system has been investigated by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method and their stable configurations have been determined. The cationic intermediates and products obtained as a result of the addition reaction has been studied using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods. Bridged bromonium cation is more stable than U-type cation. Considering that the bridged cation does not isomerize to the less stable U-type cation, it is not possible for the U-type product to be obtained in the reaction. The bridged bromonium cation transformed into the more stable N-type cation and the N-type product was obtained via this cation. The thermodynamic stability of the anti, exo and anti, endo isomers of N-type dibromide molecule were almost identical. N-type product is 11.759 kcal mol more stable than U-type product.

  20. Preparation of Fe3O4/SiO2-guanidine organobase catalyst for 1,5-diphenylpenta-2,4-dien-1-one synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyana, A. H.; Fitria, D.; Ardiansah, B.; Rahayu, D. U. C.

    2017-04-01

    A novel heterogeneous organobase catalyst of Fe3O4/SiO2-guanidine was prepared in three stages. First, Fe3O4 nanoparticle was obtained by co-precipitation method using seaweed Sargassum Sp. as natural reductant. Fe3O4 was then coated by SiO2 using TEOS as silica source, resulting Fe3O4/SiO2. Finally, Fe3O4/SiO2-Guanidine was obtained by modifying Fe3O4/SiO2 with guanidine in the suitable reaction condition. This organobase catalyst was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). The material was then used as a highly active catalyst in aldol condensation reaction between acetophenone and cinnamaldehyde to produce 1,5-diphenylpenta-2,4-dien-1-one. The structure elucidation of the organic product was confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, and LC-MS.

  1. The role of the intersection space in the photochemistry of tricyclo[3.3.0.0(2,6)]octa-3,7-diene.

    PubMed

    Frutos, Luis Manuel; Sancho, Unai; Garavelli, Marco; Olivucci, Massimo; Castaño, Obis

    2007-04-19

    CASSCF and CASPT2 methods were used to study the photochemistry of tricyclo[3.3.0.0(2,6)]octa-3,7-diene (TOD). The analysis of different S1 reaction paths as well as the topology of the S1/S0 intersection space allows us to establish two novel properties associated with the photochemical behavior of this compound: (i) simple low-lying intersection space domains can mediate different photoproducts, and (ii) TOD photochemistry is probably mediated by two disconnected intersection space domains, related to the formation of cyclooctatetraene and semibulvalene in different time-scales. It is shown that these domains are chemically distinct since the first, leading to COT, mediates barrierless pericyclic reactions while the second, leading to SBV, is accessed through the formation of an excited-state biradical intermediate. To the best of our knowledge, in the domain of single molecule photochemistry, TOD represents the first example where a different chemical role of distinct low-lying intersection spaces has been computationally documented. The observed photoproducts can be rationalized in terms of branching space diagrams, constructed by determining the branching space (derivative coupling and gradient difference vectors) for each conical intersection involved in the photochemical process.

  2. Morphology study of peroxide-induced dynamically vulcanized polypropylene/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer/zinc dimethacrylate blends during tensile deformation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yukun; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Liming; Wang, Yanpeng; Fang, Liming

    2013-06-27

    Polypropylene (PP)/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)/zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) blend (EPDM/PP ratio of 30/70) with remarkable extensibility was successfully prepared via peroxide dynamic vulcanization. The uniaxial tensile properties, crystallization behavior, structure, and morphology during stretching were investigated. The tensile process study showed that the PP/EPDM/ZDMA blend exhibited the rubbery-like behavior with an elongation beyond 600%. The ZDMA graft-product domain increased the compatibility and interfacial adhesion between rubber and PP phases, while it reduced the crystallinity of the PP phase. On the basis of TEM and SEM analyses, we found that the cross-linked rubber particles could be elongated and oriented along the tensile direction, whereas the ZDMA graft-product domain "encapsulated" rubber phase together, acting as a "bridge" between elongated rubber phases and the PP phase during uniaxial stretching. The stress could be effectively transferred from the PP phase to the numerous elongated rubber phases due to the excellent compatibility and interfacial adhesion between rubber and PP phases, resulting in the rubbery-like behavior.

  3. Thermal aging of interfacial polymer chains in ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer/aluminum hydroxide composites: solid-state NMR study.

    PubMed

    Gabrielle, Brice; Lorthioir, Cédric; Lauprêtre, Françoise

    2011-11-03

    The possible influence of micrometric-size filler particles on the thermo-oxidative degradation behavior of the polymer chains at polymer/filler interfaces is still an open question. In this study, a cross-linked ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) terpolymer filled by aluminum trihydrate (ATH) particles is investigated using (1)H solid-state NMR. The time evolution of the EPDM network microstructure under thermal aging at 80 °C is monitored as a function of the exposure time and compared to that of an unfilled EPDM network displaying a similar initial structure. While nearly no variations of the topology are observed on the neat EPDM network over 5 days at 80 °C, a significant amount of chain scission phenomena are evidenced in EPDM/ATH. A specific surface effect induced by ATH on the thermodegradative properties of the polymer chains located in their vicinity is thus pointed out. Close to the filler particles, a higher amount of chain scissions are detected, and the characteristic length scale related to these interfacial regions displaying a significant thermo-oxidation process is determined as a function of the aging time.

  4. Abcès thyroïdien révélant un basedow: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Chenguir, Meriem; Souldi, Hajar; Loufad, Fatima Zahra; Rouadi, Sami; Abada, Reda; Roubal, Mohamed; Mahtar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    L’abcès thyroïdien est une entité clinique très rare. Elle représente 0,1% des pathologies chirurgicales de la thyroïde. Les caractéristiques anatomique et physiologique de la glande lui procurent une résistance vis-à-vis des agents pathogènes. Les infections à Streptococcies et Staphylococcus sont les plus fréquentes. La tuberculose reste rarement rapportée dans la littérature. La survenue de l’infection sur goitre toxique est exceptionnelle. Les auteurs rapportent un cas rare d’abcès thyroïdien révélant un goitre toxique chez un jeune de 22 ans. Il s’est présenté aux urgences ORL pour une tuméfaction cervicale antérieure, légèrement latéralisée à gauche, mobile à la déglutition, associée à des hémoptysies, signes de dysthyroïdie, fièvre et sueurs nocturnes. La TDM cervicale a montré une masse occupant le lobe thyroïdien gauche de contenu liquidien mesurant 2 cm, avec un liquide purulent à la cytoponction. L’examen cyto-bactériologique a mis en évidence un Staphylococcus avec recherche de BK positive. Une radiographie thoracique a été demandée montrant un foyer alvéolaire pulmonaire apical droit. L’étude cytobactériologique des crachats ont isolé le bacille de koch. Le bilan biologique thyroïdien était en faveur d’un Basedow. La prise en charge était médicale comprenait une tri-antibiothérapie par voie parentérale, anti-bacillaire et anti-thyroïdien de synthèse avec bonne évolution. Le diagnostic de la tuberculose doit être évoqué devant toute abcédation thyroïdienne avec un tableau clinique peu bruyant. Il s’agit le plus souvent d’une dissémination hématogène à partir d’un autre foyer de primo-infection surtout pulmonaire. Le traitement est basé sur les anti-bacillaires associé parfois à la chirurgie. PMID:27795799

  5. Abcès thyroïdien à Escherichia coli: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Fassih, Malika; Moujahid, Essadik; Abada, Reda; Rouadi, Sami; Mahtar, Mohamed; Roubal, Mohamed; Essadi, Moustapha; El Kadiri, Mohamed Fatmi

    2012-01-01

    L’abcès de la thyroïde est une entité pathologique extrêmement rare, représentant seulement 0.1% des pathologies chirurgicales de la thyroïde. C’est une situation inhabituelle en raison des caractéristiques anatomiques et physiologiques de la glande qui lui donne une capacité de résistance vis-à-vis des infections. Nous rapportons un cas rare d’abcès thyroïdien à Escherichia. coli survenu chez une patiente de 55 ans, immunodéprimée: diabétique insulinodépendante non équilibrée, hypertendue mal suivie avec insuffisance cardiaque gauche, et en insuffisance rénale chronique terminale. La patiente s’est présentée aux urgences avec une tuméfaction basi-cervicale antérieure évoluant sur 10 jours, prédominante à droite, mesurant 6 cm, sensible, inflammatoire, mobile à la déglutition, avec une dyspnée mixte, sueurs et fièvre. Un scanner cervico-thoracique mettait en évidence un énorme processus du lobe thyroïdien droit à contenu liquidien de 9cm, refoulement des voies aériennes supérieures. Une cytoponction à l’aiguille ramenait 10 ml de liquide purulent. Le drainage chirurgical a été réalisé sous anesthésie locale vue le risque d’intubation difficile devant le blindage cervical en présence d’une trachée difficilement accessible. Une E. coli était isolée après la culture du liquide de drainage. La patiente était porteuse d’un bricker depuis l’enfance pour malformation de la vessie. Ceci suggère une bactériémie à point de départ urinaire, avec embole septique au niveau de la glande thyroïde. L’évolution était bonne sous tri-antibiothérapie, et des pansements biquotidiens, avec équilibration de son diabète et insuffisance rénale chronique. Nous rappellerons à travers cette observation les moyens de défense de la thyroïde contre les infections, les différents facteurs prédisposant à l’abcès de la thyroïde, et les germes incriminés dans chaque étiologie. Nous discuterons les

  6. Effect of storage time and conditions on the diene valepotriates content of the extract of Valeriana glechomifolia obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Müller, Liz Girardi; de Andrade Salles, Luisa; Sakamoto, Satchie; Stein, Ana Cristina; Cargnin, Simone Tasca; Cassel, Eduardo; Vargas, Rubem Figueiró; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2012-01-01

    Valepotriates (epoxy iridoid esters) represent an important group of constituents that contribute to pharmacological effects for the genus Valeriana. Storage and extraction of valepotriates is a demanding task, as these compounds are thermolabile and unstable: even when decomposition products are not formed, isovaleric acid liberation from the iridoid nucleus originate compounds with less complex substituents. To study the influence of time and storage conditions on the diene valepotriates (valtrate, isovaltrate, acevaltrate, 1-β-acevaltrate, 1-β-aceacevaltrate) content of the Valeriana glechomifolia (native to southern Brazil), extract was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction using CO₂ as the fluid (SF-CO₂). Above-ground and below-ground material of V. glechomifolia was extracted by SF-CO₂ (40 °C, 90 bar). The extract was stored under nitrogen atmosphere or solubilised in methanol. Valepotriates stability was accessed during storage at -20 °C over 8 months through reverse-phase HPLC (mobile phase acetonitrile:water 50:50 (v/v); 254 nm). A gradual increase in valtrate levels and decrease in acevaltrate, 1-β-acevaltrate and 1-β-aceacevaltrate, concentration were observed from the first month of storage for the dry extract. However, for the methanol solubilised extract these changes occurred only after the third month and were accompanied by reduction in isovaltrate levels and formation of decomposition products. SF-CO₂ showed high selectivity for valepotriates extraction. This is the first report on valepotriates molecular conversion, which was less accelerated when the extract was stored in methanol, but under this condition degradation products are also present, probably baldrinals, that are not observed in the dry extract. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of PTP/[Fe(CN)3(dien)]·H2O nanocomposite; study of electrical, thermal and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosvi, Syed Kazim; Majid, Kowsar; Ara, Tabassum

    2016-10-01

    Polythiophene/[Fe(CN)3(dien)]·H2O nanocomposite was synthesised by oxidative chemical polymerisation method. Photoadduct was synthesised by irradiating an equimolar mixture of potassium ferricyanide and diethylenetriamine which was then reduced to nanosize by high energy ball mill. The reduction of photoadduct to nanosize was confirmed from XRD. Nanocomposite of PTP with photoadduct was then prepared by oxidative chemical polymerisation using FeCl3 as oxidant. The successful synthesis of nanocomposite was confirmed from FTIR, XRD and SEM. TGA revealed higher thermal stability of nanocomposite as compared to pure PTP. I-V characteristics plotted on a log-log scale showed two distinct power law regions in case of nanocomposite. At lower voltages, the transport mechanism follows Ohm's law. At higher voltages, the mechanism is consistent with space charge-limited emission. Furthermore, nanocomposite shows enhanced conductivity as compared to pure PTP. From dielectric studies, an appreciable high value of dielectric constant (4.4 × 106 at 100 Hz) and ac conductivity (2.1 × 109 S/m at 300 kHz) of nanocomposite was obtained. This indicates the possible application of this nanocomposite in charge storage devices. The photocatalytic activity of the materials was studied against the methyl orange (MO) dye under UV-Vis light and 76% degradation of MO dye was achieved in presence of nanocomposite in just 2 h, hence indicating its better photocatalytic efficiency. Results thus obtained indicate the synthesised nanocomposite can be used as a multifunctional material for different nanoelectronic devices.

  8. μ2-m-Xylylenebis(salicylaldiminato)-bis­(η4-1,5-cyclo­octa­diene)dirhodium(I) dichloro­methane solvate

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Stacie; Laxman, Ravi K.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Maverick, Andrew W.; Watkins, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    In the title solvate, [Rh2(C22H18N2O2)(C8H12)2]·CH2Cl2, each organometallic mol­ecule is composed of two RhI cations, the tetra­dentate dianion α,α′-bis­(salicylaldiminato)-m-xylene and two 1,5-cyclo­octa­diene (COD) ligands. Each RhI atom is coordinated by one O atom [Rh—O = 2.044 (2) and 2.026 (2) Å], one N atom [Rh—N = 2.083 (2) and 2.090 (2) Å], and one COD ligand via two η2-bonds, each directed toward the mid-point of a C=C bond (Cg): Rh—Cg = 2.007 (2), 2.013 (2), 2.000 (2) and 2.021 (2) Å. Each RhI atom has a quasi-square-planar coordination geometry, with average r.m.s. deviations of 0.159 (1) and 0.204 (1) Å from the mean planes defined by Rh and the termini of its four coordinating bonds. The two COD ligands have quasi-C 2 symmetry, twisted from ideal C 2v symmetry by 30.0 (3) and −33.1 (3)°, and are quasi-enanti­omers of one another. The intra­molecular Rh⋯Rh distance of 5.9432 (3) Å suggests that there is no direct metal–metal inter­action. PMID:23125626

  9. μ(2)-m-Xylylenebis(salicylaldiminato)-bis-(η(4)-1,5-cyclo-octa-diene)dirhodium(I) dichloro-methane solvate.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Stacie; Laxman, Ravi K; Fronczek, Frank R; Maverick, Andrew W; Watkins, Steven F

    2012-10-01

    In the title solvate, [Rh(2)(C(22)H(18)N(2)O(2))(C(8)H(12))(2)]·CH(2)Cl(2), each organometallic mol-ecule is composed of two Rh(I) cations, the tetra-dentate dianion α,α'-bis-(salicylaldiminato)-m-xylene and two 1,5-cyclo-octa-diene (COD) ligands. Each Rh(I) atom is coordinated by one O atom [Rh-O = 2.044 (2) and 2.026 (2) Å], one N atom [Rh-N = 2.083 (2) and 2.090 (2) Å], and one COD ligand via two η(2)-bonds, each directed toward the mid-point of a C=C bond (Cg): Rh-Cg = 2.007 (2), 2.013 (2), 2.000 (2) and 2.021 (2) Å. Each Rh(I) atom has a quasi-square-planar coordination geometry, with average r.m.s. deviations of 0.159 (1) and 0.204 (1) Å from the mean planes defined by Rh and the termini of its four coordinating bonds. The two COD ligands have quasi-C(2) symmetry, twisted from ideal C(2v) symmetry by 30.0 (3) and -33.1 (3)°, and are quasi-enanti-omers of one another. The intra-molecular Rh⋯Rh distance of 5.9432 (3) Å suggests that there is no direct metal-metal inter-action.

  10. Efficient androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione production by co-expressing 3-ketosteroid-Δ(1) -dehydrogenase and catalase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shao, M; Sha, Z; Zhang, X; Rao, Z; Xu, M; Yang, T; Xu, Z; Yang, S

    2017-01-01

    3-ketosteroid-Δ(1) -dehydrogenase (KSDD), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent enzyme involved in sterol metabolism, specifically catalyses the conversion of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) to androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD). However, the low KSDD activity and the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) generated during the biotransformation of AD to ADD with FAD regeneration hinder its application on AD conversion. The aim of this work was to improve KSDD activity and eliminate the toxic effects of the generated H2 O2 to enhance ADD production. The ksdd gene obtained from Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12 was codon-optimized to increase its expression level in Bacillus subtilis, and the KSDD activity reached 12·3 U mg(-1) , which was sevenfold of that of codon-unoptimized gene. To improve AD conversion, catalase was co-expressed with KSDD in B. subtilis 168/pMA5-ksdd(opt) -katA to eliminate the toxic effects of H2 O2 generated during AD conversion. Finally, under optimized bioconversion conditions, fed-batch strategy was carried out and the ADD yield improved to 8·76 g l(-1) . This work demonstrates the potential to improve enzyme activity by codon-optimization and eliminate the toxic effects of H2 O2 by co-expressing catalase. This study showed the highest ADD productivity ever reported and provides a promising strain for efficient ADD production in the pharmaceutical industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  12. Protection of HepG2 cells against acrolein toxicity by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide via glutathione-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth AS; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity. PMID:25504014

  13. Wound healing activity of ent-kaura-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid isolated from Wedelia trilobata (L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Balekar, Neelam; Nakpheng, Titpawan; Katkam, Nadpi Gangadhar; Srichana, Teerapol

    2012-10-15

    Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine in the Caribbean and Central America for stubborn wounds, sores, swelling, arthritic painful joints. The present study was carried out to derive bioactive compounds from ethanolic extracts of W. trilobata (L.) leaves that could influence wound healing. W. trilobata leaves extract were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. The five fractions (WEA1-A, B, C, D, and E) obtained were tested for antimicrobial activity. Out of the five fractions only the fraction (WEA1-B) containing ent-kaura-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid showed promising antibacterial activity with MIC value of 15.62μg/ml against S. aureus and 7.81μg/ml against S. epidermidis. It was then further assessed for its possible activity on fibroblasts by measuring their percentage cell viability and on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. WEA1-B (2.5-0.08μg/ml) produced an increase in the percentage viability of mouse fibroblast L929 cells from 97 to 117% and protection of the fibroblast L929 cells against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (94-80%). The present study provides some scientific evidence for the traditional use of W. trilobata in the management of wound healing due to a combination of antimicrobial, stimulation of fibroblast growth and protection of the cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury, all of which could play some role in its effect on tissue repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase I Study of the Synthetic Triterpenoid, 2-Cyano-3, 12-Dioxoolean-1, 9-Dien-28-Oic Acid (CDDO), in Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Speranza, Giovanna; Gutierrez, Martin E.; Kummar, Shivaani; Parker, Robert J.; Collins, Jerry; Yu, Yunkai; Cao, Liang; Murgo, Anthony J.; Doroshow, James H.; Chen, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Background The triterpenoid 2-Cyano-3, 12-Dioxoolean-1, 9-Dien-28-Oic Acid (CDDO, previously RTA-401) is a multifunctional molecule that controls cellular growth and differentiation. It is capable of activating the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inducing apoptosis in malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. We conducted a phase I dose-escalation study to determine the toxicity, the maximum tolerated dose, and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CDDO, administered as a 5-day continuous infusion every 28 days in patients with advanced cancers. Methods An accelerated titration design was followed, with one patient per cohort entered, and doses ranging from 0.6 mg/m2/hr to 38.4 mg/m2/hr. Pharmacokinetics of CDDO was assessed and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (c-PARP), as a marker of apoptosis, was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to assess drug effect. Results Seven patients, one patient per dose level up to dose level 7 (38.4 mg/m2/hr), were enrolled and received a total of 11 courses of treatment. Cmax increased proportionally with dose. Preclinically determined efficacious blood level (1 μM) of drug was attained at the highest dose level. One patient, at dose level 6, experienced grade 2 mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Four patients, on different dose levels, developed thromboembolic events subsequently considered as dose-limiting toxicity. No anti-tumor activity was noted. Conclusion A causal relationship of observed thromboembolic events to CDDO was considered possible but could not be established. Because of the adverse events and the development of an orally bioavailable derivative compound, CDDO methyl ester, this trial was terminated. PMID:21805353

  15. Low-molecular-weight model study of peroxide cross-linking of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry II. Addition and combination reactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, R; van Duin, M; Tonoli, D; Kwakkenbos, G; Mengerink, Y; van Benthem, R A T M; de Koster, C G; Schoenmakers, P J; van der Wal, Sj

    2008-08-08

    The dicumyl-peroxide-initiated addition and combination reactions of mixtures of alkanes (n-octane, n-decane) and alkenes [5,6-dihydrodicyclopentadiene (DCPDH), 5-ethylidene-2-norbornane (ENBH) and 5-vinylidene-2-norbornane (VNBH)] were studied to mimic the peroxide cross-linking reactions of terpolymerised ethylene, propylene and a diene monomer (EPDM). The reaction products of the mixtures were separated by both gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). The separated compounds were identified from their mass spectra and their GC and GCxGC elution pattern. Quantification of the various alkyl/alkyl, alkyl/allyl and allyl/allyl combination products shows that allylic-radicals comprise approximately 60% of the substrate radicals formed. The total concentration of the products formed by combination is found to be independent of the concentration and the type of alkene. The total concentration of the products formed by addition to the alkene increases with increasing concentration of alkene. In addition, the total concentration of the formed addition products depends strongly on the type of the alkene used, viz. VNBH>ENBH approximately DCPDH, which is a consequence of differences in steric hindrance of the unsaturation. The peroxide curing efficiency, defined as the number of moles of cross-linked products formed per mol of peroxide, is 173% using 9% (w/w) 5-vinylidene-2-norbornane (VNBH). This indicates that the addition reaction is recurrent. All these findings are consistent with experimental studies on peroxide curing of EPDM rubber. In addition, the present results provide more-detailed structural information, increasing the understanding of the mechanism of peroxide curing of EPDM. The described approach to use low-molecular-weight model compounds followed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and GCxGC-MS analysis is proven to be a very powerful tool to study the cross-linking of EPDM.

  16. Evidence supporting a role for calcium in apoptosis induction by the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO).

    PubMed

    Hail, Numsen; Konopleva, Marina; Sporn, Michael; Lotan, Reuben; Andreeff, Michael

    2004-03-19

    The synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) is a novel anticancer agent that induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The cytotoxic stress underpinning CDDO-induced apoptosis has not been established. This study compared and contrasted the effects of CDDO on COLO 16 human skin cancer cells and their respiration-deficient (rho(0)) clones to elucidate the stress signal responsible for initiating apoptosis. CDDO promoted apoptosis in COLO 16 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The rho(0) clones appeared to be more sensitive to CDDO-induced apoptosis implying that the disruption of mitochondrial respiration was not directly associated with triggering cell death. After a 4-h exposure to CDDO, mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential-sensitive dyes revealed mitochondrial hyperpolarization in the COLO 16 cells and mitochondrial depolarization in the rho(0) clones. Electron microscopy illustrated that this exposure also promoted mitochondrial condensation, endoplasmic reticulum dilation, and chromatin condensation in the COLO 16 cells. Endoplasmic reticulum dilation and chromatin condensation were also observed in the rho(0) clones, but the mitochondria in these cells were markedly swollen implying that the disruption of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis was associated with cell death. A Ca(2+)-sensitive dye confirmed that CDDO increased cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) in the COLO 16 cells, their rho(0) clones, as well as in malignant breast and lung epithelial cells. A cell-permeant Ca(2+) chelator reduced the CDDO-induced increase in cytoplasmic free Ca(2+), and inhibited caspase activation, the development of apoptotic morphology, and DNA fragmentation in the COLO 16 cells, implying that Ca(2+) played a pivotal role in signaling the initiation of apoptosis.

  17. Eléments traces dans le sérum des enfants malnutris et bien nourris vivants à Lubumbashi et Kawama dans un contexte d'un environnement de pollution minière

    PubMed Central

    Musimwa, Aimée Mudekereza; Kanteng, Gray Wakamb; Kitoko, Hermann Tamubango; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La place des éléments traces métalliques essentiels en nutrition humaine ne peut plus être ignorée. Les déficits d'apports, les carences secondaires souvent sous – estimées, et les carences iatrogènes font le lit de pathologies telles que les infections et autres. D'où leurs dosages ont une importance particulière pour en évaluer la gravité et faciliter une prise en charge précoce ou améliorer le régime alimentaire. Cette étude a eu pour objectif de déterminer le profil sanguin en éléments traces (cuivre, sélénium, zinc, fer, chrome, cobalt, etc) chez les enfants malnutris et biens nourris dans un milieu minier à Lubumbashi. Méthodes Trois cents onze cas ont été colligés, 182 malnutris et 129 biens nourris, dans une étude descriptive transversale, effectuée de juillet 2013 à décembre 2014. Pour lequel un échantillonnage exhaustif a été réalisé. Le dosage des métaux dans le sérum s'est fait à l’ ICP-OES (spectrométrie de masse à plasma gon induit) au laboratoire de l'Office Congolais de Contrôle de Lubumbashi. Résultats Les oligoéléments essentiels (cuivre, zinc, sélénium et fer) se retrouvent à des concentrations très basses chez les enfants malnutris comme chez les biens nourris. L'arsenic, le cadmium, le magnésium et le manganèse se présentent à des concentrations normales par rapport aux valeurs de références chez les enfants biens nourris. L'antimoine, le chrome, le plomb et le cobalt se retrouvent élevés chez les malnutris et biens nourris. Le nickel est normal chez les malnutris et les biens nourris. Le magnésium, manganèse se sont présentés à des taux très bas chez les enfants malnutris. Conclusion Les enfants malnutris et biens nourris présentent une malnutrition aux oligo-éléments essentiels associés aux éléments traces métalliques. Ce qui permet de supposer qu'une carence en micronutriments essentiel favorise l'absorption des métaux lourds. PMID:27583075

  18. Roadside BTEX and other gaseous air pollutants in relation to emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truc, Vo Thi Quynh; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    Hourly concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylenes, and o-xylene (BTEX) plus CO, NO x, SO 2 were monitored at roadsides simultaneously with the traffic volume during the dry season of 2004, in Hanoi, Vietnam. The selected three streets included Truong Chinh (TC) with high traffic volume, Dien Bien Phu (DBP) with low traffic volume, and Nguyen Trai (NT) with high traffic volume running through an industrial estate. BTEX were sampled by SKC charcoal tubes and analyzed by GC-FID. Geometric means of hourly benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylenes and o-xylene are, respectively, 65, 62, 15, 43, and 22 μg m -3 in TC street; 30, 38, 9, 26, and 13 μg m -3 in DBP street; and 123, 87, 24, 56, and 30 μg m -3 in NT street. Levels of other gaseous pollutants including CO, NO x, and SO 2, measured by automatic instruments, were low and not exceeding the Vietnam national ambient air quality standards. BTEX levels were comparatively analyzed for different downwind distances (3-50 m) from the street, between peak hours and off-peak hours, as well as between weekdays and weekend. Results of principal component analysis suggest that the gaseous pollutants are associated with different vehicle types.

  19. C-24 Stereochemistry of Marine Sterols: (22E)-25,28-Dimethyl- stigmasta-5,22,28-trien-3β-ol and 25,28-Dimethylstigmasta-5,28-dien-3β-ol.

    PubMed

    Nojo, Rie; Echigo, Shizue; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2014-12-01

    The C-24 configurations of (22E)-25,28-dimethylstigmasta-5,22,28-trien-3β-ol (1) and 25,28-dimethylstigmasta-5,28-dien-3β-ol (2), isolated from the sponge Topsentia ophiraphidites in our previous work, were determined to be both S, through the synthesis of stereodefined (24S)- and (24R)-epimers of 1 and 2 and comparison of the 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data. In addition, the C-24 configurations of the marine sterols having the same structures as 1 and 2 and their derivatives were also assigned for the first time by NMR comparison.

