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Sample records for diesel engine emission

  1. Nanocatalysts for Diesel Engine Emissions Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broad temperature operating windows to treat diesel engine emissions, thus enabling diesel engine equipment and vehicles to meet regulatory requirements.

  2. Cermet Filters for Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter Chuen Sun

    2001-08-01

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.

  3. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  4. Cermet Filters To Reduce Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter

    2001-08-05

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.Diesel engines currently emit soot and NOx that pollute our air. It is expected that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will begin tightening the regulatory requirements to control these emissions. The INEEL's self-cleaning, high temperature cermet filter provides a technology to clean heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Under high engine exhaust temperatures, the cermet filter simultaneously removes carbon particles and NOx from the exhaust gas. The cermet filter is made from inexpensive starting materials, via net shape bulk forming and a single-step combustion synthesis process, and can be brazed to existing structures. It is self-cleaning, lightweight, mechanically strong, thermal shock resistant, and has a high melting temperature, high heat capacity, and controllable thermal expansion coefficient. The filter's porosity is controlled to provide high removal efficiency for carbon particulate. It can be made catalytic to oxidize CO, H2, and hydrocarbons, and reduce NOx. When activated by engine exhaust, the filter produces NH3 and light hydrocarbon

  5. Emission control apparatus for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. B.

    1980-02-26

    Apparatus for controlling the emission of exhaust gases from a diesel engine used in mining operations consists of a purifier chamber within a water jacketed adaptor and having an inlet for connection to the outlet from the exhaust manifold of the engine. The purifier chamber contains a catalytic purifier for the reduction of carbon monoxide passing from the inlet of the purifier chamber to its outlet, which is connected to a water scrubber for the reduction of the temperature of exhaust gases, the removal of some of the products of combustion, and for quenching exhaust flames.

  6. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  7. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  8. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  9. Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Akhter, Md Shamim; Zaglul Shahadat, Mhia Md

    2006-02-01

    In this report combustion and exhaust emissions with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends have been investigated. In the investigation, firstly biodiesel from non-edible neem oil has been made by esterification. Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is chemically known as mono-alkyl fatty acid ester. It is renewable in nature and is derived from plant oils including vegetable oils. BDF is non-toxic, biodegradable, recycled resource and essentially free from sulfur and carcinogenic benzene. In the second phase of this investigation, experiment has been conducted with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends in a four stroke naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Compared with conventional diesel fuel, diesel-biodiesel blends showed lower carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. However, compared with the diesel fuel, NOx emission with diesel-biodiesel blends was slightly reduced when EGR was applied.

  10. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Mullins, David R; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Wu, Zili

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  11. IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, Andre L.

    2000-08-20

    As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The

  12. Emissions of fuel metals content from a diesel vehicle engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Li, Chun-Teh; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Luo, Jih-Haur; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    This study was set out to assess the characteristics and significance of metal contents emitted from diesel engines. We found that the emitted concentrations of crust elements (including Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Si) were much higher than those of anthropogenic elements (including Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) from diesel vehicle engine exhausts under the transient-cycle condition. The emission concentrations of particulate matters from diesel vehicle engine were inversely proportional to the specified engine speeds. To the contrary, the increase of engine speeds resulted in increase of fractions of metal contents in particulate matters. We conducted simple linear regression analysis to relate the emission rates of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust to the consumption rates of metal contents in diesel fuel. This study yielded R2=0.999 which suggests that the emission of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust could be fully explained by the consumption of metal contents in diesel fuel. For illustration, we found that the annual emission rates of both crust and anthropogenic elements from all diesel engine vehicles (=269 000 and 58 700 kg yr -1, respectively) were significantly higher than those from the coal power plant, electrical arc furnace, and coke oven (=90 100 and 1660 kg yr -1, 2060 and 173 kg yr -1, and 60 500 and 3740 kg yr -1, respectively) in Taiwan area. The relatively high amount of metal contents emitted from diesel engines strongly suggests that the measurement on the control of metal contents in diesel fuel should be taken in the future.

  13. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  14. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  15. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted. Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions. Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  16. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  17. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  18. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  19. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  20. Emission reduction potential of using ethanol-biodiesel-diesel fuel blend on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Hu; Li, Rulong

    Oxygenated diesel fuel blends have a potential to reduce the emission of particulate matter (PM) and to be an alternative to diesel fuel. This paper describes the emission characteristics of a three compounds oxygenated diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel), on a Cummins-4B diesel engine. BE-diesel is a new form of oxygenated diesel fuel blends consisted of ethanol, methyl soyate and petroleum diesel fuel. The blend ratio used in this study was 5:20:75 (ethanol: methyl soyate: diesel fuel) by volume. The results from the operation of diesel engine with BE-diesel showed a significant reduction in PM emissions and 2%-14% increase of NO x emissions. The change of CO emission was not conclusive and depended on operating conditions. Total hydrocarbon (THC) from BE-diesel was lower than that from diesel fuel under most tested conditions. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone in the exhaust were measured, and the results indicated that use of BE-diesel led to a slight increase of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone emissions. A small amount of ethanol was also detected in the exhaust from burning BE-diesel.

  1. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Kegl, Breda

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity are determined experimentally and compared to those of D2. The obtained results are used to analyze the most important injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics. The injection characteristics are determined numerically under the operating regimes, corresponding to the 13 mode ESC test. The fuel spray is obtained experimentally under peak torque condition. Engine characteristics are determined experimentally under 13 mode ESC test conditions. The results indicate that, by using biodiesel, harmful emissions (NO(x), CO, smoke and HC) can be reduced to some extent by adjusting the injection pump timing properly. PMID:17350250

  2. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  3. TRANSIENT, REAL-TIME, PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS IN DIESEL ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S; Shih, J; Hillman, G; sekar, R; Graze, R; Shimpi, S; Martin, W; Pier, D

    2003-08-24

    This paper reports our efforts to develop an instrument, TG-1, to measure particulate emissions from diesel engines in real-time. TG-1 while based on laser-induced incandescence allows measurements at 10 Hz on typical engine exhausts. Using such an instrument, measurements were performed in the exhaust of a 1.7L Mercedes Benz engine coupled to a low inertia dynamometer. Comparative measurements performed under engine steady state conditions showed the instrument to agree within {+-}12% of measurements performed with an SMPS. Moreover, the instrument had far better time response and time resolution than a TEOM{reg_sign} 1105. Also, TG-1 appears to surpass the shortcomings of the TEOM instrument, i.e., of yielding negative values under certain engine conditions and, being sensitive to external vibration.

  4. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  5. Simulation of atmospheric PAH emissions from diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; de Lucas, A; Carmona, M; Ballesteros, R

    2001-08-01

    Simulation of atmospheric PAH emissions in a typical European passenger car diesel engine at steady conditions or under a certification cycle is made using in-house software. It is based on neural fitting of experimental data from eight different fuels tested under five operating steady conditions (reproducing modes of the European transient urban/extraurban certification cycle). The software allows the determination of PAH emissions as a function of the fuel composition parameters (aromatic content, cetane index, gross heat power, nitrogen and sulphur content) and operation conditions (torque and engine speed). The mathematical model reproduces experimental data with a maximum error of 20%. This tool is very useful, since changes in parameters can be made without experimental cost and the trend in modifications in PAH emissions is immediately obvious. PMID:11513424

  6. Simulation of atmospheric PAH emissions from diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; de Lucas, A; Carmona, M; Ballesteros, R

    2001-08-01

    Simulation of atmospheric PAH emissions in a typical European passenger car diesel engine at steady conditions or under a certification cycle is made using in-house software. It is based on neural fitting of experimental data from eight different fuels tested under five operating steady conditions (reproducing modes of the European transient urban/extraurban certification cycle). The software allows the determination of PAH emissions as a function of the fuel composition parameters (aromatic content, cetane index, gross heat power, nitrogen and sulphur content) and operation conditions (torque and engine speed). The mathematical model reproduces experimental data with a maximum error of 20%. This tool is very useful, since changes in parameters can be made without experimental cost and the trend in modifications in PAH emissions is immediately obvious.

  7. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    PubMed

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  8. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20.

  9. Diesel engine combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes guides the engineer and research technician toward engine designs which will give the ``best payoff`` in terms of emissions and fuel economy. Contents include: Three-dimensional modeling of soot and NO in a direct-injection diesel engine; Prechamber for lean burn for low NOx; Modeling and identification of a diesel combustion process with the downhill gradient search method; The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays; Combustion process of diesel spray in high temperature air; Combustion process of diesel engines at regions with different altitude; and more.

  10. Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-06-01

    Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

  11. EXPLORING LOW EMISSION DIESEL ENGINE OILS WORKSHOP - A SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Joseph

    2000-08-20

    This paper discusses and summarizes some of the results of the title workshop. The workshop was held January 31-February 2, 2000 in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of the workshop was ''To craft a shared vision for Industry-Government (DOE) research and development collaboration in Diesel Engine Oils to minimize emissions while maintaining or enhancing engine performance''. The final report of the workshop (NREL/SR-570-28521) was issued in June 2000 by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393. There were some 95 participants at the workshop representing industry, government and academia, Figure 1. The format for the workshop is described in Figure 2. This format allowed for considerable discussion of the various issues prior to deliberations in breakout groups. This process resulted in recommendations to solve the issues related to the next generation of diesel engine oils. Keynote addresses by SAE President Rodica Baranescu (International Truck and Engine Corporation), James Eberhardt of DOE and Paul Machiele of EPA focused on diesel progress, workshop issues and regulatory fuel issues. A panel of experts further defined the issues of interest, presenting snapshots of the current status in their areas of expertise. A Q&A session was followed by a series of technical presentations discussing the various areas. Some two dozen presentations covered the technical issues, Figure 3. An open forum was held to allow any participant to present related studies or comment on any of the technical issues. The participants broke into work groups addressing the various areas found on Figure 2. A group leader was appointed and reported on their findings, recommendations, suggested participants for projects and on related items.

  12. Tracing Fuel Component Carbon in the Emissions from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Martin, G C; Cheng, A S E; Dibble, R W; Frantz, B R

    2002-10-14

    The addition of oxygenates to diesel fuel can reduce particulate emissions, but the underlying chemical pathways for the reductions are not well understood. While measurements of particulate matter (PM), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) are routine, determining the contribution of carbon atoms in the original fuel molecules to the formation of these undesired exhaust emissions has proven difficult. Renewable bio-derived fuels (ethanol or bio-diesel) containing a universal distribution of contemporary carbon are easily traced by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). These measurements provide general information about the emissions of bio-derived fuels. Another approach exploits synthetic organic chemistry to place {sup 14}C atoms in a specific bond position in a specific fuel molecule. The highly labeled fuel molecule is then diluted in {sup 14}C-free petroleum-derived stock to make a contemporary petroleum fuel suitable for tracing. The specific {sup 14}C atoms are then traced through the combustion event to determine whether they reside in PM, HC, CO, CO{sub 2}, or other emission products. This knowledge of how specific molecular structures produce certain emissions can be used to refine chemical-kinetic combustion models and to optimize fuel composition to reduce undesired emissions. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique and the lack of appreciable {sup 14}C in fossil fuels, fuels for AMS experiments can be labeled with modern levels of {sup 14}C and still produce a strong signal. Since the fuel is not radioactive, emission tests can be conducted in any conventional engine lab, dynamometer facility, or on the open road.

  13. Modelling soot and SOF emissions from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Carmona, M; Monteagudo, J M

    2004-07-01

    Modelling of soot and SOF emissions from a typical European turbocharged diesel engine has been made. The model consists of a detailed kinetic mechanism with 472 reactions (120 chemical species) and data from the thermodynamic diagnostic procedure of the combustion process of the engine. The forward kinetic constants were obtained from literature and the background constants from a self-developed non-linear fitting routine based on the Marquardt algorithm. The dilution and mixing processes inside the engine are represented by a simple Wiebe function. The system of ordinary differential equations is solved with the Rosenbrock method for rigid systems and using the interpolating Lagrange polynomials to calculate the heat capacity of each species at the corresponding temperature. The kinetic model has been implemented in Digital Visual Fortran 6.0. The model has been executed for five different fuels and three mixtures of biodiesel and reference diesel operating under three diverse conditions from the European transient urban/extraurban Certification Cycle and the results of soot and SOF predicted are compared with experimental data. PMID:15172594

  14. Performance and emissions characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine with vegetable oil fuels - 2

    SciTech Connect

    Humke, A.L.; Barsic, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A naturally aspirated, direct injected diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a crude soybean oil, a 50 percent (by volume) mixture of crude soybean oil and no. 2 diesel fuel, and a degummed soybean oil. The data were compared with previous tests conducted on the same engine using diesel fuel, crude sunflower oil and a 50 percent mixture of crude sunflower oil and diesel fuel. 18 refs.

  15. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine.

  16. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  17. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    PubMed

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  18. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  19. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  1. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa. PMID:21234367

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  3. [Experimental study on the characteristics polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions of diesel engine burnt by different fuels].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; An, Yu-Guang; Xu, Guang-Ju; Wang, Xiao-Zhe

    2011-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured by glass fiber filter and XAD-2 collector, ultrasonic extraction, soxhlet extraction and GC-MS analysis equipment. The exhaust emission of the DI single cylinder diesel engine fueled with pure diesel, biodiesel and biodiesel blends of 50% (B50) were measured. The results indicate that the particle-phase PAHs emissions of diesel engine decrease with the increasing of load. The gas-phase PAHs emissions of diesel engine decrease with the increasing of load in the beginning and it turns to going up with further increasing of load. The particle-phase and gas-phase PAHs emissions of biodiesel decrease and mean concentration are lower than that of diesel. The total PAHs emission concentration of biodisesl is 41.1-70.1 microg/m3. Total PAHs mean concentration emissions of biodiesel is decreased 33.3% than that of diesel. The mass proportion of three-ring PAHs emissions of those 3 kinds tested fuels is about 44% in the total PAHs. Biodiesel can increase the proportion of three-ring PAHs. Toxic equivalence of PAHs emissions of biodiesel are greatly lower than that of diesel. It is less harmful to human than diesel fuel.

  4. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  5. A fuel-based assessment of off-road diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Kean, A J; Sawyer, R F; Harley, R A

    2000-11-01

    The use of diesel engines in off-road applications is a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10). Such off-road applications include railroad locomotives, marine vessels, and equipment used for agriculture, construction, logging, and mining. Emissions from these sources are only beginning to be controlled. Due to the large number of these engines and their wide range of applications, total activity and emissions from these sources are uncertain. A method for estimating the emissions from off-road diesel engines based on the quantity of diesel fuel consumed is presented. Emission factors are normalized by fuel consumption, and total activity is estimated by the total fuel consumed. Total exhaust emissions from off-road diesel equipment (excluding locomotives and marine vessels) in the United States during 1996 have been estimated to be 1.2 x 10(9) kg NOx and 1.2 x 10(8) kg PM10. Emissions estimates published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are 2.3 times higher for both NOx and exhaust PM10 emissions than estimates based directly on fuel consumption. These emissions estimates disagree mainly due to differences in activity estimates, rather than to differences in the emission factors. All current emission inventories for off-road engines are uncertain because of the limited in-use emissions testing that has been performed on these engines. Regional- and state-level breakdowns in diesel fuel consumption by off-road mobile sources are also presented. Taken together with on-road measurements of diesel engine emissions, results of this study suggest that in 1996, off-road diesel equipment (including agriculture, construction, logging, and mining equipment, but not locomotives or marine vessels) was responsible for 10% of mobile source NOx emissions nationally, whereas on-road diesel vehicles contributed 33%.

  6. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  7. Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

  8. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  9. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  10. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that

  11. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  12. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels. PMID:22519083

  13. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  14. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  15. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    PubMed Central

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines’ regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially

  16. [Effects of oxygenated fuels on emissions and carbon composition of fine particles from diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Yan; He, Ke-Bin; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Yun-Shan; Tan, Jian-Wei

    2009-06-15

    Acetal (1,1-diethoxyethane) is considered as an alternative to ethanol as bio-derived additive for diesel fuel, which is miscible in diesel fuel. Biodiesel can improve the oxygen content and flash point of the fuel blend of acetal and diesel fuel. Two oxygenated fuels were prepared: a blend of 10% acetal + 90% diesel fuel and 10% acetal + 10% biodiesel + 80% diesel fuel. The emissions of NO(x), HC and PM2.5 from oxygenated fuels were investigated on a diesel engine bench at five modes according to various loads at two steady speeds and compared with base diesel fuel. Additionally, the carbon compositions of PM2.5 were analyzed by DRI thermal/optical carbon analyzer. Oxygenated fuels have unconspicuous effect on NO(x) emission rate but HC emission rate is observed significantly increased at some modes. The emission rate of PM2.5 is decreased by using oxygenated fuels and it decreases with the increase of fuel oxygen content. The emission rates of TC (total carbon) and EC (elemental carbon) in PM2.5 are also decreased by oxygenated fuels. The emission rate of organic carbon (OC) is greatly decreased at modes of higher engine speed. The OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 from oxygenated fuels are higher than that from base diesel fuel at most modes. The carbon compositions fractions of PM2.5 from the three test fuels are similar, and OC1 and EC1 are contributed to the most fractions of OC and EC, respectively. Compared with base diesel fuel, oxygenated fuels decrease emission rate of PM2.5, and have more OC contribution to PM2.5 but have little effect on carbon composition fractions.

  17. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel. PMID:19525107

  18. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel.

  19. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  20. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured. PMID:25874218

  1. A Comparative Study of Almond Biodiesel-Diesel Blends for Diesel Engine in Terms of Performance and Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Alnefaie, Khaled A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NOx using blends of almond biodiesel was measured. PMID:25874218

  2. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  3. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  4. 9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, P; Wright, J; Harris, G; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2003-08-24

    The PowerTrap{trademark} is a non-exhaust temperature dependent system that cannot become blocked and features a controlled regeneration process independent of the vehicle's drive cycle. The system has a low direct-current power source requirement available in both 12-volt and 24-volt configurations. The system is fully programmable, fully automated and includes Euro IV requirements of operation verification. The system has gained European component-type approval and has been tested with both on- road and off-road diesel fuel up to 2000 parts per million. The device is fail-safe: in the event of a device malfunction, it cannot affect the engine's performance. Accumulated mileage testing is in excess of 640,000 miles to date. Vehicles include London-type taxicabs (Euro 1 and 2), emergency service fire engines (Euro 1, 2, and 3), inner city buses, and light-duty locomotives. Independent test results by Shell Global Solutions have consistently demonstrated 85-99 percent reduction of ultrafines across the 7-35 nanometer size range using a scanning mobility particle sizer with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and off-road high-sulfur fuel.

  5. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a modern diesel engine equipped with catalyzed emission control systems.

    PubMed

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Exhaust emissions of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, 12 2005 WHO chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine were investigated. Testing included configurations composed of different combinations of aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), copper zeolite urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR), iron zeolite SCR, and ammonia slip catalyst. Results were compared to a baseline engine out configuration. Testing included the use of fuel that contained the maximum expected chlorine (Cl) concentration of U.S. highway diesel fuel and a Cl level 1.5 orders of magnitude above. Results indicate there is no risk for an increase in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from modern diesel engines with catalyzed aftertreatment when compared to engine out emissions for configurations tested in this program. These results, along with PAH results, compare well with similar results from modern diesel engines in the literature. The results further indicate that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan emissions from modern diesel engines both with and without aftertreatment are below historical values reported in the literature as well as the current inventory value.

  6. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a modern diesel engine equipped with catalyzed emission control systems.

    PubMed

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Exhaust emissions of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, 12 2005 WHO chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine were investigated. Testing included configurations composed of different combinations of aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), copper zeolite urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR), iron zeolite SCR, and ammonia slip catalyst. Results were compared to a baseline engine out configuration. Testing included the use of fuel that contained the maximum expected chlorine (Cl) concentration of U.S. highway diesel fuel and a Cl level 1.5 orders of magnitude above. Results indicate there is no risk for an increase in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from modern diesel engines with catalyzed aftertreatment when compared to engine out emissions for configurations tested in this program. These results, along with PAH results, compare well with similar results from modern diesel engines in the literature. The results further indicate that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan emissions from modern diesel engines both with and without aftertreatment are below historical values reported in the literature as well as the current inventory value. PMID:21718041

  7. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion.