  20. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C10H18 Bicyclo[4.4.0]decane (HMSD1111, LB4030_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C10H18 Bicyclo[4.4.0]decane (HMSD1111, LB4030_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (VMSD1211, LB3964_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (VMSD1211, LB3964_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C10H18 Bicyclo[4.4.0]decane (VMSD1211, LB3958_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C10H18 Bicyclo[4.4.0]decane (VMSD1211, LB3958_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  3. Magnetic field effect on the exciplex between all-s-trans-1,4-diphenylbuta-1,3-diene and 1,4-dicyanobenzene: a comparative study with other α,ω-diphenyl polyenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Tamal; Basu, Samita

    2001-04-01

    The exciplex between all-s-trans-1,4-diphenylbuta-1,3-diene and 1,4-dicyanobenzene has been studied by steady state fluorescence along with the magnetic field effect (MFE) and compared with the other α,ω-diphenyl polyenes. The exciplex formation and magnetic field effect are dictated by the chain length of the polyene rather than the electronic requirement of these phenomena. The wavelength dependence of the MFE confirms the presence of two different charge-transfer complexes.

  4. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (HMSD1111, LB4036_H)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Cyclohexa-1,3-diene C6H8 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (HMSD1111, LB4036_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  5. Magnetic field effect on the exciplex between all-s-trans- 1,4-diphenylbuta- 1,3-diene and 1,4-dicyanobenzene: a comparative study with other alpha,omega-diphenyl polyenes.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, T; Basu, S

    2001-04-01

    The exciplex between all-s-trans-1,4-diphenylbuta-1,3-diene and 1,4-dicyanobenzene has been studied by steady state fluorescence along with the magnetic field effect (MFE) and compared with the other alpha,omega-diphenyl polyenes. The exciplex formation and magnetic field effect are dictated by the chain length of the polyene rather than the electronic requirement of these phenomena. The wavelength dependence of the MFE confirms the presence of two different charge-transfer complexes.

  6. 3-tert-Butyl-Substituted Cyclohexa-1,4-dienes as Isobutane Equivalents in the B(C6 F5 )3 -Catalyzed Transfer Hydro-tert-Butylation of Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Keess, Sebastian; Oestreich, Martin

    2017-05-02

    Cyclohexa-1,4-dienes with a tert-butyl group at C3 are shown to function as isobutane equivalents when activated by the strong boron Lewis acid tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane. The hitherto unprecedented transfer hydro-tert-butylation from one unsaturated hydrocarbon to another is achieved with 1,1-diarylalkenes as substrates, thereby presenting itself as a new way of incorporating tertiary alkyl groups into carbon frameworks. Transient carbocation intermediates give rise to competing reaction pathways that could not be fully suppressed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 5-Amino-3-eth­oxy-1,8,8-trimethyl-2-aza­bicyclo­[2.2.2]octa-2,5-diene-4,6-dicarbo­nitrile

    PubMed Central

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Suwunwong, Thitipone; Ruanwas, Pumsak; Boonnak, Nawong; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2012-01-01

    The title 2-aza­bicyclo­[2.2.2]octa-2,5-diene derivative, C14H18N4O, crystallized out with two independent mol­ecules with similar conformations in the asymmetric unit. In each mol­ecule, the three six-membered rings adopt boat conformations. The mol­ecules exist in the enamine form. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network parallel to the ab plane. PMID:22969511

  8. Solution structure and dynamics of lanthanide complexes of the macrocyclic polyamino carboxylate DTPA-dien. NMR study and crystal structures of the lanthanum(III) and europium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, S.J.; Raymond, K.N.

    1994-12-07

    An 18-membered macrocyclic DTPA-bis(amide) ligand (DTPA = diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) containing a heteroatom in the amide link has been prepared via the condensation of DTPA-dianhydride and diethylenetriamine. The solution structures of the two isomeric pairs present in the Ln(III) complexes of DTPA-dien have been investigated by {sup 1}H NMR. The structures of the lanthanum(III) and europium(III) DTPA-dien complexes have been determined by X-ray analysis. [La(DTPA-dienH{sup +})H{sub 2}O]{sub 2}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}){sub 2}{center_dot}18H{sub 2}O (I) crystallizes as a carboxylate-bridged dimer about a center of inversion in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 12.626(2) {angstrom}, b = 21.405(3) {angstrom}, c = 26.422(9) {angstrom}, and Z = 8. Each lanthanum ion is 11-coordinate with octadentate ligand coordination, an {eta}{sup 2} bridging carboxylate, and one water. [Eu(DTPA-dienH{sup +})]{sub 4}(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}){sub 4}{center_dot}6NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{center_dot}20H{sub 2}O (II) crystallizes as a carboxylate-bridged tetramer with two crystallographically independent Eu(III) positions (Z = 8 for each) in the monoclinic space group C2/c: a = 30.94(1) {angstrom}, b = 23.456(3) {angstrom}, c = 22.611(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 105.78(2){degrees}. The coordination geometries about Eu1 and Eu2 are nearly identical and are described as a nine-coordinate tricapped trigonal prism with octadentate ligand coordination plus an {eta}{sup 1} bridging carboxylate. The tendency to oligomerize is attributed to the constraints imposed by the macrocycle and the hydrogen bonding available with the link heteroatom. The structural differences between the two complexes are attributed to a difference in La(III) and Eu(III) ionic size.

  9. Copolymerization of isoprene and nonconjugated α,ω-dienes by half-sandwich scandium catalysts with and without a coordinative side arm.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Nishiura, Masayoshi; Li, Yang; Hou, Zhaomin

    2013-10-01

    A series of half-sandwich scandium-dialkyl complexes that bear various auxiliary ligands have been examined for the copolymerization of isoprene (IP) with nonconjugated α,ω-dienes such as 1,5-hexadiene (HD) and 1,6-heptadiene (HPD). Significant ligand influence on the catalytic activity and selectivity has been observed. The thf-coordinated complex [(C5Me4SiMe3)Sc(CH2SiMe3)2(thf)] (2) and the methoxy side arm containing the half-sandwich complex [(C5Me4C6H4OMe-o)Sc(CH2SiMe3)2] (3), in combination with an equivalent of [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], can serve as excellent catalysts for the random cyclocopolymerizations of IP with HD and HPD. The resulting random HD-IP copolymers contain five-membered-ring methylene-1,3-cyclopentane (MCP), 3,4-polyisoprene (3,4-IP), and 1,4-polyisoprene (1,4-IP) units with controllable HD incorporation in a range of 17-82 mol%. The random HPD-IP copolymers possess six-membered-ring methylene-1,3-cyclohexane (MCH), 1,4-IP, and 3,4-IP units with HPD incorporation in a range of 11-55 mol%. By use of a catalyst that bears a phosphine oxide group [{C5Me4SiMe2CH2P(O)Ph2}Sc(CH2SiMe3)2] (5), the alternating copolymerizations of IP with HD and HPD have been achieved for the first time in which HD and HPD are completely cyclized to the MCP and MCH units, respectively. More remarkably, in the alternating copolymerization of HPD and IP by 5, the regio- and stereospecific cis-MCH selectivity reached as high as 99%. The microstructures and compositions of these copolymers showed significant influences on their mechanical properties.

  10. Redirection of carotenoid metabolism for the efficient production of taxadiene [taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene] in transgenic tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Katalin; Zhang, Lina; Linforth, Robert S T; Whittaker, Benjamin; Hayes, Christopher J; Fray, Rupert G

    2007-02-01

    The taxanes are a group of polycyclic diterpenes produced by various species of yew. The potent anticancer drug paclitaxel (marketed as Taxol) is the commercially most important taxane with annual sales in 2000 exceeding 1.6 billion dollars. Paclitaxel is currently obtained either by direct extraction from yew trees or by the extraction of the precursor 10-deactilbaccatin III, which is then converted to paclitaxel by semi-synthesis. Apart from cost, one of the main draw backs to taxol in cancer treatment is the development of resistance by tumours, commonly due to the expression of ABC transporter efflux pumps which remove the drug from the target cell. A number of natural taxanes and semisynthetic derivates, have recently been shown to act as potent inhibitors of ABC transport proteins. These compounds have no effect upon microtubule polymerization (the normal target of paclitaxel), but have the ability to restore drug sensitivity when given in combination with paclitaxel to resistant cell lines. In work to be described elsewhere, we sort to carry out a structure function analysis of the ability of novel oxidised taxanes to act as ABC transporter inhibitors. For this study 100 mg or more of taxadiene [taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene], the first taxane in the paclitaxel pathway, was required as starting material from which to synthesize these compounds. Taxadiene is synthesised directly from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which is found in most plant tissues where it serves as a common precursor for many metabolites. The synthesis and use of GGDP are tightly regulated in most vegetative organs, however, in tomato fruit it is used almost exclusively for the production of coloured carotenoids which accumulate to high levels in the plastid as lycopene crystals. Expressing taxadiene synthase in a yellow-fruited tomato line that lacks the ability to utilise GGPP for carotenoid synthesis allowed GGPP normally utilised for making carotenoids to be re-routed for the production

  11. Thermal and metal-catalyzed cyclization of 1-substituted 3,5-dien-1-ynes via a [1,7]-hydrogen shift: development of a tandem aldol condensation-dehydration and aromatization catalysis between 3-en-1-yn-5-al units and cyclic ketones.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jian-Jou; Lin, Chung-Chang; Chang, Hsu-Kai; Chen, Po-Chiang; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2006-08-02

    This work investigates the feasibility of thermal and catalytic cyclization of 6,6-disubstituted 3,5-dien-1-ynes via a 1,7-hydrogen shift. Our strategy began with an understanding of a structural correlation of 3,5-dien-1-ynes with their thermal cyclization efficiency. Thermal cyclization proceeded only with 3,5-dien-1-ynes bearing an electron-withdrawing C(1)-phenyl or C(6)-carbonyl substituent, but the efficiencies were generally low (20-40% yields). On the basis of this structure-activity relationship, we conclude that such a [1,7]-hydrogen shift is characterized by a "protonic" hydrogen shift, which should be catalyzed by pi-alkyne activators. We prepared various 6,6-disubstituted 3,5-dien-1-ynes bearing either a phenyl or a carbonyl group, and we found their thermal cyclizations to be greatly enhanced by RuCl(3), PtCl(2), and TpRuPPh(3)(CH(3)CN)(2)PF(6) catalysts to confirm our hypothesis: the C(7)-H acidity of 3,5-dien-1-ynes is crucial for thermal cyclization. To achieve the atom economy, we have developed a tandem aldol condensation-dehydration and aromatization catalysis between cycloalkanones and special 3-en-1-yn-5-als using the weakly acidic catalyst CpRu(PPh(3))(2)Cl, which provided complex 1-indanones and alpha-tetralones with yields exceeding 65% in most cases. The deuterium-labeling experiments reveal two operable pathways for the metal-catalyzed [1,7]-hydrogen shift of 3,5-dien-1-ynes. Formation of alpha-tetralones d(4)-56 arises from a concerted [1,7]-hydrogen shift, whereas benzene derivative d(4)-9 proceeds through a proton dissociation and reprotonation process.

  12. 3,4-Dihydroxy-1,6-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)hexa-2,4-diene-1,6-dione, its 4-methylphenyl analogue, and a potassium salt of 2-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nye, Luke; Turnbull, Mark M; Wikaira, Jan L

    2013-11-01

    Reaction of 4-methoxyacetophenone with diethyl oxalate under basic conditions produced 3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)hexa-2,4-diene-1,6-dione, C20H18O6, (1). The molecules lie across a crystallographic inversion centre and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, similar to acetylacetone, is observed, confirming that the molecule is in the di-enol-dione tautomeric form. Additional O-H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains parallel to the b axis. The structure is compared with that of redetermined 4-methylphenyl compound 3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(4-methylphenyl)hexa-2,4-diene-1,6-dione, C20H18O4, (2), which crystallizes in a similar fashion. The salt, catena-poly[[μ2-2-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobut-2-enoato-κ(3)O(1),O(2):O(4)][μ2-2-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid-κ(2)O(1):O(4)]potassium], [K(C11H9O5)(C11H10O5)]n, (3), was isolated as a by-product of the synthesis of (1). The two organic species are linked by a strong hydrogen bond between the carboxylic acid and carboxylate groups. They are further stabilized and linked into a double-chain structure via the seven-coordinate potassium ion.

  13. Crystal structure of 4,4-di­bromo-1-(3,4-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2-aza­buta-1,3-diene-1-carbo­nitrile

    PubMed Central

    Chaabene, Marwa; Khatyr, Abderrahim; Knorr, Michael; Askri, Moheddine; Rousselin, Yoann; Kubicki, Marek M.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C12H10Br2N2O2, represents an example of a planar π-con­jugated 2-aza­butadiene mol­ecule, which is both an inter­esting starting material for further organic transformations and a potential ligand in organometallic coordination chemistry. Its metric mol­ecular parameters are typical for the family of 2-aza­buta-1,3-dienes not substituted at the (CH) 3-position. In the crystal, the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0658 Å) aza­diene mol­ecules form one-dimensional double-wide ribbons through inter­molecular halogen bonds (C—Br⋯O and C—Br⋯Br—C), which then stack in a slipped manner through weak C—H⋯Br and π–π inter­actions to generate a three-dimensional network. PMID:27536405

  14. Pyrolysis of 9-methylenespiro(3. 5)nona-5,7-diene: A route to benzo-2-hexene-1,6-diyl, a putative intermediate in the retro-Diels-Alder reaction of tetralin

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, J.J.; Paul, G.C. )

    1990-07-20

    A precursor to the 1,6-biradical potentially formed in the retro-Diels-Alder reaction of tetralin, namely, 5-methylenespiro(bicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene-6,1{prime}-cyclobutan)-7-one (9) has been prepared and found to give tetralin and o-allyltoluene upon pyrolysis in solution below 100C and upon flash vacuum pyrolysis around 250C. The product ratio changes from 1:1 to 6:1 at higher temperatures. Rate-determining loss of CO from 9 to give 9-methylenespiro(3.5)nona-5,7-diene, 2, has been demonstrated by trapping the triene with N-methyl- and N-phenyltriazolinedione in a reaction whose rate is independent of trapping agent concentration. The kinetics for loss of ketone, 9, gave log k (s{sup {minus}1}) = 14.628 {plus minus} 0.038-(30.554 {plus minus} 0.064)/2.3RT. Pyrolysis of cis-cyn(to methylene)- and trans-1,2-dimethyl-9-methylenespiro(3.5)nona-5,7-diene gives the vinylcyclobutane rearrangement product, 2,3-dimethyltetralin, with a 4:1 and 2.7:1, respectively, preference for retention over inversion at the migrating carbon. Hydrogen shift products are also formed and by highly ordered transition states. One of these hydrogen shifts involves an unprecedented shift from the carbon remote from the vinyl group.

  15. ([2.2.2]Cryptand-κ6 O)potassium (η4-cyclo­octa­diene)bis­(η2-pyrene)cobaltate(1−) pentane hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Brennessel, William W.; Ellis, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The cation, anion, and solvent in the title compound, [K(C18H36N2O6)][Co(C8H12)(C16H10)2]·0.5C5H12, are well separated. The pentane solvent mol­ecules are found in channels along [100] and were modeled as disordered over crystallographic inversion centers. Using the mid-points of the coordinated olefins, the angle between the Cpy/Cpy–Co–Cpy/Cpy and the Ccod/Ccod–Co–Ccod/Ccod planes (py is pyrene and cod is cyclo­octa­diene) is 67.6 (2)°. Thus, the overall geometry of the coordination sphere around cobalt is best described as distorted tetra­hedral. PMID:22807709

  16. Synthesis of an anti-Bredt compound, bicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1,6,8-triene, via the isomerization of tricyclo[3.2.2.0(2,4)]nona-2,6-diene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gon-Ann; Lin, Hung-Chun

    2014-10-17

    A highly strained 1,3-fused tricyclic cyclopropene, tricyclo[3.2.2.0(2,4)]nona-2,6-diene (15), was designed for use in the synthesis of a new highly strained anti-Bredt compound, bicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1,6,8-triene (17). Tricyclic cyclopropene 15 was subjected to a ring-opening reaction followed by insertion of the resulting carbene to produce an anti-Bredt compound 17. The tricyclic cyclopropene 15 was prepared by the fluoride-induced elimination of 2-chloro-3-trimethylsilyltricyclo[3.2.2.0(2,4)]non-6-ene (20), via the reaction of 1-chloro-3-trimethylsilylcyclopropene with 1,3-cyclohexadiene. Both the tricyclic cyclopropene 15 and the anti-Bredt compound 17 were trapped by diphenylisobenzofuran (DPIBF).

  17. [4+2] cycloaddition reactions between 1,8-disubstituted cyclooctatetraenes and diazo dienophiles: stereoelectronic effects, anticancer properties and application to the synthesis of 7,8-substituted bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-2,4-dienes.

    PubMed

    Grange, Rebecca L; Gallen, Michael J; Schill, Heiko; Johns, Jenny P; Dong, Lin; Parsons, Peter G; Reddell, Paul W; Gordon, Victoria A; Bernhardt, Paul V; Williams, Craig M

    2010-08-02

    A detailed examination of [4+2] cycloaddition reactions between 1,8-disubstituted cyclooctatetraenes and diazo compounds revealed that 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione (PTAD) reacts to form either 2,3- or 3,4-disubstituted adducts. The product distribution can be controlled by modulating the electron density of the cyclooctatetraene. Unprecedented [4+2] cycloadditions between diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (DIAD) and 1,8-disubstituted cyclooctatetraenes are also described and further manipulation of a resulting cycloadduct uncovered a new pathway to the synthetically challenging bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-2,4-diene family. Variation of the substituents resulted in a range of compounds displaying selective action against different human tumour cell types.

  18. Chemistry and Tumor Cell Growth Inhibitory Activity of 11,20-Epoxy-3Z,5(6)E-diene Briaranes from the South China Sea Gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cui; Jiang, Mei; La, Ming-Ping; Li, Tie-Jun; Tang, Hua; Sun, Peng; Liu, Bao-Shu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen new 11,20-epoxy-3Z,5E-dien briaranes, gemmacolides AA–AR (1–18), were isolated together with three known analogs, dichotellides F (19) and I (20), and juncenolide C (21), from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configuration was determined based on the ECD experiment. In the in vitro bioassay, compounds 1–3, 5, 6, 8–12, and 14–19 exhibited different levels of growth inhibition activity against A549 and MG63 cell lines. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that 12-O-isovalerate may increase the activity whereas 13- or 14-O-isovalerate may decrease the activity. Contribution of substitutions at C-2 and C-16 remains uncertain. PMID:23697947

  19. Design and synthesis of 2-phenyl-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-ones as potential anticancer agents starting from cytotoxic spiromamakone A.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Shinichiro; Inaba, Kennichi; Takagi, Motoki; Tanaka, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Takahashi, Takashi; Doi, Takayuki

    2013-08-01

    The spirocycle is a key structure found in many bioactive compounds. From the cytotoxic and spirocyclic natural product, spiromamakone A (1) and its analogues, a more synthetically accessible spiroacetal template 4 was designed based on structural similarity analysis. A total of 50 compounds were rapidly synthesized in only one or two synthetic steps from the starting compound, and their cytotoxicity was evaluated. As a result, (±)-(2R*,5R*)-2-(4-iodophenyl)-7-chloro-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one (7d-II) was discovered and found to be fifteen-fold more cytotoxic than 1. The easily accessible spiroacetal 7d-II appeared to act in a manner similar to the highly oxidized natural product, spiromamakone A (1).

  20. Photochemistry of tricyclo[5.2.2.0(2,6)]undeca-4,10-dien-8-ones: an efficient general route to substituted linear triquinanes from 2-methoxyphenols. Total synthesis of (+/-)-Delta(9(12))-capnellene.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Day-Shin; Chou, Yu-Yu; Tung, Yen-Shih; Liao, Chun-Chen

    2010-03-08

    An efficient and short entry to polyfunctionalized linear triquinanes from 2-methoxyphenols is described by utilizing the following chemistry. The Diels-Alder reactions of masked o-benzoquinones, derived from 2-methoxyphenols, with cyclopentadiene afford tricyclo[5.2.2.0(2,6)]undeca-4,10-dien-8-ones. Photochemical oxa-di-pi-methane (ODPM) rearrangements and 1,3-acyl shifts of the Diels-Alder adducts are investigated. The ODPM-rearranged products are further converted to linear triquinanes by using an O-stannyl ketyl fragmentation. Application of this efficient strategy to the total synthesis of (+/-)-Delta(9(12))-capnellene was accomplished from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol in nine steps with 20 % overall yield.

  1. Crystal structure of dimethyl 3,4,5,6-tetra­phenyl­cyclo­hexa-3,5-diene-1,2-di­carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Fred H.; Nazarenko, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C34H28O4, the cyclo­hexa­diene ring has a screw-boat conformation with a torsion angle between the double bonds being on average ca 15° [15.2 (3) and −15.3 (3) in the two independent mol­ecules]. All four phenyl rings in both mol­ecules are arranged in a propeller-like conformation. The two mol­ecules exhibit S,R- and R,S- chirality, respectively, and are connected via C—H⋯O inter­molecular inter­actions. In turn, these weakly bound dimers form the mol­ecular crystal. PMID:27555937

  2. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-4-phenyl­butan-2-one)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C10H12O)][B(C6H5)4], crystallizes as discrete (η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)Ru(η6-4-phenyl­butan-2-one)]+ cations and [BPh4]− anions. In the cation, the non-H atoms of the butan-2-one group are approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.056 Å) and lie nearly perpendicular to the plane of the phenyl ring with a dihedral angle between the two planes of 69.3 (1)°. No significant C—H⋯O inter­actions are observed between the methyl and phenyl H atoms and the carbonyl O atom. PMID:21589253

  3. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-p-toluene­sulfonamide)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Healy, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(C7H9NO2S)]C24H20B, has been determined as part of our investigation into the structural and biological properties of organometallic RuII–arene–Cp* complex salts of the type [R-PhRuCp*]+·X − (where Cp* is penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­diene). Tethering the RuCp* group to the benzene ring of p-toluene­sulfonamide results in only minor changes to the mol­ecular geometry of the sulfonamide, but, together with crystallization as the [BPh4]− salt, effectively blocks involvement of the sulfonamide group in N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding networks. PMID:21581173

  4. Identification of (3S, 9R)- and (3S, 9S)-megastigma-6,7-dien-3,5,9-triol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides as damascenone progenitors in the flowers of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Shigetaka; Mizoguchi, Masaya; Hirata, Satoshi; Takagi, Kazuteru; Hashimoto, Ikue; Yamano, Yumiko; Ito, Masayoshi; Fleischmann, Peter; Winterhalter, Peter; Morita, Tetuichiro; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2002-12-01

    The progenitors of damascenone (1), the most intensive C13-norisoprenoid volatile aroma constituent of rose essential oil, were surveyed in the flowers of Rosa damascena Mill. Besides 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-7,8-didehydro-beta-ionol (4b), a stable progenitor already isolated from the residual water after steam distillation of flowers of R. damascena Mill., two labile progenitors were identified to be (3S, 9R)- and (3S, 9S)-megastigma-6,7-dien-3,5,9-triol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides (2b) based on their synthesis and HPLC-MS analytical data. Compound 2b gave damascenone (1), 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone (3) and 4b upon heating under acidic conditions.

  5. Trichlorido{2-[2-(η-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)-2-methyl-prop-yl]-1-trimethyl-silyl-1H-imidazole-κN}titanium(IV) tetra-hydro-furan hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Ge, Fang; Nie, Wanli; Borzov, Maxim V; Churakov, Andrei V

    2010-04-21

    The title compound, [Ti(C(15)H(23)N(2)Si)Cl(3)]·0.5C(4)H(8)O, has been prepared from {2-[2-(η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)-2-methyl-prop-yl]-1H-imidazolyl-κN(1)}bis-(N,N-diethyl-amido-κN)titanium(IV), (C(12)H(14)N(2))Ti(NEt(2))(2), by reaction with excess of Me(3)SiCl in tetra-hydro-furan (THF) at 353 K. The crystal structure contains THF as adduct solvent, disordered around a center of inversion. The presence of THF and the adduct ratio has been independently supported by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The coordination polyhedron of the Ti atom is distorted square-pyramidal, assuming the cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp) ring occupies one coordination site. The Ti, Si and CH(2) group C atoms only deviate slightly from the imidazole ring plane [by 0.021 (4), 0.133 (4) and 0.094 (4) Å, respectively]. Comparison of the principal geometric parameters with those of the few known structurally characterized analogues reveal small differences in bond lengths and angles at the Ti atom. The title complex is only stable in THF-d(8) in the presence of excess Me(3)SiCl, otherwise it exists in an equilibrium with equimolar amounts of dichlorido{2-[2-(η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)-2-methyl-prop-yl]-1H-imidazolyl-κN(3)}titanium(IV) and chloro-trimethyl-silane.

  6. Effects of age and polytherapy, risk factors of valproic acid (VPA) hepatotoxicity, on the excretion of thiol conjugates of (E)-2,4-diene VPA in people with epilepsy taking VPA.

    PubMed

    Gopaul, Sashi; Farrell, Kevin; Abbott, Frank

    2003-03-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug (AED) used for generalized and absence seizures. It has a rare but potentially fatal hepatotoxicity side effect, and many researchers believe that reactive metabolites of VPA could be involved. We demonstrated here that the thiol conjugates of (E)-2,4-diene VPA were significantly elevated in a high-risk group of patients. Thirty-four patients with seizures were divided into three groups. Group A (n = 14) were being treated with VPA; group B (n = 12) received VPA as well as other AEDs that do not induce P450-VPA metabolism; and group C (n = 8) received VPA and AEDs that induce P450-VPA metabolism. The NAC conjugates of (E)-2,4-diene VPA (NAC I and NAC II) were identified in the urine of patients by gas chromatography/mass spectrography NICI analysis. VPA monotherapy (group A) or VPA polytherapy with non-P450-enzyme-inducing drugs (group B), showed that patients younger than 7.5 years excreted significantly higher concentrations of the two conjugates compared with older patients (older than 7.5 years) in the same groups (p < 0.05). Patients receiving VPA polytherapy with P450-enzyme-inducing drugs were all older than 7. 5 years (group C). They excreted significantly higher concentrations of NAC I and NAC II compared with patients in groups A and B who were older than 7.5 years (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the excretion of NAC I and NAC II between patients in group C and those who were 7.5 years or younger in groups A and B. High doses of VPA also were a significant factor associated with elevated NAC I and NAC II among young patients and in polytherapy patients.

  7. Lewis Acid and Substituent Effects on the Molecular Mechanism for the Nazarov Reaction of Penta-1,4-dien-3-one and Derivatives. A Topological Analysis Based on the Combined Use of Electron Localization Function and Catastrophe Theory.

    PubMed

    Polo, Victor; Andrés, Juan

    2007-05-01

    The joint use of the topological analysis provided by the electron localization function (ELF) and catastrophe theory (CT), at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculation level, allows us to examine the Lewis acid (protonation H(+) and presence of BH3) and the role of an electron donor substituent (-OCH3) at α and β positions along the course of the molecular mechanism for the Nazarov rearrangement of penta-1,4-dien-3-one and eight derivatives. The progress of the reaction is monitored by the changes of the ELF structural stability domains (SSDs), each change being controlled by a turning point derived from CT. These SSDs and the corresponding turning points are associated with a sequence of elementary chemical steps. Along the cyclization path of penta-1,4-diene-3-one, four SSDs as well as three turning points (cusp1-fold1-cusp2) have been characterized. The first and second SSDs correspond to a polarization of the C-O bond and electronic redistribution among the C-C bonds, respectively, and they can be associated with the formation of an oxyallyl structure. The third and fourth SSDs can be assigned to the ring closure process. Protonation of the oxygen atom shifts the reactive directly into the second SSD, greatly reducing the activation and reaction energies. The electronic effects due to Lewis acids and electron donor substituents have been rationalized in terms of calculations of mesomeric structures from ELF basin populations. The combination of Lewis acids together with α and β -OCH3 substitutions renders a cooperative and competitive effect on activation and reaction free energies, respectively.

  8. Bis[bis­(penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt(III)] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate(II) di­chloro­methane disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Joseph S.; Ngo, Mai; Karpin, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C10H15)2]2[CoCl4]·2CH2Cl2, was isolated as a dichloromethane solvate and was formed in the reaction between lithium penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienide and anyhydrous cobalt(II) chloride in tetra­hydro­furan. There are two deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cations, one tetrachloridocobaltate(II) anion and two di­chloro­methane solvent mol­ecules in the formula unit. There is a slight disorder of the di­chloro­methane solvent which was treated with a two-site model [occupancy rates = 0.765 (4) and 0.235 (4)]. The di­chloro­methane mol­ecules display significant C—H⋯Cl inter­actions with the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion. The cobalt atom of the deca­methyl­cobaltocenium cation sits on a twofold rotation axis, with only one penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­diene ligand being unique and the second generated by symmetry. The cobalt atom of the [CoCl4]−2 ion sits on a special site with -4 symmetry, with one unique chloride ligand and the others generated by the fourfold inversion axis. PMID:24426998

  9. Therapeutic effects of C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me; bardoxolone methyl) on radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Yang; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ma, Ya-Qiong; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhe, Hong; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me), one of the synthetic triterpenoids, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. However, its usefulness in mitigating radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), including radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, has not been tested. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of CDDO-Me on RILI in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Herein, we found that administration of CDDO-Me improved the histopathological score, reduced the number of inflammatory cells and concentrations of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suppressed secretion and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-6, elevated expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and downregulated the mRNA level of profibrotic genes, including for fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I. CDDO-Me attenuated radiation-induced lung inflammation. CDDO-Me also decreased the Masson's trichrome stain score, hydroxyproline content, and mRNA level of profibrotic genes, and blocked radiation-induced collagen accumulation and fibrosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that CDDO-Me ameliorates radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, and this synthetic triterpenoid is a promising novel therapeutic agent for RILI. Further mechanistic, efficacy, and safety studies are warranted to elucidate the role of CDDO-Me in the management of RILI.

  10. Therapeutic effects of C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me; bardoxolone methyl) on radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Yang; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ma, Ya-Qiong; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhe, Hong; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me), one of the synthetic triterpenoids, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. However, its usefulness in mitigating radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), including radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, has not been tested. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of CDDO-Me on RILI in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Herein, we found that administration of CDDO-Me improved the histopathological score, reduced the number of inflammatory cells and concentrations of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suppressed secretion and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-6, elevated expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and downregulated the mRNA level of profibrotic genes, including for fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I. CDDO-Me attenuated radiation-induced lung inflammation. CDDO-Me also decreased the Masson’s trichrome stain score, hydroxyproline content, and mRNA level of profibrotic genes, and blocked radiation-induced collagen accumulation and fibrosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that CDDO-Me ameliorates radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, and this synthetic triterpenoid is a promising novel therapeutic agent for RILI. Further mechanistic, efficacy, and safety studies are warranted to elucidate the role of CDDO-Me in the management of RILI. PMID:26124639

  11. Anabolic action of dianabol (17 alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrosta-1, 4-dien-3-one) on the nitrogen balance and skeletal muscle composition of rats fed on field bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Santidrián, S

    1981-07-01

    The addition of Dianabol (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one) (1 mg/100 g of diet) to a diet containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.) as the sole source of protein has been studied in young male rats, fed for two weeks on the legume diet, as compared to casein-fed animals. A significant improvement (p less than 0.02) in the biological value and net protein utilization was found in the rats fed the legume diet with Dianabol added. Furthermore, a significant reduction (p less than 0.02) in the non-protein nitrogenous fraction of the skeletal musculature, together with a significant rise (p less than 0.02) in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar nitrogenous fractions of this musculature, was found in the rats fed the raw legume diet with Dianabol added. Serum insulin levels, significantly reduced (p less than 0.02) in the legume-fed rats, reached the values of the control group by the addition of Dianabol to the legume diet. The possible nature of these effects is discussed.

  12. (17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene)bis(oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11) is a partial agonist of the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Hikosaka, Ritsuko; Zhang, Shu-Yun; Inoue, Yoshimi; Nakahama, Takayuki; Kato, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Akemi; Tominaga, Nobuaki; Kohra, Shinya; Arizono, Koji; Inouye, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    A novel steroid compound, (17α,20E)-17,20-[(1-methoxyethylidene)bis(oxy)]-3-oxo-19-norpregna-4,20-diene-21-carboxylic acid methyl ester (YK11), was found to be a partial agonist of the androgen receptor (AR) in an androgen responsive element (ARE)-luciferase reporter assay. YK11 accelerates nuclear translocation of AR. Furthermore, YK11 does not induce amino/carboxyl-terminal (N/C) interaction and prevents 5-α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-mediated N/C interaction. Thus, YK11 activates AR without causing N/C interaction, which may in turn be responsible for the partially agonistic nature of YK11 observed in the ARE-luciferase reporter system. YK11 acts as a gene-selective agonist of AR in MDA-MB 453 cells. The effect of YK11 on gene expression relative to that of androgen agonist varies depending on the gene context. YK11 activated the reporter gene by inducing the translocation of the AR into the nuclear compartment, where its amino-terminal domain (NTD) functions as a constitutive activator of AR target genes. Our results suggest that YK11 might act as selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM).

  13. The antidiabetic compound 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from Averrhoa carambola L., demonstrates significant antitumor potential against human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Huang, Renbin; Gong, Yixuan; Park, Hyo Sim; Wen, Qingwei; Almosnid, Nadin Marwan; Chippada-Venkata, Uma D; Hosain, Najlaa Abdulrhman; Vick, Eric; Farone, Anthony; Altman, Elliot

    2015-09-15

    2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) is a cyclohexanedione found in the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., commonly known as starfruit. Researchers have shown that DMDD has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes; however, the effects of DMDD on human cancers have never been reported. We investigated the cytotoxic effects of DMDD against human breast, lung and bone cancer cells in vitro and further examined the molecular mechanisms of DMDD-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. DMDD suppressed the growth of breast carcinoma cells, but not normal mammary epithelial cells, via induction of G1 phase cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and apoptosis. DMDD increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DMDD-induced ROS generation was found to be associated with the mitochondrial activity. The cytotoxicity that was induced by DMDD was attenuated by co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). DMDD-induced cell apoptosis involved the activation of both the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and the extrinsic receptor pathway. In addition, DMDD inhibited the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway at all steps, including TNF-α production, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα, as well as TNF-α activated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation.Collectively, our studies indicate that DMDD has significant potential as a safe and efficient therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  14. The antidiabetic compound 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from averrhoa carambola L., demonstrates significant antitumor potential against human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Huang, Renbin; Gong, Yixuan; Park, Hyo Sim; Wen, Qingwei; Almosnid, Nadin Marwan; Chippada-Venkata, Uma D.; Hosain, Najlaa Abdulrhman; Vick, Eric; Farone, Anthony; Altman, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) is a cyclohexanedione found in the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., commonly known as starfruit. Researchers have shown that DMDD has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes; however, the effects of DMDD on human cancers have never been reported. We investigated the cytotoxic effects of DMDD against human breast, lung and bone cancer cells in vitro and further examined the molecular mechanisms of DMDD-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. DMDD suppressed the growth of breast carcinoma cells, but not normal mammary epithelial cells, via induction of G1 phase cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and apoptosis. DMDD increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DMDD-induced ROS generation was found to be associated with the mitochondrial activity. The cytotoxicity that was induced by DMDD was attenuated by co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). DMDD-induced cell apoptosis involved the activation of both the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and the extrinsic receptor pathway. In addition, DMDD inhibited the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway at all steps, including TNF-α production, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα, as well as TNF-α activated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Collectively, our studies indicate that DMDD has significant potential as a safe and efficient therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26203774

  15. Effect of 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) roots, on advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ni; Lin, Xing; Wen, Qingwei; Kintoko; Zhang, Shijun; Huang, Jianchun; Xu, Xiaohui; Huang, Renbin

    2013-05-10

    The roots of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) have a long history of medical use in traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. 2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) was isolated from the tuberous roots of A. carambola L. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of DMDD on the advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice with regard to prove its efficacy by local traditional practitioners in the treatment of kidney frailties in diabetics. KKAy mice were orally administrated DMDD (12.5, 25, 50mg/kg body weight/d) or aminoguanidine (200mg/kg body weight/d) for 8 weeks. Hyperglycemia, renal AGE formation, and the expression of related proteins, such as the AGE receptor, nuclear factor-κB, transforming growth factor-β1, and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, were markedly decreased by DMDD. Diabetes-dependent alterations in proteinuria, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and serum urea-N and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion were attenuated after treatment with DMDD for 8 weeks. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, which are reduced in the kidneys of KKAy mice, were enhanced by DMDD. These findings suggest that DMDD may inhibit the progression of diabetic nephropathy and may be a therapeutic agent for regulating several pharmacological targets to treat or prevent of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. (5Z,11Z,15R)-15-Hydroxyeicosa-5,11-dien-13-ynoic acid: A stable isomer of 15(S)-HETE that retains key vasoconstrictive and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Sandra L; Klimko, Peter G; Conrow, Raymond E

    2016-03-01

    15(S)-Hydroxyeicosa-(5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-tetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) is a metabolite of arachidonic acid that elicits a number of biological effects including vasoconstriction and angiogenesis. (5Z,11Z,15R)-15-Hydroxyeicosa-5,11-dien-13-ynoic acid (HETE analog 1) is a synthetic isomer of 15(S)-HETE that is much more stable to autoxidation. Using isometric recording of isolated pulmonary arteries from male and female rabbits, HETE analog 1 and 15(S)-HETE were found to elicit concentration-dependent contractions that were slightly greater in females compared to males. The maximal response in females was greater with 15(S)-HETE. HETE analog 1 and 15(S)-HETE increased [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured from male rabbit pulmonary arteries; both the maximal response and potency were greater with 15(S)-HETE. In contrast, HETE analog 1 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition in proliferation and migration of human hormone-independent prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells. The protocol for synthesis of HETE analog 1 is reported. The stability of this substance and its similar biological profile to 15(S)-HETE support future studies in eicosanoid research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison between the effects of gamma radiation and sulfur cure system on the microstructure and crosslink network of (styrene butadiene rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer) blends in presence of nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoushtari Zadeh Naseri, Aida; Jalali-Arani, Azam

    2015-10-01

    Rubber blends based on (styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)) with and without organoclay (OC) were prepared through a melt mixing process. The concentration ratio of the rubber phases (EPDM/SBR; 50/50 wt%) and the amount of the OC were kept constant. The samples were then vulcanized by means of gamma radiation using a Co-60 gamma source as well as sulfur cure system. The effect of absorbed dose on the formation of the crosslinks was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of absorbed dose, sulfur cure system and OC on the gel content, and crosslink density were evaluated by the chemical tests. Applying the Charlesby-Pinner equation to estimate the radiation chemical yield, revealed that the use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. Employing the swelling test data, some thermodynamic parameters were determined. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate microstructure of the samples revealed a more homogeneous structure and also an increase in compatibility of the blend components in the sample cured by the irradiation in comparison to that cured by the sulfur curing system.

  18. DNA incision evaluation, binding investigation and biocidal screening of novel metallonucleases of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione based Knoevenagel condensate having methionine: Synthesis and structural validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, Thiravidamani; Pravin, Narayanaperumal; Raman, Natarajan

    2015-02-01

    Four new metallonucleases of the composition [MLCl] (where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Co(II); L = Knoevenagel condensate Schiff base, obtained by the condensation reaction of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione with p-nitrobenzaldehyde and methionine amino acid) have been synthesised and characterized thoroughly by microanalytical data, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductivity, UV-Vis., IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EPR spectral techniques. Their geometry is investigated and established to have square planar geometry. Electronic absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and viscosity measurements reveal that the complexes strongly bind to calf thymus DNA via an intercalation mechanism. DNA cleavage efficiency of these complexes is explored by gel electrophoresis, and they are found to endorse the cleavage of pBR322 DNA in presence of oxidant H2O2. These results reveal that all the complexes show better nuclease activity. Moreover, the biological screening against few pathogens reveals that that the complexes have potent biocidal activity than the free ligand.

  19. Supervision of Ethylene Propylene Diene M-Class (EPDM) Rubber Vulcanization and Recovery Processes Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis.

    PubMed

    Riba Ruiz, Jordi-Roger; Canals, Trini; Cantero, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber is widely used in a diverse type of applications, such as the automotive, industrial and construction sectors among others. Due to its appealing features, the consumption of vulcanized EPDM rubber is growing significantly. However, environmental issues are forcing the application of devulcanization processes to facilitate recovery, which has led rubber manufacturers to implement strict quality controls. Consequently, it is important to develop methods for supervising the vulcanizing and recovery processes of such products. This paper deals with the supervision process of EPDM compounds by means of Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and suitable multivariate statistical methods. An expedited and nondestructive classification approach was applied to a sufficient number of EPDM samples with different applied processes, that is, with and without application of vulcanizing agents, vulcanized samples, and microwave treated samples. First the FT-IR spectra of the samples is acquired and next it is processed by applying suitable feature extraction methods, i.e., principal component analysis and canonical variate analysis to obtain the latent variables to be used for classifying test EPDM samples. Finally, the k nearest neighbor algorithm was used in the classification stage. Experimental results prove the accuracy of the proposed method and the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy in this area, since the classification accuracy can be as high as 100%.

  20. A multi-level intervention in subsidized housing sites to increase fruit and vegetable access and intake: Rationale, design and methods of the 'Live Well, Viva Bien' cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gans, Kim M; Gorham, Gemma; Risica, Patricia M; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Dionne, Laura; Gao, Tina; Peters, Sarah; Principato, Ludovica

    2016-06-28

    Adequate fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is important for disease prevention. Yet, most Americans, especially low-income and racial/ethnic minorities, do not eat adequate amounts. These disparities are partly attributable to food environments in low-income neighborhoods where residents often have limited access to affordable, healthful food and easy access to inexpensive, unhealthful foods. Increasing access to affordable healthful food in underserved neighborhoods through mobile markets is a promising, year-round strategy for improving dietary behaviors and reducing F&V intake disparities. However, to date, there have been no randomized controlled trials studying their effectiveness. The objective of the 'Live Well, Viva Bien' (LWVB) cluster randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a multicomponent mobile market intervention at increasing F&V intake among residents of subsidized housing complexes. One housing complex served as a pilot site for the intervention group and the remaining 14 demographically-matched sites were randomized into either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received bimonthly, discount, mobile, fresh F&V markets in conjunction with a nutrition education intervention (two F&V campaigns, newsletters, DVDs and cooking demonstrations) for 12 months. The control group received physical activity and stress reduction interventions. Outcome measures include F&V intake (measured by two validated F&V screeners at baseline, six-month and twelve-months) along with potential psychosocial mediating variables. Extensive quantitative and qualitative process evaluation was also conducted throughout the study. Modifying neighborhood food environments in ways that increase access to affordable, healthful food is a promising strategy for improving dietary behaviors among low-income, racial and ethnic minority groups at increased risk for obesity and other food-related chronic diseases. Discount, mobile F&V markets

  1. Une association exceptionnelle d’un liposarcome dédifférencié retro péritonéal et d’un liposarcome bien différencié péri colique: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Sinaa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse maligne de nature adipeuse très rare. L'organisation mondiale de la santé classe les liposarcomes en cinq sous-types: bien différencié, myxoïde, pléomorphe, dédifférencié et mixte. L'association de localisation multiples et synchrones de plusieurs sous types des liposarcomes est exceptionnelle. Seulement 34 cas sont décrits dans la littérature. Nous rapportons une observation d'une association synchrone d'un liposarcome dédifférencié retro péritonéal et deux petits liposarcomes bien différenciés type lipoma-like péri coliques. Les aspects anatomopathologiques, les options thérapeutiques et les facteurs pronostics des liposarcomes seront revus dans cet article. PMID:28293370

  2. In Vitro Activity of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and Stigmasta-7,22-diene-3β-ol from Impatiens balsamina L. against Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Li, Wan-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wang, Jeh-Jeng; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Liao, Jyun-Ji; Lin, Cheng-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with gastric cancer and gastric adenocarcinoma. WHO classified H. pylori as a group 1 carcinogen in 1994. Impatiens balsamina L. has been used as indigenous medicine in Asia for the treatment of rheumatism, fractures and fingernail inflammation. In this study, we isolated anti-H. pylori compounds from this plant and investigated their anti- and bactericidal activity. Compounds of 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MeONQ) and stigmasta-7,22-diene-3β-ol (spinasterol) were isolated from the pods and roots/stems/leaves of I. balsamina L., respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for MeONQ were in the ranges of 0.156–0.625 and 0.313–0.625 μg mL−1, respectively, and in the ranges of 20–80 μg mL−1 both of MICs and MBCs for spinasterol against antibiotic (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) resistant H. pylori. Notably, the activity of MeONQ was equivalent to that of amoxicillin (AMX). The bactericidal H. pylori action of MeONQ was dose-dependent. Furthermore, the activity of MeONQ was not influenced by the environmental pH values (4–8) and demonstrated good thermal (121°C for 15 min) stability. MeONQ abounds in the I. balsamina L. pod at the level of 4.39% (w/w db). In conclusion, MeONQ exhibits strong potential to be developed as a candidate agent for the eradication of H. pylori infection. PMID:19773391

  3. Photoinduced anisotropy of push-pull chromophores incorporating 5-(1,3-benzodithiol-2-ylidene)-1-(4-nitrophenyl) penta-1,3-diene embedded into photopolymer oligoetheracrylate matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahraoui, B.; Kityk, I. V.; Kasperczyk, J.; Salle, M.; Nguyen, T. T.

    2000-04-01

    Photoinduced (PI) birefringence (Δ n) and phototransparency ( T) have been studied for a wavelength of 633 nm (He-Ne laser) under photoillumination by doubled-frequency YAG:Nd pulse laser polarized beam ( λ=0.53 μm; pulse duration τ=10-50 ps). The push-pull chromophore 5-(1,3-benzodithiol-2-ylidene)-1-(4-nitrophenyl) penta-1,3-diene was incorporated into an oligoetheracrylate photopolymer matrix in a concentration of about 2.5 wt.%. Special properties of the molecule are connected with substantial role played by electron-vibration interactions in the observed PI effects. The Δ n decreases with decreasing temperature. Optical density D depends non-linearly on the PI beam power. With increasing photoinducing power (up to 0.41 GW/cm 2), the PI birefringence Δ n and the optical density D approaches (1.4-1.7)×10 -3 and 1.5%, respectively. The intensity dependence of intramolecular (669 cm -1) and intermolecular (89.5 cm -1) vibration mode has a maximum and a broad minimum (at a PI power of about 0.45 GW/cm 2), respectively. Such behavior correlates well with the PI dependencies of the Δ n and the optical density D. Description of the obtained results is based on quantum chemical calculations with taking into account an electron-vibration anharmonicity of the chromophore. Essential role of the PI electrostatic potential redistribution under influence of the PI polarized light beam has been demonstrated. Possible mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed within a phenomenological as well as microscopic approach.

  4. Development of a rapid normal-phase LC-positive ion APCI-MS method for simultaneous detection and quantitation of cholesterol, androst-4-ene-3,1 7-dione, and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Ravi K; Bhardwaj, Vikram; Gupta, Rajinder K; Sharma, Preeti; Somal, Priti; Mehta, Pradeep; Qazi, Ghulam N

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a normal-phase liquid chromatograph-UV-diode array detection-positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of cholesterol, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD), and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) in fermentation broths. The compounds detected under positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization on a mass spectrometer by selected ion monitoring are separated by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. [M+H]+ ions are taken into consideration for quantitation of AD and ADD, and [M-H2O+H]+ ions are considered for quantitation of cholesterol. The compounds are analyzed on a Si60 silica (5 microm, 125 x 4-mm i.d.) Merck column using a 2:3 isocratic mixture of isopropyl alcohol and hexane. The calibration curves resulting from the reference compounds in the concentration range of 100-5000 pg on column exhibit a good linear correlation (r2 > or = 0.996). The method is validated by analyzing six replicates of broth samples fortified with three compounds, namely, cholesterol, AD, and ADD, at 0.050 and 0.5 microg/g levels. The mean recoveries for the fortifications range from 90% to 98% with relative standard deviations in the range of 3.36% to 9.78%. The method is developed to study the qualitative as well as quantitative conversion of cholesterol to AD and ADD by a microorganism identified as Nocardia sp. These studies helped the investigation of the reaction kinetics, which showed that the molar biotransformation of cholesterol into AD and ADD was 21%, even when the reaction was prolonged for 96 h.

  5. Crystal structure of (18-crown-6)potassium(I) [(1,2,3,4,5-η)-cyclo­hepta­dien­yl][(1,2,3-η)-cyclo­hepta­trien­yl]cobalt(I)

    PubMed Central

    Brennessel, William W.; Ellis, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of bis­(anthracene)cobaltate(−I) with excess cyclo­hepta­triene, C7H8, resulted in a new 18-electron cobaltate containing two different seven-membered ring ligands, based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The asymmetric unit of this structure contains two independent cation–anion pairs of the title complex, [K(18-crown-6)][Co(η3-C7H7)(η5-C7H9)], where 18-crown-6 stands for 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa­oxa­cyclo­octa­decane (C12H24O6), in general positions and well separated. Each (18-crown-6)potassium cation is in contact with the η3-coordinating ligand of one cobaltate complex. Each η3-coordinating ligand behaves as an allylic anion whose exo-diene moiety is bent away from the allylic plane, and thus is not involved directly in the bonding. The metal-coordinating portions of the anionic η5 ligands are planar and one of these ligands is modeled as disordered over two positions, with occupancy ratio 0.699 (5):0.301 (5), such that one orientation is rotated by one carbon atom with respect to the other. The diffraction intensities were integrated according to non-merohedral twin law [-1 0 0/0 -1 0/0.064 0 1], a 180° rotation about reciprocal lattice axis [001], and the masses of the twin domains refined to equal amounts. As both ligands are formally coordinated as anions, the cobalt atom is best considered to be CoI. This compound is of inter­est as the first to possess cyclo­hepta­trienyl and cyclo­hepta­dienyl ligands in an anionic metal complex. PMID:25844191

  6. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma by a novel synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid induces growth arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lapillonne, Helene; Konopleva, Marina; Tsao, Twee; Gold, David; McQueen, Teresa; Sutherland, Robert L; Madden, Timothy; Andreeff, Michael

    2003-09-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear hormonal receptor superfamily expressed in a large number of human cancers. Here, we demonstrate that PPARgamma is expressed and transcriptionally active in breast cancer cells independent of their p53, estrogen receptor, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. 2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), a novel synthetic triterpenoid, is a ligand for PPARgamma. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of CDDO on proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. In all breast cancer cell lines studied, CDDO transactivated PPARgamma, induced dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest in G(1)-S and G(2)-M, and apoptosis. We then used differential cDNA array analysis to investigate the molecular changes induced by CDDO. After 16-h exposure of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435 cells to CDDO, we found genes encoding the following proteins to be up-regulated in both cell lines: p21(Waf1/CIP1); GADD153; CAAT/enhancer binding protein transcription factor family members; and proteins involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Among the down-regulated genes, we focused on the genes encoding cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and the insulin receptor substrate 1. Using Western blot analysis and/or real-time PCR, we confirmed that CDDO regulated the expression of cyclin D1, p21(Waf1/CIP1), and Bcl-2. Cyclin D1 and p21(Waf1/CIP1) were additionally confirmed as important mediators of CDDO growth inhibition in genetically modified breast cancer cell lines. CDDO was able to significantly reduce the growth of MDA-MB-435 tumor cells in immunodeficient mice in vivo. The finding that CDDO can target genes critical for the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, and breast carcinogenesis suggests usage of CDDO as novel targeted therapy in breast cancer.

  7. Cytoprotection of human endothelial cells against oxidative stress by 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im): application of systems biology to understand the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Bynum, James A; Stavchansky, Solomon; Bowman, Phillip D

    2014-07-05

    Cellular damage from oxidative stress, in particular following ischemic injury, occurs during heart attack, stroke, or traumatic injury, and is potentially reducible with appropriate drug treatment. We previously reported that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, protected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from menadione-induced oxidative stress and that this cytoprotective effect was correlated with the capacity to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and its protein product, a phase II cytoprotective enzyme. To further improve this cytoprotective effect, we studied a synthetic triterpenoid, 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), which is known as a potent phase II enzyme inducer with antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities, and compared it to CAPE. CDDO-Im at 200nM provided more protection to HUVEC against oxidative stress than 20μM CAPE. We explored the mechanism of CDDO-Im cytoprotection with gene expression profiling and pathway analysis and compared to that of CAPE. In addition to potent up-regulation of HMOX1, heat shock proteins (HSP) were also found to be highly induced by CDDO-Im in HUVEC. Pathway analysis results showed that transcription factor Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response was among the top canonical pathways commonly activated by both CDDO-Im and CAPE. Compared to CAPE, CDDO-Im up-regulated more HSP and some of them to a much higher extent. In addition, CDDO-Im treatment affected Nrf2 pathway more significantly. These findings may provide an explanation why CDDO-Im is a more potent cytoprotectant than CAPE against oxidative stress in HUVEC.

  8. (2R*,4R*,7S*,10R*,12R*)-3,11,13,15-Tetra-oxa-penta-cyclo-[5.5.3.0(1,7).0(2,4).0(10,12)]penta-deca-5,8-dien-14-one.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Sen, Saikat; Kumar, C S Ananda

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C11H8O5, features a 'skipped' diene, an anti-bis-(epoxide) and a cyclic carbonate, all embedded in a densely functionalized [4.4.3]propellane scaffold. The crystal packing of this diepoxide is effected primarily by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the mol-ecules into tapes along the b axis. Inter-tape connectivity is brought about by centrosymmetrically disposed pairs of C⋯O contacts [3.183 (4) Å] between the C(δ+)=O(δ-) dipoles of neighbouring carbonate moieties.

  9. Clinical association of baseline levels of conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein and nitric oxide with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and their relationship with immunoglobulins and Th1-to-Th2 ratio

    PubMed Central

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Meziane, Warda; Hadjidj, Zeyneb; Mesli, Naima; Aribi, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to highlight the clinical association of baseline levels of conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL-BCD) and nitric oxide (NO) with immunoglobulins (Igs) and T helper (Th)1/Th2 ratio in patients with newly diagnosed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients and methods Thirty-two newly diagnosed patients with aggressive B-cell NHL and 25 age-, sex-, and body-mass-index-matched healthy controls were randomly selected for a cross-sectional case–control study conducted at the Hematology Department of Tlemcen Medical Centre University (northwest of Algeria). Results Circulating levels of LDL-BCD and NO and those of IgA and IgM were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The levels of Th1/Th2 ratio and plasma total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in patients compared with controls, while malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly higher in patients. B-cell NHL was significantly associated with high levels of LDL-BCD from 25th to 75th percentile (25th percentile: relative risk [RR] =2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–3.59, P=0.014; 50th percentile: RR =2.84, 95% CI 1.72–4.68, P<0.001; 75th percentile: RR =5.43, 95% CI 2.58–11.42, P<0.001). Similarly, the disease was significantly associated with high levels of NO production from 25th to 75th percentile (25th percentile: RR =2.07, 95% CI 1.25–3.44, P=0.024; 50th percentile: RR =2.78, 95% CI 1.63–4.72, P<0.001; 75th percentile: RR =4.68, 95% CI 2.21–9.91, P<0.001). Moreover, LDL-BCD levels were positively and significantly correlated with interferon (IFN)-γ, whereas NO levels were inversely and significantly correlated with IFN-γ and Th1/Th2 ratio. Conclusion LDL-BCD and NO production seem to be associated with aggressive B-cell NHL and alteration of Th1/Th2 ratio. Our results have to be examined using ex vivo mechanistic studies leading to further investigations of these parameters, with an interest in the

  10. Anticarcinogenic effect of bis-1,7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione a curcumin analog on DMH-induced colon cancer model.