  8. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion. PMID:24738886

  9. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  10. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  11. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions among Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Latifovic, Lidija; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Kachuri, Linda; Harris, Shelley A

    2015-12-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel exhaust as a carcinogen based on lung cancer evidence; however, few studies have investigated the effect of engine emissions on bladder cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and bladder cancer in men using data from the Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System; a population-based case-control study. This analysis included 658 bladder cancer cases and 1360 controls with information on lifetime occupational histories and a large number of possible cancer risk factors. A job-exposure matrix for engine emissions was supplemented by expert review to assign values for each job across three dimensions of exposure: concentration, frequency, and reliability. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression. Relative to unexposed, men ever exposed to high concentrations of diesel emissions were at an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.64, 0.87-3.08), but this result was not significant, and those with >10 years of exposure to diesel emissions at high concentrations had a greater than twofold increase in risk (OR = 2.45, 1.04-5.74). Increased risk of bladder cancer was also observed with >30% of work time exposed to gasoline engine emissions (OR = 1.59, 1.04-2.43) relative to the unexposed, but only among men that had never been exposed to diesel emissions. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that exposure to high concentrations of diesel engine emissions may increase the risk of bladder cancer.

  12. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions among Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Latifovic, Lidija; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Kachuri, Linda; Harris, Shelley A

    2015-12-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel exhaust as a carcinogen based on lung cancer evidence; however, few studies have investigated the effect of engine emissions on bladder cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and bladder cancer in men using data from the Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System; a population-based case-control study. This analysis included 658 bladder cancer cases and 1360 controls with information on lifetime occupational histories and a large number of possible cancer risk factors. A job-exposure matrix for engine emissions was supplemented by expert review to assign values for each job across three dimensions of exposure: concentration, frequency, and reliability. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression. Relative to unexposed, men ever exposed to high concentrations of diesel emissions were at an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR = 1.64, 0.87-3.08), but this result was not significant, and those with >10 years of exposure to diesel emissions at high concentrations had a greater than twofold increase in risk (OR = 2.45, 1.04-5.74). Increased risk of bladder cancer was also observed with >30% of work time exposed to gasoline engine emissions (OR = 1.59, 1.04-2.43) relative to the unexposed, but only among men that had never been exposed to diesel emissions. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that exposure to high concentrations of diesel engine emissions may increase the risk of bladder cancer. PMID:26511593

  13. Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    1999-04-26

    To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative

  14. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  15. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  16. Inevitability of Engine-Out Nox Emissions from Spark-Ignition and Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, P F; Hunter, G L; Farrell, L A; Durrett, R P; Akinyemi, O C; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J

    2000-01-11

    Internal combustion engines, both spark ignition and Diesel, are dominant types of vehicle power sources and also provide power for other important stationary applications. Overall, these engines are a central part of power generation in modern society. However, these engines, burning hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas to gasoline and Diesel fuel, are also responsible for a great deal of pollutant emissions to the environment, especially oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). In recent years, pollutant species emissions from internal combustion engines have been the object of steadily more stringent limitations from various governmental agencies. Engine designers have responded by developing engines that reduce emissions to accommodate these tighter limitations. However, as these limits become ever more stringent, the ability of engine design modifications to meet those limits must be questioned. Production of NO{sub x} in internal combustion engines is primarily due to the high temperature extended Zeldovich reaction mechanism: (1) O + N{sub 2} = NO + N; (2) N + O{sub 2} = NO + O; and (3) N + OH = NO + H. The rates of these reactions become significant when combustion temperatures reach or exceed about 2000K. This large temperature dependence, characterized by large activation energies for the rates of the reactions listed here, is a direct result of the need to break apart the tightly bonded oxygen and nitrogen molecules. The strongest bond is the triple bond in the N {triple_bond} N molecule, resulting in an activation energy of about 75 kcal/mole for Reaction (1), which is the principal cause for the large temperature dependence of the extended Zeldovich NO{sub x} mechanism. In most engines, NO{sub x} is therefore produced primarily in the high temperature combustion product gases. Using a reliable kinetic model for NO{sub x} production such as the GRI Mechanism [1] or the Miller-Bowman model [2] with hydrocarbon products at

  17. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  18. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  19. Emissions of submicron particles from a direct injection diesel engine by using biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Cho; Wu, Chung-Hsing

    2002-01-01

    Small airborne particles less than 1 microm in diameter have a high probability to deposit deeply in the respiratory tract and cause respiratory diseases such as lung cancer. In this study, emission characteristics of submicron particles from a direct injection diesel engine using biodiesel (provided by the American Soybean Association) and petroleum-diesel fuels were measured under different operation conditions. The results show that the emitted particle sizes for both fuels are about the same. But when fueled with biodiesel, the diesel engine can substantially reduce 24-42% emission of the total number concentration, and 40-49% of the total mass concentration of submicron particles, which indicates that the emission of submicron particles can be effectively approved. PMID:12049119

  20. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  1. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine. PMID:24350455

  2. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  3. ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, R.; Bolton, B; Oladipo, A; Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z; Radwan, A

    2003-08-24

    Advanced diesel engine and aftertreatment technologies have been developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines. The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies (CLEAN Combustion{copyright}) with prototype aftertreatment systems. CLEAN Combustion{copyright} allows partial control of exhaust species for aftertreatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and aftertreatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and transient dynamometer test-beds to simulate chassis dynamometer test cycles.

  4. Emissions characteristics of a diesel engine operating on biodiesel and biodiesel blended with ethanol and methanol.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Cheung, C S; Zhang, W G; Huang, Zhen

    2010-01-15

    Euro V diesel fuel, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of ethanol or methanol were tested on a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 r/min. The study aims to investigate the effects of the blended fuels on reducing NO(x) and particulate. On the whole, compared with Euro V diesel fuel, the blended fuels could lead to reduction of both NO(x) and PM of a diesel engine, with the biodiesel-methanol blends being more effective than the biodiesel-ethanol blends. The effectiveness of NO(x) and particulate reductions is more effective with increase of alcohol in the blends. With high percentage of alcohol in the blends, the HC, CO emissions could increase and the brake thermal efficiency might be slightly reduced but the use of 5% blends could reduce the HC and CO emissions as well. With the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), the HC, CO and particulate emissions can be further reduced.

  5. Emission rates of particulate matter and elemental and organic carbon from in-use diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sandip D; Cocker, David R; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-05-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) emission rates are reported for a number of heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs) and back-up generators (BUGs) operating under real-world conditions. Emission rates were determined using a unique mobile emissions laboratory (MEL) equipped with a total capture full-scale dilution tunnel connected directly to the diesel engine via a snorkel. This paper shows that PM, EC, and OC emission rates are strongly dependent on the mode of vehicle operation; highway, arterial, congested, and idling conditions were simulated by following the speed trace from the California Air Resources Board HHDDT cycle. Emission rates for BUGs are reported as a function of engine load at constant speed using the ISO 8178B Cycle D2. The EC, OC, and PM emission rates were determined to be highly variable for the HHDDTs. It was determined that the per mile emission rate of OC from a HHDDT in congested traffic is 8.1 times higher than that of an HHDDT in cruise or highway speed conditions and 1.9 times higher for EC. EC/OC ratios for BUGs (which generally operate at steady states) and HHDDTs show marked differences, indicating that the transient nature of engine operation dictates the EC/OC ratio. Overall, this research shows that the EC/OC ratio varies widely for diesel engines in trucks and BUGs and depends strongly on the operating cycle. The findings reported here have significant implications in the application of chemical mass balance modeling, diesel risk assessment, and control strategies such as the Diesel Risk Reduction Program. PMID:15180049

  6. Emission characteristics of a heavy-duty diesel engine at simulated high altitudes.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao; Ding, Yan

    2011-08-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of altitude on the pollutant emissions of a diesel engine, an experimental research was carried out using an engine test bench with an altitude simulation system. The emissions of HC, CO, NOx, smoke, and particle number of a heavy-duty diesel engine were measured under steady state operating conditions at sea level and simulated altitudes of 1000 and 2000 m. The experimental results indicate that the high altitude increases the emissions of HC, CO and smoke of the diesel engine, the average increasing rates of which are 30%, 35% and 34% with addition of altitude of 1000 m, respectively. The effect of high altitudes on the NOx emission varies with the engine types and working conditions. At 1000 m the particles number emissions are 1.6 to 4.2 times the levels at the low altitude. The pattern of the particle size distributions at 1000 m is similar with that at sea-level, which is the mono-modal lognormal distribution with geometric mean diameter around 0.1 μm. However, the peak number concentrations of particles are bigger and the exhausted particles are smaller at the high altitude.

  7. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles... diesel HDEs only). (iii) Particulate. (A) For diesel engines to be used in urban buses, 0.05 gram...

  8. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

  10. Effect of fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine nonvolatile particle emission.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Happonen, Matti; Söderström, Christer; Virtanen, Annele; Solla, Anu; Kytö, Matti; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust particle emissions were studied. Nonvolatile particle size distributions and gaseous emissions were measured at steady-state engine conditions while the fuel injection pressure was changed. An increase in the injection pressure resulted in an increase in the nonvolatile nucleation mode (core) emission at medium and at high loads. At low loads, the core was not detected. Simultaneously, a decrease in soot mode number concentration and size and an increase in the soot mode distribution width were detected at all loads. Interestingly, the emission of the core was independent of the soot mode concentration at load conditions below 50%. Depending on engine load conditions, growth of the geometric mean diameter of the core mode was also detected with increasing injection pressure. The core mode emission and also the size of the mode increased with increasing NOx emission while the soot mode size and emission decreased simultaneously.

  11. Diesel hybridization and emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, M.; Monnet, G.

    2004-04-21

    The CTR Vehicle Systems and Fuels team a diesel hybrid powertrain. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of diesel engines for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in a fuel economy and emissions. The test set-up consisted of a diesel engine coupled to an electric motor driving a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This hybrid drive is connected to a dynamometer and a DC electrical power source creating a vehicle context by combining advanced computer models and emulation techniques. The experiment focuses on the impact of the hybrid control strategy on fuel economy and emissions-in particular, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM). The same hardware and test procedure were used throughout the entire experiment to assess the impact of different control approaches.

  12. Study on production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil and the performance and emission of a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. F. M.; Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Shamsuddin, S. A.; Ismail, M. S.; Hashim, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    The use of nonedible oil as a feedstock is needed to replace edible oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. This nonedible oils in diesel engine however leads to low performance and higher emission due to its high viscosity. The characteristics of the fuel can be improved through transesterification process. The yield of biodiesel from Jatropha oil using potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration of 1%, reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 40 minutes and molar ratio methanol to oil 6:1 was 70.1% from the lab scale. The experimental study on the performances and emissions of a diesel engine is carried out using the Jatropha biodiesel produced from the transesterification process and compared with pure diesel. Results show that B20 has closer performance to diesel and lower emission compared to B5 and diesel in terms of CO2 and HC.

  13. Particulate matter, carbon emissions and elemental compositions from a diesel engine exhaust fuelled with diesel-biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraful, A. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    A comparative morphological analysis was performed on the exhaust particles emitted from a CI engine using different blending ratios of palm biodiesel at several operating conditions. It was observed from this experiment; peak particle concentration for PB10 at 1200 rpm is 1.85E + 02 and at 1500 rpm is 2.12E + 02. A slightly smaller amount of volatile material has found from the biodiesel samples compared to the diesel fuel sample. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the amount of volatile material in the soot from biodiesel fuels was slightly lower than that of diesel fuel. PB20 biodiesel blends reduced maximum 11.26% of volatile matter from the engine exhaust, while PB10 biodiesel blend reduced minimum 5.53% of volatile matter. On the other hand, the amount of fixed carbon from the biodiesel samples was slightly higher than diesel fuel. Analysis of carbon emissions, palm biodiesel (PB10) reduced elemental carbon (EC) was varies 0.75%-18%, respectively. Similarly, the emission reduction rate for PB20 was varies 11.36%-23.46% respectively. While, organic carbon (OC) emission rates reduced for PB20 was varied 13.7-49% respectively. Among the biodiesel blends, PB20 exhibited highest oxygen (O), sulfur (S) concentration and lowest silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) concentration. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images for PB20 showed granular structure particulates with bigger grain sizes compared to diesel. Particle diameter increased under the 2100-2400 rpm speed condition and it was 8.70% higher compared to the low speed conditions. Finally, the results indicated that the composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel, play an important role in the chemical composition of particulate matter emissions.

  14. Reductions in particulate and NO(x) emissions by diesel engine parameter adjustments with HVO fuel.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Matti; Heikkilä, Juha; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-06-01

    Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel fuel is a promising biofuel candidate that can complement or substitute traditional diesel fuel in engines. It has been already reported that by changing the fuel from conventional EN590 diesel to HVO decreases exhaust emissions. However, as the fuels have certain chemical and physical differences, it is clear that the full advantage of HVO cannot be realized unless the engine is optimized for the new fuel. In this article, we studied how much exhaust emissions can be reduced by adjusting engine parameters for HVO. The results indicate that, with all the studied loads (50%, 75%, and 100%), particulate mass and NO(x) can both be reduced over 25% by engine parameter adjustments. Further, the emission reduction was even higher when the target for adjusting engine parameters was to exclusively reduce either particulates or NO(x). In addition to particulate mass, different indicators of particulate emissions were also compared. These indicators included filter smoke number (FSN), total particle number, total particle surface area, and geometric mean diameter of the emitted particle size distribution. As a result of this comparison, a linear correlation between FSN and total particulate surface area at low FSN region was found.

  15. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere. PMID:25668360

  16. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  17. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  18. Baseline performance and emissions data for a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezelick, R. A.; Mcfadden, J. J.; Ream, L. W.; Barrows, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive fuel consumption, mean effective cylinder pressure, and emission test results for a supercharged, single-cylinder, direct-injected, four-stroke-cycle, diesel test engine are documented. Inlet air-to-exhaust pressure ratios were varied from 1.25 to 3.35 in order to establish the potential effects of turbocharging techniques on engine performance. Inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted from 34 to 107 C and from 193 to 414 kPa to determine the effects on engine performance and emissions. Engine output ranged from 300 to 2100 kPa (brake mean effective pressure) in the speed range of 1000 to 3000 rpm. Gaseous and particulate emission rates were measured. Real-time values of engine friction and pumping loop losses were measured independently and compared with motored engine values.

  19. Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S.

    1994-11-01

    Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

  20. Nanoparticle emissions from a heavy-duty engine running on alternative diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Juha; Virtanen, Annele; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo

    2009-12-15

    We have studied the effect of three different fuels (fossil diesel fuel (EN590); rapeseed methyl ester (RME); and synthetic gas-to-liquid (GTL)) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Our main focus was on nanoparticle emissions of the engine. Our results show that the particle emissions from a modern diesel engine run with EN590, GTL, or RME consisted of two partly nonvolatile modes that were clearly separated in particle size. The concentration and geometric mean diameter of nonvolatile nucleation mode cores measured with RME were substantially greater than with the other fuels. The soot particle concentration and soot particle size were lowest with RME. With EN590 and GTL, a similar engine load dependence of the nonvolatile nucleation mode particle size and concentration imply a similar formation mechanism of the particles. For RME, the nonvolatile core particle size was larger and the concentration dependence on engine load was clearly different from that of EN590 and GTL. This indicates that the formation mechanism of the core particles is different for RME. This can be explained by differences in the fuel characteristics.

  1. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  2. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  3. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  4. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (a) Exhaust emissions from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines shall not exceed...

  5. Combination of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend and SCR catalyst assembly to reduce emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yunbo; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Dong, Hongyi; Li, Rulong

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the efforts to reduce NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine using both ethanol-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx over an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst and a biodiesel-ethanol-diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel) on an engine bench test are discussed. Compared with diesel fuel, use of BE-diesel increased PM emissions by 14% due to the increase in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of PM, but it greatly reduced the Bosch smoke number by 60%-80% according to the results from 13-mode test of European Stationary Cycle (ESC) test. The SCR catalyst was effective in NOx reduction by ethanol, and the NOx conversion was approximately 73%. Total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO emissions increased significantly during the SCR of NOx process. Two diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) assemblies were used after Ag/Al2O3 converter to remove CO and HC. Different oxidation catalyst showed opposite effect on PM emission. The PM composition analysis revealed that the net effect of oxidation catalyst on total PM was an integrative effect on SOF reduction and sulfate formation of PM. The engine bench test results indicated that the combination of BE-diesel and a SCR catalyst assembly could provide benefits for NOx and PM emissions control even without using diesel particle filters (DPFs).

  6. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines.

  7. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Jelica; Holder, Amara L; Yelverton, Tiffany L B

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) and varying power output (230 kW, 400 kW, and 600 kW) at 50% and 90% load to determine concentrations of gaseous (GROS) and PM reactive oxygen species (PMROS). In addition, the influence of three modern emission control technologies on ROS emissions was evaluated: active and passive diesel particulate filters (A-DPF and P-DPF) and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). PMROS made up 30-50% of the total ROS measured without aftermarket controls. All applied controls removed PMROS by more than 75% on average. However, the oxidative potential of PM downstream of these devices was not diminished at the same rate and particles surviving the A-PDF had an even higher oxidative potential on a per PM mass basis compared to the particles emitted by uncontrolled gensets. Further, the GROS as compared to PMROS emissions were not reduced with the same efficiency (<36%). GROS concentrations were highest with the DOC in use, indicating continued formation of GROS with this control. Correlation analyses showed that PMROS and to a lesser extent GROS have a good correlation with semivolatile organic carbon (OC1) subfraction. In addition, results suggest that chemical composition, rather than PM size, is responsible for differences in the PM oxidative potential.

  8. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Jelica; Holder, Amara L; Yelverton, Tiffany L B

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) and varying power output (230 kW, 400 kW, and 600 kW) at 50% and 90% load to determine concentrations of gaseous (GROS) and PM reactive oxygen species (PMROS). In addition, the influence of three modern emission control technologies on ROS emissions was evaluated: active and passive diesel particulate filters (A-DPF and P-DPF) and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). PMROS made up 30-50% of the total ROS measured without aftermarket controls. All applied controls removed PMROS by more than 75% on average. However, the oxidative potential of PM downstream of these devices was not diminished at the same rate and particles surviving the A-PDF had an even higher oxidative potential on a per PM mass basis compared to the particles emitted by uncontrolled gensets. Further, the GROS as compared to PMROS emissions were not reduced with the same efficiency (<36%). GROS concentrations were highest with the DOC in use, indicating continued formation of GROS with this control. Correlation analyses showed that PMROS and to a lesser extent GROS have a good correlation with semivolatile organic carbon (OC1) subfraction. In addition, results suggest that chemical composition, rather than PM size, is responsible for differences in the PM oxidative potential. PMID:26252945

  9. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  10. Quantitative assessment of cancer risk from exposure to diesel engine emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Pepelko, W.E.; Chen, C.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of lung cancer risk from exposure to diesel engine emissions were developed using data from three chronic bioassays with Fischer 344 rats. Human target organ dose was estimated with the aid of a comprehensive dosimetry model. The epithelial tissue lining the alveoli and lower airways is the primary target site for induction of lung tumors. Dose was therefore based upon the concentration of carbon particulate matter per unit lung surface area.

  11. The effect of fuel processes on heavy duty automotive diesel engine emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of fuel quality on exhaust emissions from 2 heavy duty diesel engines has been measured over the ECE R49 test cycle. The engines were selected to represent technologies used to meet Euro 1 and 2 emission standards (1992/93 and 1995/96); engines 1 and 2 respectively. The test fuels were prepared by a combination of processing, blending and additive treatment. When comparing the emissions from engines 1 and 2, using base line data generated on the CEC reference fuel RF73-T-90, engine technology had the major effect on emission levels. Engine 2 reduced both particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide levels by approximately 50%, with total hydrocarbon (THC) being approximately 75% lower. Oxides of nitrogen levels were similar for both engines. The variations in test fuel quality had marginal effects on emissions, with the two engines giving directionally opposite responses in some cases. For instance, there was an effect on CO and NOx but where one engine showed a reduction the other gave an increase. There were no significant changes in THC emissions from either engine when operating on any of the test fuels. When the reference fuel was hydrotreated, engine 1 showed a trend towards reduced particulate and NOx but with CO increasing. Engine 2 also showed a trend for reduced particulate levels, with an increase in NOx and no change in CO. Processing to reduce the final boiling point of the reference fuel showed a trend towards reduced particulate emissions with CO increasing on engine 1 but decreasing on engine 2.