    PubMed

    Devasena, T; Rajasekaran, K N; Gunasekaran, G; Viswanathan, P; Menon, Venugopal P

    2003-02-01

    1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is a toxic environmental pollutant which was reported also to be a colon-specific carcinogen. This study was performed to study the effect of bis-1,7-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione, a bisdemethoxycurcumin analog (BDMC-A) on DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats and effects were compared with that of the reference drug, curcumin. Rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of DMH (20mg/kg body weight) in the groin, for 15 weeks. After a total experimental period of 32 weeks (including 2 weeks of acclimatization) tumor incidence was 100% in DMH-treated rats. Tumor was identified histologically as adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia, papillary pattern, cellular pleomorphism and carcinomatous glands were also noticed in DMH-treated rats. However, there was no colonic tumor in DMH+BDMC-A- and DMH+curcumin-treated rats but, lymphocyte infiltrations were observed. The levels of total bile acids and cholesterol in 24h fecal samples were significantly lower in DMH administered rats when compared to control rats, while, the excretion of bile acids and cholesterol were significantly increased and was near normal levels in DMH+BDMC-A- and DMH+curcumin-treated rats. In DMH-induced tumor bearing rats the levels of colonic and intestinal cholesterol was significantly increased whereas, the levels of phospholipid was decreased with a concomitant increase in the activities of phospholipase A (PLA) and phospholipase C (PLC), compared to untreated control rats. Intragastric administration of BDMC-A and curcumin to DMH administered rats significantly lowered the cholesterol content and raised the phospholipid content and lowered the activities of PLA and PLC towards near normal values. Our study shows that the protective effect of BDMC-A during DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis may be due to its modulatory effects on (i). histological changes, (ii). bile acids, (iii). cholesterol, and (iv). phospholipid metabolism in the target organ

  11. In-silico and in-vitro anti-cancer potential of a curcumin analogue (1E, 6E)-1, 7-di (1H-indol-3-yl) hepta-1, 6-diene-3, 5-dione.

    PubMed

    Sufi, Shamim Akhtar; Adigopula, Lakshmi Narayana; Syed, Safiulla Basha; Mukherjee, Victor; Coumar, Mohane S; Rao, H Surya Prakash; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2017-01-01

    Previously we showed that BDMC, an analogue of curcumin suppresses growth of human breast and laryngeal cancer cell line by causing apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate the enhanced anti-cancer activity of a heterocyclic ring (indole) incorporated curcumin analogue ((1E, 6E)-1, 7-di (1H-indol-3-yl) hepta-1, 6-diene-3, 5-Dione), ICA in short, in comparison to curcumin. ICA was synthesized by a one pot condensation reaction. Anti-cancer potential of ICA was assessed in three human cancer cell lines of different origin (Lung adenocarcinoma (A549), leukemia (K562) and colon cancer (SW480)) by MTT assay. Mode of cell death was determined by acridine orange-ethidium bromide (Ao-Eb) staining. Putative cellular targets of ICA were investigated by molecular docking studies. Cell cycle analysis following curcumin or ICA treatment in SW480 cell line was carried out by flow cytometry. Expression levels of Cyclin D1 and apoptotic markers, such as Caspase 3, 8 and 9 were studied by western blot analysis in SW480 cell line treated with or without ICA and curcumin. The yield of ICA synthesis was found to be 69% with a purity of 98%. ICA demonstrated promising anti-cancer activity compared to curcumin alone, as discerned by MTT assay. ICA was non-toxic to the cell line of normal origin. We further observed that ICA is ∼2 fold more potent than curcumin in inhibiting the growth of SW480 cells. Ao-Eb staining revealed that ICA could induce apoptosis in all the cell lines tested. Molecular docking studies suggest that ICA may possibly exhibit its anticancer effect by inhibiting EGFR in A549, Bcr-Abl in K562 and GSK-3β kinase in SW480 cell line. Moreover, ICA showed strong binding avidity for Bcl-2 protein in silico, which could result in induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed that both curcumin and ICA induced concomitant cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and G2/M phase. Western blot shows that ICA could effectively down regulate the expression of cell cycle protein cyclin D1

  12. Diurnal variations of progesterone, testosterone, and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione in the rumen and in vitro progesterone transformation by mixed rumen microorganisms of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Chang; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Wang, Jia-Qi

    2014-05-01

    Five Holstein lactating dairy cows fed 5 total mixed rations (TMR) with different forage combinations were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design to investigate diurnal variations of progesterone (P4), testosterone, and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) concentrations in the rumen. Meanwhile, different P4 inclusion levels [0 (control), 2, 20, 40, 80, and 100 ng/mL in culture fluids] were incubated in vitro for 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h together with rumen mixed microorganisms grown on a maize-rich feed mixture (maize meal:Chinese ryegrass hay = :1) with an aim to determine microbial P4 transformation into testosterone and ADD. Ruminal P4, testosterone, and ADD concentrations of lactating dairy cows were greater in the TMR with forage combination of corn silage plus alfalfa hay or Chinese wild ryegrass hay than the TMR with the corn stover-based forage combination. The diurnal fluctuation pattern showed that P4, testosterone, and ADD concentrations in the rumen were greater at nighttime than daytime and peaked 6h after feeding in the morning or afternoon. The in vitro batch cultures showed that the P4 elimination rate was highest at the P4 addition of 20 ng/mL and declined with the further increased addition of P4. The treatments after dosing P4 exhibited a shorter time than the control group until half of the initial P4 inclusion was eliminated (i.e., half time), and the lowest half time (1.46 h) occurred at the P4 addition of 20 ng/mL. In summary, the ruminal steroids concentration was affected by forage type and quality, and the rumen microorganisms exhibited great ability to transform P4 into testosterone and ADD, depending on incubation time and initial P4 addition level, suggesting that the host might affect the metabolism of its rumen microorganisms via the endogenous steroids. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 13: Dienes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  14. A new sulfonic acid derivative, (Z)-4-methylundeca-1,9-diene-6-sulfonic acid, isolated from the cold water sea urchin inhibits inflammatory responses through JNK/p38 MAPK and NF-κB inactivation in RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Cui, Xiang; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Kyoung-Su; Kim, Il Chan; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we isolated a new sulfonic acid derivative, (Z)-4-methylundeca-1,9-diene-6-sulfonic acid (1), from the sea urchin collected from the Sea of Okhotsk. We established the structure of this new compound by analysis of NMR and HRMS data, along with comparison of the data with those of the related compounds reported in the literature. In addition, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Compound 1 inhibited the production of NO, iNOS, PGE2, and COX-2, and it also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β. It inhibited the translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 into the nucleus by interrupting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α. In addition, compound 1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, suggesting that suppression of the inflammation process by compound 1 was mediated through the MAPK pathway. Taken together, this study showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of a new sulfonic acid derivative, (Z)-4-methylundeca-1,9-diene-6-sulfonic acid were mediated through the inhibition of NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

  15. Crystal structure of (±)-(1SR,5SR,6SR,7SR,10SR,11SR,13SR)-13-benz-yloxy-7-meth-oxy-meth-oxy-11,15,18,18-tetra-methyl-3-oxo-2,4-dioxa-tetra-cyclo-[12.3.1.0(1,5).0(6,11)]octa-deca-14,16-dien-10-yl benzoate.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Takeshi; Fukaya, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sugai, Tomoya; Watanabe, Ami; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2015-05-01

    In the title compound, C36H42O8, the dioxolane ring adopts a twist conformation; the two adjacent C atoms deviate alternately from the mean plane of other atoms by -0.287 (5) and 0.174 (5) Å. The cyclo-hexane, cyclo-hexa-diene and central cyclo-octane rings show chair, half-chair and boat-chair forms, respectively. As a result of the strained ring system, the tetra-subsituted olefin in the cyclo-hexa-diene is skewed from an ideal planar structure. In the crystal, C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules into a sheet parallel to (100). The sheets are further linked by other weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  16. MMHD [(S,E)-2-methyl-1-(2-methylthiazol-4-yl) hexa-1,5-dien-ol], a novel synthetic compound derived from epothilone, suppresses nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Na-Ra; Koppula, Sushruta; Kim, Byung-Wook; Park, Su-Ho; Lee, Hyo-Won; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2010-01-01

    The effects of MMHD [(S,E)-2-methyl-1-(2-methylthiazol-4-yl) hexa-1,5-dien-ol], a novel synthetic compound derived from epothilone, was investigated for its effects on the expression of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglia. MMHD attenuated the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein without affecting cell viability. Moreover, MMHD suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation via the translocation of p65 into the nucleus. These results indicate that MMHD exerts anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing the transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

  17. Dichlorido-1κCl,3κCl-hexa­kis­[1,1,2,2,3,3(η5)-cyclo­penta­dien­yl]di-μ2-oxido-1:2κ2 O:O;2:3κ2 O:O-trizirconium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Bradley M.; Brennessel, William W.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Zr3(C5H5)6Cl2O2], exists as discrete mol­ecules possessing a series of three Cp2Zr units (Cp is cyclo­penta­dien­yl) bridged by oxide ligands and end-capped by chloride ligands. The Cp planes in the central and terminal zirconocene units form dihedral angles of 53.3 (2) and 53.5 (2)°, respectively. The two Zr—O—Zr bridge angles are nearly linear and form a planar Zr3O2 core. The mol­ecule bears C2 symmetry with the central Zr atom lying on a crystallographic twofold axis. PMID:22807735

  18. Synthesis of Pyrazolo[5,1-a]isoindoles and Pyrazolo[5,1-a]isoindole-3-carboxamides through One-Pot Cascade Reactions of 1-(2-Bromophenyl)buta-2,3-dien-1-ones with Isocyanide and Hydrazine or Acetohydrazide.

    PubMed

    Tian, Miaomiao; He, Yan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-08-07

    A novel and efficient method for the construction of the pyrazolo[5,1-a]isoindole scaffold via a one-pot three-component cascade reaction of 1-(2-bromophenyl)buta-2,3-dien-1-one with hydrazine and isocyanide promoted by a Pd catalyst is described. This cascade process proceeds through initial condensation of the allenic ketone with hydrazine followed by Pd-catalyzed isocyanide insertion into the C-Br bond and intramolecular C-N bond formation. Interestingly, when acetohydrazide was used in place of hydrazine, a more sophisticated procedure involving condensation, isocyanide insertion into C-H and C-Br bonds, deacetylation, and formation of C-C, C-O, and C-N bonds occurred to afford pyrazolo[5,1-a]isoindole-3-carboxamides with good efficiency.

  19. "Bien Educado": Measuring the Social Behaviors of Mexican American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…

  20. "Bien Educado": Measuring the Social Behaviors of Mexican American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…

  1. Crystal structure of μ-fluorido-bis­{(η4-cyclo­octa­diene)[hexa­fluorido­anti­monato(V)]platinum(II)} hexa­fluorido­anti­monate(V) hydrogen fluoride 0.75-solvate1

    PubMed Central

    Seppelt, Konrad; Friedemann, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In the complex cation of the binuclear solvated title salt, [Pt2F(SbF6)2(C8H12)2]SbF6·0.75HF, an F atom bridges the two platinum(II) atoms with a bond angle of 123.3 (2)°. The corresponding Pt—F bond lengths are in the range of other fluorine-bridged binuclear platinum(II) complexes. Two of the three SbF6 − anions each coordinate with one F atom to one platinum(II) atom. Including the η4-bound cyclo­octa­diene (COD) ligands, the overall coordination sphere of each platinum(II) atom is square-planar. The third SbF6 − anion is not bound to the complex. Hydrogen fluoride is present in the crystal structure as a solvent disordered over three positions, each with an occupancy of 0.25. F⋯F distances of 2.5512 (7), 2.6076 (8) and 3.2215 (10) Å to surrounding SbF6 − anions are indicative of F—H⋯F hydrogen-bonding inter­actions although no H atoms could be localized for the disordered solvent mol­ecules. The resulting hydrogen-bonded network is three-dimensional. PMID:26870575

  2. Deletion of the gene encoding the reductase component of 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase in Rhodococcus equi USA-18 disrupts sterol catabolism, leading to the accumulation of 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchola-1,4-dien-22-oic acid and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsing; Kuo, Yung-Shun; Chang, Che-Ming; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Meng, Menghsiao

    2014-09-09

    The gene encoding the putative reductase component (KshB) of 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase was cloned from Rhodococcus equi USA-18, a cholesterol oxidase-producing strain formerly named Arthrobacter simplex USA-18, by PCR according to consensus amino acid motifs of several bacterial KshB subunits. Deletion of the gene in R. equi USA-18 by a PCR-targeted gene disruption method resulted in a mutant strain that could accumulate up to 0.58 mg/ml 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) in the culture medium when 0.2% cholesterol was used as the carbon source, indicating the involvement of the deleted enzyme in 9α-hydroxylation of steroids. In addition, this mutant also accumulated 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchola-1,4-dien-22-oic acid (Δ1,4-BNC). Because both ADD and Δ1,4-BNC are important intermediates for the synthesis of steroid drugs, this mutant derived from R. equi USA-18 may deserve further investigation for its application potential.

  3. (μ-3,4-Diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diol­ato-κ4 O 2,O 3:O 4,O 5)bis­[aqua(1,10-phen­an­thro­line-κ2 N,N′)copper(II)] bis­(tetra­fluorid­oborate) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tovilla, Jorge A.; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Valdés-Martínez, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu2(C10H12O4)(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2](BF4)2·H2O, the two Cu atoms are each chelated by the acetyl­acetonate unit of the 3,4-diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diolate (tae) ligand. The Cu atoms are square-pyramidally penta­coordinated, with one bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and the tae ligand basal and one water mol­ecule apical. The pyridyl rings of the phen ligands participate in π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.894 (3) Å] and C—H ⋯ π inter­actions, generating layers which are inter­connected through O—H⋯O and O—H⋯F hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the tetra­fluorido­borate anions. The F atoms of both tetra­fluorido­borate anions are each disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. PMID:21582322

  4. Paleomagnetic data from Upper Cretaceous Red Beds, Northwest Vietnam (Song Da Terrane), and Their Bearing on the Extrusion History of Indochina and Deformation Along its Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.; Pho, N.; Burchfiel, B.; Muggleton, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    Northwest Vietnam mainly consists of the Song Da terrane, which is bounded to the east by the NW-oriented Ailao Shan/Red River (ASRR) fault system, interpreted to be the southwest margin of the South China Block, and the NW-oriented Song Ma fault. The northern termination of the Song Da terrane is considered to be where the NE-oriented, right lateral Dien Bien Phu fault intersects the ASRR. Whether the Song Da terrane is part of the extruded Indochina Block, paleomagnetic data from which suggest some 10°+ southward latitudinal displacement, can be evaluated with paleomagnetic data from rocks of the appropriate age. Our paleomagnetic sampling concentrated on the Upper Cretaceous Yen Chau Formation, which unconformably overlies Paleozoic and Triassic sedimentary rocks. The Yen Chau Formation is locally up to about 1300 m thick, and is characterized by medium to thick bedded, coarse to fine-grained sandstones and siltstones, all of which are partially cemented by hematite. Samples were collected from 10 localities using a portable drill, with 6 to 19 sites collected per locality, and 7 to 15 samples collected from each site. This approach allows evaluation of the integrity of the remanence at the locality level, where, presumably, considerable time is recorded in each section. Each locality is a homoclinal road cut exposure, with bedding dips varying from sub-horizontal to moderately overturned. NRM intensities range from about 0.7 mA/m to about 25 mA/m; values which are relatively low in comparison to many red beds. A varied response to alternating field (AF) demagnetization indicates that magnetite carries a considerable (over 50 percent) of the remanence; the finest grained samples of relatively high NRM intensity reveal little response to AF treatment, indicating a dominance by hematite, as also supported by three-component IRM thermal demagnetization. Samples with the highest NRM intensities and the least contribution by magnetite respond favorably to thermal

  5. Vai Tro Cua Phu Huynh Viet Nam Tai Hoc Duong Hoa Ky. The Role of Vietnamese Parents in American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuy, Vuong G.

    This document, written in Vietnamese and containing a bilingual (English/Vietnamese) forward, examines the differences between the American and Vietnamese educational systems with respect to basic educational philosophy, content, learning style and organization. Also discussed are specific learning problems which affect the education of Vietnamese…

  6. Computational assessment of the electronic structures of cyclohexa-1,2,4-triene, 1-oxacyclohexa-2,3,5-triene (3delta(2)-pyran), their benzo derivatives, and cyclohexa-1,2-diene. An experimental approach to 3delta(2)-pyran.

    PubMed

    Engels, Bernd; Schöneboom, Jan C; Münster, Arno F; Groetsch, Stefan; Christl, Manfred

    2002-01-16

    The six-membered cyclic allenes given in the title have been studied theoretically by means of an MR-CI approach. For all compounds, the allene structures were found to be the ground states in the gas phase. In the cases of cyclohexa-1,2-diene (1), the isobenzene 2, and the isonaphthalene 7, the most stable structures having a planar allene moiety are the diradicals 1b, 2b, and 7b, representing the transition states for the racemization of 1a, 2a, and 7a and being less stable than the latter by 14.1, 8.9, and 11.2 kcal/mol, respectively. At variance with this order, the 3delta(2)-pyran 4 and the chromene 5 have the zwitterions 4c and 5c as the most stable planar structures, which lie only 1.0 and 5.4 kcal/mol above 4a and 5a, respectively. According to the simulation of the solvent effect, 4c even becomes the ground state of 4 in THF solution. The frontier orbitals of the respective states of 2 and 4 suggest different rates and sites for the reaction with nucleophiles. For the first time, the pyran 4 has been generated and trapped. As a precursor for 4, 3-bromo-4H-pyran (9) was chosen, the synthesis of which was achieved on two routes from 4H-pyran. The treatment of 9 with potassium tert-butoxide (KOt-Bu)/18-crown-6 gave 4-tert-butoxy-4H-pyran as the only discernible product, whether styrene or furan was present, indicating the interception of 4 by KOt-Bu. Finally, the disagreement between the experiment and the theory concerning the heat of formation and the electronic nature of the isobenzene 2 is resolved by demonstrating that the experimental data can provide only an upper limit of the DeltaH(f) degrees value.

  7. Metabolic Activation of Mifepristone [RU486; 17β-Hydroxy-11β-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-17α-(1-propynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one] by Mammalian Cytochromes P450 and the Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsia-lien; Zhang, Haoming; Hollenberg, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Mifepristone [RU486; 17β-hydroxy-11β-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-17α-(1-propynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one] inactivates CYP2B6 in the reconstituted system in a mechanism-based manner. The loss of 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin deethylation activity of CYP2B6 is concentration- and time-dependent. The inactivation requires NADPH and is irreversible. The concentration of inactivator required to give the half-maximal rate of inactivation is 2.8 μM, and the maximal rate constant for inactivation at a saturating concentration of the inactivator is 0.07 min-1. Incubation of CYP2B6 with 20 μM RU486 for 15 min resulted in 61% loss of catalytic activity, 60% loss of the reduced cytochrome P450 (P450)-CO complex, and a 40% loss of native heme. The partition ratio is ∼5, and the stoichiometry of binding is ∼0.6 mol RU486/mol P450 inactivated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that [3H]RU486 was irreversibly bound to CYP2B6 apoprotein. RU486 is metabolized to form three major metabolites and bioactivated to give reactive intermediates by purified P450s in the reconstituted system. After incubation of RU486 with the purified P450s and liver microsomes from rats and humans in the presence of glutathione (GSH) and NADPH, GSH conjugates with MH+ ions at m/z 769, 753, and 751 were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Two GSH conjugates with MH+ ions at m/z 753 are formed from the reaction of GSH with RU486. The adducts are formed after addition of an activated oxygen to the carbon-carbon triple bond of the propynyl moiety. This suggests that oxirene intermediates may be involved in the mechanism of inactivation. It seems that the potential for drug-drug interactions of RU486 may not be limited only to CYP3A4 and should also be evaluated for drugs metabolized primarily by CYP2B6, such as bupropion and efavirenz. PMID:19168709

  8. Numerical Simulation of Petroleum Generation and Migration in the Song Hong Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Byeong-Kook; Thi Nguyen, Hong; Park, Mee-Sook

    2014-05-01

    The numerical modeling of petroleum systems is an effective tool to understand generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin and hence to determine future targets for the hydrocarbon exploration. The numerical modeling identifies two petroleum systems in the Song Hong Basin, which is a petroliferous Cenozoic basin, offshore eastern Vietnam. These petroleum systems were named DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System and SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System. DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System covers northern and central parts of the Song Hong basin with Oligocene shale and coaly shale source rocks of Dinh Cao formation, which are dominated by type II-III kerogens. The hydrocarbon generation starts at 13 Ma within deeply buried Oligocene strata located in the centre of the basin. The hydrocarbon expels from the Oligocene source rock and migrates laterally and then up dip toward marginal areas where Middle Miocene sandstones of Phu Cu formation are present as major reservoirs. The numerical model shows that the critical moment occurs at about 3.5 Ma. The DinhCao-PhuCu(.) petroleum system is confirmed by sparse occurrence of oil and gas along the coast of eastern Vietnam. SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is identified in limited areas of the central and southern Song Hong basin. The major source rock of this petroleum system is Lower Miocene dark claystones of Song Huong formation which contain gas prone, type III kerogen. The migration model shows that hydrocarbons are generated from the Miocene source rocks in the center of the basin at about 12 Ma, and migrates updip through sand bodies of Quang Ngai formation to the major boundaries faults, and further moves into highly permeable up-dipping units, the Bien Dong formation. The best depiction of the generation-migration-accumulation of hydrocarbons occurs at about 2 Ma. The presence of the SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is indicated by the large gas fields in the central and

  9. Polymerization of 1,3-Dienes with Functional Groups. 4.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Katsuhiko; Shibata, Natsuyo; Tsuchida, Shinsuke; Takeshita, Hiroki; Miya, Masamitsu; Shiomi, Tomoo

    Anionic polymerization of N,N-diethyl-2-methylene-3-butenamide (DEA), which is a 1,3-butadiene derivative containing a diethylamide function, was carried out in tetrahydrofurane (THF) under various conditions. When DEA was polymerized in THF at -78°C using potassium naphthalenide (K-Naph) or diphenylmethylpotassium (DPMK) as an initiator, a polymer of predictable molecular weight with a narrow molecular weight distribution was obtained. However, the rate of polymerization was extremely slow to reach 80% conversion after 720 h. When the polymerization temperature was raised to 20°C, a low molecular weight oligomer with a broad molecular weight distribution was obtained because of a chain transfer reaction. On the other hand, no such side reaction occurred even at 20°C, when polymerization was carried out in the presence of LiCl. Also, the chain transfer reaction did not occur in lithium naphthalenide (Li-Naph) initiated polymerization. The microstructure of the polymer prepared using a potassium counter cation was a 1 : 1 mixture of 1,4-E and 1,2- structures. In the case of Li-Naph or DPMK/LiCl systems, the microstructure was a complicated mixture of 1,4-E, 1,4-Z, and 1,2-structures.

  10. Tandem isomerization/telomerization of long chain dienes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrente Murciano, Laura; Nielsen, David; Cavell, Kingsley; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-06-01

    The first example of a tandem reaction involving double-bond migration in combination with telomerization is reported. Homogeneous and heterogeneous Ru catalysts were employed as isomerisation catalysts, and telomerization was realized using a homogeneous Pd(0) precursor complex with a N-heterocyclic carbene (IMes) ligand. Overall conversions approaching 60 % were achieved with the best selectivity to telomerization products of 91% attained at 11 % conversion. Conversion was markedly higher in the presence of longer-chain alcohol (1-butanol) as the nucleophile (telogen).

  11. Silurian and Devonian in Vietnam—Stratigraphy and facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Tống Duy; Phương, Tạ Hoàng; Janvier, Philippe; Hùng, Nguyễn Hữu; Cúc, Nguyễn Thị Thu; Dương, Nguyễn Thùy

    2013-09-01

    Silurian and Devonian deposits in Viet Nam are present in several zones and regions, including Quang Ninh, East Bac Bo, and West Bac Bo Zones of the Bac Bo Region, the Dien Bien-Nghe An and Binh Tri Thien Zones of the Viet-Lao Region, and the South Trung Bo, and Western Nam Bo Zones of the South Viet Nam Region (Fig. 1). The main lithological features and faunal composition of the Silurian and Devonian Units in all these zones are briefly described. The Silurian consists of deep-water deposits of the upper parts of the Co To and Tan Mai Formations in the Quang Ninh Zone, the upper parts of the Phu Ngu Formation in the East Bac Bo Zone and the upper parts of the Long Dai and Song Ca Formations in the Viet-Lao Region. Shallow water facies Silurian units containing benthic faunas are more widely distributed, including the upper part of the Sinh Vinh and Bo Hieng Formations in the West Bac Bo Zone, the Kien An Formation in the Quang Ninh Zone, and, in the Viet-Lao Region, the Dai Giang Formation and the upper part of the Tay Trang Formation. No Lower and Middle Devonian deposits indicate deep water facies, but they are characterized by different shallow water facies. Continental to near shore, deltaic facies characterize the Lower Devonian Song Cau Group in the East Bac Bo Zone, the Van Canh Formation in the Quang Ninh Zone, and the A Choc Formation in the Binh Tri Thien Zone. Similar facies also occur in the Givetian Do Son Formation of the Quang Ninh Zone, and the Tan Lap Formation in the East Bac Bo Zone, and consist of coarse terrigenous deposits—cross-bedded conglomerates, sandstone, etc. Most Devonian units are characterized by shallow marine shelf facies. Carbonate and terrigenous-carbonate facies dominate, and terrigenous facies occur in the Lower and Middle Devonian sections in some areas only. The deep-water-like facies is characteriztic for some Upper Devonian formations in the Bac Bo (Bang Ca and Toc Tat Formations) and Viet-Lao Regions (Thien Nhan and

  12. Il faut bien faire avec des bribes, hein! (You Have to Make Do with Scraps, Huh?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandain, Jean-Louis

    1983-01-01

    Suggestions are made for structuring taped listening exercises to promote careful attention to various elements of spontaneous speech (speaker, speaker characteristics, tone, etc.), and to sensitize students to the usage of "hein" or other specific expressions. (MSE)

  13. Pa/enser bien le corps: Cognitive and Curative Language in Montaigne's Essais.

    PubMed

    Robert, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Montaigne's writings on medicine and the body have always been seen as part of a larger project about knowing ourselves. Responding to medical developments that seemed to privilege the anatomical body over the mind or the emotions, Montaigne defended the humoral link between mind and body. His essays make use of word play, puns, and anecdotes based on his own experience and reports from antiquity to counter what he perceived to be an increasingly one-sided approach to medicine. The result is a witty but nuanced argument for a more balanced outlook to what is now known as psychosomatic medicine.