  12. Unregulated emissions from diesel engine with particulate filter using Fe-based fuel borne catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Zhang, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jipeng; Tan, Jianwei; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-10-01

    The alteration and formation of toxic compounds and potential changes in the toxicity of emissions when using after-treatment technologies have gained wide attention. Volatile organic compound (VOC), carbonyl compound and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were tested at European Steady State Cycle (ESC) to study unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with a fuel-borne catalyst and diesel particulate filter (FBC-DPF). An Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst was used for this study. According to the results, brake specific emissions of total VOCs without and with DPF were 4.7 and 4.9mg/kWh, respectively, showing a 4.3% increase. Benzene and n-undecane emissions increased and toluene emission decreased, while other individual VOC emissions basically had no change. When retrofitted with the FBC-DPF, total carbonyl compound emission decreased 15.7%, from 25.8 to 21.8mg/kWh. The two highest carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were reduced from 20.0 and 3.7 to 16.5 and 3.3mg/kWh respectively. The specific reactivity (SR) with DPF was reduced from 6.68 to 6.64mg/kWh. Total particle-phase PAH emissions decreased 66.4% with DPF compared to that without DPF. However, the Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) with DPF had increased from 0.016 to 0.030mg/kWh. Fluoranthene and Pyrene had the greatest decrease, 91.1% and 88.4% respectively. The increase of two- and three-ring PAHs with DPF indicates that the fuel-borne catalyst caused some gas-phase PAHs to adsorb on particles. The results of this study expand the knowledge of the effects of using a particulate filter and a Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst on diesel engine unregulated emissions.

  13. Unregulated emissions from diesel engine with particulate filter using Fe-based fuel borne catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Zhang, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jipeng; Tan, Jianwei; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-10-01

    The alteration and formation of toxic compounds and potential changes in the toxicity of emissions when using after-treatment technologies have gained wide attention. Volatile organic compound (VOC), carbonyl compound and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were tested at European Steady State Cycle (ESC) to study unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with a fuel-borne catalyst and diesel particulate filter (FBC-DPF). An Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst was used for this study. According to the results, brake specific emissions of total VOCs without and with DPF were 4.7 and 4.9mg/kWh, respectively, showing a 4.3% increase. Benzene and n-undecane emissions increased and toluene emission decreased, while other individual VOC emissions basically had no change. When retrofitted with the FBC-DPF, total carbonyl compound emission decreased 15.7%, from 25.8 to 21.8mg/kWh. The two highest carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were reduced from 20.0 and 3.7 to 16.5 and 3.3mg/kWh respectively. The specific reactivity (SR) with DPF was reduced from 6.68 to 6.64mg/kWh. Total particle-phase PAH emissions decreased 66.4% with DPF compared to that without DPF. However, the Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) with DPF had increased from 0.016 to 0.030mg/kWh. Fluoranthene and Pyrene had the greatest decrease, 91.1% and 88.4% respectively. The increase of two- and three-ring PAHs with DPF indicates that the fuel-borne catalyst caused some gas-phase PAHs to adsorb on particles. The results of this study expand the knowledge of the effects of using a particulate filter and a Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst on diesel engine unregulated emissions. PMID:25288546

  14. In-situ Characterization of Gas Phase Organic Emissions from a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Sappok, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Jayne, J.; Wong, V. W.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    With volatilities slightly lower than VOCs, intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs; e.g. C13-C20 n-alkanes) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs; e.g. C21-C32 n-alkanes) comprise an important, largely unmeasured part of the organic carbon emission profile of a diesel engine. Similar to VOCs, I/SVOCs have important impacts on air quality and climate, serving as precursor species to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but a detailed understanding of SOA formation from I/SVOCs remains incomplete due to a lack of fast, reliable measurement techniques that target I/SVOCs. This paper presents experimental results obtained with a recently developed technique that combines cryogenic collection and electron-impact, high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry to enable fast, quantitative, volatility-resolved, bulk characterization of I/SVOCs. In this experiment, I/SVOC tailpipe emissions from a Cummins (5.9 L) 2002 ISB 300 engine were measured as a function of engine speed and load during steady-state and transient conditions, including numerous cold starts. Analysis of the high resolution mass spectra reveal evolving hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon signatures as a function of engine block temperature and engine load. The exhaust sampling apparatus included the ability to test different emission control technologies. For a subset of tests, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) was integrated into the exhaust system to characterize post-DPF I/SVOC emissions during soot loading and DPF-regeneration cycles.

  15. Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NOx (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NOx, our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions. PMID:24144266

  16. Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2013-11-19

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

  17. Modeling the effects of late cycle oxygen enrichment on diesel engine combustion and emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, D. K.; Foster, D. E.; Poola, R. B.; Longman, D. E.; Chanda, A.; Vachon, T. J.

    2002-02-28

    A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NO{sub x} emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NO{sub x} emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NO{sub x} through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing. These studies have shown that this window occurs during the late combustion cycle, from 20 to 60 crank angle degrees after top-dead-center. During this time, the combustion chamber temperatures are sufficiently high that soot oxidation increases in response in increased mixing, but the temperature is low enough that NO{sub x} reactions are quenched. The effect of the oxygen composition of the injected air is studied for the range of compositions between 21% and 30% oxygen by volume. This is the range of oxygen enrichment that is practical to produce from an air separation membrane. Simulations showed that this level of oxygen enrichment is insufficient to provide an additional benefit by either increasing the level of soot oxidation or prolonging the window of opportunity for increasing soot oxidation through enhanced mixing.

  18. Development and applications of various optimization algorithms for diesel engine combustion and emissions optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogren, Ryan M.

    For this work, Hybrid PSO-GA and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization (ABC) algorithms are applied to the optimization of experimental diesel engine performance, to meet Environmental Protection Agency, off-road, diesel engine standards. This work is the first to apply ABC optimization to experimental engine testing. All trials were conducted at partial load on a four-cylinder, turbocharged, John Deere engine using neat-Biodiesel for PSO-GA and regular pump diesel for ABC. Key variables were altered throughout the experiments, including, fuel pressure, intake gas temperature, exhaust gas recirculation flow, fuel injection quantity for two injections, pilot injection timing and main injection timing. Both forms of optimization proved effective for optimizing engine operation. The PSO-GA hybrid was able to find a superior solution to that of ABC within fewer engine runs. Both solutions call for high exhaust gas recirculation to reduce oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions while also moving pilot and main fuel injections to near top dead center for improved tradeoffs between NOx and particulate matter.

  19. Emission comparison of urban bus engine fueled with diesel oil and 'biodiesel' blend.

    PubMed

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara L; Conti, Luigi; Crebelli, Riccardo; De Berardis, Barbara; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Gambino, Michele; Iannaccone, Sabato

    2004-07-01

    The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from an urban bus engine fueled with diesel and biodiesel blend were studied. Exhaust gases were produced by a turbocharged EURO 2 heavy-duty diesel engine, operating in steady-state conditions on the European test 13 mode cycle (ECE R49). Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs), carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) was also evaluated. The use of biodiesel blend seems to result in small reductions of emissions of most of the aromatic and polyaromatic compounds; these differences, however, have no statistical significance at 95% confidence level. Formaldehyde, on the other hand, has a statistically significant increase of 18% with biodiesel blend. In vitro toxicological assays show an overall similar mutagenic potency and genotoxic profile for diesel and biodiesel blend emissions. The electron microscopy analysis indicates that PM for both fuels has the same chemical composition, morphology, shape and granulometric spectrum, with most of the particles in the range 0.06-0.3 microm. PMID:15172578

  20. Testing of a heavy heavy-duty diesel engine schedule for representative measurement of emissions.

    PubMed

    Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; Zhen, Feng; Atkinson, Richard J; McKain, David L

    2009-08-01

    The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) program required the use of representative heavy-duty diesel engine activity. This need resulted in an engine test schedule creation program, and a schedule of engine modes representative of modern truck usage was developed based on data collected from engines in trucks operated through the heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) chassis schedule. The ACES test schedule included four active modes of truck operation including creep, transient, cruise, and high-speed cruise (HHDDT_S). This paper focuses on Phase 2 of the program, which was to validate and demonstrate the use of the ACES modes in a test cell. Preliminary testing was performed using a 1992 Detroit Diesel Corporation heavy heavy-duty diesel engine (HHDDE) on only the transient mode. On the basis of these results, each mode was modified slightly to suit implementation in a test cell. The locations of "closed throttle" points in the modes were determined through careful examination of the data. These closed throttle points were simulated during testing by adding negative set point torque values to the input file. After modification, all modes were tested during a final ACES modes demonstration period using a 2004 Cummins ISM HHDDE, obtaining three runs for each mode. During testing, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were measured, and engine control unit (ECU) data were recorded. The new ACES modes did not adopt the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) regression criteria. New regression criteria for acceptability of a run were determined for each mode using the data obtained during testing.

  1. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  2. Emissions factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Matthias, V.

    2015-09-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbor districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel engine power offshore vessels in China were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emissions factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emissions factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low engine power vessel than for the two higher engine power vessels. Fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low engine power engineering vessel were significantly higher than that of the previous studies, while for the two higher engine power vessels, the fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies. The fuel-based average emissions factor for nitrogen oxides for the small engine power vessel was more than twice the International Maritime Organization standard, while those for the other two vessels were below the standard. Emissions factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. Best-fit engine speeds

  3. Biological activity of particle exhaust emissions from light-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Carraro, E; Locatelli, A L; Ferrero, C; Fea, E; Gilli, G

    1997-01-01

    Whole diesel exhaust has been classified recently as a probable carcinogen, and several genotoxicity studies have found particulate exhaust to be clearly mutagenic. Moreover, genotoxicity of diesel particulate is greatly influenced by fuel nature and type of combustion. In order to obtain an effective environmental pollution control, combustion processes using alternative fuels are being analyzed presently. The goal of this study is to determine whether the installation of exhaust after treatment-devices on two light-duty, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve-equipped diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) can reduce the mutagenicity associated with particles collected during U.S.A. and European driving cycles. Another interesting object was to compare the ability of alternative biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels to reduce the mutagenic activity associated with collected particles from two light duty diesel engines (both 1930 cc) during the European driving cycle. SOF mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella/microsome test (TA 98 and TA 100 strains, +/- S9 fraction). In the first part of our study, the highest mutagenicity was revealed by TA98 strain without enzymatic activation, suggesting a direct-acting mutagenicity prevalence in diesel particulate. The 2500 cc engine revealed twofold mutagenic activity compared with the 1930 cc engine (both EGR valve equipped), whereas an opposite result was found in particulate matter amount. The use of a noncatalytic ceramic trap produced a decrease of particle mutagenic activity in the 2500 cc car, whereas an enhancement in the 1930 cc engine was found. The catalytic converter and the electrostatic filter installed on the 2500 cc engine yielded a light particle amount and an SOF mutagenicity decrease. A greater engine stress was obtained using European driving cycles, which caused the strongest mutagenicity/km compared with the U.S.A. cycles. In the second part of the investigation, even though a small number of

  4. Biological activity of particle exhaust emissions from light-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Carraro, E; Locatelli, A L; Ferrero, C; Fea, E; Gilli, G

    1997-01-01

    Whole diesel exhaust has been classified recently as a probable carcinogen, and several genotoxicity studies have found particulate exhaust to be clearly mutagenic. Moreover, genotoxicity of diesel particulate is greatly influenced by fuel nature and type of combustion. In order to obtain an effective environmental pollution control, combustion processes using alternative fuels are being analyzed presently. The goal of this study is to determine whether the installation of exhaust after treatment-devices on two light-duty, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve-equipped diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) can reduce the mutagenicity associated with particles collected during U.S.A. and European driving cycles. Another interesting object was to compare the ability of alternative biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels to reduce the mutagenic activity associated with collected particles from two light duty diesel engines (both 1930 cc) during the European driving cycle. SOF mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella/microsome test (TA 98 and TA 100 strains, +/- S9 fraction). In the first part of our study, the highest mutagenicity was revealed by TA98 strain without enzymatic activation, suggesting a direct-acting mutagenicity prevalence in diesel particulate. The 2500 cc engine revealed twofold mutagenic activity compared with the 1930 cc engine (both EGR valve equipped), whereas an opposite result was found in particulate matter amount. The use of a noncatalytic ceramic trap produced a decrease of particle mutagenic activity in the 2500 cc car, whereas an enhancement in the 1930 cc engine was found. The catalytic converter and the electrostatic filter installed on the 2500 cc engine yielded a light particle amount and an SOF mutagenicity decrease. A greater engine stress was obtained using European driving cycles, which caused the strongest mutagenicity/km compared with the U.S.A. cycles. In the second part of the investigation, even though a small number of

  5. Acute effects of diesel emission from the urea selective catalytic reduction engine system on male rats.

    PubMed

    Tsukue, Naomi; Kato, Atsunaka; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Gen; Nakajima, Toru

    2010-03-01

    Short-term inhalation experiments were performed using Fischer 344 rats exposed to emission from the urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) diesel engine system to identify health effects and compare them to those of the conventional diesel engine system. Rats were exposed to high-, middle-, or low-concentration emission (dilution ratio 1:29, 1:290, or 1:580) or clean air (control) for 1, 3, or 7 days (6 h/day), under driving conditions at a speed of 1320 rpm and a torque of 840 Nm. For the high-concentration group, the major components of the urea SCR emission were 0.04 mg/m(3) particulate matter (PM) and 0.78 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)); those of the conventional emission were 0.95 mg/m(3) PM and 0.31 ppm NO(2). The authors evaluated the respiratory effects of each emission on rats. Lymphocytes for 3-day exposure of both emissions significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but there were slight differences. With an increase in potential antioxidant (PAO), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine for the urea SCR emission was significantly decreased, but that of the conventional emission was highest among all groups and did not show a response to PAO. In lungs, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expressions for the urea SCR emission showed a tendency to increase compared to those of the conventional emission. Thus, gene analysis results suggested that NO(2) from the urea SCR emission affected the expressions of mRNAs in lungs. However, as a whole, the results suggested that the health effects of the urea SCR emission might be less than the conventional emission on rats.

  6. Combined Catalyzed Soot Filter and SCR Catalyst System for Diesel Engine Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.

    2000-08-20

    Substantially reduces particulate emission for diesel vehicles Up to 90% effective against carbonaceous particulate matter Significantly reduces CO and HC Filter regenerates at normal diesel operation temperatures Removable design for easy cleaning and maintenance.

  7. A study on emission performance of a diesel engine fueled with five typical methyl ester biodiesels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fujia; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Wenmiao; Shuai, Shijin

    As an alternative and renewable fuel, biodiesel can effectively reduce diesel engine emissions, especially particulate matter and dry soot. However, the biodiesel effects on emissions may vary as the source fuel changes. In this paper, the performance of five methyl esters with different sources was studied: cottonseed methyl ester (CME), soybean methyl ester (SME), rapeseed methyl ester (RME), palm oil methyl ester (PME) and waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME). Total particulate matter (PM), dry soot (DS), non-soot fraction (NSF), nitrogen oxide (NO x), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) were investigated on a Cummins ISBe6 Euro III diesel engine and compared with a baseline diesel fuel. Results show that using different methyl esters results in large PM reductions ranging from 53% to 69%, which include the DS reduction ranging from 79% to 83%. Both oxygen content and viscosity could influence the DS emission. Higher oxygen content leads to less DS at high load while lower viscosity results in less DS at low load. NSF decreases consistently as cetane number increases except for PME. The cetane number could be responsible for the large NSF difference between different methyl esters.

  8. Performance and emissions characteristics of aqueous alcohol fumes in a DI diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisey, J. B.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A single cylinder DI Diesel engine was fumigated with ethanol and methanol in amounts up to 55% of the total fuel energy. The effects of aqueous alcohol fumigation on engine thermal efficiency, combustion intensity and gaseous exhaust emissions were determined. Assessment of changes in the biological activity of raw particulate and its soluble organic fraction were also made using the Salmonella typhimurium test. Alcohol fumigation improved thermal efficiency slightly at moderate and heavy loads, but increased ignition delay at all operating conditions. Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission generally increased with alcohol fumigation and showed no dependence on alcohol type or quality. Oxide of nitrogen emission showed a strong dependence on alcohol quality; relative emission levels decreased with increasing water content of the fumigant. Particulate mass loading rates were lower for ethanol fueled conditions. However, the biological activity of both the raw particulate and its soluble organic fraction was enhanced by ethanol fumigation at most operating conditions.

  9. Study of CNG/diesel dual fuel engine's emissions by means of RBF neural network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-tao; Fei, Shao-mei

    2004-08-01

    Great efforts have been made to resolve the serious environmental pollution and inevitable declining of energy resources. A review of Chinese fuel reserves and engine technology showed that compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual fuel engine (DFE) was one of the best solutions for the above problems at present. In order to study and improve the emission performance of CNG/diesel DFE, an emission model for DFE based on radial basis function (RBF) neural network was developed which was a black-box input-output training data model not require priori knowledge. The RBF centers and the connected weights could be selected automatically according to the distribution of the training data in input-output space and the given approximating error. Studies showed that the predicted results accorded well with the experimental data over a large range of operating conditions from low load to high load. The developed emissions model based on the RBF neural network could be used to successfully predict and optimize the emissions performance of DFE. And the effect of the DFEmain performance parameters, such as rotation speed, load, pilot quantity and injection timing, were also predicted by means of this model. In resumé, an emission prediction model for CNG/diesel DFE based on RBF neural network was built for analyzing the effect of the main performance parameters on the CO, NOx, emissions of DFE. The predicted results agreed quite well with the traditional emissions model, which indicated that the model had certain application value, although it still has some limitations, because of its high dependence on the quantity of the experimental sample data.

  10. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel.

  11. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. PMID:27350999

  12. Biodiesel Emissions Testing with a Modern Diesel Engine - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-399

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the emissions and performance impact of biodiesel in a modern diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter. This testing is in support of the Non-Petroleum Based Fuels (NPBF) 2010 Annual Operating Plan (AOP).

  13. Emissions from diesel versus biodiesel fuel used in a CRDI SUV engine: PM mass and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Gangwar, Jitendra; Gupta, Tarun; Gupta, Sudhir; Agarwal, Avinash K

    2011-07-01

    The diesel tailpipe emissions typically undergo substantial physical and chemical transformations while traveling through the tailpipe, which tend to modify the original characteristics of the diesel exhaust. Most of the health-related attention for diesel exhaust has focused on the carcinogenic potential of inhaled exhaust components, particularly the highly respirable diesel particulate matter (DPM). In the current study, parametric investigations were made using a modern automotive common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) diesel engine operated at different loads at constant engine speed (2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend on a 47-mm quartz substrate. This was followed by chemical analysis of the particulates collected on the substrate for benzene-soluble organic fraction (BSOF) (marker of toxicity). BSOF results showed decrease in its level with increasing engine load for both diesel and biodiesel. In addition, real-time measurements for organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (marker of toxicity) were carried out on the diluted primary exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. PAH concentrations were found to be the maximum at 20% rated engine load for both the fuels. The collected particulates from diesel and biodiesel-blend exhaust were also analyzed for concentration of trace metals (marker of toxicity), which revealed some interesting results.

  14. Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zuohua

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. Biodiesel used in this study was converted from waste cooking oil. The following results are obtained with an increase of biodiesel in the fuel. The brake specific fuel consumption and the brake thermal efficiency increase. The HC and CO emissions decrease while NO(x) and NO(2) emissions increase. The smoke opacity and particulate mass concentrations reduce significantly at high engine load. In addition, for submicron particles, the geometry mean diameter of the particles becomes smaller while the total number concentration increases. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, generally, the emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. The results indicate that the combination of ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel from waste cooking oil gives similar results to those in the literature using higher sulfur diesel fuels and biodiesel from other sources.

  15. Conventional engine technology. Volume 2: Status of diesel engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The engines of diesel cars marketed in the United States were examined. Prominent design features, performance characteristics, fuel economy and emissions data were compared. Specific problems, in particular those of NO and smoke emissions, the effects of increasing dieselization on diesel fuel price and availability, current R&D work and advanced diesel concepts are discussed. Diesel cars currently have a fuel economy advantage over gasoline engine powered cars. Diesel drawbacks (noise and odor) were reduced to a less objectionable level. An equivalent gasoline engine driveability was obtained with turbocharging. Diesel manufacturers see a growth in the diesel market for the next ten years. Uncertainties regarding future emission regulation may inhibit future diesel production investments. With spark ignition engine technology advancing in the direction of high compression ratios, the fuel economy advantages of the diesel car is expected to diminish. To return its fuel economy lead, the diesel's potential for future improvement must be used.