  14. Bien faite pour apprendre...la chanson (Well Designed for Learning...The Song).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licari, Anita

    1984-01-01

    Song seems to lend itself particularly to language instruction because it encourages participation in a game of recognizing who is speaking, how, and about what and because enunciation is the dominant trait of its structure. Activities using song might focus on the condensation of meaning, redundance, interpretation, social consequences of song,…

  15. Strangulation du colon sigmoïdien par un testicule ectopique géant

    PubMed Central

    Sanogo, Zimogo; Koita, Adama; Camara, Moussa; Soumaré, Lamine; Kamaté, Bakarou; Doumbia, Dieneba; Ouattara, Zanafon; Tembely, Ali; Yena, Sadio; Coulibaly, Youssouf; Sangaré, Djibril

    2012-01-01

    Les causes de volvulus du colon sigmoïde sont variées et parmi elles la strangulation est des plus fréquentes dans notre contexte d’exercice. Les lésions vues tard permettent très rarement un traitement sans résection. La survenue d’un volvulus du colon sigmoïde autour d’un pédicule de testicule géant ectopique est une première que nous rapportons dans cette étude de cas. PMID:22593796

  16. Bis(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)aluminium tetra-bromido-aluminate.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Andrew P; Dugger, Cherrelle; Butcher, Ray J

    2014-03-01

    The title compound, [Al(C10H15)2][AlBr4], was formed during the reduction of a mixture of Cp*AlBr2 and AlBr3. The Al(III) atoms of the two crystallographically independent cations each lie on an inversion center, and the [AlBr4](-) anions are on general positions. At 123 K, the structure exhibits disorder in two of the Br atoms of the [AlBr4](-) ion, with a ratio occupancy of 0.733 (6): 0.267 (3). In the crystal, there is possible weak hydrogen bonding between some methyl groups and Br atoms. The interactions link the moieties in a three-dimensional array.

  17. Field Test Results of Experimental EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) and PUF (Polyurethane Foam) Roofing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    43 Benning; PUF roofing at Fort Benning; PUF roofing . . . asphalt -saturated and coated glass fiber base sheet in at Fort Knox; and EPDM, PUF, and BUR... roofing at - hot asphalt , 2 in. (64 mm) of rigid inorganic board Fort Lewis. USA-CERL Technical Report M-298 0 stock with asphalt -saturated organic...a two-ply vapor performance of the materials in a roof assembly. retarder of No. 15 asphalt -saturated organic felt, a American Society for Testing and

  18. Envisioning an enzymatic Diels-Alder reaction by in situ acid-base catalyzed diene generation.

    PubMed

    Linder, Mats; Johansson, Adam Johannes; Manta, Bianca; Olsson, Philip; Brinck, Tore

    2012-06-07

    We present and evaluate a new and potentially efficient route for enzyme-mediated Diels-Alder reactions, utilizing general acid-base catalysis. The viability of employing the active site of ketosteroid isomerase is demonstrated.

  19. Excited-state reaction pathways for s-cis buta-1,3-diene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celani, Paolo; Bernardi, Fernando; Olivucci, Massimo; Robb, Michael A.

    1995-04-01

    The topology and energetics of the potential energy surfaces associated with the 2A1 and 1B2 valence excited states of s-cis butadiene have been investigated via ab initio quantum chemical computations at a level of theory which includes dynamic correlation effects and extended basis sets. The results support a photochemical ring-closure mechanism involving 1B2 and 2A1 reaction/relaxation pathways that are disrotatory. The reaction path on the 2A1 surface begins at a 1B2/2A1 conical intersection and the ground state photoproducts are produced via radiationless decay at a second 2A1/1A1 conical intersection which has been documented in a previous publication. A local Cs equilibrium structure on 1B2 potential energy surface has been optimized using the complete active space-self-consistent field and configuration interaction singles methods. The 1B2/2A1 conical intersection is located near this Cs equilibrium structure and offers a rationalization of the experimentally observed femtosecond lifetime of this state. The observed preferential disrotatory stereochemistry appears to be simply determined by a difference in the energy barriers located along the 2A1 disrotatory and conrotatory paths. This finding is in contrast with the generally accepted notion that the stereochemistry is determined by a different rate of internal conversion at a ``disrotatory'' and ``conrotatory'' avoided crossing minima. Indeed, no avoided crossing can be located along the 2A1 paths.

  20. 1-CHLORO-(2S, 3S)-DIHYDROXYCYCLO-HEXA-4, 6-DIENE. (R826113)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. 1,3-Diferrocenyl-1,3-alkadienes in diene synthesis reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pushin, A.N.; Klimova, E.I.; Sazanova, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    Stable 1,3-diferrocenyl-1,3-alkadienes, which form Diels-Alder adducts with N-substituted maleimides, have been prepared. Methyldiferrocenylbutadien participates in a cycloaddition reaction less readily than 1,3-diferrocenyl-1,3-butadiene. Adducts of 1,3-diferrocenyl-1,3-butadiene with N-substituted maleimides are dehydrogenated on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or SiO/sub 2/ with subsequent formation of cyclohexadiene and benzene derivatives; protonation-deprotonation induces isomerization with transposition of the double bond.

  2. Pd-carbene migratory insertion: application to the synthesis of trifluoromethylated alkenes and dienes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Xu, Yan; Deng, Yifan; Zhou, Yujing; Feng, Jiajie; Ji, Guojing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-01-20

    Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of halides with CF3-substituted diazo compounds or N-tosylhydrazones has been explored for the synthesis of CF3-substituted alkenes and 1,3-butadienes. Pd-carbene migratory insertion plays the key role in these transformations. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis and Polymerization of Azaethylenes and Aza-1,3-dienes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-08

    TERMS polymerization imine azadiene IT. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION EM RIRCRT CL SECURITY CLASS»ICATION at um Raw J£ SECURITY CLASSIFICATION m Miisat...program on the synthesis and polymerization of suitably substituted imines and azadienes under USARO sponsorship. We have shown that proper choice of... azadienes could be purified. NHoCN TiCt4 EtaN R = H, Me Neither azadiene would homopolymerize under either free radical or anionic conditions. With

  4. 3β-Hydroxy-28-norolea-12,17-dien-11-one

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Werner; Weis, Robert; Faist, Johanna; Saf, Robert; Belaj, Ferdinand

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C29H44O2, was formed by treatment of 11-oxooleanolic acid under strong alkaline conditions. The absolute structure of the chiral mol­ecules could not be determined reliably from the diffraction data, but is known from other triterpenes. The asymmetric unit consists of two mol­ecules, 1 and 2. In both mol­ecules, rings A and B show chair conformations. The other rings show mixed forms between envelope and half-chair conformations with atoms in positions 8, 15 and 21 forming the flaps in rings C, D and E, respectively. Rings D and E of mol­ecule 2 are disordered over two orientations, with occupancies of 0.557 (4) and 0.443 (4), which differ in the direction of the flap in ring E. In the crystal, mol­ecules 1, as well as the mol­ecules 2, are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to the b axis. PMID:25249895

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Zeid, M. M.; Rabie, S. T.; Nada, A. A.; Khalil, A. M.; Hilal, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Composites of ethylene propylene dine terpolymer rubber (EPDM), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and ground tire rubber powder (GTR) at different ratios were subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 250 kGy. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated as a function of irradiation dose and blend composition. Gamma irradiation led to a significant improvement in the properties for all blend compositions. The results indicate that the improvement in properties is inversely proportional to the substituted ratio of GTR, attributed to the development of an interfacial adhesion between GTR and blend components. The results were confirmed by examining the fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Morphology and vulcanizate properties of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber/ styrene-butadiene rubber blends.

    PubMed

    Park, Gayoung; Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Dong Soo; Ko, Young Chun

    2010-05-01

    Morphology and vulcanizate properties of EPDM/SBR blends were investigated. AAHR (a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon resins) was used as a compatibilizer and bis(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide (TESPT) was used as a coupling agent. The vulcanizate properties and the morphological studies revealed that EPDM and SBR were incompatible, and the addition of AAHR was very effective to enhance the compatibility between EPDM and SBR. The weight percent of bound rubbers was increased with increasing SBR contents. The addition of an AAHR increased the amounts of bound rubbers, and hence the vulcanizate properties such as tear strength and fatigue resistance of the EPDM/SBR blends were improved. The dynamic mechanical analysis and the morphological studies revealed that the addition of TESPT increased the weight of bound rubbers and provided better dispersion of carbon black, resulting in good mechanical properties such as tear strength and fatigue resistance of the vulcanized EPDM/SBR blends. The smaller particle of zinc oxide (i.e., 50 nm > 100 nm > 1000 nm) yielded to the better blending properties of the polymer blend.

  7. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and fluorocarbon (FKM) elastomers in the geothermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, H.J.

    1983-07-01

    Thermal and hydrolytic processes that are likely to occur when hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon elastomers are subjected to geothermal conditions are discussed. Polyhydrocarbon backbones have good chemical resistance, but many cross-links present in cured polyhydrocarbons can be hydrolyzed under geothermal conditions. Perfluorinated elastomers have excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability, although they are potentially susceptible to hydrolytic degradation. The cross-links present in cured perfluorocarbon elastomers are probably also susceptible to hydrolysis under severe conditions. It seems that improvements can be made in geothermal seals if they can be cured by processes that yield chemically stable cross-links.

  8. EPDM polymers with intermolecular asymmetrical molecular weight, crystallinity and diene distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Cheremishinoff, N.P.; Kresge, E.N.

    1993-12-31

    Rapid extrusion of EPDM elastomers require low viscosity and thus low molecular weights for the polymer. Efficient vulcanization of these elastomers requires network perfection and thus high molecular weights for the polymer. The benefits of these apparently mutually exclusive goals is important in uses of EPDM elastomers which require extrusion of profiles which are later cured. This paper shows that by introducing simultaneously asymmetry in the distribution of molecular weights, crystallinity and vulcanizable sites these apparently contradictory goals can be resolved. While these polymers cannot be made from a single Ziegler polymerization catalyst, the authors show the synthesis of these model EPDM polymers by blending polymers with very different molecular weights, ethylene and ENB contents. These blends can be rapidly extruded without melt fracture and can be cured to vulcanizates which have excellent tensile properties.

  9. One-Pot Synthesis of Polyrotaxanes via Acyclic Diene Metathesis Polymerization of Supramolecular Monomers

    PubMed Central

    Momčilović, Nebojša; Clark, Paul G.; Boydston, Andrew J.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    A one-pot synthesis of polyrotaxanes has been developed. The method employs a supramolecular monomer comprising a polymerizable ammonium salt and crown ether, in combination with dynamic ADMet polymerization. Ultimately, highly efficient complexation, polymerization, and end-capping were accomplished in a single operation to yield polyrotaxanes with Mws up to 19.3 kDa and > 80% of the repeat units being complexed. PMID:22023086

  10. Polar, Functional Diene-Based Materials: Free Radical Polymerization of 2-Cyanomethyl-1,3-Butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Y

    2000-09-12

    This thesis presented here focuses on the synthesis of 2-cyanomethyl-l ,3-butadiene and the free-radical polymerization of this monomer. In addition to the bulk, solution and emulsion polymerizations,, copolymerization with styrene and acrylonitrile will also be discussed. The comonomers were chosen due to the potential applications mentioned above. Furthermore, the thermal properties and rnicrostructures of the homopolymers and the copolymers are examined.

  11. Intramolecular Formal anti-Carbopalladation/Heck Reaction: Facile Domino Access to Carbo- and Heterooligocyclic Dienes.

    PubMed

    Pawliczek, Martin; Milde, Bastian; Jones, Peter G; Werz, Daniel B

    2015-08-24

    An intramolecular domino process consisting of a formal anti-carbopalladation followed by Heck reaction is realized. Complex oligo(hetero)cyclic scaffolds are efficiently obtained in one synthetic step from easily obtainable enyne precursors. In contrast to common syn-carbopalladation reactions of alkyne units, the carbopalladation employed here is designed to afford an anti-arrangement of the two new substituents across the emerging double bond. A prerequisite is that the residues next to the alkyne should lack any β-hydrogen atoms. The method paves the way to tri- and tetrasubstituted double-bond systems that have not been accessible by conventional Pd catalysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Nazarov reactions intercepted by (4 + 3) cycloadditions with oxygen-substituted dienes.

    PubMed

    LeFort, François M; Mishra, Vinayak; Dexter, Graham D; Morgan, Timothy D R; Burnell, D Jean

    2015-06-05

    The oxyallyl cation intermediate from the Lewis acid mediated Nazarov reaction of an allenyl vinyl ketone was intercepted by acyclic, 2-silyloxy-substituted butadienes by highly regioselective (4 + 3) cycloadditions. Stereoselectivity was often modest, but in some instances steric interactions were responsible for high selectivity. The results are consistent with concerted (4 + 3) cycloadditions. In many instances, the (4 + 3) products were susceptible to fragmentation or rearrangement in the presence of the Lewis acid.

  13. Mapping Autonomous System’s Router Level Topology in IPv6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    include <netinet/ ip6 .h> #include <netinet/udp.h> #include <netinet/icmp6.h> #include "probe_main.h" #include "probe_generator.h" #include...PARTICULAR PURPOSE. *****************************************************************************/ int udp6_cksum(const struct ip6_hdr * ip6 ...pseudo-header */ memset(&phu, 0, sizeof(phu)); phu.ph.ph_src = ip6 ->ip6_src; phu.ph.ph_dst = ip6 ->ip6_dst; phu.ph.ph_len = htonl(len

  14. World heritage site - Bien du Patrimoine Mondial - Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2004-01-01

    The four parks depicted on this map make up a single World Heritage Site that covers 24.3 million acres. Together, they comprise the largest internationally protected land-based ecosystem on the planet. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the World Heritage Program in 1972 for the identification and protection of the world?s irreplaceable natural and cultural resources. World Heritage Sites are important as storehouses of memory and evolution, as anchors for sustainable tourism and community, and as laboratories for the study and understanding of the earth and culture. This World Heritage Site protects the prominent mountain ranges of Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, and Chugach. It includes many of the tallest peaks on the continent, the world's largest non-polar icefield, extensive glaciers, vital watersheds, and expanses of dramatic wilderness. [Les quatre parcs figurant sur cette carte ne constituent qu?un seul site du patrimoine mondial recouvrant plus de 99 millions de km2, ce qui en fait le plus grand ecosysteme terrestre protege par loi internationale. En 1972, L?UNESCO (l?organisation des Nations Unies pour les sciences, l'education et la culture) a etabli le programme du patrimoine mondial afin d?identifier et de proteger les ressources naturelles et culturelles irremplacables de notre plan?te. Si les sites du patrimoine mondial sont si importants c'est parce qu'ils representent a la fois des livres ouverts sur l?histoire de la Terre, le point de depart du tourisme durable et du developpement des collectivites, des laboratoires pour etudier et comprendre la nature et la culture. Ce site du patrimoine mondial assure la protection des chaines de montagnes de Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, et Chugach. On y trouve plusieurs des plus hauts sommets du continent, le plus grand champ de glace non-polaire du monde, d?immenses glaciers, des bassins hydrologiques essentiels, et de la nature sauvage a perte de vue.

  15. Anti-arthritic activity of aqueous-methanolic extract and various fractions of Berberis orthobotrys Bien ex Aitch.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Uttra, Ambreen Malik; Hasan, Umme Habiba

    2017-07-18

    The roots and stem bark of Berberis orthobotrys (Berberidaceae) have long been used traditionally to treat joint pain. Though, it has not been pharmacologically assessed for rheumatoid arthritis. The current study explores anti-arthritic activity and phytochemical analysis of aqueous-methanolic extract (30:70) and fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) of Berberis orthobotrys roots. Anti-arthritic potential was evaluated in vitro using protein denaturation (bovine serum albumin and egg albumin) and membrane stabilization methods at 12.5-800 μg/ml concentration and in vivo via turpentine oil, formaldehyde and Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) models at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg doses. Also, in vitro antioxidant ability was appraised by reducing power assay. Moreover, total flavonoid content, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and High performance liquid chromatography of n-butanol fraction were performed. The results revealed concentration dependent inhibition of albumin denaturation and notable RBC membrane stabilization, with maximum results obtained at 800 μg/ml. Similarly, plant exhibited dose dependent anti-arthritic effect in turpentine oil and formaldehyde models, with maximum activity observed at 150 mg/kg. The results of CFA model depicted better protection against arthritic lesions and body weight alterations. Also, B.orthobotrys remarkably ameliorated altered hematological parameters, rheumatoid factor and positively modified radiographic and histopathological changes. Additionally, plant exhibited remarkable anti-oxidant activity. Moreover, phytochemical analysis revealed polyphenols and flavonoids. Taken together, these results support traditional use of B.orthobotrys as potent anti-arthritic agent that may be proposed for rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

  16. Mental Health and Well-Being across the Military Spectrum (Bien-etre et sante mentale dans le milieu militaire)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    seek help. Implementing the desirable attitude change within a traditionally tough ( macho ) military culture is a real challenge and specific...changement souhaitable de comportement dans un environnement militaire de culture traditionnellement rude ( macho ) est un vrai défi, et il est recommandé

  17. Le mécanisme d'Anticythère, une machine bien mystérieuse (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas, Jean-Jacques

    2016-09-01

    A roman shipwreck was discovered in 1900, near the coast of a small island, Antikythera. Among findings was an object full of gears and axles, with inscriptions. It is called Antikythera Mechanism. The interdisciplinary researches, with modern technics (tomography), proved that it is a mechanical calculating device which displays calendars and related astronomical phenomena : egyptian calendar, metonic calendar, callipic calendar, Saros and Exelgimos dials, Games dials, Sun's motion, Moon's motion realized through a remarkable epicycle gears train. The origin of the Mechanism and his designer are unknown. However, it was probably built during the second half of the 2nd century BCE, as part of the tradition of “sphere making” originated by Archimedes. May be, Poseidonios, from Rhodes, would be the designer. Antikythera Mechanism has not delivered all its mysteries yet. A second paper in a following issue of "l'Astronomie" is devoted to the subject.

  18. E. C. Meyer, General, United States Army, Chief of Staff, June 1979-June 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    there may be just enough bet- bag. Called to service in South East Asia, we read ween us if, and I emphasize if, we can find the the history of Dien Bien ...commend it to your persona . process of professional search and reflection, we library if it is not already present, for these pur- risk losing the...the maturity and spirit be-to the Nation. to try in a persona quest for excellence can forge the hammer by which we break the link which You’ve

  19. [η5-1,3-Bis(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dien­yl]dichlorido[η5-(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dien­yl]titanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Perdih, Franc

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ti(C8H13Si)(C11H21Si2)Cl2], the TiIV atom is bonded to two Cl atoms, one 1,3-bis­(trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dienyl (Si2Cp) and one (trimethyl­sil­yl)cyclo­penta­dienyl ring (SiCp). The Si2Cp centroid–titanium distance is 2.0763 (10) Å and the SiCp centroid–titanium distance is 2.0793 (10) Å. The angle subtended at the Ti atom by the centroids of both cyclo­penta­dienyl rings is 131.22 (4)° and the Cl—Ti—Cl angle is 94.14 (2)°. PMID:22199510

  20. Thermal Reactions of RuCO)3(C2H4)2 with Acrylic, Non-Conjugated Dienes and Photochemistry of Ru(CO)4(eta squared-diene) Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-15

    1981, 103, 2129. 7. Turner, J. J.; Poliakoff, M. ACS Symposium, No 211, 1983, pp 35. 8. Fleckner, H.; Grevels , F.-W.; Hess, D. J. Am. Chem. Scc., 1984...106, 2027. 9. Kiel, G. K.; Takats, J.; Grevels , F.-W. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 109, 2227. 10. Mitchener, J. C.; Wrighton, M. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981

  1. Mechanistic interpretation of selective catalytic hydrogenation and isomerization of alkenes and dienes by ligand deactivated Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jie S.; Shon, Young-Seok

    2015-10-01

    Unsupported thiolate-capped palladium nanoparticle catalysts are found to be highly substrate-selective for alkene hydrogenation and isomerization. Steric and poisoning effects from thiolate ligands on the nanoparticle surface control reactivity and selectivity by influencing alkene adsorption and directing either di-σ or mono-σ bond formation. The presence of overlapping p orbitals and α protons in alkenes greatly influences the catalytic properties of deactivated palladium nanoparticles leading to easily predictable hydrogenation or isomerization products.Unsupported thiolate-capped palladium nanoparticle catalysts are found to be highly substrate-selective for alkene hydrogenation and isomerization. Steric and poisoning effects from thiolate ligands on the nanoparticle surface control reactivity and selectivity by influencing alkene adsorption and directing either di-σ or mono-σ bond formation. The presence of overlapping p orbitals and α protons in alkenes greatly influences the catalytic properties of deactivated palladium nanoparticles leading to easily predictable hydrogenation or isomerization products. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figures, methods, materials, and characterization data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05090a

  2. Diels-Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated Dienes with Acrylic Esters: A Novel Approach to Photocured Polymer Film Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilhan, Faysal; Tyson, Daniel S.; Smith, Deedee; Meador, Mary Ann; Meador, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Diels-Alder cycloadditions have often been utilized in polymer synthesis as an alternative to condensation reactions. In our earlier efforts, we developed a new method for the preparation of linear aromatic polyimides, which employs o-quionodimethanes (o-QDMs), generated by a well-known photochemical reaction: the photoenolization of o-methylphenyl ketones. Photolysis of o-methylbenzophenone 1 produces hydroxy-o-quino- diemthane 2, which can be trapped with dienophiles, such as dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, to efficiently yield the corresponding cycloadduct (Scheme 1). Here we extend this approach to a novel photocuring process for development of polymer films. We synthesized a series of molecules with multi o-mehtylphenyl ketone functionalities. We further investigated these molecules as photoreactive monomers to obtain polyester films through Diels-Alder cycloadditions.

  3. Iodidobis(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Monty; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In the title complex mol­ecule, [Ti(C10H15)2I], the paramagnetic Ti(III) atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligands and one iodide ligand. The two Cp* ligands are in a staggered orientation. The coordination geometry at the titanium atom can be described as distorted trigonal-planar. PMID:21588833

  4. Bis(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Meghan M.; Brennessel, William W.; Holland, Patrick L.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, deca­methyl­cobaltocene, [Co(C10H15)2], has been determined. High-quality single crystals were grown from a cold saturated hexa­methyl­disiloxane solution. The structure is related to the manganese and iron analogs. The molecule has D 5d symmetry, with the Co atom in a crystallographic 2/m position. The cobalt–centroid(C5) distance is 1.71Å and the centroid(C5)–Co–centroid(C5) angle is 180°, by symmetry. PMID:21582340

  5. Azido-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phen-yl]iridium(III).

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Keita; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)(C11H8N)(N3)], the Ir(III) ion is coordinated by three anionic ligands, namely, penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp*(-)), 2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl (ppy(-)) and azide (N3 (-)), and adopts a three-legged piano-stool geometry The coordination mode of N3 (-) is typical for Cp*Ir(III)-N3 complexes, with an Ir-N(N3) bond length of 2.125 (2) Å and an Ir-N=N bond angle of 116.5 (2)°. The N3 (-) ligand is almost linear [N=N=N = 176.0 (3)°], and the N=N bond length between the central and coordinating N atom and that between the central and non-coordinating terminal N atom are 1.194 (3) and 1.157 (3) Å, respectively. For the ppy(-) ligand, the Ir-C and Ir-N bond lengths are 2.066 (3) and 2.079 (3) Å, respectively, which are rather close to each other, compared to the related Ir(III)- or Rh(III)-ppy complexes. The Ir-C(Cp*) bond lengths vary in the range 2.163 (2)-2.232 (2) Å, indicating a strong trans influence of the cyclo-metallated C-donor atom of the ppy(-) ligand.

  6. Hybrid metal/organo relay catalysis enables enynes to be latent dienes for asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Dian-Feng; Wang, Ya-Yi; Guo, Rui; Wang, Pu-Sheng; Wang, Chao; Gong, Liu-Zhu

    2012-04-18

    The hybrid Au(I)/Brønsted acid binary catalyst system enables enynes to serve as latent 1,3-silyloxydienes capable of participating in the first cascade hydrosiloxylation of an enynyl silanol/asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction. A variety of polycyclic compounds bearing multistereogenic centers were obtained in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities from the relay catalytic cascade reaction between (2-(but-3-en-1-ynyl)phenyl) silanols and quinones catalyzed by the combined achiral gold complex and chiral N-triflyl phosphoramide.

  7. Stereoselective Synthesis of 8,12-Furanoeudesmanes from Santonin. Absolute Stereochemistry of Natural Furanoeudesma-1,3-diene and Tubipofurane.

    PubMed

    Blay, Gonzalo; Cardona, Luz; García, Begoña; Pedro, José R.; Sánchez, Juan J.

    1996-05-31

    Ketobutenolide 3, easily obtained from santonin (1), has been transformed into two natural furanoeudesmanes 4 and 5, isolated from Commiphora molmol and Tubipora musica, respectively. trans- And cis-decalin systems were obtained by stereoselective reduction of the C(4)-C(5) double bond in 3 in the following way: hydrogenation of 3 over Pd/C followed by acidic treatment gave the cis isomer 10 as the major product; selective hydrogenation of the C(1)-C(2) double bond with the Wilkinson's catalyst followed by reduction with NaTeH yielded mainly the trans isomer 9. Compounds 9 and 10 were transformed into 4 and 5 in parallel sequences. Optical rotation and CD measurements of the synthetic products revealed that the stereochemistry of both natural products should be revised to their enantiomeric form.

  8. Picosecond laser spectroscopy of photocycloaddition reaction of 9-cyanoanthracene-1,3-diene systems and photodecomposition reaction of the cycloadducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tadashi; Kida, Kenji; Mataga, Noboru

    1982-04-01

    Transient absorption spectra of singlet biradical in addition to exciplex have been observed in the course of the photocycloaddition reaction of 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA) with 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene (DMHD) while no intermediate was detected in CNA-1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD). The cycloadduct with CHD shows an efficient adiabatic photodissociation into 1CNA ≠ and CHD immediately after excitation.

  9. 17β-Hy­droxy-17α-methyl­androsta-1,4-dien-3-one

    PubMed Central

    Karpinska, Jolanta; Erxleben, Andrea; McArdle, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C20H28O2, is a steroid with strong anabolic properties. The present solvent-free form crystallizes with two mol­ecules per asymmetric unit. In the crystal, both mol­ecules are involved in the formation of O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded chains which extend along the b-axis direction. PMID:23476441

  10. 1,3,5-Tris(pyridin-3-yl)-2,4-diaza­penta-1,4-diene

    PubMed Central

    Quiroa-Montalván, Claudia M.; Aguirre, Gerardo; Parra-Hake, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    In the solid state, the structure of the title compound, C18H15N5, is stabilized by weak C—H⋯N interactions. Mol­ecules are arranged in layers parallel to the bc plane forming an inter­esting supra­molecular structure. PMID:22412625

  11. Bilingual Dictionary of Mathematical Terms. English-Vietnamese = Tu-Dien Song Ngu Danh-Tu Toan. Anh-Viet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    This bilingual dictionary was developed for use by Vietnamese junior high and high school students to assist them in their understanding of mathematical vocabulary and concepts in English. Terminology and definitions are provided in English, with Vietnamese translations directly below each entry. When possible, an illustration is included.…

  12. Crystal structure of 1,6-di-thia-cyclo-deca-cis-3,cis-8-diene (DTCDD).

    PubMed

    Baughman, Russell G; Delanty, Molly C; Ortwerth, Michael F

    2014-11-01

    The title compound, C8H12S2 (trivial name DTCDD), was obtained as a side product of the reaction between cis-1,4-di-chloro-but-2-ene and sodium sulfide. The asymmetric unit consists of one-quarter of the mol-ecule (S site symmetry 2) and the complete mol-ecule has 2/m (C 2h ) point symmetry with the C=C bond in an E conformation. The geometry of the title compound is compared to those of a chloro derivative and a mercury complex.