  16. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE NOX EMISSIONS USING ETHANOL AS A REDUCTANT

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M; Thomas, J; Lewis, S; Storey, J; Domingo, N; Graves, R Panov, A

    2003-08-24

    NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400 C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.

  17. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.; Northrop, William F.; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Assanis, Dennis N.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  18. Effect of compression ratio on the performance, combustion and emission from a diesel engine using palm biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Ambarish; Mandal, Bijan Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The authors have simulated a single cylinder diesel engine using Diesel-RK software to investigate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the engine using palm biodiesel and petro-diesel. The simulation has been carried out for three compression ratios of 16, 17 and 18 at constant speed of 1500 rpm. The analysis of simulation results show that brake thermal efficiency decreases and brake specific fuel consumption increases with the use of palm biodiesel instead of diesel. The thermal efficiency increases and the brake specific fuel consumption decreases with the increase of compression ratio. The higher compression ratio results in higher in-cylinder pressure and higher heat release rate as well as lower ignition delay. The NOx and CO2 emissions increase at higher compression ratio due to the higher pressure and temperature. On the other hand, the specific PM emission and smoke opacity are less at higher compression ratio.

  19. Development and application of a mobile laboratory for measuring emissions from diesel engines. 1. Regulated gaseous emissions.

    PubMed

    Cocker, David R; Shah, Sandip D; Johnson, Kent; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-04-01

    Information about in-use emissions from diesel engines remains a critical issue for inventory development and policy design. Toward that end, we have developed and verified the first mobile laboratory that measures on-road or real-world emissions from engines at the quality level specified in the U.S. Congress Code of Federal Regulations. This unique mobile laboratory provides information on integrated and modal regulated gaseous emission rates and integrated emission rates for speciated volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and particulate matter during real-world operation. Total emissions are captured and collected from the HDD vehicle that is pulling the mobile laboratory. While primarily intended to accumulate data from HDD vehicles, it may also be used to measure emission rates from stationary diesel sources such as back-up generators. This paper describes the development of the mobile laboratory, its measurement capabilities, and the verification process and provides the first data on total capture gaseous on-road emission measurements following the California Air Resources Board (ARB) 4-mode driving cycle, the hot urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS), the modified 5-mode cycle, and a 53.2-mi highway chase experiment. NOx mass emission rates (g mi(-1)) for the ARB 4-mode driving cycle, the hot UDDS driving cycle, and the chase experimentwerefoundto exceed current emission factor estimates for the engine type tested by approximately 50%. It was determined that congested traffic flow as well as "off-Federal Test Procedure cycle" emissions can lead to significant increases in per mile NOx emission rates for HDD vehicles. PMID:15112823

  20. Indirect measurement of cylinder pressure from diesel engines using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamry, M.; Steel, J. A.; Reuben, R. L.; Fog, T. L.

    2005-07-01

    Indirect measurement of the cylinder pressure from diesel engines is possible using acoustic emission (AE). A method is demonstrated for a large two-stroke marine diesel engine and a small four-stroke diesel engine, which involves reconstructing the cylinder crank angle domain diagram from the AE generated during the combustion phase. Raw AE was used for modelling and reconstructing the pressure waveform in the time domain but this could not be used to model the pressure rise (compression). To overcome this problem the signal was divided into two sections representing the compression part of the signal and the fuel injection/expansion stroke. The compression part of the pressure signal was reconstructed by using polynomial fitting. An auto-regressive technique was used during the injection/expansion stroke. The rms AE signal is well correlated with the pressure signal in the time and frequency domain and complex cepstrum analysis was used to model the pressure signal for the complete combustion phase (compression, injection and expansion). The main advantage of using cepstral analysis is that the model uses the frequency content of the rms AE signal rather than the energy content of the rms AE signal, which gives an advantage when the signal has lower energy content, during the compression process. By calculating the engine running speed from the rms AE signal and selecting the proper cepstrum model correlated to the combustion rms AE energy content, an analytical algorithm was developed to give a wide range of applicability over the different conditions of engine speed, engine type and load. The pressure reconstructed from both AE and acceleration data are compared. AE has the advantage of a much higher signal-to-noise ratio and improved time resolution and is shown to be better than the acceleration.

  1. Toxicological characterization of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and a closed soot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooter, Ingeborg M.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Jedynska, Aleksandra D.; Tromp, Peter C.; Houtzager, Marc M. G.; Verbeek, Ruud P.; Kadijk, Gerrit; Mulderij, Mariska; Krul, Cyrille A. M.

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the toxicity (oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity) in extracts of combustion aerosols. A typical Euro III heavy truck engine was tested over the European Transient Cycle with three different fuels: conventional diesel EN590, biodiesel EN14214 as B100 and blends with conventional diesel (B5, B10, and B20) and pure plant oil DIN51605 (PPO). In addition application of a (wall flow) diesel particulate filter (DPF) with conventional diesel EN590 was tested. The use of B100 or PPO as a fuel or the DPF reduced particulate matter (PM) mass and numbers over 80%. Similarly, significant reduction in the emission of chemical constituents (EC 90%, (oxy)-PAH 70%) were achieved. No significant changes in nitro-PAH were observed. The use of B100 or PPO led to a NOx increase of about 30%, and no increase for DPF application. The effects of B100, PPO and the DPF on the biological test results vary strongly from positive to negative depending on the biological end point. The oxidative potential, measured via the DTT assay, of the B100 and PPO or DPF emissions is reduced by 95%. The cytotoxicity is increased for B100 by 200%. The measured mutagenicity, using the Ames assay test with TA98 and YG1024 strains of Salmonella typhimurium indicate a dose response for the nitroarene sensitive YG1024 strain for B100 and PPO (fold induction: 1.6). In summary B100 and PPO have good potential for the use as a second generation biofuel resulting in lower PM mass, similar to application of a DPF, but caution should be made due to potential increased toxicity. Besides regulation via mass, the biological reactivity of exhaust emissions of new (bio)fuels and application of new technologies, needs attention. The different responses of different biological tests as well as differences in results between test laboratories underline the need for harmonization of test methods and international cooperation.

  2. Durability, Performance, and Emission of Diesel Engines Using Carbon Fiber Piston and Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afify, E. M.; Roberts, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted by NC State University in investigating the durability, performance and emission of a carbon fiber piston and liner in our single cylinder research Diesel engine. Both the piston and liner were supplied to NC State University by NASA LaRC and manufactured by C-CAT under a separate contract to NASA LaRC. The carbon-carbon material used to manufacture the piston and liner has significantly lower thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and superior strength characteristics at elevated temperatures when compared to conventional piston materials such as aluminum. The results of the carbon-carbon fiber piston testing were compared to a baseline configuration, which used a conventional aluminum piston in a steel liner. The parameters measured were the brake specific fuel consumption, ignition delay, frictional horsepower, volumetric efficiency, and durability characteristics of the two pistons. Testing was performed using a naturally aspirated Labeco Direct Injection single cylinder diesel engine. Two test cases were performed over a range of loads and speeds. The fixed test condition between the aluminum and carbon-carbon piston configurations was the brake mean effective pressure. The measured data was the fuel consumption rate, volumetric efficiency, load, speed, cylinder pressure, needle lift, and exhaust gas temperature. The cylinder pressure, and fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, and needle lift were recorded using a National Instruments DAQ board and a PC. All test cases used Diesel no. 2 for fuel.

  3. Emissions of particulate-bound elements from stationary diesel engine: Characterization and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the emissions of airborne particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines because of their close association with adverse health and environmental impacts. Among the alternative fuels being considered, biodiesel made by the transesterification of waste cooking oil has received wide attention in recent years because of its low cost and the added advantage of reducing waste oil disposal. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the particulate-bound elements emitted from ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel (B100) and a blend of both the fuels (B50). It was observed that the PM mass concentrations were reduced by about 36% when B100 was used. Crustal elements such as Mg, K and Al were found to be in higher concentrations compared to other elements emitted from both B100 and ULSD. Zn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Ba, K were found to be higher in the biodiesel exhaust while Co, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr, and As were found to be higher in the ULSD exhaust. To evaluate the potential health risk due to inhalation of PM emitted from diesel engines running on ULSD and B100, health risk estimates based on exposure and dose-response assessments of particulate-bound elements were calculated assuming exposure for 24 h. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to ULSD.

  4. An optimization study on the control of NOx and particulate emissions from diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, C.; Oey, F.; Levendis, Y.A.

    1996-09-01

    This is an optimization study on the use of filtered exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce the NO emissions of diesel engines. Control of the particulate emissions and provisions for filtered EGR were achieved by an Aerodynamically Regenerated Trap (ART) with collection efficiencies in the order of 99%. The amount of EGR was regulated to provide for substantial NO reduction, without unacceptably decreasing the thermal efficiency of the engine or increasing the CO emissions. EGR regulation was accomplished by monitoring the injection pump setting which was correlated to the fuel flow rate, the speed of the engine, the amount of EGR flow, and the ambient air temperature. Through these parameters, the mixture strength expressed as the equivalence ratio {phi} was calculated and related to the power output of the engine. Thus, a map of engine performance parameters was generated and related to measured NO and CO emissions. A series of road tests showed that EGR most effectively reduces NO emissions at high {phi}`s (by a factor of two at 20% EGR) which, however, is accompanied by an increase in CO emissions by a factor of two, and a penalty in fuel economy by 8%. Benefits and losses can be optimized by automatically varying the level of EGR, using feedback from the aforementioned engine parameters. An algorithm was developed to govern the electrically controlled EGR valve and tests showed that the NO levels decreased by 30%, while the CO increased by 30%, showing no penalty in fuel economy. The resulting specific NO and CO emissions were well within the current US EPA standards.

  5. Effect of open channel filter on particle emissions of modern diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Juha; Rönkkö, Topi; Lähde, Tero; Lemmetty, Mikko; Arffman, Anssi; Virtanen, Annele; Keskinen, Jorma; Pirjola, Liisa; Rothe, Dieter

    2009-10-01

    Particle emissions of modern diesel engines are of a particular interest because of their negative health effects. The special interest is in nanosized solid particles. The effect of an open channel filter on particle emissions of a modern heavy-duty diesel engine (MAN D2066 LF31, model year 2006) was studied. Here, the authors show that the open channel filter made from metal screen efficiently reduced the number of the smallest particles and, notably, the number and mass concentration of soot particles. The filter used in this study reached 78% particle mass reduction over the European Steady Cycle. Considering the size-segregated number concentration reduction, the collection efficiency was over 95% for particles smaller than 10 nm. The diffusion is the dominant collection mechanism in small particle sizes, thus the collection efficiency decreased as particle size increased, attaining 50% at 100 nm. The overall particle number reduction was 66-99%, and for accumulation-mode particles the number concentration reduction was 62-69%, both depending on the engine load.

  6. Emission profile of 18 carbonyl compounds, CO, CO 2, and NO x emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and ternary blends containing diesel, ethanol and biodiesel or vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; de Souza, Amanda Figueiredo; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    The impact of vehicular emissions on air depends, among other factors, on the composition of fuel and the technology used to build the engines. The reduction of vehicular emissions requires changes in the fuel composition, and improving the technologies used in the manufacturing of engines and for the after-treatment of gases. In general, improvements to diesel engines have targeted not only emission reductions, but also reductions in fuel consumption. However, changes in the fuel composition have been shown to be a more rapid and effective alternative to reduce pollution. Some factors should been taken into consideration when searching for an alternative fuel to be used in diesel engines, such as emissions, fuel stability, availability and its distribution, as well as its effects on the engine durability. In this work, 45 fuel blends were prepared and their stability was evaluated. The following mixtures (v/v/v) were stable for the 90-day period and were used in the emission study: diesel/ethanol - 90/10%, diesel/ethanol/soybean biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/castor biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/residual biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/soybean oil - 90/7/3%, and diesel/ethanol/castor oil - 90/7/3%. The diesel/ethanol fuel showed higher reduction of NO x emission at a lower load (2 kW) when compared with pure diesel. The other fuels showed a decrease of NO x emissions in the ranges of 6.9-75% and 4-85% at 1800 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. The combustion efficiencies of the diesel can be enhanced by the addition of the oxygenate fuels, like ethanol and biodiesel/vegetable oil, resulting in a more complete combustion in terms of NO x emission. In the case of CO 2 the decreases were in the ranges of 5-24% and 4-6% at 1800 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. Meanwhile, no differences were observed in CO emission. The carbonyl compounds (CC) studied were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde

  7. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  8. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitronaphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  9. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  10. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  11. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR 34594 (June 14, 2005). The program was amended in March 2008 to delay some of... Measurement Accuracy Margins for Portable Emission Measurement Systems and Program Revisions, 73 FR 13441... Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR...

  12. Emission reduction potential of using gas-to-liquid and dimethyl ether fuels on a turbocharged diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Xinling, Li; Zhen, Huang

    2009-03-15

    A study of engine performance characteristics and both of regulated (CO, HC, NO(x), and smoke) and unregulated (ultrafine particle number, mass concentrations and size distribution) emissions for a turbocharged diesel engine fueled with conventional diesel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels respectively at different engine loads and speeds have been carried out. The results indicated that fuel components significantly affected the engine performance and regulated/unregulated emissions. GTL exhibited almost the same power and torque output as diesel, while improved fuel economy. GTL significantly reduced regulated emissions with average reductions of 21.2% in CO, 15.7% in HC, 15.6% in NO(x) and 22.1% in smoke in comparison to diesel, as well as average reductions in unregulated emissions of total ultrafine particle number (N(tot)) and mass (M(tot)) emissions by 85.3% and 43.9%. DME can significantly increase torque and power, compared with the original diesel engine, as well as significantly reduced regulated emissions of 40.1% in HC, 48.2% in NO(x) and smoke free throughout all the engine conditions. However, N(tot) for DME is close to that for diesel. The reason is that the accumulation mode particle number emissions for DME are very low due to the characteristics of oxygen content and no C-C bond, which promotes the processes of nucleation and condensation of the semi-volatile compounds in the exhaust gas, as a result, a lot of nucleation mode particles produce. PMID:19106002

  13. Emission reduction potential of using gas-to-liquid and dimethyl ether fuels on a turbocharged diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Xinling, Li; Zhen, Huang

    2009-03-15

    A study of engine performance characteristics and both of regulated (CO, HC, NO(x), and smoke) and unregulated (ultrafine particle number, mass concentrations and size distribution) emissions for a turbocharged diesel engine fueled with conventional diesel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels respectively at different engine loads and speeds have been carried out. The results indicated that fuel components significantly affected the engine performance and regulated/unregulated emissions. GTL exhibited almost the same power and torque output as diesel, while improved fuel economy. GTL significantly reduced regulated emissions with average reductions of 21.2% in CO, 15.7% in HC, 15.6% in NO(x) and 22.1% in smoke in comparison to diesel, as well as average reductions in unregulated emissions of total ultrafine particle number (N(tot)) and mass (M(tot)) emissions by 85.3% and 43.9%. DME can significantly increase torque and power, compared with the original diesel engine, as well as significantly reduced regulated emissions of 40.1% in HC, 48.2% in NO(x) and smoke free throughout all the engine conditions. However, N(tot) for DME is close to that for diesel. The reason is that the accumulation mode particle number emissions for DME are very low due to the characteristics of oxygen content and no C-C bond, which promotes the processes of nucleation and condensation of the semi-volatile compounds in the exhaust gas, as a result, a lot of nucleation mode particles produce.

  14. Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel/methanol compound combustion engine with and without diesel oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Yao, C D

    2010-01-15

    The use of methanol in combination with diesel fuel is an effective measure to reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from in-use diesel vehicles. In this study, a diesel/methanol compound combustion (DMCC) scheme was proposed and a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine modified to operate on the proposed combustion scheme. The effect of DMCC and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the regulated emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), NOx and PM was investigated based on the Japanese 13 Mode test cycle. Certain unregulated emissions, including methane, ethyne, ethene, 1,3-butadiene, BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene), unburned methanol and formaldehyde were also evaluated based on the same test cycle. In addition, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) in the particulate and the particulate number concentration and size distribution were investigated at certain selected modes of operation. The results show that the DMCC scheme can effectively reduce NOx, particulate mass and number concentrations, ethyne, ethene and 1,3-butadiene emissions but significantly increase the emissions of THC, CO, NO(2), BTX, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, and the proportion of SOF in the particles. After the DOC, the emission of THC, CO, NO(2), as well as the unregulated gaseous emissions, can be significantly reduced when the exhaust gas temperature is sufficiently high while the particulate mass concentration is further reduced due to oxidation of the SOF. PMID:19919875

  15. The Influence of Light Weight Materials on Fuel Economy and Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Paul C.

    2000-08-20

    Technologies being developed that will allow for the substitution of aluminum for cast iron in engine heads and blocks, while maintaining performance and durability. Development of lightweight diesel engine technology: funded by NAVY, DOE and TACOM

  16. Effects of engine speed and accessory load on idling emissions from heavy-duty diesel truck engines.

    PubMed

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Dwyer, Harry A; Farshchi, Mohammad; Harris, D Bruce; King, Foy G

    2002-09-01

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them accurately, and little quantitative data exist to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various policies. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of accessory loading and engine speed on idling emissions from a properly functioning, modern, heavy-duty diesel truck and to compare these results with data from earlier model year vehicles. It was found that emissions during idling varied greatly as a function of engine model year, engine speed, and accessory load conditions. For the 1999 model year Class 8 truck tested, raising the engine speed from 600 to 1050 rpm and turning on the air conditioning resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in NOx emissions in grams per hour, a 2-fold increase in CO2 emissions, and a 5-fold increase in CO emissions while idling. On a grams per gallon fuel basis, NOx emissions while idling were approximately twice as high as those at 55 mph. The CO2 emissions at the two conditions were closer. The NOx emissions from the 1999 truck while idling with air conditioning running were slightly more than those of two 1990 model year trucks under equivalent conditions, and the hydrocarbon (HC) and CO emissions were significantly lower. It was found that the NOx emissions used in the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) EMFAC2000 and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) MOBILE5b emissions inventory models were lower than those measured in all of the idling conditions tested on the 1999 truck.

  17. Three-dimensional modeling of diesel engine intake flow, combustion and emissions-II

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, R.D.; Rutland, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    A three-dimensional computer code, KIVA, is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion. Improved and/or new submodels which have already been implemented and previously reported are: Wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo`vich NO{sub x}, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Progress on the implementation of improved spray drop drag and drop breakup models, the formulation and testing of a multistep kinetics ignition model and preliminary soot modeling results are described in this report. In addition, the use of a block structured version of KIVA to model the intake flow process is described. A grid generation scheme has been developed for modeling realistic (complex) engine geometries, and computations have been made of intake flow in the ports and combustion chamber of a two-intake-valve engine. The research also involves the use of the code to assess the effects of subprocesses on diesel engine performance. The accuracy of the predictions is being tested by comparisons with engine experiments. To date, comparisons have been made with measured engine cylinder pressure, temperature and heat flux data, and the model results are in good agreement with the experiments. Work is in progress that will allow validation of in-cylinder flow and soot formation predictions. An engine test facility is described that is being used to provide the needed validation data. Test results have been obtained showing the effect of injection rate and split injections on engine performance and emissions.

  18. Three-dimensional modeling of diesel engine intake flow, combustion and emissions-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitz, R. D.; Rutland, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional computer code, KIVA, is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion. Improved and/or new submodels which have already been implemented and previously reported are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NO(x), and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Progress on the implementation of improved spray drop drag and drop breakup models, the formulation and testing of a multistep kinetics ignition model, and preliminary soot modeling results are described. In addition, the use of a block structured version of KIVA to model the intake flow process is described. A grid generation scheme was developed for modeling realistic (complex) engine geometries, and computations were made of intake flow in the ports and combustion chamber of a two-intake-value engine. The research also involves the use of the code to assess the effects of subprocesses on diesel engine performance. The accuracy of the predictions is being tested by comparisons with engine experiments. To date, comparisons were made with measured engine cylinder pressure, temperature and heat flux data, and the model results are in good agreement with the experiments. Work is in progress that will allow validation of in-cylinder flow and soot formation predictions. An engine test facility is described that is being used to provide the needed validation data. Test results were obtained showing the effect of injection rate and split injections on engine performance and emissions.