  13. Mechanistic interpretation of selective catalytic hydrogenation and isomerization of alkenes and dienes by ligand deactivated Pd nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie S; Shon, Young-Seok

    2015-11-14

    Unsupported thiolate-capped palladium nanoparticle catalysts are found to be highly substrate-selective for alkene hydrogenation and isomerization. Steric and poisoning effects from thiolate ligands on the nanoparticle surface control reactivity and selectivity by influencing alkene adsorption and directing either di-σ or mono-σ bond formation. The presence of overlapping p orbitals and α protons in alkenes greatly influences the catalytic properties of deactivated palladium nanoparticles leading to easily predictable hydrogenation or isomerization products.

  14. Highly Stereoselective Heterogeneous Diene Polymerization by Co-MFU-4l: A Single-Site Catalyst Prepared by Cation Exchange.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Romain J-C; Comito, Robert J; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Guanghui; Rieth, Adam J; Hendon, Christopher H; Miller, Jeffrey T; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-09-13

    Molecular catalysts offer tremendous advantages for stereoselective polymerization because their activity and selectivity can be optimized and understood mechanistically using the familiar tools of organometallic chemistry. Yet, this exquisite control over selectivity comes at an operational price that is generally not justifiable for the large-scale manufacture of polyfolefins. In this report, we identify Co-MFU-4l, prepared by cation exchange in a metal-organic framework, as a solid catalyst for the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene with high stereoselectivity (>99% 1,4-cis). To our knowledge, this is the highest stereoselectivity achieved with a heterogeneous catalyst for this transformation. The polymer's low polydispersity (PDI ≈ 2) and the catalyst's ready recovery and low leaching indicate that our material is a structurally resilient single-site heterogeneous catalyst. Further characterization of Co-MFU-4l by X-ray absorption spectroscopy provided evidence for discrete, tris-pyrazolylborate-like coordination of Co(II). With this information, we identify a soluble cobalt complex that mimics the structure and reactivity of Co-MFU-4l, thus providing a well-defined platform for studying the catalytic mechanism in the solution phase. This work underscores the capacity for small molecule-like tunability and mechanistic tractability available to transition metal catalysis in metal-organic frameworks.

  15. Recommended methods of fatty acid methylester preparation for conjugated dienes and trienes in food and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miki; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kambe, Tomoko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-04-01

    In this study, we compared three acid-catalyzed methods and three base-catalyzed methods for the methylester preparation of conjugated dienoic fatty acids and conjugated trienoic fatty acids in food and biological samples. Among the six methods examined, the sodium methoxide/methanol (NaOCH3/MeOH) method and the tetramethylguanidine/ methanol (TMG/MeOH) method of methylester preparation from tung oil were most efficient in preventing the artificial isomerization of alpha-eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA; 9c,11t,13t-18:3) to beta-eleostearic acid (beta-ESA: 9t,11t,13t-18:3) and for avoiding the artificial generation of unknown byproducts. Hydrochloric acid/methanol (HCl/MeOH), sulfuric acid/methanol (H2SO4/MeOH) and AOCS (boron trifluoride/methanol (BF3/MeOH)) methods of methylester preparation from tung oil resulted in the breakdown of alpha-ESA due to their long reaction periods and high reaction temperatures. In addition, these three methods did not prevent the generation of beta-ESA. For the methylester preparation of tung oil free fatty acids, the BF3/MeOH method (30 min at room temperature) did not lead to artificial beta-ESA formation or byproducts, while the trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSN2CH3) method did form artifacts. For the methylation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, free fatty acid), the BF3/ MeOH and TMSN2CH3 methods completely suppressed artificial isomerization of c,t-CLA and t,c-CLA to t,t-CLA. The results indicated that the BF3/MeOH method for free fatty acids is the best method for the methylester preparation of both conjugated dienoic and trienoic fatty acids with respect to preventing artificial isomerization and the formation of byproducts. The BF3/MeOH method was applicable to both food and biological samples.

  16. Family Incomes: Will Your Children Be as Well Off as Your? = Les revenue familiaux: vos enfants s'en tireront-ils aussi bien que vous?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Against the background of recent radical changes in the Canadian economy, this issue of the Canadian journal "Transition" examines the question of parents' concerns for their children's economic futures. "Changes in Family Incomes and Labour Market Participation in Post-War Canada" (David Ross and Clarence Lochhead) charts…

  17. Les expériences de victimisation, la santé mentale et le bien-être de jeunes trans au Québec

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Guillaume; Blais, Martin; Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Hébert, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Les normes traditionnelles de genre prescrivent l’adéquation de l’expression de la masculinité et de la féminité au sexe anatomique de naissance. Les personnes qui présentent des variations dans l’expression de genre sont sujettes à diverses formes de réactions sociales suggérant la réprobation (des regards désapprobateurs aux violences physiques) susceptibles d’influencer négativement leur santé mentale. Trente-sept (37) jeunes se décrivant comme trans ou en questionnement sur leur identité de genre ont été recrutés dans le cadre de l’enquête sur les Parcours Amoureux des Jeunes de minorités sexuelles du Québec. Leurs expériences de victimisation parentale et de victimisation basée sur la non-conformité de genre ainsi que des indicateurs de santé mentale (détresse psychologique, estime de soi) ont été mesurés. Afin de comparer les expériences de victimisation et l’état de santé mentale des jeunes trans, ils ont été appariés à 37 garçons et 37 filles cisgenres sur la base de leurs caractéristiques sociodémographiques. Des analyses de prévalence et un modèle acheminatoire ont été réalisés. Les résultats mettent en évidence que les jeunes trans sont plus susceptibles de présenter des scores cliniques de détresse psychologique et de faible estime d’eux-mêmes que leurs pairs cisgenres. La violence verbale parentale et la victimisation basée sur la non-conformité de genre influencent négativement l’estime de soi, ce qui en retour augmente la probabilité de vivre de la détresse psychologique. Les résultats appuient l’importance des interventions de soutien à la diversité sexuelle et de genre. PMID:26966849

  18. Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good (La investigación acción de base y el bien mayor)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Isobel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally…

  19. Katimavik Participant's Manual, Book VIII, Nutrition and Well-Being = Katimavik manuel du participant, cahier VIII, l'alimentation et le bien-etre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crelinsten, Michael, Ed.

    The bilingual student manual focuses on the nutrition and well-being learning activity portion of Katimavik, a nine-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17 to 21 year old Canadians. Providing participants with basic information and tools to assess and improve nutritional states and tie nutrition concerns into a…

  20. Katimavik Participant's Manual, Book VIII, Nutrition and Well-Being = Katimavik manuel du participant, cahier VIII, l'alimentation et le bien-etre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crelinsten, Michael, Ed.

    The bilingual student manual focuses on the nutrition and well-being learning activity portion of Katimavik, a nine-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17 to 21 year old Canadians. Providing participants with basic information and tools to assess and improve nutritional states and tie nutrition concerns into a…

  1. 77 FR 34935 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Company; Phu Cuong Seafood Processing and Import-Export Co., Ltd.; Sao Ta Foods Joint Stock Company; Soc... Company (`Nha Trang 0.26 Seafoods''). Phu Cuong Seafood Processing and Import-Export 0.26 Co., Ltd. Sao Ta Foods Joint Stock Company (``Fimex 0.26 VN''), aka Sao Ta Seafood Factory. Soc Trang Seafood Joint...

  2. The in vitro digestibility of beef varies with its inherent ultimate pH.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Wu, Guojie; Frost, Deborah A; Clerens, Stefan; Knowles, Scott O

    2014-11-01

    Animal carcasses and cuts of meat are usually differentiated and valued according to size and compositional attributes. An underappreciated variable of red meat is its inherent ultimate pH (pHu) value, which affects organoleptic and processing characteristics. This study tests the hypothesis that high pHu aged meat would be more digestible than low pHu unaged (fresh) meat. Longissimus dorsi muscles collected from 59 bull carcasses had pHu values of 5.6-6.9. These were aged for 21 days at -1.5 °C, then raw and cooked (72 °C) samples were enzymatically digested at 37 °C with pepsin (pH 1.9 for 90 min) followed by pancreatin (pH 8.0 for an additional 120 min) to simulate conditions in the stomach and small intestine, respectively. Meat proteins and peptides in the digests were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. Regardless of pHu, ageing or cooking, most sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin, with concomitant release of products identified by LC-MS/MS as mainly myosin-1, -2 and -7, α-actinin-2 or -3 and tropomyosin beta and alpha chains. These products were resistant to further digestion for the entire 210 min duration of the incubation. In terms of rate and extent of digestibility of these resistant products, high pHu > low pHu (P < 0.001), whereas aged > unaged (P < 0.003), with the effect of cooking dependent on pHu and varying somewhat by protein. Overall, the digestibility of meat samples increased with increasing pHu (P < 0.001). Beef meat was highly digestible but could be further differentiated on the basis of its pHu and the ease of digestibility of proteins. Specific carcasses or cuts could be targeted to consumer groups in order to provide benefits and add value.

  3. Variation in bull beef quality due to ultimate muscle pH is correlated to endopeptidase and small heat shock protein levels.

    PubMed

    Pulford, D J; Dobbie, P; Fraga Vazquez, S; Fraser-Smith, E; Frost, D A; Morris, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study set out to determine if ultimate pH (pH(u)) affected the performance of intracellular small heat shock protein and endopeptidase dynamics in muscle during beef ageing. Longissimus dorsi muscles from 39 Angus or Limousin×Angus bulls were examined to see if pH(u) achieved at 22h post mortem (rigor) affected tenderness and water holding capacity of beef. Samples were segregated into three pH(u) groups termed high (pH>6.3), intermediate (5.7pH(u) beef. More than 30% of bull beef did not achieve acceptable tenderness at 8 days post mortem with this ageing regime. No significant differences in calpain or cathepsin enzyme levels due to meat pH were observed until after 22h post mortem, but low pH(u) beef had elevated caspase 3/7 activity soon after slaughter. At 22h post mortem, greater levels of μ-calpain enzyme were found in the high and intermediate pH(u) beef and cathepsin B levels were superior in the low pH(u) beef after 2 days post mortem. Different rates of desmin and troponin T protein degradation were also observed in aged bull beef. Both proteins were degraded within 6h post mortem for high pH(u) beef, but took >3 days post mortem for intermediate pH(u) beef. High levels of alpha β-crystallin (aβC) at 22h post mortem coincided with delayed muscle protein degradation for low pH(u) beef. Our results support the hypothesis that aβC shields myofibrils and buffers against endopeptidase degradation of beef structure during ageing.

  4. Huong Dan Cho Phu Huynh Ve Thanh Qua La Viec Quan Trong Nhat: Ke hoach giao duc cua Maryland cho cac lop chuan bi hoc mau giao den lop 12, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Vietnamese-language guide for parents outlines the goals and…

  5. Huong Dan Cho Phu Huynh Ve Thanh Qua La Viec Quan Trong Nhat: Ke hoach giao duc cua Maryland cho cac lop chuan bi hoc mau giao den lop 12, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Vietnamese-language guide for parents outlines the goals and…

  6. Bloc atrio-ventriculaire transitoire au cours d'un goitre multinodulaire: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Konaté, Lassina; Samandoulougou, André; Kambiré, Yibar; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Tindano, Caleb; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Les troubles de conduction auriculo-ventriculaire sont relativement fréquents en Afrique grâce à l’élévation de l'expérience de vie dans nos sociétés en pleine transition épidémiologique. Ces troubles sont le plus souvent dus à une dégénérescence du tissu de conduction. La prise en charge des troubles conductifs (BAV3) consiste en l'implantation d'un stimulateur cardiaque définitif. Mais cette thérapeutique doit être précédée par une enquête étiologique pour détecter les autres causes de BAV transitoire. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente de 75 ans, admise pour bloc auriculo-ventriculaire 2/1 et un goitre multi-nodulaire hyperthyroïdique; le traitement avec des antithyroïdiens de synthèse a vu la disparition du trouble conductif. Les BAV au cours de l'hyperthyroïdie sont rares, mais bien décrits. L’évolution est favorable sous traitement par antithyroïdiens de synthèse. Il ne faudrait donc pas implanter des pacemakers définitifs en première intention. PMID:25667715

  7. Diversification of ortho-Fused Cycloocta-2,5-dien-1-one Cores and Eight- to Six-Ring Conversion by σ Bond C-C Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Eccleshare, Lee; Lozada-Rodríguez, Leticia; Cooper, Phillippa; Burroughs, Laurence; Ritchie, John; Lewis, William; Woodward, Simon

    2016-08-22

    Sequential treatment of 2-C6 H4 Br(CHO) with LiC≡CR(1) (R(1) =SiMe3 , tBu), nBuLi, CuBr⋅SMe2 and HC≡CCHClR(2) [R(2) =Ph, 4-CF3 Ph, 3-CNPh, 4-(MeO2 C)Ph] at -50 °C leads to formation of an intermediate carbanion (Z)-1,2-C6 H4 {CA (=O)C≡CB R(1) }{CH=CH(CH(-) )R(2) } (4). Low temperatures (-50 °C) favour attack at CB leading to kinetic formation of 6,8-bicycles containing non-classical C-carbanion enolates (5). Higher temperatures (-10 °C to ambient) and electron-deficient R(2) favour retro σ-bond C-C cleavage regenerating 4, which subsequently closes on CA providing 6,6-bicyclic alkoxides (6). Computational modelling (CBS-QB3) indicated that both pathways are viable and of similar energies. Reaction of 6 with H(+) gave 1,2-dihydronaphthalen-1-ols, or under dehydrating conditions, 2-aryl-1-alkynylnaphthlenes. Enolates 5 react in situ with: H2 O, D2 O, I2 , allylbromide, S2 Me2 , CO2 and lead to the expected C-E derivatives (E=H, D, I, allyl, SMe, CO2 H) in 49-64 % yield directly from intermediate 5. The parents (E=H; R(1) =SiMe3 , tBu; R(2) =Ph) are versatile starting materials for NaBH4 and Grignard C=O additions, desilylation (when R(1) =SiMe) and oxime formation. The latter allows formation of 6,9-bicyclics via Beckmann rearrangement. The 6,8-ring iodides are suitable Suzuki precursors for Pd-catalysed C-C coupling (81-87 %), whereas the carboxylic acids readily form amides under T3P® conditions (71-95 %).

  8. CATALYZED CYCLIZATION OF [ALPHA],[OMEGA]-DIENES: A VERSATILE PROTOCOL FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF FUNCTIONALIZED CARBOCYCLIC AND HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS. (R826120)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tri-methyl-hafnium(IV).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Varela-Izquierdo, Víctor; Yélamos, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The mol-ecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV) com-pound, [Hf(CH3)3(C13H21)] or [HfMe3(η(5)-C5H3-1,3- (t) Bu2)], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for mono-cyclo-penta-dienylhafnium(IV) derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV) atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp) ring are 0.132 (5) and 0.154 (6) Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant inter-molecular inter-actions present between the mol-ecules in the crystal structure.

  10. Thermolytic Behavior of 4-Fold Bridged syn-Tricyclo[4.2.0.0(2,5)]octa-3,7-dienes.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stefan; Gleiter, Rolf

    1997-06-27

    The syntheses of the 4-fold-bridged compounds syn-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodecahydro-8b,12b-butanobenzo[3',4']cyclobuta[1',2':3,4]cyclobuta[1,2-e]biphenylene (7), syn-1,4,5,8,9,12-hexahydro-8b,12b-(but-3-eno)benzo[3',4']cyclobuta[1',2':3,4]cyclobuta[1,2-e]biphenylene (8), and 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15-tetradecahydro-10b,15b-pentano-1H-cyclobuta[1",2":2,3;3",4":3',4']dicyclobuta[1,2:3,4:1',2']triscycloheptene (9) have been achieved starting from the cyclic diynes 10-12. Heating 7 and 8 at 200 degrees C without solvent leads to 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodecahydro-8b,12b-butanobenzo[3,4]cyclobuta[1,2-l]phenanthrene (18) and 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexahydro-8b,12b-(but-3-eno)benzo[3,4]cyclobuta[1,2-l]phenanthrene (19). Both systems contain a bridged bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-2,4,7-triene skeleton. The thermolysis of 9 yields (Delta(5a,5b;10a,11;11a,16a;17,17a))-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,12,13,14,15,16-tetradecahydro-11,17-pentano-1H-triscyclohepta[a,c,f]cyclooctene (20), a 4-fold-bridged cyclooctatetraene derivative. Treatment of 8 with DDQ leads to the dehydrogenation products 21 and 22. The different behavior in the thermolysis of 7 and 8 as compared to 9 is ascribed to the different lengths of the bridges.

  11. Characterization of identity, metabolism and androgenic activity of 17-hydroxyandrosta-3,5-diene by GC-MS and a yeast transactivation system.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Anne; Rataj, Felicitas; Zierau, Oliver; Anielski, Patricia; Große, Joachim; Parr, Maria-Kristina; Vollmer, Günter; Thieme, Detlef

    2012-12-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are frequently misused compounds in sports, and they belong to the controlled substances according to the requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency. The classical techniques of steroid detection are mass spectrometry coupled to gas or liquid chromatography. Biological methods that base on the ability of substances to bind the steroid receptor are not applied in routine doping control procedures so far, but they appear to be useful for characterization of steroid androgenic potential. In this study we used the yeast androgen receptor reporter system (YAS), which in the past has already successfully been applied to both various androgenic substances and also urine samples. Giving attention to the androgenic potential of steroidal dietary supplements, we exemplified the analysis using both mass spectrometry techniques and the YAS-based assay on the product "Syntrax Tetrabol" which was a confiscated dietary supplement and marketed as a steroid precursor. Identification, structure and the kinetic behavior of its excreted metabolites were analyzed by NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. The androgenic potential of the parent compound as well as its metabolites in urine was evaluated with the help of the YAS. The application of urine samples with a previous deconjugation and the inclusion of urine density values were carried out and led to increased responses on the YAS. Further, the possibility of a complementary application of structure-based instrumental analysis and biological detection of androgenicity with the help of the YAS seems to be desirable and is discussed.

  12. (η5-Penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)(η6-toluene)­ruthenium(II) hexa­fluorido­phosphate

    PubMed Central

    O, Wylie W. N.; Lough, Alan J.; Morris, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ru(C7H8)(C10H15)]PF6, the cation lies on a mirror plane and the anion lies on an inversion center. The distance between the Ru atom and the centroid of the benzene ring is 1.706 (5) Å and the distance between the Ru atom and the cyclo­penta­dienyl ring is 1.811 (5) Å. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds. The H atoms of the methyl groups which lie on the mirror plane are disordered over two sites with equal occupancies. PMID:21587411

  13. μ-Oxido-bis­[bis­(penta­fluoro­phenolato)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junseong; Kim, Youngjo

    2011-01-01

    The dinuclear title complex, [Ti2(C10H15)2(C6F5O)4O], features two TiIV atoms bridged by an O atom, which lies on an inversion centre. The TiIV atom is bonded to a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ring, two penta­fluoro­phenolate anions and to the bridging O atom. The environment around the TiIV atom can be considered as a distorted tetra­hedron. The cyclo­penta­dienyl ring is disordered over two sets of sites [site occupancy = 0.824 (8) for the major component]. PMID:22090906

  14. (2,2-Bipyrid­yl)bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)strontium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Kazhdan, Daniel; Hu, Yung-Jin; Kokai, Akos; Levi, Zerubba; Rozenel, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Sr(C10H15)2(C10H8N2)], the Sr—N distances are 2.624 (3) and 2.676 (3) Å, the Sr⋯Cp ring centroid distances are 2.571 and 2.561 Å and the N—C—C—N torsion angle in the bipyridine ligand is −2.2 (4)°. Inter­estingly, the bipyridine ligand is tilted. The angle between the plane defined by the Sr atom and the two bipyridyl N atoms and the plane defined by the 12 atoms of the bipyridine ligand is 10.7 (1)°. PMID:21201592

  15. Aqua-bis-(4-methyl-benzene-sulfonato-κO)(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)rhodium(III) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christopher P; Boyer, Pauline M; Merola, Joseph S

    2013-05-01

    The title half-sandwich rhodium(III) complex, [Rh(C10H15)(C7H7O3S)2(H2O)]·H2O, consists of a π-bonded penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl group, two σ-bonded tosyl-ate groups and an aqua ligand. The structure displays both inter- and intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonding results in an extended helical chain along a 21 screw axis parallel to c, due to hydrogen bonding from the coordinating water ligand to the lattice water mol-ecule and then to a sulfonate O atom of a different asymmetric unit.

  16. Dichlorido(9-methyl­adenine-κN 7)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iridium(III) dichloromethane solvate

    PubMed Central

    Bruhn, Clemens; Küger, Thomas; Steinborn, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ir(C10H15)Cl2(C6H7N5)]·CH2Cl2 or [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl2(9-MeAde-κN 7)]·CH2Cl2 (9-MeAde = 9-methyl­adenine), the coordination geometry of the IrIII atom approximates to a three-legged piano stool. The 9-methyl­adenine ligand is coordinated in a monodentate fashion to the Ir centre through its N-7 atom. The crystal structure contains centrosymmetric pairs of mol­ecules, inter­acting through two N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. An intra­molecular N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bond is formed between the H atom of an NH2 group and a chlorido ligand. Further short intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯Cl contacts are observed. PMID:21201851

  17. (Cyanido-κC)(2,2-di-phenyl-acetamido-κ(2) N,O)bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV).

    PubMed

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2014-02-01

    In the title compound, [Zr(C10H15)2(C14H12NO)(CN)], the Zr(IV) atom is coordinated by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands, the amidate ligand via the N and O atoms, and an additional C N ligand. The four-membered metallacycle is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å). In the crystal, the mol-ecules are connected into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  18. (2,2'-Bipyrid-yl-κ(2) N,N')bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)barium.

    PubMed

    Kazhdan, Daniel; Rozenel, Sergio S

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ba(C10H15)2(C10H8N2)], the Ba-N distances are 2.798 (3) and 2.886 (3) Å, and the Cp ring centroid distances to Ba(2+) are 2.7291 (7) and 2.7192 (9) Å. The angle between the N atoms in the bypyridine ligand and the metal ion is 56.80 (8)° and the N-C-C-N torsion angle in the bi-pyridine ligand is 1.7 (4)°. The bi-pyridine ligand is almost planar, the dihedral angle formed by the intersection of the planes defined by the pyridyl rings being 3.04 (19)°, and the angle between the plane defined by the Ba(2+) ion and the two bipyridyl N atoms and the plane defined by the 12 atoms of the bi-pyridine ligand is 10.2 (3)°. The average Ba-N and Ba-centroid distances are 0.16 and 0.14 Å longer, respectively, than the equivalent distances in the isotypic strontium compound [Kazhdan et al. (2008 ▶). Acta Cryst. E64, m1134]. This difference is in accord with the difference between the ionic radii of 0.16 Å suggested by Shannon [Acta Cryst. (1976 ▶), A32, 751-767].

  19. Azido­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phen­yl]iridium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Ariyoshi, Keita; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)(C11H8N)(N3)], the IrIII ion is coordinated by three anionic ligands, namely, penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*−), 2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl (ppy−) and azide (N3 −), and adopts a three-legged piano-stool geometry The coordination mode of N3 − is typical for Cp*IrIII–N3 complexes, with an Ir—N(N3) bond length of 2.125 (2) Å and an Ir—N=N bond angle of 116.5 (2)°. The N3 − ligand is almost linear [N=N=N = 176.0 (3)°], and the N=N bond length between the central and coordinating N atom and that between the central and non-coordinating terminal N atom are 1.194 (3) and 1.157 (3) Å, respectively. For the ppy− ligand, the Ir—C and Ir—N bond lengths are 2.066 (3) and 2.079 (3) Å, respectively, which are rather close to each other, compared to the related IrIII– or RhIII–ppy complexes. The Ir—C(Cp*) bond lengths vary in the range 2.163 (2)–2.232 (2) Å, indicating a strong trans influence of the cyclo­metallated C-donor atom of the ppy− ligand. PMID:24098189

  20. Bis(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)aluminium tetra­bromido­aluminate

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Andrew P.; Dugger, Cherrelle; Butcher, Ray J.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Al(C10H15)2][AlBr4], was formed during the reduction of a mixture of Cp*AlBr2 and AlBr3. The AlIII atoms of the two crystallographically independent cations each lie on an inversion center, and the [AlBr4]− anions are on general positions. At 123 K, the structure exhibits disorder in two of the Br atoms of the [AlBr4]− ion, with a ratio occupancy of 0.733 (6): 0.267 (3). In the crystal, there is possible weak hydrogen bonding between some methyl groups and Br atoms. The interactions link the moieties in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24764951

  1. Acetonitrile­dicarbon­yl(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iron(II) tetra­fluorido­borate

    PubMed Central

    M’thiruaine, Cyprian M.; Friedrich, Holger B.; Changamu, Evans O.; Bala, Muhammad D.

    2011-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, [Fe{η5-C5(CH3)5}(NCCH3)(CO)2]BF4, the arrangement of ligands around the Fe atom is in a pseudo-octa­hedral three-legged piano-stool fashion in which the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand occupies three apical coordination sites, while the two carbonyl and one acetonitrile ligands form the basal axes of the coordination. The Fe—N bond length is 1.924 (3) Å and the Fe—Cp* centroid distance is 1.722 Å. PMID:21836908

  2. Synthesis of isochromene-type scaffolds via single-flask Diels-Alder-[4 + 2]-annulation sequence of a silyl-substituted diene with menadione.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihoon; Panek, James S

    2014-06-20

    A sequential Diels-Alder reaction/silicon-directed [4 + 2]-annulation was developed to assemble hydroisochromene-type ring systems from menadione 2. In the first step, a Diels-Alder of the 1-silyl-substituted butadiene 1 with 2 furnished an intermediate cyclic allylsilane. Subsequently, TMSOTf promoted a [4 + 2]-annulation through trapping of an oxonium, generated by condensation between an aldehyde and the TBS protected alcohol resulted in the formation of a cis-fused hydroisochromene 13.

  3. Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

    2005-01-01

    Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

  4. Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

    2005-01-01

    Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hexafluorobenzene C6F6 + C6H8 Cyclohexa-1,3-diene (LB0327, VMSD1211)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Hnědkovský, L.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes' of Volume 23 `Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It corresponds to the data set LB0327 of the ELBT database.

  6. Biomimetic cationic polyannulation reaction catalyzed by Bi(OTf)3: cyclization of 1,6-dienes, 1,6,10-trienes, and aryl polyenes.

    PubMed

    Godeau, Julien; Olivero, Sandra; Antoniotti, Sylvain; Duñach, Elisabet

    2011-07-01

    Nonactivated trienes and aryltrienes were cyclized into polycyclic compounds in good to excellent yields under bismuth triflate catalysis in a biomimetic fashion. The reaction showed broad applicability and allowed for the formation of functionalized bicyclic to tetracyclic structures from simple precursors in one pot. For some specific substrates, the cyclization was followed by a methyl shift as encountered in terpenoid biosynthesis.

  7. Synthesis, antityrosinase activity of curcumin analogues, and crystal structure of (1 E,4 E)-1,5-bis(4-ethoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantrapromma, S.; Ruanwas, P.; Boonnak, N.; Chantrapromma, K.; Fun, H.-K.

    2016-12-01

    Five derivatives of curcumin analogue ( R = OCH2CH3 ( 1), R = N(CH3)2 ( 2), R = 2,4,5-OCH3 ( 3), R = 2,4,6-OCH3 ( 4), and R = 3,4,5-OCH3 ( 5)) were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized derivatives were screened for antityrosinase activity, and found that 4 and 5 possess such activity. The crystal structure of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction: monoclinic, sp. gr. P21/ c, a = 17.5728(15) Å, b = 5.9121(5) Å, c = 19.8269(13) Å, β = 121.155(5)°, Z = 4. The molecule 1 is twisted with the dihedral angle between two phenyl rings being 15.68(10)°. In the crystal packing, the molecules 1 are linked into chains by C-H···π interactions and further stacked by π···π interactions with the centroid-centroid distance of 3.9311(13) Å.

  8. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  9. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  10. Synthesis of Tetraphenyl Stannacyclopentadienes (Stannoles) III. Attempted Route to the Parent Stannoles through Closure of 1,4-Dichlorobuta-1,3-Diene.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    from a v(C-Cl) mode. Carbonylation of the expected 1,4-dilithio intermediate with carbon dioxide did not give an unambiguous 1,4-dicarboxylic acid...Ber., 97, 602 (1964). 9. R. Criegee , W. Horauf and W. D. Schellenberg, Chem. Ber., 86, 126 (1953). 10. W. Bauer, Chimia, 5, 147 (1951). 11. W

  11. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  13. Synthesis of Isochromene-Type Scaffolds via Single-Flask Diels–Alder-[4 + 2]-Annulation Sequence of a Silyl-Substituted Diene with Menadione

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A sequential Diels–Alder reaction/silicon-directed [4 + 2]-annulation was developed to assemble hydroisochromene-type ring systems from menadione 2. In the first step, a Diels–Alder of the 1-silyl-substituted butadiene 1 with 2 furnished an intermediate cyclic allylsilane. Subsequently, TMSOTf promoted a [4 + 2]-annulation through trapping of an oxonium, generated by condensation between an aldehyde and the TBS protected alcohol resulted in the formation of a cis-fused hydroisochromene 13. PMID:24918110

  14. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4; 5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    SciTech Connect

    Meador, M.A.B. )

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications. 10 refs.

  15. Penta-cyclo-[9.3.1.1(2,6).1(4,8).1(9,13)]octa-deca-1(2),8(9)-diene.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Savvas; Moushi, Eleni

    2012-07-01

    The title compound, C(18)H(24), was the main product of thermolysis of noradamantene dimer (hepta-cyclo-[9.3.1.1(2,6).1(4,8).1(9,13).0(1,9).0(2,8)]octa-deca-ne). The crystal structure was determined to prove that the thermolysis product of noradamantene dimer is favored by stretch release due to ring opening of the four-membered ring. The bond length of the quaternary C atoms of the starting material was calculated as 1.6 Å, enlarged in comparison to other single bonds. After the rearrangement, the stretch release of the above carbons leads to an increase of the distance between them (2.824 Å) with respect to the crystallographic data.

  16. Complexation of 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-diene dithiocyanate with nickel (II) acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ishak, Nur Iliyani Mohd; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2013-11-27

    The complexation of nickel acetate with tetraaza involves deprotonation of protonated amine nitrogen to form neutral ligand coordinated to the nickel via the four nitrogen atom. The dication complex is paired with thiocyanate anions. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, UV-VIS and FTIR spectroscopic method. The crystal structure of nickel complex characterized by X-Ray crystallography and adopts square planar geometry.

  17. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  18. [1,1'-Bis(dicyclo-hexyl-phosphino)cobalto-cenium-κP,P']chlorido(η-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)ruthenium(II) hexa-fluorido-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian-Guo

    2010-01-30

    In the title structure, [CoRu(C(5)H(5))(C(17)H(26)P)(2)Cl]PF(6), the Ru(II) atom is bonded to a cyclo-penta-dienyl ring, a Cl atom and two P atoms of the chelating 1,1'-bis-(dicyclo-hexyl-phosphino)cobaltocenium (di-cypc) ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool coordination. Part of the PF(6) (-) counter-anion is disordered over two positions, with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.898 (7):0.102 (7). The components are linked by C-H⋯F and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  19. Effect of molecular-mass characteristics of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber on impact resistance and mobility of the melt of its modified blends with polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikova, I. G.; Bauman, N. A.; Volkov, A. M.; Kazakov, Yu. M.; Volfson, S. I.

    2014-05-01

    The study concerned the effect of molecular-mass characteristics and Mooney viscosity of the initial EPDM rubber on the changes in the structure, impact strength and rheological properties of PP/EPDM blends as a result of their modification in a melt under the action of organic peroxide and peroxide-trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) system.

  20. Les angles rétro-glénoïdiens et homologues du rachis cervical supérieur des primates actuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gommery, Dominique

    1999-10-01

    The posterior part of the atlas superior articular processes ( foveae articulares superiores atlantis) or the retro-glenoid tubercles, as well as those of the atlas inferior facet ( foveae articulares inferiores atlantis) and of the axis superior facet ( facies articularis superior axis), have permitted the retro-glenoid and homologous angle to be defined. These angles have a major systematic importance in individualizing four extant primates groups: Strepsirhini, Platyrrhini and Cercopithecoidea non-humans Hominoidea, and man. This angle permits a better functional and static definition of the superior cervical column, the head being in balanced or unbalanced unstable position.

  1. Bis(η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)bis­(2,4,6-tri­methyl­phenyl­tellurolato)zirconium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Hector, Andrew L.; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Reid, Stuart D.; Webster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Zr(C5H5)2(C9H11Te)2], consists of a zirconium(IV) centre bonded to two η5-coord­inated cyclo­penta­dienyl groups and two mesityltellurolate ligands; the discrete mol­ecule has crystallographic twofold rotation symmetry. The structural parameters compared with those in [(η5-Me5Cp)2Zr(TePh)2] [Howard, Trnka & Parkin (1995 ▶). Inorg. Chem. 34, 5900–5909] show that the greater steric demands of the bulky mesityl substituents are accommodated by widening Te—Zr—Te (∼8°) and by more acute Zr—Te—C (∼5°) angles, although the Zr—Te distances are essentially the same. The crystal studied exhibited some inversion twinning. PMID:21202209

  2. Photochemical formation of novel pyrrolo[3,2-b]-6,7-benzobicyclo[3.2.1]octa- 2,6-diene.

    PubMed

    Basarić, Nikola; Marinić, Zeljko; Sindler-Kulyk, Marija

    2003-09-19

    The first synthesis of 1,4,9,10-tetrahydro-4,9-methanobenzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyrrole (11) was achieved by the photochemical intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition of N-phenoxycarbonyl- (5a) and N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-[2-(2-vinylphenyl)]pyrrole (6a), respectively, followed by basic hydrolysis of the isolated N-substituted 1,4,9,10-tetrahydro-4,9-methanobenzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyrroles (10a, 10b). Some competitively formed products were also isolated.

  3. Effect of chronic aluminum exposure on the levels of conjugated dienes and enzymatic antioxidants in hippocampus and whole brain of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Shukla, G.S.

    1995-11-01

    The reported association between elevated tissue levels of aluminum (Al) and certain human neurological disorders have evoked increasing attention on the neurotoxic effects of aluminum. High levels of Al have been reported in hippocampal neurons comprising neurofibrillary tangles in senile dementia of Alzheimer`s type, amyotropic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonian dementia of Guam. Aluminum is considered to be the causal factor for a high incidence of dialysis encephalopathy. It has been shown that the incidence of Alzheimer`s disease was higher in places with a high Al content in drinking water compared to low level areas. Varied uses of Al in pharmaceutical preparations, foods, water purification and many house-hold items have increased the risk of its exposure to general population. The exposure may be as high as 500 mg/kg/day in children with uremia who are treated with Al containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminum ingestion in humans and experimental animals have been reported to produce behavioural dysfunctions. The mechanism of al neurotoxicity is not understood at present. Attempts made in this direction have reported its interaction with blood-brain barrier function, decreased membrane fluidity, glutathione depletion and increased brain lipid peroxidation. These studies indicate the possibility that oxidative stress may be one of the possible mechanisms of Al-induced neurotoxicity. Since Al has been reported to be in high concentrations in hippocampal neurons in certain neurological diseases and there is wealth of evidence implicating hippocampal impairment and memory dysfunction, we attempted to investigate the effect of chronic Al intoxication on the status of enzymatic antioxidants and the extent of peroxidative damage in hippocampus and whole brain of rat. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Nucleoside analogues with a 1,3-diene-Fe(CO)3 substructure: stereoselective synthesis, configurational assignment, and apoptosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Hirschhäuser, Christoph; Velcicky, Juraj; Schlawe, Daniel; Hessler, Erik; Majdalani, André; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Prokop, Aram; Wieder, Thomas; Schmalz, Hans-Günther

    2013-09-23

    The synthesis and stereochemical assignment of two classes of iron-containing nucleoside analogues, both of which contain a butadiene-Fe(CO)3 substructure, is described. The first type of compounds are Fe(CO)3-complexed 3'-alkenyl-2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-dehydro nucleosides (2,5-dihydrofuran derivatives), from which the second class of compounds is derived by formal replacement of the ring oxygen atom by a CH2 group (carbocyclic nucleoside analogues). These compounds were prepared in a stereoselective manner through the metal-assisted introduction of the nucleobase. Whilst the furanoid intermediates were prepared from carbohydrates (such as methyl-glucopyranoside), the carbocyclic compounds were obtained by using an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction. Stereochemical assignments based on NMR and CD spectroscopy were confirmed by X-ray structural analysis. Biological investigations revealed that several of the complexes exhibited pronounced apoptosis-inducing properties (through an unusual caspase 3-independent but ROS-dependent pathway). Furthermore, some structure-activity relationships were identified, also as a precondition for the design and synthesis of fluorescent and biotin-labeled conjugates. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Regioselective palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of C1-substituted oxabicyclo[2,2,1]hepta-2,5-diene-2,3-dicarboxylates

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Michael; Raheem, Mohammed Abdul; Boutin, Rebecca; Tait, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of C1 substituted 7-oxanorbornadiene derivatives with aryl iodides were investigated. The optimal conditions for this reaction were found to be PdCl2(PPh3)2, ZnCl2, Et3N and Zn in THF. Both steric and electronic factors played a role in the outcome of the reaction as increasing the steric bulk on the bridgehead carbon decreased the yield. These reactions were found to be highly regioselective, giving only one of the two possible regioisomers in all cases. A diverse collection of novel, highly substituted biphenyl derivatives were obtained. PMID:26977182

  6. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tri­methyl­hafnium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Varela-Izquierdo, Víctor; Yélamos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV) com­pound, [Hf(CH3)3(C13H21)] or [HfMe3(η5-C5H3-1,3-tBu2)], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for mono­cyclo­penta­dienylhafnium(IV) derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV) atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) ring are 0.132 (5) and 0.154 (6) Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions present between the mol­ecules in the crystal structure. PMID:25995884

  7. Zirconium-mediated cross-coupling of terminal alkynes and vinyl bromides: selective synthesis of cyclobutene and 1,3-diene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Rodríguez, Félix; Alvarez-Rodrigo, Lucía; Fañanás, Francisco J

    2004-01-05

    A diastereoselective synthesis of 1,3-butadiene or cyclobutene derivatives by a zirconium-mediated reaction of alkenyllithium compounds and vinyl bromides is reported. The key steps involve the generation of zirconocene-alkyne complexes from haloalkenes and subsequent coupling with alkenyl bromides. Thus, formally the process supposes the cross-coupling reaction between a terminal alkyne and an alkenyl bromide. Moreover, the use of butyl vinyl ether instead of vinyl bromide as the unsaturated system allows an alternative access to different 1,3-butadiene regioisomers.

  8. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol A...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol A...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol A...

  11. Symbiotic Expression of Cosmid-Borne Bradyrhizobium japonicum Hydrogenase Genes †

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Grant R.; Harker, Alan R.; Cantrell, Michael A.; Hanus, F. Joe; Russell, Sterling A.; Haugland, Richard A.; Evans, Harold J.

    1987-01-01

    The expression of cosmid-borne Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase genes in alfalfa, clover, and soybean nodules harboring Rhizobium transconjugants was studied. Cosmid pHU52 conferred hydrogen uptake (Hup) activity in both free-living bacteria and in nodules on the different plant hosts, although in nodules the instability of the cosmid resulted in low levels of Hup activity. In contrast, cosmid pHU1, which does not confer Hup activity on free-living bacteria, gave a Hup+ phenotype in nodules on alfalfa and soybean. Nodules formed by B. japonicum USDA 123Spc(pHU1) recycled about 90% of nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen evolution. Both subunits of hydrogenase (30- and 60-kilodalton polypeptides) were detected in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of bacteroid preparations from nodules harboring B. japonicum strains with pHU1 or pHU52. Neither pHU53 nor pLAFR1 conferred detectable Hup activity in either nodules or free-living bacteria. Based on the physical maps of pHU1 and pHU52, it is suggested that a 5.5-kilobase EcoRI fragment unique to pHU52 contains a gene or part of a gene required for Hup activity in free-living bacteria but not in nodules. This conclusion is supported by the observation that two Tn5 insertions in the chromosome of B. japonicum USDA 122DES obtained by marker exchange with Tn5-mutagenized pHU1 abolished Hup activity in free-living bacteria but not in nodules. Images PMID:16347291

  12. [1-Dimethyl­silyl-2-phenyl-3-(η5-tetra­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)­prop-1-en-1-yl-κC 1](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Lamač, Martin; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Ti(C10H15)(C20H26Si)], was obtained from the reaction of [Ti{η5:η1-C5Me4(CH2)}(η5-C5Me5)] with the alkynylsilane PhC2SiMe2H. The complex crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit, which differ in the conformation of the propenyl unit, resulting in their having opposite helicity. No inter­molecular inter­actions or inter­actions involving the Si—H bond are present. The observed geometrical parameters are unexceptional compared to known structures of the same type. PMID:21578203

  13. Spring 2006. Industry Study. Manufacturing Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Vuong Co., Ltd, HCMC, Vietnam Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Nagoya, Japan Nike Factory, Dong Nai, Vietnam NTK/NGK, Komaki City, Japan OPV...Corporation, Nagoya, Japan US Consul General, HCMC, Vietnam US Consulate, Nagoya, Japan US Embassy, Beijing, China UTC, P&W Chengdu Aerotech...Manufacturing, Chengdu, China Vina Kyoei Steel, Ltd, Phu My, Vietnam Yamazaki Mazak, Minokamo City, Japan Yara, Phu My, Vietnam 1 INTRODUCTION “A

  14. Metabolic engineering of E.coli for the production of a precursor to artemisinin, an anti-malarial drug [Chapter 25 in Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, Christopher; Keasling, Jay

    2011-07-18

    This document is Chapter 25 in the Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 3rd edition. Topics covered include: Incorporation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Biosynthetic Pathway into E. coli; Amorpha-4,11-Diene Pathway Optimization; "-Omics" Analyses for Increased Amorpha-4,11-Diene Production; Biosynthetic Oxidation of Amorpha-4,11-Diene.

  15. Are the Kids Alright? What's Shaping the Attitudes, Values and Behaviour of our Young People? = Les enfants se portent-ils bien? Qu'est-ce qui faconne les attitudes, les valeurs et le comportement de nos jeunes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue explores the behavior of teenagers. "Are the Kids Alright?" (Ish Theilheimer) develops a perspective on the subject of teen behavior, noting that a growing number of young people demonstrate discontent, alienation, aggression, violence, and antisocial behavior, and that a growing underclass of children is likely to fail.…

  16. Effect of ultimate pH and ageing on thermal denaturation of bovine muscle proteins.

    PubMed

    Rios-Mera, Juan D; da Silva Pinto, Jair Sebastião; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2017-09-01

    The thermal denaturation of proteins was evaluated in the natural state of bovine muscle using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Longissimus lumborum muscle was selected according to ultimate pH (pHu) values classified into two groups: low pHu with values between 5.4 and 5.8, and intermediate pHu with values between 5.81 and 6.19. The muscles were cut and aged at 2°C up to 21d post mortem. The three maximum temperatures of denaturation (Tmax1, Tmax2, Tmax3) found in muscle were evaluated, showing higher thermal stability in the intermediate pHu group, which could be an indicator of protection of proteins against aggregation or enzymatic activity. The thermal behavior of muscle proteins could be defined by biochemical factors that are affected by pHu of the muscle, however, further studies are necessary to explain this process, which could have a great impact on the understanding of the final tenderness achieved in meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Intra- and interspecies transfer and expression of Rhizobium japonicum hydrogen uptake genes and autotrophic growth capability

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Grant R.; Cantrell, Michael A.; Hanus, F. Joe; Russell, Sterling A.; Haddad, Karen R.; Evans, Harold J.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmids containing hydrogen uptake genes have previously been isolated in this laboratory. Four new cosmids that contain additional hup gene(s) have now been identified by conjugal transfer of a Rhizobium japonicum 122DES gene bank into a Tn5-generated Hup- mutant and screening for the acquisition of Hup activity. The newly isolated cosmids, pHU50-pHU53, contain part of the previously isolated pHU1 but extend as far as 20 kilobases beyond its border. pHU52 complements five of six Hup- mutants and confers activity on several Hup- wild-type R. japonicum strains in the free-living state and where tested in nodules. Transconjugants obtained from interspecies transfer of pHU52 to Rhizobium meliloti 102F28, 102F32, and 102F51 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 128C53 showed hydrogen-dependent methyleneblue reduction, performed the oxyhydrogen reaction, and showed hydrogen-dependent autotrophic growth by virtue of the introduced genes. The identity of the presumptive transconjugants was confirmed by antibiotic-resistance profiles and by plant nodulation tests. Images PMID:16578786

  18. Otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans

    PubMed Central

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    L’otite externe maligne est une ostéomyélite de la base du crane. Le Pseudomonas aeruginosa est le germe le plus incriminé. Cependant l’origine fongique n’est pas rare. Patiente âgée de 80 ans avait présenté une otalgie gauche persistante depuis deux mois malgré un traitement bien conduit. L’examen otologique mettait en évidence des signes inflammatoires au niveau du pavillon, une sténose du conduit avec des granulomes, et otorrhée d’allure purulente. Le scanner montrait un comblement otomastoïdien, un processus inflammatoire extensif des tissus pré et rétro-auriculaire et une lyse du tympanal. Vu l’absence d’amélioration un examen mycologique a été réalisé et qui a révélé la présence de Candida Albicans. Les cas d’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans sont rarement rapportés. L’origine fongique doit être suspecté devant la négativité des prélèvements bactériologiques et la non amélioration malgré un traitement antibiotique bien conduit, et confirmée par des prélèvements mycologiques parfois multiples. L’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans est une infection rare potentiellement mortelle. PMID:28154677

  19. Protective Effects of 2-Dodecyl-6-Methoxycyclohexa-2,5 -Diene-1,4-Dione Isolated from Averrhoa Carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) Roots on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Juman; Wei, Xiaojie; Xie, Qiuqiao; Hoa Pham, Thi Thai; Wei, Jinbin; He, Ping; Jiao, Yang; Xu, Xiaohui; Giang Nguyen, Thi Huong; Wen, Qingwei; Huang, Renbin

    2016-01-01

    The roots of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) have long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes and diabetes-related diseases. 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycycyclohexa-2,5-1,4-dione (DMDD) has been isolated from A. carambola L. roots, and this study was carried out to investigate the potential beneficial effects of DMDD on obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered DMDD (12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg of body weight per day) and metformin (280 mg/kg of body weight per day) for the last 4 weeks. The body weights and adipose tissue weights as well as the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly decreased by DMDD, and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor (Myd88) in the epididymal adipose tissue was downregulated by DMDD. In contrast, insulin sensitivity was enhanced. The results of the glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and insulin release tests indicated that there was a marked improvement in insulin secretion, and the areas under the curve corresponding to the three tests were also significantly decreased by DMDD. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were simultaneously enhanced, whereas the content of malondialdehyde was decreased by DMDD in the liver homogenates of the C57BL/6J mice. In addition, hepatic steatosis and adipocyte hypertrophy, as assessed by H&E staining of liver and adipose tissues, were significantly improved by DMDD. These data suggest that MDD has potential benefits for the treatment of HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance, and its effects may be associated with improvements in lipid metabolism and inhibition of the expression of TLR4 in adipose tissues. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. (Glycol-κ2 O,O′)nitros­yl(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) bis­(tri­fluoro­methane­sulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Munie, Semeret; Larsen, Anna; Gembicky, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Ru(C10H15)(NO)(HOCH2CH2OH)](CF3SO3)2, possesses a three-legged piano-stool geometry around the Ru atom, with an average Ru—O distance of 2.120 (6) Å and an Ru—N—O angle of 159.45 (14)°. The ethyl­eneglycol ligand forms a non-planar metallacyclic ring by chelating the Ru atom via the O atoms. The O⋯O distances of 2.554 (2) and 2.568 (2) Å are indicative of hydrogen bonding between coordinated ethyl­eneglycol and outer-sphere trifluoro­methane­sulfonate fragments. The crystal packing is stabilized by ionic forces and several CH3⋯·F (2.585 and 2.640 Å) and CH3⋯O inter­actions (2.391, 2.678, 2.694 and 2.699 Å) between the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand and trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion. There is noticeable short inter­molecular contact [2.9039 (16) Å], between an O atom of the SO3 group and a C atom of the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand. PMID:21201270

  1. Bis[μ-2-(aminosulfanyl)pyridine(1−)]bis­[(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iridium(III)] diiodide

    PubMed Central

    Sekioka, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2009-01-01

    In the title dinuclear iridium(III) complex, [Ir2(C10H15)2(C5H5N2S)2]I2, the iridium(III) atoms are bridged by 2-(aminosulfanyl)pyridine(1−) [(2-py)SNH] ligands in a μ-(2-py)SNH-κ2 N(py),N(NH):κN(NH) mode. The dinuclear complex cation lies on a crystallographic inversion center, resulting in a planar Ir2N2 ring with an Ir—N(py) bond length of 2.085 (9) Å and bridging Ir—N(NH) bonds of 2.110 (9) and 2.113 (9) Å. The two (2-py)S units have mutually anti configurations with respect to the Ir2N2 ring PMID:21577749

  2. (2,2′-Bipyrid­yl-κ2 N,N′)bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)barium

    PubMed Central

    Kazhdan, Daniel; Rozenel, Sergio S.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ba(C10H15)2(C10H8N2)], the Ba—N distances are 2.798 (3) and 2.886 (3) Å, and the Cp ring centroid distances to Ba2+ are 2.7291 (7) and 2.7192 (9) Å. The angle between the N atoms in the bypyridine ligand and the metal ion is 56.80 (8)° and the N—C—C—N torsion angle in the bi­pyridine ligand is 1.7 (4)°. The bi­pyridine ligand is almost planar, the dihedral angle formed by the intersection of the planes defined by the pyridyl rings being 3.04 (19)°, and the angle between the plane defined by the Ba2+ ion and the two bipyridyl N atoms and the plane defined by the 12 atoms of the bi­pyridine ligand is 10.2 (3)°. The average Ba—N and Ba—centroid distances are 0.16 and 0.14 Å longer, respectively, than the equivalent distances in the isotypic strontium compound [Kazhdan et al. (2008 ▶). Acta Cryst. E64, m1134]. This difference is in accord with the difference between the ionic radii of 0.16 Å suggested by Shannon [Acta Cryst. (1976 ▶), A32, 751–767]. PMID:24109262

  3. Chlorido[1-diphenyl­phosphanyl-3-(phenyl­sulfan­yl)propane-κ2 P,S](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iridium(III) chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Gerd; Korb, Marcus; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Steinborn, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ir(C10H15)Cl(C21H21PS)]Cl·H2O, consists of discrete [Ir(η5-C5Me5)Cl{Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP,κS}]+ cations, chloride anions and water mol­ecules. The IrIII atom is coordinated by an η5-C5Me5 ligand, a chloride and a Ph2P(CH2)3SPh-κP,κS ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool geometry. In the crystal, two water molecules and two chloride anions are linked by weak O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding into tetra­mers that are located on centers of inversion. The H atoms of one of the methyl groups are disordered and were refined using a split model. PMID:22719391

  4. μ-Oxido-bis­{bis­[(penta­fluoro­phen­yl)methano­lato](η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)titanium(IV)}

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junseong; Kim, Youngjo

    2011-01-01

    The dinuclear title complex, [Ti2(C10H15)2(C7H2F5O)4O], features two TiIV atoms bridged by an O atom. Each Ti atom is bonded to a η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ring, two (penta­fluoro­phen­yl)methano­late anions and to the bridging O atom. The environment around each Ti atom can be considered as a distorted tetra­hedron. PMID:22090876

  5. [1,2-Bis(diphenyl­phosphino)ethane]­chlorido(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)iron(II) dichloro­methane solvate

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ya-ping; Feng, Dan; Yuan, Jing-jing

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C10H15)Cl(C26H24P2)]·CH2Cl2, the FeII atom is coordinated by two P atoms from a 1,2-bis­(diphenyl­phosphino)ethane ligand [Fe—P = 2.2130 (7) and 2.2231 (7) Å], a chloride anion [Fe—Cl = 2.3329 (7) Å] and a penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) ligand [Fe—centroid(Cp*) = 1.732 (3) Å] in a typical piano-stool geometry. In the crystal structure, the complex and solvent mol­ecules are paired via weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions. PMID:21588156

  6. Tri-μ-chlorido-bis­[(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)rhodium(III)] hexa­fluorido­phosphate from synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ezzedinloo, Lida; Shrestha, Sumi; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Colbran, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In the title complex salt, [{(η5-C5Me5)Rh}2(μ-Cl)3]PF6, the dinuclear, single-charged cation is formed by the cojoining of two classic (η5-C5Me5)RhCl3 ‘piano-stool’ units by bridging of the three choride ligand ‘legs’. The crystal structure shows several close H⋯F contacts between the hexa­fluorido­phosphate counter-ions and the C5Me5 ligands. PMID:24855466

  7. Chlorido(chloro­diphenyl­phosphine-κP)(diphenyl­piperidinophosphine-κP)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Jantscher, Florian; Kirchner, Karl; Mereiter, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Ru(C10H15)Cl(C12H10ClP)(C17H20NP)], is a half-sandwich complex of RuII with the chloro­diphenyl­phosphine ligand formed from the diphenyl­piperidinophosphine and chlorine of the precursor complex [Ru(η5-C5Me5)(κ1P—Ph2PNC5H10)Cl2] by an unexpected reaction with NaBH4. The complex has a three-legged piano-stool geometry, with Ru—P bond lengths of 2.2598 (5) Å for the chloro­phosphine and 2.3303 (5) Å for the amino­phosphine. PMID:21583392

  8. Crystal structure of bis-{μ2-[(2-imino-cyclo-pentyl-idene)methyl-idene]aza-nido-κ(2) N:N'}bis-[(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV)] hexane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, [Zr2(C10H15)4(C6H6N2)2]·C6H14, was obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of adipo-nitrile with [Zr(C10H15)2(η(2)-Me3SiC2SiMe3)]. Intra-molecular nitrile-nitrile couplings and deprotonation of the substrate produced the (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane ligand, which functions as a five-membered bridge between the two metal atoms. The Zr(IV) atom exhibits a distorted tetra-hedral coordination sphere defined by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands, by the imino unit of one (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane and by the enimino unit of the second (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane. The cyclo-pentane ring of the ligand shows an envelope conformation. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the complex and one half of the hexane solvent mol-ecule, both being completed by the application of inversion symmetry. One of the penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.8111 (3):0.189 (3). In the crystal, the complex mol-ecules are packed into rods extending along [100], with the solvent mol-ecules located in between. The rods are arranged in a distorted hexa-gonal packing.