  19. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels.

  20. Development of a heavy heavy-duty diesel engine schedule for representative measurement of emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Feng; Clark, Nigel N; Bedick, Clinton R; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-08-01

    The Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) has the objective of characterizing the emissions and assessing the possible health impacts of the 2007-2010 heavy-duty diesel engines and their control systems. The program seeks to examine emissions from engines operated in a realistic duty cycle and requires the development of an engine test schedule described in this paper. Field data on engine operation were available from Engine Control Unit (ECU) broadcasts from seven heavy heavy-duty trucks (HHDDT) tested during the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) E-55/59 study. These trucks were exercised at three weights (30,000 lb [13,610 kg], 56,000 lb [25,400 kg], and 66,000 lb [29,940 kg]) through four different active modes of a chassis test schedule that were developed from the data of in-use HHDDT operation in the state of California. The trucks were equipped with heavy-duty engines made by three major U.S. engine manufacturers with a range of model years from 1998 to 2003. This paper reports on the development of four engine test modes, termed creep, transient, cruise, and high-speed cruise (HHDDT_S), which correspond to the E-55/59 HHDDT chassis test modes. The creep and transient modes represent urban travel, and the cruise and HHDDT_S modes represent freeway operation. The test mode creation used the method of joining selected truck trips together while ensuring that they offered a reasonable statistical representation of the whole database by using a least-square errors method. Least-square errors between test modes and the database are less than 5%. The four test modes are presented in normalized engine

  1. Diesel fuel component contributions to engine emissions and performance: Clean fuel study

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulten, D.S.

    1994-08-01

    The emissions characteristics of diesel engines are dominated by current engine design parameters as long as the fuels conform to the current industry-accepted specifications. The current and future emissions standard, are low enough that the fuel properties and compositions are starting to play a more significant role in meeting the emerging standards. The potential role of the fuel composition has been recognized by state and federal government agencies, and for the first time, fuel specifications have become part of the emissions control legislation. In this work, five different fuel feed and blend stocks were hydrotreated to two levels of sulfur and aromatic content. These materials were then each distilled to seven or eight fractions of congruent boiling points. After this, the raw materials and all of the fractions were characterized by a complement of tests from American Society for Testing and Materials and by hydrocarbon-type analyses. The sample matrix was subjected to a series of combustion bomb and engine tests to determine the ignition, combustion, and emissions characteristics of each of the 80 test materials.

  2. An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

    2012-09-01

    Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

  3. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

    2003-01-31

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

  4. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A S; Rich, D; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A

    2002-12-06

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) 1600 m) used 100% biodiesel fuel (B100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C/ mg C. The C concentration of the exhaust C02 and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in I4C content in the PM is due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions. The slight depression in CO{sub 2} isotope content could be attributed to ambient CO{sub 2} levels and measurement uncertainty.

  5. Emission Characteristics and Egr Application of Blended Fuels with Bdf and Oxygenate (dmm) in a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    In this study, the possibility of biodiesel fuel and oxygenated fuel (dimethoxy methane ; DMM) was investigated as an alternative fuel for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The smoke emission of blending fuel (biodiesel fuel 90vol-% + DMM 10vol-%) was reduced approximately 70% at 2500rpm, full load in comparison with the diesel fuel. But, engine power and brake specific energy consumption showed no significant differences. But, NOx emission of biodiesel fuel and DMM blended fuel increased compared with commercial diesel fuel due to the oxygen component in the fuel. It was needed a NOx reduction counter plan that EGR method was used as a countermeasure for NOx reduction. It was found that simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emission was achieved with BDF (95 vol-%) and DMM (5 vol-%) blended fuel and cooled EGR method (15%).

  6. Application of hybrid evolutionary algorithms to low exhaust emission diesel engine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Obayashi, S.; Minemura, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid evolutionary algorithm, consisting of a genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is proposed. Generally, GAs maintain diverse solutions of good quality in multi-objective problems, while PSO shows fast convergence to the optimum solution. By coupling these algorithms, GA will compensate for the low diversity of PSO, while PSO will compensate for the high computational costs of GA. The hybrid algorithm was validated using standard test functions. The results showed that the hybrid algorithm has better performance than either a pure GA or pure PSO. The method was applied to an engineering design problem—the geometry of diesel engine combustion chamber reducing exhaust emissions such as NOx, soot and CO was optimized. The results demonstrated the usefulness of the present method to this engineering design problem. To identify the relation between exhaust emissions and combustion chamber geometry, data mining was performed with a self-organising map (SOM). The results indicate that the volume near the lower central part of the combustion chamber has a large effect on exhaust emissions and the optimum chamber geometry will vary depending on fuel injection angle.

  7. Improving the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine having reentrant combustion chamber using diesel and Jatropha methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Premnath, S; Devaradjane, G

    2015-11-01

    The emissions from the Compression ignition (CI) engines introduce toxicity to the atmosphere. The undesirable carbon deposits from these engines are realized in the nearby static or dynamic systems such as vehicles, inhabitants, etc. The objective of this research work is to improve the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine in the modified re-entrant combustion chamber using a diesel and Jatropha methyl ester blend (J20) at three different injection pressures. From the literature, it is revealed that the shape of the combustion chamber and the fuel injection pressure have an impact on the performance and emission parameters of the CI engine. In this work, a re-entrant combustion chamber with three different fuel injection pressures (200, 220 and 240bars) has been used in the place of the conventional hemispherical combustion chamber for diesel and J20. From the experimental results, it is found that the re-entrant chamber improves the brake thermal efficiency of diesel and J20 in all the tested conditions. It is also found that the 20% blend of Jatropha methyl ester showed 4% improvement in the brake thermal efficiency in the re-entrant chamber at the maximum injection pressure. Environmental safety directly relates to the reduction in the undesirable effects on both living and non-living things. Currently environmental pollution is of major concern. Even with the stringent emission norms new methods are required to reduce the harmful effects from automobiles. The toxicity of carbon monoxide (CO) is well known. In the re-entrant combustion chamber, the amount of CO emission is reduced by 26% when compared with the conventional fuel operation of the engine. Moreover, the amount of smoke is reduced by 24% and hydrocarbons (HC) emission by 24%. Thus, the modified re-entrant combustion chamber reduces harmful pollutants such as unburned HC and CO as well as toxic smoke emissions.

  8. Improving the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine having reentrant combustion chamber using diesel and Jatropha methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Premnath, S; Devaradjane, G

    2015-11-01

    The emissions from the Compression ignition (CI) engines introduce toxicity to the atmosphere. The undesirable carbon deposits from these engines are realized in the nearby static or dynamic systems such as vehicles, inhabitants, etc. The objective of this research work is to improve the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine in the modified re-entrant combustion chamber using a diesel and Jatropha methyl ester blend (J20) at three different injection pressures. From the literature, it is revealed that the shape of the combustion chamber and the fuel injection pressure have an impact on the performance and emission parameters of the CI engine. In this work, a re-entrant combustion chamber with three different fuel injection pressures (200, 220 and 240bars) has been used in the place of the conventional hemispherical combustion chamber for diesel and J20. From the experimental results, it is found that the re-entrant chamber improves the brake thermal efficiency of diesel and J20 in all the tested conditions. It is also found that the 20% blend of Jatropha methyl ester showed 4% improvement in the brake thermal efficiency in the re-entrant chamber at the maximum injection pressure. Environmental safety directly relates to the reduction in the undesirable effects on both living and non-living things. Currently environmental pollution is of major concern. Even with the stringent emission norms new methods are required to reduce the harmful effects from automobiles. The toxicity of carbon monoxide (CO) is well known. In the re-entrant combustion chamber, the amount of CO emission is reduced by 26% when compared with the conventional fuel operation of the engine. Moreover, the amount of smoke is reduced by 24% and hydrocarbons (HC) emission by 24%. Thus, the modified re-entrant combustion chamber reduces harmful pollutants such as unburned HC and CO as well as toxic smoke emissions. PMID:26256249

  9. Size distribution of EC, OC and particle-phase PAHs emissions from a diesel engine fueled with three fuels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tian; Huang, Zhen; Cheung, C S; Ma, Jing

    2012-11-01

    The size distribution of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and particle-phase PAHs emission from a direct injection diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking biodiesel, ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD, 10-ppm-wt), and low sulfur diesel (LSD, 400-ppm-wt) were investigated experimentally. The emission factor of biodiesel EC is 90.6 mg/kh, which decreases by 60.3 and 71.7%, compared with ULSD and LSD respectively and the mass mean diameter (MMD) of EC was also decreased with the use of biodiesel. The effect of biodiesel on OC emission might depend on the engine operation condition, and the difference in OC size distribution is not that significant among the three fuels. For biodiesel, its brake specific emission of particle-phase PAHs is obviously smaller than that from the two diesel fuels, and the reduction effect appears in almost all size ranges. In terms of size distribution, the MMD of PAHs from biodiesel is larger than that from the two diesel fuels, which could be attributed to the more effective reduction on combustion derived PAHs in nuclei mode. The toxicity analysis indicates that biodiesel could reduce the total PAHs emissions, as well as the carcinogenic potency of particle-phase PAHs in almost all the size ranges.

  10. Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-11-01

    The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits.

  11. 75 FR 68575 - Revisions To In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...: In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR 34594 (June 14, 2005). The program... Measurement Systems and Program Revisions, 73 FR 13441 (March 13, 2008). The in-use testing program began with... Vehicles,'' 70 FR 34624 (June 14, 2005). 2. Particulate Matter Emission Measurement Margin for...

  12. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  13. In-situ monitoring of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elfed; Clifford, John; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Dooly, Gerard; Zhao, Weizhong; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken; Lucas, James; Degner, Martin; Ewald, Hartmut; Lochmann, Steffan; Bramann, Gero; Merlone-Borla, Edoardo; Gili, Flavio

    2011-05-01

    A robust optical fibre based CO2 exhaust gas sensor operating in the mid infrared spectral range is described. It is capable of detecting on board carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from both diesel and petrol engines. The optical fibre sensor is not cross sensitive to other gaseous species in the exhaust such as water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) or oxides of sulphur (SOx).The response of the sensor to carbon dioxide present in the exhaust of Fiat Croma diesel engine are presented.

  14. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Esra; Nash, David G; King, Charly; Krantz, Todd Q; Preston, William T; Kooter, Ingeborg M; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David; Linak, William P; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and animal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more limited. To this end, a program at the U.S. EPA assessed health effects of biodiesel emissions in rodent inhalation models. Commercially obtained soybean biodiesel (B100) and a 20% blend with petroleum diesel (B20) were compared to pure petroleum diesel (B0). Rats and mice were exposed independently for 4 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 6 weeks. Exposures were controlled by dilution air to obtain low (50 µg/m(3)), medium (150 µg/m(3)) and high (500 µg/m(3)) diesel particulate mass (PM) concentrations, and compared to filtered air. This article provides details on facilities, fuels, operating conditions, emission factors and physico-chemical characteristics of the emissions used for inhalation exposures and in vitro studies. Initial engine exhaust PM concentrations for the B100 fuel (19.7 ± 0.7 mg/m(3)) were 30% lower than those of the B0 fuel (28.0 ± 1.5 mg/m(3)). When emissions were diluted with air to control equivalent PM mass concentrations, B0 exposures had higher CO and slightly lower NO concentrations than B100. Organic/elemental carbon ratios and oxygenated methyl esters and organic acids were higher for the B100 than B0. Both the B0 and B100 fuels produced unimodal-accumulation mode particle-size distributions, with B0 producing lower concentrations of slightly larger particles. Subsequent papers in this series will describe the effects of these atmospheres on cardiopulmonary responses and in vitro genotoxicity studies.

  15. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Esra; Nash, David G; King, Charly; Krantz, Todd Q; Preston, William T; Kooter, Ingeborg M; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David; Linak, William P; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and animal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more limited. To this end, a program at the U.S. EPA assessed health effects of biodiesel emissions in rodent inhalation models. Commercially obtained soybean biodiesel (B100) and a 20% blend with petroleum diesel (B20) were compared to pure petroleum diesel (B0). Rats and mice were exposed independently for 4 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 6 weeks. Exposures were controlled by dilution air to obtain low (50 µg/m(3)), medium (150 µg/m(3)) and high (500 µg/m(3)) diesel particulate mass (PM) concentrations, and compared to filtered air. This article provides details on facilities, fuels, operating conditions, emission factors and physico-chemical characteristics of the emissions used for inhalation exposures and in vitro studies. Initial engine exhaust PM concentrations for the B100 fuel (19.7 ± 0.7 mg/m(3)) were 30% lower than those of the B0 fuel (28.0 ± 1.5 mg/m(3)). When emissions were diluted with air to control equivalent PM mass concentrations, B0 exposures had higher CO and slightly lower NO concentrations than B100. Organic/elemental carbon ratios and oxygenated methyl esters and organic acids were higher for the B100 than B0. Both the B0 and B100 fuels produced unimodal-accumulation mode particle-size distributions, with B0 producing lower concentrations of slightly larger particles. Subsequent papers in this series will describe the effects of these atmospheres on cardiopulmonary responses and in vitro genotoxicity studies. PMID:26514780

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their genotoxicity in exhaust emissions from a diesel engine during extended low-load operation on diesel and biodiesel fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Pechout, Martin; Dittrich, Luboš; Beránek, Vít; Kotek, Martin; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Milcová, Alena; Rossnerová, Andrea; Ambrož, Antonín; Topinka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the effects of emissions including carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAH) of a conventional diesel engine without a particle filter. Experiments were carried on during extended idle and during a loaded operation immediately following the extended idle. Extended low-load operation of diesel engines due to idling and creep at border crossings, loading areas and in severe congestion has been known to deteriorate the combustion and catalytic device performance and to increase the emissions of particulate matter (PM). A conventional diesel engine was coupled to a dynamometer and operated on diesel fuel and neat biodiesel alternately at idle speed and 2% of rated power and at 30% and 100% load at intermediate speed. Exhaust was sampled on fiber filters, from which the content of elemental and organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including cPAH and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been determined. The emissions of cPAH and B[a]P have increased 4-6 times on diesel fuel and by 4-21% on biodiesel during extended idling relative to a short idle and 8-12 times on diesel fuel and 2-20 times on biodiesel during subsequent operation at full load relative to stabilized operation at full load. The total "excess" cPAH emissions after the transition to full load were on the same order of magnitude as the total "excess" cPAH during extended idling. The absolute levels of PAH, cPAH and B[a]P emissions under all operating conditions were lower on biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. Genotoxicity of organic extracts of particles was analysed by acellular assay with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and was consistently higher for diesel than for biodiesel. The exhaust generated during extended idle and subsequent full load exhibited the highest genotoxicity for both fuels. These two regimes are characterized by significant formation of cPAH as well as other DNA reactive compounds substantially contributing to the total genotoxicity. Oxidative

  17. The effect of insulated combustion chamber surfaces on direct-injected diesel engine performance, emissions, and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Daniel W.; Vinyard, Shannon; Keribar, Rifat

    1988-01-01

    The combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine was insulated with ceramic coatings to determine the effect of low heat rejection (LHR) operation on engine performance, emissions, and combustion. In comparison to the baseline cooled engine, the LHR engine had lower thermal efficiency, with higher smoke, particulate, and full load carbon monoxide emissions. The unburned hydrocarbon emissions were reduced across the load range. The nitrous oxide emissions increased at some part-load conditions and were reduced slightly at full loads. The poor LHR engine performance was attributed to degraded combustion characterized by less premixed burning, lower heat release rates, and longer combustion duration compared to the baseline cooled engine.

  18. Investigation on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethyl carbonate blends.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C S; Zhu, Ruijun; Huang, Zuohua

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a diesel engine was investigated using Euro V diesel fuel blended with different proportions of DMC. Combustion analysis shows that, with the blended fuel, the ignition delay and the heat release rate in the premixed combustion phase increase, while the total combustion duration and the fuel consumed in the diffusion combustion phase decrease. Compared with diesel fuel, with an increase of DMC in the blended fuel, the brake thermal efficiency is slightly improved but the brake specific fuel consumption increases. On the emission side, CO increases significantly at low engine load but decreases at high engine load while HC decreases slightly. NO(x) reduces slightly but the reduction is not statistically significant, while NO(2) increases slightly. Particulate mass and number concentrations decrease upon using the blended fuel while the geometric mean diameter of the particles shifts towards smaller size. Overall speaking, diesel-DMC blends lead to significant improvement in particulate emissions while the impact on CO, HC and NO(x) emissions is small.

  19. Effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction systems on reducing gaseous emissions from an engine using diesel and biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Borillo, Guilherme C; Tadano, Yara S; Godoi, Ana F L; Santana, Simone S M; Weronka, Fernando M; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Potgieter, Johannes H; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to quantify organic and inorganic gas emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. Using a bench dynamometer, the emissions from the following mixtures were evaluated using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer: low-sulfur diesel (LSD), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20). For all studied fuels, the use of the SCR system yielded statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower NOx emissions. In the case of the LSD and ULSD fuels, the SCR system also significantly reduced emissions of compounds with high photochemical ozone creation potential, such as formaldehyde. However, for all tested fuels, the SCR system produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher emissions of N2O. In the case of LSD, the NH3 emissions were elevated, and in the case of ULSD and B20 fuels, the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and total hydrocarbon of diesel (HCD) emissions were significantly higher. PMID:25634131

  20. Effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction systems on reducing gaseous emissions from an engine using diesel and biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Borillo, Guilherme C; Tadano, Yara S; Godoi, Ana F L; Santana, Simone S M; Weronka, Fernando M; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Potgieter, Johannes H; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to quantify organic and inorganic gas emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. Using a bench dynamometer, the emissions from the following mixtures were evaluated using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer: low-sulfur diesel (LSD), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20). For all studied fuels, the use of the SCR system yielded statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower NOx emissions. In the case of the LSD and ULSD fuels, the SCR system also significantly reduced emissions of compounds with high photochemical ozone creation potential, such as formaldehyde. However, for all tested fuels, the SCR system produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher emissions of N2O. In the case of LSD, the NH3 emissions were elevated, and in the case of ULSD and B20 fuels, the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and total hydrocarbon of diesel (HCD) emissions were significantly higher.

  1. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  2. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  3. Insights on postinjection-associated soot emissions in direct injection diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Arregle, Jean; Pastor, Jose V.; Lopez, J. Javier; Garcia, Antonio

    2008-08-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out in order to better understand combustion behavior in a direct injection diesel engine when using postinjections. More specifically, the aim of the study is twofold: (1) to better understand the mechanism of a postinjection to reduce soot and (2) to improve the understanding of the contribution of the postinjection combustion on the total soot emissions by looking at the effect of the postinjection timing variation and the postinjection mass variation on the soot emissions associated with the postinjection. The study is focused only on far postinjections, and the explored operating conditions include the use of EGR. The first objective was fulfilled analyzing some results from a previous work adding only a few complementary results. Concerning the second objective, the basic idea behind the analysis performed is the search of appropriate parameters physically linked to the processes under analysis. These parameters are found based on the state-of-the-art of diesel combustion. For the effect of the postinjection timing, the physical parameter found was the temperature of the unburned gases at the end of injection, T{sub ug{sub E}}{sub oI}. It was checked that a threshold level of T{sub ug{sub E}}{sub oI} ({proportional_to}700 K for the cases explored here) exists below which soot is unable to be formed, independently of the postinjection size, and the amount of soot increases as the temperature increases beyond this threshold. For the effect of the postinjection size, the physical parameter that was found was DoI/ACT (the ratio between the actual duration of injection and the time necessary for mixing - the apparent combustion time). This parameter can quantify when the postinjection is able to produce soot (the threshold value is {proportional_to}0.37 for the cases explored here), and the amount of soot produced increases as this parameter increases beyond this threshold value. A function containing these two parameters has been

  4. Effect of nozzle orifice geometry on spray, combustion, and emission characteristics under diesel engine conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Som, S.; Longman, D. E; Ramirez, A. I.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Diesel engine performance and emissions are strongly coupled with fuel atomization and spray processes, which in turn are strongly influenced by injector flow dynamics. Modern engines employ micro-orifices with different orifice designs. It is critical to characterize the effects of various designs on engine performance and emissions. In this study, a recently developed primary breakup model (KH-ACT), which accounts for the effects of cavitation and turbulence generated inside the injector nozzle is incorporated into a CFD software CONVERGE for comprehensive engine simulations. The effects of orifice geometry on inner nozzle flow, spray, and combustion processes are examined by coupling the injector flow and spray simulations. Results indicate that conicity and hydrogrinding reduce cavitation and turbulence inside the nozzle orifice, which slows down primary breakup, increasing spray penetration, and reducing dispersion. Consequently, with conical and hydroground nozzles, the vaporization rate and fuel air mixing are reduced, and ignition occurs further downstream. The flame lift-off lengths are the highest and lowest for the hydroground and conical nozzles, respectively. This can be related to the rate of fuel injection, which is higher for the hydroground nozzle, leading to richer mixtures and lower flame base speeds. A modified flame index is employed to resolve the flame structure, which indicates a dual combustion mode. For the conical nozzle, the relative role of rich premixed combustion is enhanced and that of diffusion combustion reduced compared to the other two nozzles. In contrast, for the hydroground nozzle, the role of rich premixed combustion is reduced and that of non-premixed combustion is enhanced. Consequently, the amount of soot produced is the highest for the conical nozzle, while the amount of NOx produced is the highest for the hydroground nozzle, indicating the classical tradeoff between them.

  5. Development of an on-line exposure system to determine freshly produced diesel engine emission-induced cellular effects.

    PubMed

    Oostingh, Gertie J; Papaioannou, Eleni; Chasapidis, Leonidas; Akritidis, Theofylaktos; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Duschl, Albert

    2013-09-01

    Diesel engine emission particle filters are often placed at exhaust outlets to remove particles from the exhaust. The use of filters results in the exposure to a reduced number of nanometer-sized particles, which might be more harmful than the exposure to a larger number of micrometer-sized particles. An in vitro exposure system was established to expose human alveolar epithelial cells to freshly generated exhaust. Computer simulations were used to determine the optimal flow characteristics and ensure equal exposure conditions for each well of a 6-well plate. A selective particle size sampler was used to continuously deliver diesel soot particles with different particle size distributions to cells in culture. To determine, whether the system could be used for cellular assays, alterations in cytokine production and cell viability of human alveolar A549 cells were determined after 3h on-line exposure followed by a 21-h conventional incubation period. Data indicated that complete diesel engine emission slightly affected pre-stimulated cells, but naive cells were not affected. The fractions containing large or small particles never affected the cells. The experimental set-up allowed a reliable exposure of the cells to the complete exhaust fraction or to the fractions containing either large or small diesel engine emission particles.

  6. Particle and gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas and ultralow sulphur diesel-fuelled buses at four steady engine loads.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Ristovski, Z D; Meyer, N; Morawska, L

    2009-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from thirteen compressed natural gas (CNG) and nine ultralow sulphur diesel in-service transport buses were monitored on a chassis dynamometer. Measurements were carried out at idle and at three steady engine loads of 25%, 50% and 100% of maximum power at a fixed speed of 60 km h(-1). Emission factors were estimated for particle mass and number, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen for two types of CNG buses (Scania and MAN, compatible with Euro 2 and 3 emission standards, respectively) and two types of diesel buses (Volvo Pre-Euro/Euro1 and Mercedez OC500 Euro3). All emission factors increased with load. The median particle mass emission factor for the CNG buses was less than 1% of that from the diesel buses at all loads. However, the particle number emission factors did not show a statistically significant difference between buses operating on the two types of fuel. In this paper, for the very first time, particle number emission factors are presented at four steady state engine loads for CNG buses. Median values ranged from the order of 10(12) particles min(-)(1) at idle to 10(15) particles km(-)(1) at full power. Most of the particles observed in the CNG emissions were in the nanoparticle size range and likely to be composed of volatile organic compounds The CO2 emission factors were about 20% to 30% greater for the diesel buses over the CNG buses, while the oxides of nitrogen emission factors did not show any difference due to the large variation between buses.

  7. Diagnosing diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that problems with diesel engines that have reciprocating parts have long defied a systematic approach to analysis. Engine phenomena such as combustion pressures, valve seating impacts, and piston vibrations reflect directly on how an engine is performing and would be useful to measure. However, these occur inside an engine block and for the most part are not possible to measure directly with sensors. Diesel engine manufacturers are finding new ways to troubleshoot machinery by using sophisticated signal-processing techniques that detect combustion anomalies and high-speed data-acquisition units that sample multiple measurement parameters.

  8. Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E.; Baumgard, K. J.

    2005-11-01

    Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

  9. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  10. Unregulated emissions from a diesel engine equipped with vanadium-based urea-SCR catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Ge, Yunshan; Shah, Asad Naeem; He, Chao; Liu, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    The present work is aimed at the study of number-size distribution of particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbonyl compounds (CC) or carbonyls emitted from a 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a vanadium-based urea selective catalytic reduction catalyst. The engine was run on an electric dynamometer in accordance with the European steady-state cycle. Pollutants were analyzed using an electric low pressure impactor, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, and a high performance liquid chromatography system for the number-size distribution of particles, VOCs, and CC emissions, respectively. Experimental results revealed that total number of particles were decreased, and their number-size distributions were moved from smaller sizes to larger sizes in the presence of the catalyst. The VOCs were greatly reduced downstream of the catalyst. There was a strong correlation between the conversion of styrene and ethyl benzene. The conversion rate of benzene increased with increase of catalyst temperature. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone were significantly reduced, resulting in a remarkable abatement in carbonyls with the use of the vanadium-based urea-SCR system. PMID:20617735

  11. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  12. Determination of naval medium speed diesel engine air exhaust emissions and validation of a proposed estimation model. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeaux, A.M.

    1995-05-01

    Steady state marine diesel engine exhaust emissions are being reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency for possible regulation. In anticipation of future regulation, the United States Navy is developing appropriate emissions models for naval vessels. A procedure for collecting this data from an U. S. Navy ship with medium speed main propulsion diesels is presented. It is based on similar testing conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard for measuring patrol boat diesel engine emissions and International Standards Organization methodology. The primary challenge of the experiment design was to minimize interference with the engineering plant as the assigned ship was concurrently tasked for other operations. Data gathered allowed calculation of engine rpm, engine load, exhaust gas flow rate, and determination of pollutant amounts. The tests were conducted at a series of predetermined speeds to reflect an 11-Mode duty cycle developed previously for the LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines.

  13. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  14. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  15. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John

    2001-08-05

    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  16. Reduction of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas emission components from diesel engines running with rapeseedmethylester using oxidation catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    May, H.; Huettenberger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Up to now all engine research was based on engines, which are adapted to Diesel fuel but not to vegetableoilmethylester (VME). Caused by the special climate conditions in Europe rapeseed and sunflowers, in the US soya-beans and in the tropical countries palm trees are the favorable plants for vegetable oil production. The physical and chemical properties of Diesel fuel and VME are quite different. Therefore an engine adaption and redesign to VME is a suitable way of further reduction of noxious and climate-influencing emissions. To prove the effectiveness of the emission reduction the European test-cycle ECE/EUDC, the US-FTP 75 test for passenger cars and the European 13-stage-test-cycle for heavy duty-truck-engines has been used with and without an oxidation catalyst in each case. The results of the exhaust gas measurement both concerning regulated and unregulated components are shown. A comparison between engines fueled with fossil diesel fuel and rapeseedmethylester (RME) is given.

  17. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  18. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  19. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  20. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  1. Load-Dependent Emission Factors and Chemical Characteristics of IVOCs from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Cross, Eben S; Sappok, Alexander G; Wong, Victor W; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-11-17

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of mobile-source emissions requires the characterization of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), relatively-low-vapor-pressure gas-phase species that may generate secondary organic aerosol with high yields. Due to challenges associated with IVOC detection and quantification, IVOC emissions remain poorly understood at present. Here, we describe measurements of the magnitude and composition of IVOC emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine. Measurements are made on an engine dynamometer and utilize a new mass-spectrometric instrument to characterize the load dependence of the emissions in near-real-time. Results from steady-state engine operation indicate that IVOC emissions are highly dependent on engine power, with highest emissions at engine idle and low-load operation (≤25% maximum rated power) with a chemical composition dominated by saturated hydrocarbon species. Results suggest that unburned fuel components are the dominant IVOCs emitted at low loads. As engine load increases, IVOC emissions decline rapidly and become increasingly characterized by unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics, newly formed from incomplete combustion processes at elevated engine temperatures and pressures. Engine transients, including a cold-start ignition and engine acceleration, show IVOC emission profiles that are different in amount or composition compared to steady-state combustion, underscoring the utility of characterizing IVOC emissions with high time resolution across realistic engine operating conditions. We find possible evidence for IVOC losses on unheated dilution and sampling surfaces, which need to be carefully accounted for in IVOC emission studies. PMID:26461982

  2. Load-Dependent Emission Factors and Chemical Characteristics of IVOCs from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Cross, Eben S; Sappok, Alexander G; Wong, Victor W; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-11-17

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of mobile-source emissions requires the characterization of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), relatively-low-vapor-pressure gas-phase species that may generate secondary organic aerosol with high yields. Due to challenges associated with IVOC detection and quantification, IVOC emissions remain poorly understood at present. Here, we describe measurements of the magnitude and composition of IVOC emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine. Measurements are made on an engine dynamometer and utilize a new mass-spectrometric instrument to characterize the load dependence of the emissions in near-real-time. Results from steady-state engine operation indicate that IVOC emissions are highly dependent on engine power, with highest emissions at engine idle and low-load operation (≤25% maximum rated power) with a chemical composition dominated by saturated hydrocarbon species. Results suggest that unburned fuel components are the dominant IVOCs emitted at low loads. As engine load increases, IVOC emissions decline rapidly and become increasingly characterized by unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics, newly formed from incomplete combustion processes at elevated engine temperatures and pressures. Engine transients, including a cold-start ignition and engine acceleration, show IVOC emission profiles that are different in amount or composition compared to steady-state combustion, underscoring the utility of characterizing IVOC emissions with high time resolution across realistic engine operating conditions. We find possible evidence for IVOC losses on unheated dilution and sampling surfaces, which need to be carefully accounted for in IVOC emission studies.

  3. Potential ozone impacts of excess NO2 emissions from diesel particulate filters for on- and off-road diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Bar-llan, Amnon; Johnson, Jeremiah R; Denbleyker, Allison; Chan, Lit-Mian; Yarwood, Gregory; Hitchcock, David; Pinto, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas/ Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The approach involved developing two scenarios for use of these devices, quantifying excess NO2 emissions in each scenario, and using a photochemical model to estimate the resulting ozone changes. In the "maximum penetration" scenario, DOC/DPF devices in a 2009 fleet of heavy-duty on-road trucks, school buses, and construction equipment were significantly increased by accelerating turnover of these vehicles and equipment to models that would require DOCs/DPFs. In the "realistic" scenario, current fractional usage of these devices was assessed for 2009. For both scenarios, excess NO2 emissions from DOCs/DPFs were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE6 and NONROAD emissions inventory modeling tools. The emissions analyses were used to adjust the DFW photochemical modeling emissions inventories and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions air quality model was rerun for the DFW area to determine the impact of these two scenarios on ozone formation. The maximum penetration scenario, which showed an overall reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) because of the accelerated turnover of equipment to cleaner models, resulted in a net decrease in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of 4-5 parts per billion (ppb) despite the increase in NO2 emissions. The realistic scenario resulted in a small increase in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of less than 1 ppb for the DFW area. It was concluded that the excess NO2 emissions from DOC/DPF devices result in very small ozone impacts, particularly for the realistic scenario, in the DFW area. There are noticeable decreases in ozone for the maximum penetration scenario because NO

  4. [Diesel emission control technologies: a review].

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Weng, Duan; Zi, Xin-Yun

    2007-06-01

    The authors reviewed the researches on diesel emission control for both new engine technologies and aftertreatment technologies. Emphases were focused on the recent advancements of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x). In addition, it was explored for the future development in this field.

  5. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  6. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio. PMID:27066330

  7. Instrumental and bio-monitoring of heavy metal and nanoparticle emissions from diesel engine exhaust in controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Simonetta; Adamo, Paola; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

    2010-01-01

    In the present article we characterized the emissions at the exhaust of a Common Rail (CR) diesel engine, representative of light-duty class, equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in controlled environment. The downstream exhausts were directly analyzed (for PM, CO, CO2, 02, HCs, NOx) by infrared and electrochemical sensors, and SEM-EDS microscope; heavy metals were chemically analyzed using mosses and lichens in bags, and glass-fibre filters all exposed at the engine exhausts. The highest particle emission value was in the 7-54 nm size range; the peak concentration rose until one order of magnitude for the highest load and speed. Particle composition was mainly carbonaceous, associated to noticeable amounts of Fe and silica fibres. Moreover, the content of Cu, Fe, Na, Ni and Zn in both moss and lichen, and of Al and Cr in moss, was significantly increased. Glass-fibre filters were significantly enriched in Al, B, Ba, Cu, Fe, Na, and Zn. The role of diesel engines as source of carbonaceous nanoparticles has been confirmed, while further investigations in controlled environment are needed to test the catalytic muffler as a possible source of silica fibres considered very hazardous for human health.

  8. Experimental study on the nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter emissions from diesel engine retrofitted with particulate oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin

    2014-02-15

    A particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) was employed to perform experiments on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engine. The engine exhaust was sampled from both upstream and downstream of the POC. The results showed that the POC increased the ratios of NO2/NOx significantly in the middle and high loads, the ratio of NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased 4.5 times on average under all experiment modes with the POC. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used to study the particle number-weighted size distributions and the abnormal particle emissions with the POC. The results indicated that the average reduction rate of particle number (PN) was 61% in the operating range of the diesel engine. At the engine speed of 1,400 r/min, the reduction rates of PN tended to decrease with the larger particle size. In the long time run under the steady mode (520 Nm, 1,200 r/min), abnormal particle emissions after the POC happened seven times in the first hour, and the average PN concentration of these abnormal emission peaks was much higher than that in normal state. The particle emissions of peaks 1-5 equaled the particles emitted downstream of the POC in normal state for 1.9h in number concentration, and for 3.6h in mass concentration. The PN concentrations tended to increase over time in 5h under the steady engine mode and the increase of the PN in the size range of 6.04-14.3 nm was more evident.

  9. Normalization and source separation of acoustic emission signals for condition monitoring and fault detection of multi-cylinder diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weiliang; Lin, Tian Ran; Tan, Andy C. C.

    2015-12-01

    A signal processing technique is presented in this paper to normalize and separate the source of non-linear acoustic emission (AE) signals of a multi-cylinder diesel engine for condition monitoring applications and fault detection. The normalization technique presented in the paper overcomes the long-existing non-linearity problem of AE sensors so that responses measured by different AE sensors can be quantitatively analysed and compared. A source separation algorithm is also developed in the paper to separate the mixture of the normalized AE signals produced by a multi-cylinder diesel engine by utilising the system parameters (i.e., wave attenuation constant and the arrival time delay) of AE wave propagation determined by a standard pencil lead break test on the engine cylinder head. It is shown that the source separation algorithm is able to separate the signal interference of adjacent cylinders from the monitored cylinder once the wave attenuation constant and the arrival time delay along the propagation path are known. The algorithm is particularly useful in the application of AE technique for condition monitoring of small-size diesel engines where signal interference from the neighbouring cylinders is strong.

  10. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  11. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Diesel Engine Idling Test

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

    2006-02-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

  13. Analysis of C 1, C 2, and C 10 through C 33 particle-phase and semi-volatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerald Liu, Z.; Berg, Devin R.; Vasys, Victoria N.; Dettmann, Melissa E.; Zielinska, Barbara; Schauer, James J.

    2010-03-01

    To meet increasingly stringent regulations for diesel engines, technologies such as combustion strategies, aftertreatment components, and fuel composition have continually evolved. The emissions reduction achieved by individual aftertreatment components using the same engine and fuel has been assessed and published previously ( Liu et al., 2008a,b,c). The present study instead adopted a systems approach to evaluate the net effect of the corresponding technologies for model-year 2004 and 2007 engines. The 2004 engine was equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, while the 2007 engine had an EGR system, a crankcase emissions coalescer, and a diesel particulate filter. The test engines were operated under the transient federal test procedure and samples were collected with a source dilution sampling system designed to stimulate atmospheric cooling and dilution conditions. The samples were analyzed for elemental carbon, organic carbon, and C 1, C 2, and C 10 through C 33 particle-phase and semi-volatile organic compounds. Of the more than 150 organic species analyzed, the largest portion of the emissions from the 2004 engine consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and naphthalene and its derivatives, which were significantly reduced by the 2007 engine and emissions technology. The systems approach in this study simulates the operation of real-world diesel engines, and may provide insight into the future development of integrated engine technology. The results supply updated information for assessing the impact of diesel engine emissions on the chemical processes, radiative properties, and toxic components of the atmosphere.

  14. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of...

  15. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

  16. PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and, gasoline engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Nasrin R.; Scheff, Peter A.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    To evaluate the chemical composition (source fingerprint) of the major sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chicago metropolitan area, a study of major PAH sources was conducted during 1990-1992. In this study, a modified high-volume sampling method (PS-1 sampler) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. Hewlett Packard 5890 gas chromatographs equipped with the flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors (GC/FID and GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The sources sampled were: coke ovens, highway vehicles, heavy-duty diesel engines, gasoline engines and wood combustion. Results of this study showed that two and three ring PAHs were responsible for 98, 76, 92, 73 and 80% of the total concentration of measured 20 PAHs for coke ovens, diesel engines, highway tunnels, gasoline engines and wood combustion samples, respectively. Six ring PAHs such as indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene and benzo( ghi)perylene were mostly below the detection limit of this study and only detected in the highway tunnel, diesel and gasoline engine samples. The source fingerprints were obtained by averaging the ratios of individual PAH concentrations to the total concentration of categorical pollutants including: (a) total measured mass of PAHs with retention times between naphthalene and coronene, (b) the mass of the 20 PAHs measured in this study, (c) total VOCs, and (d) total PM10. Since concentrations of the above categorical pollutants were different for individual samples and different sources, the chemical composition patterns obtained for each categorical pollutant were different. The source fingerprints have been developed for use in chemical mass balance receptor modeling calculations.

  17. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (<0.5-5 μm) are abundant upstream of the DPF and are ash-free or contain notably little attached ash. Post-DPF soot agglomerates are very few, typically large (>1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely <0.5 μm, and contain abundant ash carried mostly from inside the DPF. The ash that reaches the atmosphere also occurs as separate aggregates ca. 0.2-2 μm in size consisting of sintered primary phases, ca. 20-400 nm large. Insoluble particles of these sizes may harm the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The DPF probably promotes breakout of large soot agglomerates (mostly ash-bearing) by favoring sintering. Noble metals detached from the DOC coating may reach the ambient air. Finally, very few agglomerates of Fe-oxide nanoparticles form newly from engine wear and escape into the atmosphere. PMID:24274188

  18. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (<0.5-5 μm) are abundant upstream of the DPF and are ash-free or contain notably little attached ash. Post-DPF soot agglomerates are very few, typically large (>1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely <0.5 μm, and contain abundant ash carried mostly from inside the DPF. The ash that reaches the atmosphere also occurs as separate aggregates ca. 0.2-2 μm in size consisting of sintered primary phases, ca. 20-400 nm large. Insoluble particles of these sizes may harm the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The DPF probably promotes breakout of large soot agglomerates (mostly ash-bearing) by favoring sintering. Noble metals detached from the DOC coating may reach the ambient air. Finally, very few agglomerates of Fe-oxide nanoparticles form newly from engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  19. Effects of continuously regenerating diesel particulate filters on regulated emissions and number-size distribution of particles emitted from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Shah, Asad Naeem; Ge, Yunshan; Ding, Yan; Tan, Jianwei; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Linxiao; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Chu; Zeng, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The effects of continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) systems on regulated gaseous emissions, and number-size distribution and mass of particles emanated from a diesel engine have been investigated in this study. Two CRDPF units (CRDPF-1 and CRDPF-2) with different specifications were separately retrofitted to the engine running with European steady-state cycle (ESC). An electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used for particle number-size distribution measurement and mass estimation. The conversion/reduction rate (R(CR)) of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) across CRDPF-1 was 83% and 96.3%, respectively. Similarly, the R(CR) of HC and CO and across CRDPF-2 was 91.8% and 99.1%, respectively. The number concentration of particles and their concentration peaks; nuclei mode, accumulation mode and total particles; and particle mass were highly reduced with the CRDPF units. The nuclei mode particles at downstream of CRDPF-1 and CRDPF-2 decreased by 99.9% to 100% and 97.8% to 99.8% respectively; and the particle mass reduced by 73% to 92.2% and 35.3% to 72.4%, respectively, depending on the engine conditions. In addition, nuclei mode particles increased with the increasing of engine speed due to the heterogeneous nucleation initiated by the higher exhaust temperature, while accumulation mode particles were higher at higher loads due to the decrease in the air-to-fuel ratio (A/F) at higher loads.