  9. Aqua­bis­(4-methyl­benzene­sulfonato-κO)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)rhodium(III) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Christopher P.; Boyer, Pauline M.; Merola, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    The title half-sandwich rhodium(III) complex, [Rh(C10H15)(C7H7O3S)2(H2O)]·H2O, consists of a π-bonded penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl group, two σ-bonded tosyl­ate groups and an aqua ligand. The structure displays both inter- and intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The inter­molecular hydrogen bonding results in an extended helical chain along a 21 screw axis parallel to c, due to hydrogen bonding from the coordinating water ligand to the lattice water mol­ecule and then to a sulfonate O atom of a different asymmetric unit. PMID:23723770

  10. Cytoprotection of Human Endothelial Cells Against Oxidative Stress by 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im): Application of Systems Biology to Understand the Mechanism of Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-03

    and exogenous oxidants, electrophiles , and toxicants. Activation of this pathway was reported to facilitate the induction of HMOX1 (Heiss et al., 2009...cytoprotective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and fluorinated derivatives: effects on heme oxygenase-1 induction and antioxidant

  11. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes. 2: Evidence for thermal dehydration occurring in the cure process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Olshavsky, Michael A.; Meador, Michael A.; Ahn, Myong-Ku

    1988-01-01

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers appear, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), to undergo dehydration at elevated temperatures. This would produce thermally stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone, and render the polymers incapable of unzipping through a retro-Diels-Alder pathway. High resolution solid 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of one formulation of the polymer system before and after heating at elevated temperatures, shows this to indeed be the case. NMR spectra of solid samples of the polymer before and after heating correlated well with those of the parent pentiptycene model compound before and after acid-catalyzed dehydration. Isothermal gravimetric analyses and viscosities of the polymer before and after heat treatment support dehydration as a mechanism for the cure reaction.

  12. 4,4′,6,6′-Tetra­bromo-2,2′-(2,8-diazonia-5-azanona-1,8-diene-1,9-diyl)diphenolate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu-Jun; Lei, Ke-Wei

    2008-01-01

    In the zwitterionic title compound, C18H17Br4N3O2, the two salicylaldimine groups form a dihedral angle of 51.94 (2)° and the dihedral angle between the aromatic ring planes is 51.14 (2)°. One of the C atoms adjacent to the aza N atom is disordered over two positions; the site-occupancy factors are 0.51 (1) and 0.49 (1). There are two strong intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in the mol­ecule. PMID:21581418

  13. 5,5,7,12,14,14-Hexamethyl-1,8-diaza-4,11-diazo­niacyclo­tetra­deca-4,11-diene dichloride trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Wafiuddin; Yamin, Bohari M.; Daran, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H34N4 2+·2Cl−·3H2O, the two protonated N atoms in the macrocyclic ring of the dication are located at diagonally opposite positions. There are two intramolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds in the cation. The crystal structure features O—H⋯Cl, O—H⋯O, C—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:22590349

  14. [1,1′-Bis(dicyclo­hexyl­phosphino)cobalto­cenium-κ2 P,P′]chlorido(η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) hexa­fluorido­phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jian-Guo

    2010-01-01

    In the title structure, [CoRu(C5H5)(C17H26P)2Cl]PF6, the RuII atom is bonded to a cyclo­penta­dienyl ring, a Cl atom and two P atoms of the chelating 1,1′-bis­(dicyclo­hexyl­phosphino)cobaltocenium (di-cypc) ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool coordination. Part of the PF6 − counter-anion is disordered over two positions, with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.898 (7):0.102 (7). The components are linked by C—H⋯F and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:21579679

  15. Ameliorative Effects of Operculina turpethum and its Isolated Stigma-5,22dien-3-o-β-D-glucopyranoside on the Hematological Parameters of Male Mice Exposed to N-Nitrosodimethylamine, a Potent Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Veena; Singh, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Enormous propensity of plants to synthesize a variety of structurally diverse bioactive compounds, has made the plant kingdom a potential source of chemical constituents with various therapeutic values, including antitumor and cytotoxic activities. Blood is a good indicator to determine the physiological and pathological status of man and animal. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of Operculina turpethum root extract and its isolated glycoside treatment on the hematological parameters in the mice with N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) induced cancer. Materials and Methods: The body weights of the animals were recorded before and after the experiment. Non-coagulated blood was tested for total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin, differential leukocyte count (DLC) and for other blood indices. Results: A significant (P < 0.01), (P < 0.001) recovery of the red blood cell and white blood cell counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin content in the host after 21 day treatment was shown. Conclusion: These results show that the extract of Operculina turpethum is relatively safe following oral administration and have possible stimulatory effect on red blood cell production and there was dose dependent therapeutic effect. PMID:24748732

  16. First asymmetric hetero Diels-Alder reaction of 1-sulfinyl dienes with nitroso derivatives. A new entry to the synthesis of optically pure 1,4-imino-L-ribitol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Arribas, C; Carreño, M C; García-Ruano, J L; Rodríguez, J F; Santos, M; Sanz-Tejedor, M A

    2000-10-05

    Hetero Diels-Alder (HDA) cycloaddition of chiral 1-p-tolylsulfinyl-1,3-pentadiene with benzyl nitrosoformate, under mild conditions, yields 2H-1,2-oxazine 3 with complete regioselectivity and pi-facial diastereoselectivity. Sequential osmylation and protection of the resulting glycol gives the oxazine 5 which is directly transformed into enantiomerically pure 1,4,5-trideoxy-1,4-imino-L-ribitol 8 by reduction under Pd/C.

  17. (Cyanido-κC)(2,2-di­phenyl­acetamido-κ2 N,O)bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)zirconium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zr(C10H15)2(C14H12NO)(CN)], the ZrIV atom is coordinated by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands, the amidate ligand via the N and O atoms, and an additional C N ligand. The four-membered metallacycle is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å). In the crystal, the mol­ecules are connected into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:24764823

  18. Gamma irradiation degradation/modification of 5-ethylidene 2-norbornene (ENB)-based ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM) depending on ENB content of EPDM and type/content of peroxides used in vulcanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Tonguç

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the radiation degradation/modification of the vulcanized EPDM and the effects of dose rate, peroxide type/content in vulcanization system and ENB content of EPDM were studied to investigate the change in the extend of the modification/degradation of the mechanical properties of vulcanized EPDM via gamma irradiation. In addition, thermal, dynamic mechanical, ATR-FTIR, TGA, TGA-FTIR tests were carried out to understand the change of properties of vulcanized EPDM via irradiation. Samples were irradiated with two different dose rates of 1280 and 64.6 Gy/h. Total dose of irradiation was up to 184 kGy. The FTIR spectral analysis showed structural changes of EPDM via irradiation. It was observed that the dose rate changed the mechanical properties with different extends. The change of ENB content of EPDM and peroxide type and content in vulcanization system affect extend of the modification/degradation of the EPDM's properties.

  19. Un mode de découverte inhabituel d'hyperparathyroïdie primaire: fractures multiples sur tumeurs brunes secondaires à un adénome parathyroïdien ectopique médiastinal

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Asmaa; Guerboub, Ahmed Anas; Arsalane, Adil; Biyi, Abdelhamid; Moussaoui, Souad El; Belmejdoub, Ghizlaine

    2015-01-01

    La tumeur brune est une entité clinique bénigne apparaissant comme une manifestation squelettique rare de l'hyperparathyroïdie primaire. Il s'agit d'une cause inhabituelle de fractures pathologiques. Nous rapportons ici le cas clinique d'un patient âgé de 20 ans chez qui l'hyperparathyroïdie primitive a été découverte devant des tumeurs brunes multiples. PMID:26966486

  20. (η6-Isopropyl N-phenyl­carbamate)(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) tetra­phenyl­borate acetone monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Loughrey, Bradley T.; Williams, Michael L.; Healy, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    The title complex, [Ru(C10H15)(C10H13NO2)](C24H20B)·C3H6O, is related to the analogous O-methyl complex. The average Ru—C distance to the penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp*) group is 2.19 (3) Å, and 2.21 (1) Å to the ortho, meta and para C atoms of the arene ring. The Ru—Cipso bond length of 2.272 (3) Å is significantly longer, reflecting movement of the Ru atom away from the C atoms with electronegative substituents attached. The amide H atom in the cation forms an inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of the acetone solvent mol­ecule. A C—H⋯O inter­action also occurs. PMID:22058857

  1. Breed differences in the biochemical determinism of ultimate pH in breast muscles of broiler chickens--a key role of AMP deaminase?

    PubMed

    El Rammouz, R; Berri, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Babilé, R; Fernandez, X

    2004-08-01

    The biochemical determinism of ultimate pH (pHu) was studied in the pectoralis muscle of broiler chickens. Thirty birds of 3 genetic types (a fast-growing standard (FG), a slow-growing French "Label Rouge" (SG), and a heavy line type (HL)) were kept under conventional breeding methods until the usual marketing age (6, 12, and 6 wk for FG, SG, and HL birds, respectively). The birds were divided into 3 different antemortem treatment groups: minimum stress, shackling for a longer time (2 min), and heat stress (exposure to 35 degrees C for 3.5 h and shackling for 2 min before stunning). The birds were slaughtered on the same day. The pHu differed (P < 0.001) among the 3 genetic types, ranking as follows: FG (5.95+/-0.01) > HL (5.85+/-0.02) > SG (5.73+/-0.02). In SG and HL birds, pHu was strongly correlated with muscle glycogen content at slaughter (r = -0.74 and -0.82; P < 0.01 respectively), whereas this correlation was weak in FG birds. Regardless of genetic type, neither buffering capacity nor lactate accumulation significantly contributed to pHu variations (P > 0.05). The activity of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPd) was significantly higher in FG chickens (0.98+/-0.31; P < 0.05) than in HL and SG birds (0.46+/-0.24 and 0.34+/-0.18, respectively). Significant correlations were found between AMPd activity, pHu, and glycolytic potential (GP) at slaughter (r = 0.34 and -.29; P < 0.01, respectively). Further research is needed to study in more detail the role of AMPd in the determinism of pHu, particularly in fast-growing broilers.

  2. Effect of ultimate pH on the physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of turkey breast muscle showing normal rate of postmortem pH fall.

    PubMed

    El Rammouz, R; Babilé, R; Fernandez, X

    2004-10-01

    This experiment aimed to study the effect of ultimate pH (pH(u)) on the biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of turkey breast muscle with normal rate of postmortem pH fall. Five hundred turkey toms (12 wk old, 10 kg live weight) were randomly chosen from a commercial flock. At 24 h postmortem, 64 birds were randomly selected within the subgroup showing pH higher than 6.0 at 20 min postmortem and pH(u) lower than 6.1. These pH levels were used to exclude pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and dark, firm, and dry (DFD) meat, respectively. The pH(u) was significantly correlated with luminance (L*; r = -0.37) and yellowness (b*; r = -0.36) at 24 h postmortem, drip losses (r = -0.56 to -0.62), thawing loss (r = -0.47), 80% compression (r = -0.29), yield of curing and cooking (r = 0.37), glycolytic potential at slaughter (r = -0.44) and lactate at 24 h postmortem (r = -0.47). Significant correlations were found between drip losses and compression test on cooked meat (r = 0.27 to 0.34). Cooking loss was correlated with WB shear force (r = 0.32). These results show that when PSE defects are excluded, the intensities of the correlations between pH(u) and meat quality traits are lower than those usually reported. The present data also indicate that the level of glycogen at time of slaughter poorly explains the variability in pH(u). Thus, further research is needed to identify the mechanisms explaining pH(u) variation in poultry muscle.

  3. A cobalt complex of a microbial arene oxidation product

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the first synthesis of a cobalt Cp diene complex wherein the diene is derived by microbial dearomatising dihydroxylation of an aromatic ring. The complex has been characterised crystallographically and its structure is compared to that of an uncomplexed diene precursor. PMID:22152033

  4. Delta. sup 2 -triterpenes: Early intermediates in the diagenesis of terrigenous triterpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Haven, H.L. ); Peakman, T.M. ); Rullkoetter, J. )

    1992-05-01

    A series of {Delta}{sup 2}-triterpenoids (oleana-2,12-diene, oleana-2,13(18)-diene, oleana-2,18-diene, ursa-2,12-diene, and tarazera-2,14-diene) has been identified in Holocene buried mangrove sediments (Florida, USA) by comparison of the mass spectra of and by co-injections with authentic standards. In the Oligocene Brandon lignite (Vermont, USA) oleana-2,12-diene and oleana-2,13(18)-diene were also identified, along with two A-ring contracted amyrin derivatives. By comparison with the sedimentary occurrence of related analogues of oxyallobetulin and betulin and the demonstrated diagenetic formation of lup-2-ene from lupan-3-one, these novel terrigenous biological markers are considered diagenetic products formed by dehydration of precursor molecules, such as {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, and tarazerol. The identification of these early intermediates brings us one step closer to the full understanding of the diagenetic fate of terrigenous triterpenoids.

  5. Δ2-Triterpenes: Early intermediates in the diagenesis of terrigenous triterpenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Haven, H. L.; Peakman, T. M.; Rullkötter, J.

    1992-05-01

    A series of Δ2-triterpenoids (oleana-2,12-diene, oleana-2,13(18)-diene, oleana-2,18-diene, ursa-2, 12-diene, and taraxera-2,14-diene) has been identified in Holocene buried mangrove sediments (Florida, USA) by comparison of the mass spectra of and by co-injections with authentic standards. In the Oligocene Brandon lignite (Vermont, USA) oleana-2,12-diene and oleana-2,13(18)-diene were also identified, along with two A-ring contracted amyrin derivatives. By comparison with the sedimentary occurrence of related analogues of oxyallobetulin and betulin and the demonstrated diagenetic formation of lup-2-ene from lupan-3-one, these novel terrigenous biological markers are considered diagenetic products formed by dehydration of precursor molecules, such as α- and β-amyrin, and taraxerol. The identification of these early intermediates brings us one step closer to the full understanding of the diagenetic fate of terrigenous triterpenoids.

  6. Two cycles of recurrent maternal half-sib selection reduce foliar late blight in a diploid hybrid Solanum phureja-S. stenotomum population by two-thirds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foliar late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is an important disease problem worldwide. Foliar resistance to late blight was found in a hybrid population of the cultivated diploid species Solanum phureja-S. stenotomum (phu-stn). The objective of this study was to determine if resistance t...

  7. 77 FR 72873 - Notice of Revocation of Customs Broker Licenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Charleston. Smith William A 09028 Charleston. Johnson Christine Marie 14010 Charleston. Elizabeth. Smith.... Schaible-Klaiss Kathleen M 22382 Chicago. Abel Danette Marie 15313 Chicago. Carcione Lisa 10590 Chicago... John Andres 14852 Los Angeles. ] Yung Lily Phu 20198 Los Angeles. Ching Ann Curie 15445 Los...

  8. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  9. Metastase axillaire d'un carcinome papillaire de la thyroïde: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El Khiati, Rhizlane; Ouaissi, Laila; Rouadi, Sami; Abada, Redallah; Mahtar, Mohamed; Roubal, Mohamed; Janah, Abdellah; Essaadi, Mustapha; Kadiri, Fatmi

    2013-01-01

    Les métastases axillaires dans le cadre d'un cancer de la thyroïde sont extrêmement rares. Plusieurs hypothèses expliquent ce drainage. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 78 ans ayant pour antécédents chirurgicaux une lobo-isthmectomie en 1987, puis une totalisation chirurgicale en 1997 non documentés, admis en septembre 2008 pour exploration d'une masse latéro-cervicale gauche. Le reste de l'examen clinique révèle la présence de multiples adénopathies axillaires bilatérales. La biopsie exérèse d'une adénopathie axillaire droite (côté controlatéral) retrouve une métastase ganglionnaire d'un carcinome papillaire de la thyroïde avec effraction capsulaire. La tomodensitométrie cervico-thoracique note la présence d'un processus tumoral latéro-cervical gauche, un lobe thyroïdien droit siège de multiples nodules hypodenses, des adénopathies cervicales et axillaires et des lésions suspectes au niveau du parenchyme pulmonaire. Une thyroïdectomie totale avec curage ganglionnaire cervical est décidée, complétée par une ablation des ganglions axillaires macroscopiquement atteints. Des cures d'iode radioactif (IRA-thérapie) sont indiquées. Bien qu'exceptionnelle, la présence de métastases axillaires d'un carcinome thyroïdien est de pronostic péjoratif. On se demande alors si ces patients ne nécessitent pas une prise en charge particulière. Une réflexion à une stratégie thérapeutique est donc nécessaire. PMID:24498461

  10. Selecting broiler chickens for ultimate pH of breast muscle: analysis of divergent selection experiment and phenotypic consequences on meat quality, growth, and body composition traits.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Boulay, M; Baéza, E; Jégo, Y; Baumard, Y; Chabault, M; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2014-09-01

    Genetic parameters for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle (PM-pHu) and sartorius muscle (SART-pHu); color parameters L*, a*, b*; logarithm of drip loss (LogDL) of pectoralis major (PM) muscle; breast meat yield (BMY); thigh and drumstick yield (TY); abdominal fat percentage (AFP); and BW at 6 wk (BW6) were estimated in 2 lines of broiler chickens divergently selected for PM-pHu. Effects of selection on all the previous traits and on glycolytic potential, pectoralis major muscle pH at 15 min postmortem, curing-cooking yield (CCY), cooking loss (CL), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of the PM muscle were also analyzed after 5 generations. Strong genetic determinism of PM-pHu was observed, with estimated h(2) of 0.57 ± 0.02. There was a significant positive genetic correlation (rg) between PM-pHu and SART-pHu (0.54 ± 0.04), indicating that selection had a general rather than a specific effect on energy storage in skeletal muscles. The h(2) estimates of L*, a*, and b* parameters were 0.58 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 0.48 ± 0.02, respectively. Heritability estimates for TY, BMY, and AFP were 0.39 ± 0.04, 0.52 ± 0.01, and 0.71 ± 0.02, respectively. Our results indicated different genetic control of LogDL and L* of the meat between the 2 lines; these traits had a strong rg with PM-pHu in the line selected for low ultimate pH (pHu) value (pHu-; -0.80 and -0.71, respectively), which was not observed in the line selected for high pHu value (pHu+; -0.04 and -0.29, respectively). A significant positive rg (0.21 ± 0.04) was observed between PM-pHu and BMY but not between PM-pHu and BW6, AFP, or TY. Significant phenotypic differences were observed after 5 generations of selection between the 2 lines. The mean differences (P < 0.001) in pHu between the 2 lines were 0.42 and 0.21 pH units in the breast and thigh muscle, respectively. Breast meat in the pHu+ line exhibited lower L* (-5 units; P < 0.001), a* (-0.22 units; P < 0.001), b* (-1.53 units; P < 0.001), and

  11. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  12. Holo- and apo-bound structures of bacterial periplasmic heme-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ho, Winny W; Li, Huiying; Eakanunkul, Suntara; Tong, Yong; Wilks, Angela; Guo, Maolin; Poulos, Thomas L

    2007-12-07

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an "in" position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an "out" orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg(228) in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg(228), and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B(12)-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B(12), compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  13. Impacts of a measles outbreak in Western Sydney on public health resources.

    PubMed

    Flego, Kristina L; Belshaw, Daniel A; Sheppeard, Vicky; Weston, Kathryn M

    2013-09-30

    During February and March 2011, an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of measles was reported to the Parramatta Public Health Unit (PHU) in western Sydney. This paper describes the impact of the outbreak on PHU resources. A retrospective review of information obtained from case notification forms and associated contact tracing records was carried out for each of the confirmed cases. Seven cases (27%) required hospital admission for more than 1 day and 10 (38%) cases required management within a hospital emergency department. There were no cases of encephalitis or death. The number of contacts was determined for each case as well as the number who required post-exposure prophylaxis. In total, 1,395 contacts were identified in this outbreak. Of these, 79 (5.7%) required normal human immunoglobulin and 90 (6.5%) were recommended to receive the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. A case study detailing the PHU costs associated with the contact management of a hospitalised measles case with 75 identified contacts is also included and the estimated total cost to the PHU of containing this particular case of measles was A$2,433, with staff time comprising the major cost component. Considerable effort and resources are required to manage measles outbreaks. The total cost of this outbreak to the PHU alone is likely to have exceeded A$48,000. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Attorney General's Department, Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit, Barton ACT 2600 or posted at http://www.ag.gov.au/cca.

  14. Anti-Trichinella IgG in ethnic minorities living in Trichinella-endemic areas in northwest Vietnam: study of the predictive value of selected clinical signs and symptoms for the diagnosis of trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Vu Thi, Nga; Pozio, Edoardo; Van De, Nguyen; Praet, Nicolas; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Gabriël, Sarah; Claes, Marleen; Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Dorny, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the presence of anti-Trichinella IgG in the serum of persons from ethnic minorities from northwest Vietnam with clinical signs and symptoms that are compatible with trichinellosis. A total of 645 persons were enrolled, of which 200 people lived in two villages where outbreaks of human trichinellosis had been documented in 2004 and 2008, and 445 people who were hospitalized in the Dien Bien and Son La provincial hospitals without a definitive diagnosis. Presence of anti-Trichinella IgG was demonstrated in serum samples by a standardized Enzyme-linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA); positive serum samples were subjected to Western blot (WB) for confirmation. Seven (3.5%; 95% CI: 1.4-7.1) persons from the villages and seven (1.6%; 95% CI: 0.6-3.2) hospitalized patients, tested positive by both ELISA and WB. Fever (N=13), eosinophilia (N=12), myalgia (N=9), facial edema (N=9) and leukocytosis (N=8) were the most common clinical signs and symptoms in the serologically positive persons. The concomitant occurrence of facial edema and myalgia among the enrolled persons from the villages, accounted for 75% of the positive predictive value (PPV) and 99.5% of the negative predictive value (NPV), suggesting that they could be used for suspecting trichinellosis when serology is not available. The high prevalence (1.6-3.5%) of anti-Trichinella IgG in persons from Vietnamese provinces where Trichinella spiralis is circulating in pigs strongly supports the need to develop control programs to eliminate the infection from pigs and for consumers' education and protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Source identification and distribution reveals the potential of the geochemical Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, S. T.; Smik, L.; Brown, T. A.; Kim, J.-H.; Rowland, S. J.; Allen, C. S.; Gal, J.-K.; Shin, K.-H.; Lee, J. I.; Taylor, K. W. R.

    2016-08-01

    The presence of a di-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) lipid biomarker (diene II) in Southern Ocean sediments has previously been proposed as a proxy measure of palaeo Antarctic sea ice. Here we show that a source of diene II is the sympagic diatom Berkeleya adeliensis Medlin. Furthermore, the propensity for B. adeliensis to flourish in platelet ice is reflected by an offshore downward gradient in diene II concentration in >100 surface sediments from Antarctic coastal and near-coastal environments. Since platelet ice formation is strongly associated with super-cooled freshwater inflow, we further hypothesize that sedimentary diene II provides a potentially sensitive proxy indicator of landfast sea ice influenced by meltwater discharge from nearby glaciers and ice shelves, and re-examination of some previous diene II downcore records supports this hypothesis. The term IPSO25--Ice Proxy for the Southern Ocean with 25 carbon atoms--is proposed as a proxy name for diene II.

  16. Intramolecular Diels–Alder Reactions of Cycloalkenones: Stereoselectivity, Lewis Acid Acceleration, and Halogen Substituent Effects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The intramolecular Diels–Alder reactions of cycloalkenones and terminal dienes occur with high endo stereoselectivity, both thermally and under Lewis-acidic conditions. Through computations, we show that steric repulsion and tether conformation govern the selectivity of the reaction, and incorporation of either BF3 or α-halogenation increases the rate of cycloaddition. With a longer tether, isomerization from a terminal diene to the more stable internal diene results in a more facile cycloaddition. PMID:24410341

  17. Genetic parameters of white striping in relation to body weight, carcass composition, and meat quality traits in two broiler lines divergently selected for the ultimate pH of the pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, Nabeel; Berri, Cécile; Chabault, Marie; Chartrin, Pascal; Boulay, Maryse; Bourin, Marie Christine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2016-04-19

    White striping (WS) is an emerging quality defect with adverse consequences for the sensorial, technological, and nutritional qualities of breast meat in broiler chickens. The genetic determinism of this defect is little understood and thus the aim of the study presented here was to estimate the genetic parameters of WS in relation to other traits of economic importance such as body weight, carcass composition, and technological meat quality in an experimental population consisting of two divergent lines selected for high (pHu + line) or low (pHu- line) ultimate pH (pHu) of the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle. The incidence of WS in the whole population was 50.7%, with 36.7% of broilers being moderately and 14% being severely affected. A higher incidence of moderate (p < 0.001) and severe (p < 0.0001) WS was observed in the pHu + line, and strong genetic determinism (h(2) = 0.65 ± 0.08) was evidenced for WS in the studied lines. In addition, WS was significantly genetically correlated with body weight (rg = 0.33 ± 0.15), and breast meat yield (0.68 ± 0.06), but not with the percentage of leg or abdominal fat. Increased body weight and breast muscle yield were significantly associated with increased incidence and severity of WS regardless of the line. Significant rg were observed between WS and several meat quality traits, including breast (0.21 ± 0.08) and thigh (0.31 ± 0.10) pHu, and breast cooking loss (0.30 ± 0.15). WS was also strongly genetically correlated with the intramuscular fat content of the pectoralis major muscle (0.64 ± 0.09), but not with the lipid oxidation index of this muscle. This study highlighted the role of genetics as a major determinant of WS. The estimated genetic correlations showed that WS was more highly related to muscle development than to the overall growth of the body. The positive genetic association reported in this study between WS and muscle pHu indicated a possible relationship between the ability of muscle to store

  18. Diversity-Oriented Approaches to Polycyclics and Bioinspired Molecules via the Diels-Alder Strategy: Green Chemistry, Synthetic Economy, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Chavan, Arjun S; Goyal, Deepti

    2015-05-11

    We describe diverse approaches to various dienes and their utilization in the Diels-Alder reaction to produce a variety of polycycles. The dienes covered here are prepared by simple alkylation reaction or via the Claisen rearrangement or by enyne metathesis of alkyne or enyne building blocks. Here, we have also included the Diels-Alder chemistry of dendralenes, a higher analog of cross-conjugated dienes. The present article is inclusive of o-xylylene derivatives that are generated in situ starting with benzosultine or benzosulfone derivatives. The Diels-Alder reaction of these dienes with various dienophiles gave diverse polycyclic systems and biologically important targets.

  19. All Carbon Quaternary Centers via Ruthenium-Catalyzed Hydroxymethylation of 2-Substituted Butadienes Mediated by Formaldehyde: Beyond Hydroformylation

    PubMed Central

    Smejkal, Tomas; Han, Hoon; Breit, Bernhard; Krische, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Ruthenium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of 2-substituted dienes 1a-1i in the presence of paraformaldehyde results in reductive coupling at the 2-position to furnish products of hydroxymethylation 3a-3i, which embody all carbon quaternary centers. Reductive coupling of diene 1g to paraformaldehyde under standard conditions, but employing either deuterio-paraformaldehyde or d8-isopropanol, or both deuterio-paraformaldehyde corroborate a catalytic mechanism involving rapid and reversible diene hydrometallation with incomplete regioselectivity in advance of C-C coupling. These present method provides an alternative to the hydroformylation of conjugated dienes, for which efficient, regioselective catalytic systems remain undeveloped. PMID:19594163

  20. POLYMERIZATION STUDIES LEADING TO HIGH STRENGTH CHEMICAL RESISTANT ELASTOMERS SERVICEABLE AT TEMPERATURE EXTREMES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HIGH TEMPERATURE), (*POLYMERIZATION, (*ELASTOMERS, HEAT RESISTANT MATERIALS), FLUORINATION, DEGRADATION, TRANSITION METALS, HYDROCARBONS, DIENES...CYCLOBUTENES, CYCLOPENTENES, CYCLOBUTANES, CATALYSIS, COPOLYMERIZATION , CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOLVENTS, ALKENES, IONS.