  20. Physical properties, chemical composition, and cloud forming potential of particulate emissions from a marine diesel engine at various load conditions.

    PubMed

    Petzold, A; Weingartner, E; Hasselbach, J; Lauer, P; Kurok, C; Fleischer, F

    2010-05-15

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from one serial 4-stroke medium-speed marine diesel engine were measured for load conditions from 10% to 110% in test rig studies using heavy fuel oil (HFO). Testing the engine across its entire load range permitted the scaling of exhaust PM properties with load. Emission factors for particle number, particle mass, and chemical compounds were determined. The potential of particles to form cloud droplets (cloud condensation nuclei, CCN) was calculated from chemical composition and particle size. Number emission factors are (3.43 +/- 1.26) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 85-110% load and (1.06 +/- 0.10) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 10% load. CCN emission factors of 1-6 x 10(14) (kg fuel)(-1) are at the lower bound of data reported in the literature. From combined thermal and optical methods, black carbon (BC) emission factors of 40-60 mg/(kg fuel) were determined for 85-100% load and 370 mg/(kg fuel) for 10% load. The engine load dependence of the conversion efficiency for fuel sulfur into sulfate of (1.08 +/- 0.15)% at engine idle to (3.85 +/- 0.41)% at cruise may serve as input to global emission calculations for various load conditions.

  1. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  2. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stang, John H.

    1997-12-01

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS NOx = 0.50 g/mi PM = 0.05 g/mi CO = 2.8 g/mi NMHC = 0.07 g/mi California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi PM = 0.01 g/mi (2) FUEL ECONOMY The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test

  3. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stang, John H.

    2005-12-19

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis

  4. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Stang

    2005-12-31

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full

  5. Effects of fuel properties on white smoke emission from the latest heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, Yoshihiro; Akasaka, Yukio

    1995-12-31

    The effects of fuel properties on white smoke emission from the latest DI diesel engine were investigated with a new type of white smoke meter. The new smoke meter could distinguish fuel effects on smoke much more than the conventional PHS meter. The repeatability of the smoke meter was better than that of the PHS meter. Cetane number was the dominant factor for smoke emission. Distillation temperature and composition also affected emission. A nitrate type cetane improver was effective for reducing emission. White smoke was analyzed with GC and HPLC and compounds in white smoke from low cetane number fuel were found almost the same as in fuel. But those from high cetane number fuel consisted of compounds in fuel and many combustion products.

  6. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Stachulak, Jozef S; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D; Cauda, Emanuele G

    2016-03-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  7. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Stachulak, Jozef S; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D; Cauda, Emanuele G

    2016-03-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  8. Emissions from a Diesel Engine using Fe-based Fuel Additives and a Sintered Metal Filtration System

    PubMed Central

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D.; Hummer, Jon A.; Stachulak, Jozef S.; Miller, Arthur; Patts, Larry D.; Cauda, Emanuele G.

    2015-01-01

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effects of Fe-containing fuel additives on aerosols emitted by a diesel engine retrofitted with a sintered metal filter (SMF) system. Emission measurements performed upstream and downstream of the SMF system were compared, for cases when the engine was fueled with neat ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and with ULSD treated with two formulations of additives containing Fe-based catalysts. The effects were assessed for four steady-state engine operating conditions and one transient cycle. The results showed that the SMF system reduced the average total number and surface area concentrations of aerosols by more than 100-fold. The total mass and elemental carbon results confirmed that the SMF system was indeed very effective in the removal of diesel aerosols. When added at the recommended concentrations (30 p.p.m. of iron), the tested additives had minor adverse impacts on the number, surface area, and mass concentrations of filter-out (FOut) aerosols. For one of the test cases, the additives may have contributed to measurable concentrations of engine-out (EOut) nucleation mode aerosols. The additives had only a minor impact on the concentration and size distribution of volatile and semi-volatile FOut aerosols. Metal analysis showed that the introduction of Fe with the additives substantially increased Fe concentration in the EOut, but the SMF system was effective in removal of Fe-containing aerosols. The FOut Fe concentrations for all three tested fuels were found to be much lower than the corresponding EOut Fe concentrations for the case of untreated ULSD fuel. The results support recommendations that these additives should not be used in diesel engines unless they are equipped with exhaust filtration systems. Since the tested SMF system was found to be very efficient in removing Fe introduced by the additives, the use of these additives should not result in a measurable increase in emissions of de novo generated

  9. Regulated and unregulated emissions from highway heavy-duty diesel engines complying with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 emissions standards.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Bougher, Thomas L; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from four different 2007 model year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-compliant heavy-duty highway diesel engines were measured on an engine dynamometer. The engines were equipped with exhaust high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filters (C-DPFs) that are actively regenerated or cleaned using the engine control module. Regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (PM) were on average 97, 89, and 86% lower than the 2007 EPA standard, respectively, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were on average 9% lower. Unregulated exhaust emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions were on, average 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than the NO, emissions reported in previous work using 1998- and 2004-technology engines, respectively. However, compared with other work performed on 1994- to 2004-technology engines, average emission reductions in the range of 71-99% were observed for a very comprehensive list of unregulated engine exhaust pollutants and air toxic contaminants that included metals and other elements, elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, and gas- and particle-phase volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon (OC) compounds. The low PM mass emitted from the 2007 technology ACES engines was composed mainly of sulfate (53%) and OC (30%), with a small fraction of EC (13%) and metals and other elements (4%). The fraction of EC is expected to remain small, regardless of engine operation, because of the presence of the high-efficiency C-DPF in the exhaust. This is different from typical PM composition of pre-2007 engines with EC in the range of 10-90%, depending on engine operation. Most of the particles emitted from the 2007 engines were mainly volatile nuclei mode in the sub-30-nm size range. An increase in volatile nanoparticles was observed during C-DPF active regeneration, during which the observed particle number was

  10. Regulated and unregulated emissions from highway heavy-duty diesel engines complying with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 emissions standards.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Bougher, Thomas L; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from four different 2007 model year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-compliant heavy-duty highway diesel engines were measured on an engine dynamometer. The engines were equipped with exhaust high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filters (C-DPFs) that are actively regenerated or cleaned using the engine control module. Regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (PM) were on average 97, 89, and 86% lower than the 2007 EPA standard, respectively, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were on average 9% lower. Unregulated exhaust emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions were on, average 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than the NO, emissions reported in previous work using 1998- and 2004-technology engines, respectively. However, compared with other work performed on 1994- to 2004-technology engines, average emission reductions in the range of 71-99% were observed for a very comprehensive list of unregulated engine exhaust pollutants and air toxic contaminants that included metals and other elements, elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, and gas- and particle-phase volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon (OC) compounds. The low PM mass emitted from the 2007 technology ACES engines was composed mainly of sulfate (53%) and OC (30%), with a small fraction of EC (13%) and metals and other elements (4%). The fraction of EC is expected to remain small, regardless of engine operation, because of the presence of the high-efficiency C-DPF in the exhaust. This is different from typical PM composition of pre-2007 engines with EC in the range of 10-90%, depending on engine operation. Most of the particles emitted from the 2007 engines were mainly volatile nuclei mode in the sub-30-nm size range. An increase in volatile nanoparticles was observed during C-DPF active regeneration, during which the observed particle number was

  11. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-03-24

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  12. Zeolite-based SCR catalysts and their use in diesel engine emission treatment

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Yang, Xiaofan

    2016-08-02

    A catalyst comprising a zeolite loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.+3, wherein the catalyst decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust. The trivalent metal ions are selected from, for example, trivalent transition metal ions, trivalent main group metal ions, and/or trivalent lanthanide metal ions. In particular embodiments, the catalysts are selected from Cu--Fe-ZSM5, Cu--La-ZSM-5, Fe--Cu--La-ZSM5, Cu--Sc-ZSM-5, and Cu--In-ZSM5. The catalysts are placed on refractory support materials and incorporated into catalytic converters.

  13. Effect of EGR on spray development, combustion and emissions in a 1.9L direct-injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Arcoumanis, C.; Nagwaney, A.; Hentschel, W.; Ropke, S.

    1995-12-31

    The spray development, combustion and emissions in a 1.9L optical, four-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine were investigated by means of pressure analysis, high-speed cinematography, the two-color method and exhaust gas analysis for various levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), three EGR temperatures (uncontrolled, hot and cold) and three fuels (diesel, n-heptane and a two-component fuel 7D3N). Engine operating conditions included 1,000 rpm/idle and 2,000 rpm/2bar with EGR-rates ranging from 0 to 70%. Independent of rate, EGR was found to have a very small effect on spray angle and spray tip penetration but the auto-ignition sites seemed to increase in size and number at higher EGR-rates with associated reduction in the flame luminosity and flame temperature, by, say, 100K at 50% EGR. The emission tests confirmed that for different intake temperatures and three fuels, increasing the EGR-rate leads to reduced NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} levels but increased soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC concentrations. Cold EGR resulted in lower NO{sub x} emissions at EGR-rates below 30% but at higher rates hot EGR seems to offer marginal improvements relative to cold EGR and significant NO{sub x} reduction compared to the uncontrolled EGR case.

  14. Dual fuel diesel engine operation using LPG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, Al; Nutu, N. C.

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine fuelling with LPG represents a good solution to reduce the pollutant emissions and to improve its energetic performances. The high autoignition endurance of LPG requires specialized fuelling methods. From all possible LPG fuelling methods the authors chose the diesel-gas method because of the following reasons: is easy to be implemented even at already in use engines; the engine does not need important modifications; the LPG-air mixture has a high homogeneity with favorable influences over the combustion efficiency and over the level of the pollutant emissions, especially on the nitrogen oxides emissions. This paper presents results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on operation of a LPG fuelled heavy duty diesel engine at two operating regimens, 40% and 55%. For 55% engine load is also presented the exhaust gas recirculation influence on the pollutant emission level. Was determined the influence of the diesel fuel with LPG substitution ratio on the combustion parameters (rate of heat released, combustion duration, maximum pressure, maximum pressure rise rate), on the energetic parameters (indicate mean effective pressure, effective efficiency, energetic specific fuel consumption) and on the pollutant emissions level. Therefore with increasing substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG are obtained the following results: the increase of the engine efficiency, the decrease of the specific energetic consumption, the increase of the maximum pressure and of the maximum pressure rise rate (considered as criteria to establish the optimum substitute ratio), the accentuated reduction of the nitrogen oxides emissions level.

  15. PCDD/F emissions from light-duty diesel vehicles operated under highway conditions and a diesel-engine based power generator.

    PubMed

    Rey, M D; Font, R; Aracil, I

    2014-08-15

    PCDD/F emissions from three light-duty diesel vehicles--two vans and a passenger car--have been measured in on-road conditions. We propose a new methodology for small vehicles: a sample of exhaust gas is collected by means of equipment based on United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) method 23 A for stationary stack emissions. The concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 have also been measured. Six tests were carried out at 90-100 km/h on a route 100 km long. Two additional tests were done during the first 10 min and the following 60 min of the run to assess the effect of the engine temperature on PCDD/F emissions. The emission factors obtained for the vans varied from 1800 to 8400 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) for a 2004 model year van and 490-580 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) for a 2006 model year van. Regarding the passenger car, one run was done in the presence of a catalyst and another without, obtaining emission factors (330-880 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3)) comparable to those of the modern van. Two other tests were carried out on a power generator leading to emission factors ranging from 31 to 78 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3). All the results are discussed and compared with literature.

  16. PCDD/F emissions from light-duty diesel vehicles operated under highway conditions and a diesel-engine based power generator.

    PubMed

    Rey, M D; Font, R; Aracil, I

    2014-08-15

    PCDD/F emissions from three light-duty diesel vehicles--two vans and a passenger car--have been measured in on-road conditions. We propose a new methodology for small vehicles: a sample of exhaust gas is collected by means of equipment based on United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) method 23 A for stationary stack emissions. The concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 have also been measured. Six tests were carried out at 90-100 km/h on a route 100 km long. Two additional tests were done during the first 10 min and the following 60 min of the run to assess the effect of the engine temperature on PCDD/F emissions. The emission factors obtained for the vans varied from 1800 to 8400 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) for a 2004 model year van and 490-580 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) for a 2006 model year van. Regarding the passenger car, one run was done in the presence of a catalyst and another without, obtaining emission factors (330-880 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3)) comparable to those of the modern van. Two other tests were carried out on a power generator leading to emission factors ranging from 31 to 78 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3). All the results are discussed and compared with literature. PMID:24953943

  17. Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Inection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Szymkowicz, Patrick G.; Northrop, William F

    2012-01-01

    It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. It has been shown in previous studies that varying cetane number (CN) of diesel fuel has little effect on ignition delay at high engine load due to the domination of high cylinder temperature on ignition kinetics. The work here experimentally confirms that finding but also shows that emissions and combustion performance vary according to fuel reactivity. Data are examined from a direct-injection single cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. It is shown in the work that at high engine load where combustion is controlled by mixing processes, CN and other fuel properties have little effect on engine performance, although lower CN fuels produce a small increase in noise, smoke and CO emissions. Biodiesel blends increase NOX emissions and decreases CO and smoke emissions at high load, but otherwise have little effect on performance. At moderate load, higher CN fuels are more tolerant to EGR due to their better chemical reactivity at retarded injection timing, but all fuels produce comparable thermal efficiency at advanced combustion phasing regardless of EGR. In contrast to the high load conditions, there was no increase in NOX emissions for biodiesel at the moderate load condition. It is concluded that

  18. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND...

  19. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND...

  20. A new alternative fuel for reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tser-Son; Chen, Kung-Fu

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carcinogenic potential of PAH and particulate matter (PM), brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and power from diesel engines under transient cycle testing of six test fuels: premium diesel fuel (PDF), B100 (100% palm biodiesel), B20 (20% palm biodiesel + 80% PDF), BP9505 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm biodiesel), BP8020 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm biodiesel), and BP100 (100% paraffinic fuel; Table 1). Experimental results indicated that B100, BP9505, BP8020, and BP100 were much safer when stored than PDF. However, we must use additives so that B100 and BP100 will not gel as quickly in a cold zone. Using B100, BP9505, and BP8020 instead of PDF reduced PM, THC, and CO emissions dramatically but increased CO2 slightly because of more complete combustion. The CO2-increased fraction of BP9505 was the lowest among test blends. Furthermore, using B100, B20, BP9505, and BP8020 as alternative fuels reduced total PAHs and total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (total BaPeq) emissions significantly. BP9505 had the lowest decreased fractions of power and torque and increased fraction of BSFC. These experimental results implied that BP9505 is feasible for traveling diesel vehicles. Moreover, paraffinic fuel will likely be a new alternative fuel in the future. Using BP9505 instead of PDF decreased PM (22.8%), THC (13.4%), CO (25.3%), total PAHs (88.9%), and total BaPeq (88.1%) emissions significantly. PMID:17458465

  1. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from diesel engine in a bus station, Londrina, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Moacir; Pinto, Jurandir P.; Souza, Alexandre L.; Scarmínio, Ieda S.; Cristina Solci, Maria

    2004-09-01

    The concentrations of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at the Central Bus Station of Londrina, where only diesel-powered vehicles circulate. The samples were collected within a period of 24 h for 14 consecutive days in January 2002. The semi-volatile PAHs were collected using a cartridge packed with XAD-2 resin, extracted under sonication and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatograph equipped with the flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors (GC-FID and GC/MS). Ten PAH compounds were found (naphthalene, acenapthylene, acenapthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene). The average concentrations ranged from 1.4±0.3 ng m-3 for benzo(a)anthracene to 348.0±32.7 ng m-3 for phenanthrene. The species that presented higher concentration were phenanthrene (348.0±32.7 ng m-3), fluorene (140.2±17.3 ng m-3) and naphthalene (97.7±10.3 ng m-3). The PAHs with two and three rings were responsible by 90.2% of the total concentration among 10 PAHs. The concentrations of PAHs were lower on Sunday in comparison with the workdays, due to the reduction of bus traffic in the station. Correlations and principal component analysis with Varimax rotation were used to estimate the local PAH emission source profile originating from the diesel exhaust. The ratio PHEN/FLU of 2.5 calculated from the results is suggested as indication from diesel combustion exhaust.

  2. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend. PMID:25993509

  3. The effects of neat biodiesel and biodiesel and HVO blends in diesel fuel on exhaust emissions from a light duty vehicle with a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Prokopowicz, Adam; Zaciera, Marzena; Sobczak, Andrzej; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph

    2015-06-16

    The influence of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel blends on the exhaust emissions from a passenger car was examined. The impact of FAME for the cold urban phase (UDC) was increased CO and HC emissions, probably due to blend physical properties promoting incomplete combustion. The HVO blend caused the lowest CO and HC emissions for the UDC. NOx emissions did not change significantly with the fuel used, however the UDC was characterized by lower NOx emission for FAME blends. Particle emissions were highest with standard diesel. Emissions of carbonyl compounds increased as fuel biodiesel content increased, especially during the UDC. HVO in diesel fuel decreased carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyl compounds in the exhaust gas. Total particle-bound PAH emissions were variable, the emission of heavier PAHs increased with blend biodiesel content. The HVO blend increased emission of lighter PAHs. Nitro-PAHs were identified only during the UDC and not for all blends; the highest emissions were measured for pure diesel. The results showed that emission of nitro-PAHs may be decreased to a greater extent by using biodiesel than using a HVO blend.

  4. Three-dimensional modeling of diesel engine intake flow, combustion and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitz, R. D.; Rutland, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional computer code (KIVA) is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion: spray atomization, drop breakup/coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, soot and radiation, and the intake flow process. Improved and/or new submodels which were completed are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NOx, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Results to date show that adding the effects of unsteadiness and compressibility improves the accuracy of heat transfer predictions; spray drop rebound can occur from walls at low impingement velocities (e.g., in cold-starting); larger spray drops are formed at the nozzle due to the influence of vaporization on the atomization process; a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model has the flexibility to match measured engine combustion data over a wide range of operating conditions; and finally, the characteristic time combustion model can also be extended to allow predictions of ignition. The accuracy of the predictions is being assessed by comparisons with available measurements. Additional supporting experiments are also described briefly. To date, comparisons with measured engine cylinder pressure and heat flux data were made for homogeneous charge, spark-ignited and compression-ignited engines. The model results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  5. Metabolomic changes in murine serum following inhalation exposure to gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Brower, Jeremy B; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin; Stirdivant, Steven; McDonald, Jacob D; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300 μg/m(3)) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18 hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18 hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions.

  6. Metabolomic changes in murine serum following inhalation exposure to gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Brower, Jeremy B; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin; Stirdivant, Steven; McDonald, Jacob D; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300 μg/m(3)) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18 hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18 hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions. PMID:27017952

  7. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  8. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  9. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines,...

  10. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines,...

  11. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines,...

  12. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines,...

  13. DRIVE CYCLE EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS ESTIMATES FOR REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION IN A MULTI-CYLINDER LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Briggs, Thomas E; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that by varying both the percent of premixed gasoline and EGR rate, stable combustion can be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Changing the percent premixed gasoline changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This paper examines the combustion and emissions performance of light-duty diesel engine using direct injected diesel fuel and port injected gasoline to carry out RCCI for steady-state engine conditions which are consistent with a light-duty drive cycle. A GM 1.9L four-cylinder engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure EGR system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline. Engine-out emissions, engine performance and combustion behavior for RCCI operation is compared against both CDC and a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategy which relies on high levels of EGR dilution. The effect of percent of premixed gasoline, EGR rate, boost level, intake mixture temperature, combustion phasing and pressure rise rate is investigated for RCCI combustion for the light-duty modal points. Engine-out emissions of NOx and PM were found to be considerably lower for RCCI operation as compared to CDC and PCCI, while HC and CO emissions were higher. Brake thermal efficiency was similar or higher for many of the modal conditions for RCCI operation. The emissions results are used to estimate hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels with RCCI and are compared against CDC and PCCI modes.

  14. Evaluation of Peanut Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Sprays, Combustion, and Emissions, for Use in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paper provides an analysis of 100% peanut fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and peanut FAME/ULSD#2 blends (P20, P35, and P50) in an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine (for auxiliary power unit applications) in comparison to ultralow sulfur diesel no. 2 (ULSD#2) at various speeds and 100% load...

  15. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  16. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    PubMed

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. PMID:25217745

  17. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    PubMed

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions.

  18. Influence of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a DPF and SCR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Carder, Daniel K; Oshinuga, Adewale; Gautam, Mridul

    2012-02-01

    The experiments aimed at investigating the effect of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction after-treatment system (DPF-SCR) equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. The results showed the emission of nucleation mode particles in the size range of 6-15 nm at conditions with high exhaust temperatures. A direct result of higher exhaust temperatures (over 380 °C) contributing to higher concentration of nucleation mode nanoparticles is presented in this study. The action of an SCR catalyst with urea injection was found to increase the particle number count by over an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF out particle concentrations. Engine operations resulting in exhaust temperatures below 380 °C did not contribute to significant nucleation mode nanoparticle concentrations. The study further suggests the fact that SCR-equipped engines operating within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) zone over a critical exhaust temperature and under favorable ambient dilution conditions could contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations to the environment. Also, some of the high temperature modes resulted in DPF out accumulation mode (between 50 and 200 nm) particle concentrations an order of magnitude greater than typical background PM concentrations. This leads to the conclusion that sustained NTE operation could trigger high temperature passive regeneration which in turn would result in lower filtration efficiencies of the DPF that further contributes to the increased solid fraction of the PM number count. PMID:22201285

  19. Influence of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a DPF and SCR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Carder, Daniel K; Oshinuga, Adewale; Gautam, Mridul

    2012-02-01

    The experiments aimed at investigating the effect of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction after-treatment system (DPF-SCR) equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. The results showed the emission of nucleation mode particles in the size range of 6-15 nm at conditions with high exhaust temperatures. A direct result of higher exhaust temperatures (over 380 °C) contributing to higher concentration of nucleation mode nanoparticles is presented in this study. The action of an SCR catalyst with urea injection was found to increase the particle number count by over an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF out particle concentrations. Engine operations resulting in exhaust temperatures below 380 °C did not contribute to significant nucleation mode nanoparticle concentrations. The study further suggests the fact that SCR-equipped engines operating within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) zone over a critical exhaust temperature and under favorable ambient dilution conditions could contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations to the environment. Also, some of the high temperature modes resulted in DPF out accumulation mode (between 50 and 200 nm) particle concentrations an order of magnitude greater than typical background PM concentrations. This leads to the conclusion that sustained NTE operation could trigger high temperature passive regeneration which in turn would result in lower filtration efficiencies of the DPF that further contributes to the increased solid fraction of the PM number count.

  20. Effect of fuel aromaticity on diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Barbella, R.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A. ); Bertoli, C. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of the fuel aromatic content on soot and heavy hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine has been investigated burning a pure paraffinic fuel (n-tetradecane), a tetradecane-toluene mixture (70-30 vol%) and two diesel oils with different aromatic content. All experiments were at various air-fuel ratios with constant engine speed and injection timing advance. The detailed chemical analysis of exhaust heavy hydrocarbons in terms of mass percentage of paraffins, monoaromatics, polyaromatics and polar compounds, and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of each hydrocarbon class have been compared with the original fuel analyses in order to discriminate the unburned fuel compounds from the combustion-formed products. The soot emission rate has been found to be independent of the fuel aromatic content, but the fuel affects the quality and quantity of heavy hydrocarbon emission. Low amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, mainly partially oxidized compounds, are emitted from tetradecane combustion, whereas diesel fuel oils produced high emissions of heavy hydrocarbons, mainly unburned fuel compounds. The emission of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from tetradecane and tetradecane-toluene diesel combustion indicates that these compounds are combustion-formed products, but unburned fuel PAH are the main components of PAH emitted by the diesel fuel oils.

  1. Effect of post injections on mixture preparation and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    O'Connor, Jacqueline; Musculus, Mark P. B.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2016-05-30

    This work explores the mechanisms by which a post injection can reduce unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines operating at low-temperature combustion conditions. Post injections, small, close-coupled injections of fuel after the main injection, have been shown to reduce UHC in the authors’ previous work. In this work, we analyze optical data from laser-induced fluorescence of both CH2O and OH and use chemical reactor modeling to better understand the mechanism by which post injections reduce UHC emissions. The results indicate that post-injection efficacy, or the extent to which a post injection reduces UHC emissions, is a strong functionmore » of the cylinder pressure variation during the post injection. However, the data and analysis indicate that the pressure and temperature rise from the post injection combustion cannot solely explain the UHC reduction measured by both engine-out and optical diagnostics. In conclusion, the fluid-mechanic, thermal, and chemical interaction of the post injection with the main-injection mixture is a key part of UHC reduction; the starting action of the post jet and the subsequent entrainment of surrounding gases are likely both important processes in reducing UHC with a post injection.« less

  2. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  3. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  4. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  5. Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components

    SciTech Connect

    M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook

    2006-03-02

    The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings

  6. Testing Ceramics for Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Adaptation of diesel engine allows prestressed ceramic materials evaluated under realistic pressure, temperature, and stress without introducing extraneous stress. Ceramic specimen part of prechamber of research engine. Specimen held in place by clamp, introduces required axial compressive stress. Specimen -- cylindrical shell -- surrounded by chamber vented or pressurized to introduce requisite radial stress in ceramic. Pressure chamber also serves as safety shield in case speimen disintegrates. Materials under consideration as cylinder liners for diesel engines.

  7. Use of a Chamber to Comprehensively Characterise Emissions and Subsequent Processes from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, J. D.; Alfarra, M. R. R.; Whitehead, J.; McFiggans, G.; Kong, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Alam, M. S.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pereira, K. L.; Holmes, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Around 1 in 3 light duty vehicles in the UK use diesel engines, meaning that on-road emissions of particulates, NOx and VOCs and subsequent chemical processes are substantially different to countries where gasoline engines dominate. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Com-Part project, emissions from a diesel engine dynamometer rig representative of the EURO 4 standard were studied. The exhaust was passed to the Manchester aerosol chamber, which consists of an 18 m3 teflon bag and by injecting a sample of exhaust fumes into filtered and chemically scrubbed air, a controllable dilution can be performed and the sample held in situ for analysis by a suite of instruments. The system also allows the injection of other chemicals (e.g. ozone, additional VOCs) and the initiation of photochemistry using a bank of halogen bulbs and a filtered Xe arc lamp to simulate solar light. Because a large volume of dilute emissions can be held for a period of hours, this permits a wide range of instrumentation to be used and relatively slow processes studied. Furthermore, because the bag is collapsible, the entire particulate contents can be collected on a filter for offline analysis. Aerosol microphysical properties are studied using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyser (CPMA); aerosol composition using a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS), Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Sunset Laboratories OC EC analyser and offline gas- and high performance liquid chromatography (employing advanced mass spectrometry such as ion trap and fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance); VOCs using comprehensive 2D gas chromatography; aerosol optical properties using a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Single Scattering Albedo monitor (CAPS-PMSSA), 3 wavelength Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS-3) and Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP); particle hygroscopcity using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility

  8. The use of CETANER{trademark} for the reduction of particulate matter emissions in a turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, H.S.; Chiodo, J.A.; Boehman, A.L.; Tijim, P.J.A.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-07-01

    In this experimental study, the effects of the addition of CETANER{trademark} to a premium diesel fuel at various blend levels (5%, 10% and 15% by weight) were evaluated using a 1.9 liter turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. CETANER{trademark}, a product developed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., can be manufactured from coal-derived syngas through a two-stage process: (i) Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether synthesis (LPDME); and (ii) oxidative coupling of DiMethyl Ether (DME) to form long chain linear ethers. When compared to other oxygenated components currently being researched, CETANER has several key advantages: (1) it is derived from a non-petroleum feedstock; (2) it has a cetane number greater than 100; and (3) it will have a cost comparable to diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions and exhaust gas composition (NOx and CO), were determined at six steady-state engine operating conditions. In addition, fuel properties (viscosity, cloud point, pour point, density, flash point and calorific value) of the various blends were also determined. Engine test results indicate that CETANER is effective in reducing particulate matter emissions at all blend levels tested, without any modifications to engine operating parameters. At the highest blend level (15% CETANER by weight), particulate matter emissions were reduced by greater than 20% when compared to premium diesel fuel.

  9. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  10. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  11. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  12. Ship diesel emission aerosols: A comprehensive study on the chemical composition, the physical properties and the molecular biological and toxicological effects on human lung cells of aerosols from a ship diesel engine operated with heavy or light diesel fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Dietmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Paur, H.; Dilger, M.; Mülhopt, S.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Hirvonen, M.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Berube, K.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Arteaga Salas, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Reda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Gröger, T.; Weiss, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties, transformation processes and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. This is performed by thorough comprehensive chemical and physical characterization of combustion aerosols (including application of advantageous on-line methods) and studying of biological effects on human lung cell-cultures. A new ALI air-liquid-interface (ALI) exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for the HICE-measurements. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized (e.g. proteomics). By using stable isotope labeling technologies (13C-Glucose/metabolomics; 2H-Lysine/SILAC-proteomics), high sensitivity and accuracy for detection of molecular-biological effects is achievable even at sub-toxic effect dose levels. Aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine (heavy/light fuel oil) have been investigated. The effect of wood combustion and ship diesel PM e.g. on the protein expression of ALI-exposed A549 cells was compared. Filtered aerosol is used as gas-reference for the isotope labeling based method (SILAC). Therefore the effects of wood combustion- and shipping diesel-PM can be directly compared. Ship diesel aerosol causes a broader distribution in the observed fold changes (log2), i.e. more proteins are significantly up-/down-regulated in case of shipping diesel PM-exposure. This corresponds to a stronger biological reaction if compared to wood combustion-PM exposure. The chemical analysis results on wood combustion- and ship diesel-PM depict more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)/oxidized-PAH but less of some transition metals (V, Fe) in the wood combustion case. Interestingly, alkylated PAH are considerably more abundant in shipping PM, suggesting that PAH/Oxy-PAH may be less relevant for

  13. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  14. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  15. Diesel engine power prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, L.R.; Berret, P.; Zablocki, E.

    1985-01-01

    The increased demands imposed upon maintenance personnel by ever increasing vehicle complexity has markedly stressed the ability of these individuals to perform vehicle diagnostics in a timely fashion. As a response to this growing problem the vehicle industry and its supporting communities have developed sophisticated automated test equipment to support the maintenance function. The availability of test equipment capable of conveniently performing complete vehicle tests has led to a natural extension of vehicle diagnosis, in the form of vehicle prognosis. Vehicle prognosis directly addresses the issue of timely vehicle maintenance by identifying potential failures in advance of or during their occurance. The prognostic approach selected for a system is necessarily dependent on the types of failures occuring within the system. Of the three general types of failures, random, stress related and detectable, only the latter two represent cases for which vehicle prognosis is currently feasible. Prognosis for stress related failures is accomplished by monitoring system stress until internal components have completed their life cycles. Prognosis for detectable failures is accomplished by monitoring the progress of a measurable parameter as it degrades with system use. The rate at which this parameter changes with use provides information vital to the development of a prognosis. It is the latter approach which is discussed in this document. This paper describes the process of developing algorithms for diesel engine power prognosis using the specific example of a Cummins VT903 engine. It also includes a discussion for the extension of the techniques presented to other engines. Finally, the economic and technological issues affecting algorithm scope and utility are analyzed.

  16. Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study.

  17. Demonstrating Ultra-Low Diesel Vehicle Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.

    2000-08-20

    Evaluate performance of near-term exhaust emissions control technologies on a modern diesel vehicle over transient drive cycles; Phase 1: Independent (separate) evaluations of engine-out, OEM catalysts, CDPF, and NOx adsorber (Completed March 2000); Phase 2: Combine NOx adsorber and CDPF to evaluate/demonstrate simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM (Underway--interim results available); Establish potential for these technologies to help CIDI engines meet emission reduction targets; and Investigate short-term effects of fuel sulfur on emissions performance

  18. Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine - SAE World Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Hanson, Reed M; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The effect of E85 on the Ad-hoc federal test procedure (FTP) modal points is explored along with the effect of load expansion through the light-duty diesel speed operating range. The Ad-hoc FTP modal points of 1500 rpm, 1.0bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP); 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP; 2000rpm, 2.0bar BMEP; 2300rpm, 4.2bar BMEP; and 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP were explored. Previous results with 96 RON unleaded test gasoline (UTG-96) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) showed that with stock hardware, the 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP modal point was not obtainable due to excessive cylinder pressure rise rate and unstable combustion both with and without the use of EGR. Brake thermal efficiency and emissions performance of RCCI operation with E85 and ULSD is explored and compared against conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI operation with UTG 96 and ULSD.

  19. Evaluation of catalyzed and electrically heated filters for removal of particulate emissions from diesel-A- and JP-8-fueled engines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David A; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F; Bretecher, Brad; Holden, Bruce; Helgeson, Norm; Sahay, Keshav; Nardi, Zack

    2004-01-01

    In-service diesel engines are a significant source of particulate matter (PM) emissions, and they have been subjected to increasingly strict emissions standards. Consequently, the wide-scale use of some type of particulate filter is expected. This study evaluated the effect of an Engelhard catalyzed soot filter (CSF) and a Rypos electrically heated soot filter on the emissions from in-service diesel engines in terms of PM mass, black carbon concentration, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration, and size distribution. Both filters capture PM. The CSF relies on the engine's exhaust to reach the catalyst regeneration temperature and oxidize soot, whereas the electrically heated filter contains a heating element to oxidize soot. The filters were installed on several military diesel engines. Particle concentrations and compositions were measured before and after installation of the filter and again after several months of operation. Generally, the CSF removed at least 90% of total PM, and the removal efficiency improved or remained constant after several months of operation. In contrast, the electrical filters removed 44-69% of PM mass. In addition to evaluating the soot filters, the sampling team also compared the results of several real-time particle measurement instruments to traditional filter measurements of total mass.

  20. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  1. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  2. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  3. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  4. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Dust, Respirable Crystalline Silica and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions in the London Tunnelling Environment.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; Mair, Craig; Alexander, Carla; de Vocht, Frank; van Tongeren, Martie

    2016-03-01

    Personal 8-h shift exposure to respirable dust, diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEE) (as respirable elemental carbon), and respirable crystalline silica of workers involved in constructing an underground metro railway tunnel was assessed. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were also assessed using a MicroAeth AE51. During sprayed concrete lining (SCL) activities in the tunnel, the geometric mean (GM) respirable dust exposure level was 0.91mg m(-3), with the highest exposure measured on a back-up sprayer (3.20mg m(-3)). The GM respirable crystalline silica concentration for SCL workers was 0.03mg m(-3), with the highest measurement also for the back-up sprayer (0.24mg m(-3)). During tunnel boring machine (TBM) activities, the GM respirable dust concentration was 0.54mg m(-3). The GM respirable elemental carbon concentration for all the TBM operators was 18 µg m(-3); with the highest concentration measured on a segment lifter. The BC concentrations were higher in the SCL environment in comparison to the TBM environment (daily GM 18-54 µg m(-3) versus 3-6 µg m(-3)). This small-scale monitoring campaign provides additional personal data on exposures experienced by underground tunnel construction workers.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Dust, Respirable Crystalline Silica and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions in the London Tunnelling Environment.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; Mair, Craig; Alexander, Carla; de Vocht, Frank; van Tongeren, Martie

    2016-03-01

    Personal 8-h shift exposure to respirable dust, diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEE) (as respirable elemental carbon), and respirable crystalline silica of workers involved in constructing an underground metro railway tunnel was assessed. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were also assessed using a MicroAeth AE51. During sprayed concrete lining (SCL) activities in the tunnel, the geometric mean (GM) respirable dust exposure level was 0.91mg m(-3), with the highest exposure measured on a back-up sprayer (3.20mg m(-3)). The GM respirable crystalline silica concentration for SCL workers was 0.03mg m(-3), with the highest measurement also for the back-up sprayer (0.24mg m(-3)). During tunnel boring machine (TBM) activities, the GM respirable dust concentration was 0.54mg m(-3). The GM respirable elemental carbon concentration for all the TBM operators was 18 µg m(-3); with the highest concentration measured on a segment lifter. The BC concentrations were higher in the SCL environment in comparison to the TBM environment (daily GM 18-54 µg m(-3) versus 3-6 µg m(-3)). This small-scale monitoring campaign provides additional personal data on exposures experienced by underground tunnel construction workers. PMID:26403363

  6. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel engine emission (elemental carbon) inside a car and a subway train.

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Oddoy, A; Piloty, M; Krause, M; Lahrz, T

    1998-06-30

    Significant concentrations of potentially harmful substances can be present in the interior of vehicles. The main sources of PAHs and elemental carbon (EC) inside a car are likely to be combustion emissions, especially from coal and traffic. The same sources can also be important for the interior of a subway train for which there are specific sources in the tunnel system, for example diesel engines. Twice, in summer 1995 and winter 1996 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel motor emission (estimated as elemental carbon) were determined in the interior of a car (a 2-year-old VW Golf with a three-way catalytic converter) and in the passenger compartment of a subway train (below ground). On each sampling day (in total 16 daily measurements in the car and 16 in the subway) the substances were determined in the breathing zone of the passengers from 07:00 h to 16:00 h under different meteorologic conditions (winter- and summertime). The car followed the route of the subway from the western Berlin borough of Spandau to the south-eastern borough of Neukölln, and back. The sampling represented a realistic exposure model for driving in a high traffic and polluted urban area. The electric subway train (also 2 years in use) connected the same parts of Berlin (31 km underground). The mean values obtained during the two measurement periods (summer/winter) inside the car were 1.0 and 3.2 ng/m3 for benzo[a]pyrene, 10.2 and 28.7 ng/m3 for total-measured-PAHs, 14.1 and 8.2 micrograms/m3 for EC and in the subway 0.7 and 4.0 ng/m3 for benzol[a]pyrene, 30.2 and 67.5 ng/m3 for total PAHs, 109 and 6.9 micrograms/m3 for EC. A comparison between subway and car exposures shows significantly higher concentrations of PAHs in the subway train, which can be explained by relatively high concentrations of fluoranthene and pyrene in the subway. So far a satisfactory explanation has not been found, but one source might be the wooden railway ties which were formerly preserved with tar

  8. Experimental investigation of a multicylinder unmodified diesel engine performance, emission, and heat loss characteristics using different biodiesel blends: rollout of B10 in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abedin, M J; Masjuki, H H; Kalam, M A; Varman, M; Arbab, M I; Fattah, I M Rizwanul; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and emission analysis of a multicylinder diesel engine using biodiesel along with an in-depth analysis of the engine heat losses in different subsystems followed by the energy balance of all the energy flows from the engine. Energy balance analysis allows the designer to appraise the internal energy variations of a thermodynamic system as a function of ''energy flows" across the control volume as work or heat and also the enthalpies associated with the energy flows which are passing through these boundaries. Palm and coconut are the two most potential biodiesel feed stocks in this part of the world. The investigation was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with 10% and 20% blends of palm and coconut biodiesels and compared with B5 at full load condition and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. Among the all tested blends, palm blends seemed more promising in terms of engine performance, emission, and heat losses. The influence of heat losses on engine performance and emission has been discussed thoroughly in this paper. PMID:25162046

  9. Experimental investigation of a multicylinder unmodified diesel engine performance, emission, and heat loss characteristics using different biodiesel blends: rollout of B10 in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abedin, M J; Masjuki, H H; Kalam, M A; Varman, M; Arbab, M I; Fattah, I M Rizwanul; Masum, B M

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and emission analysis of a multicylinder diesel engine using biodiesel along with an in-depth analysis of the engine heat losses in different subsystems followed by the energy balance of all the energy flows from the engine. Energy balance analysis allows the designer to appraise the internal energy variations of a thermodynamic system as a function of ''energy flows" across the control volume as work or heat and also the enthalpies associated with the energy flows which are passing through these boundaries. Palm and coconut are the two most potential biodiesel feed stocks in this part of the world. The investigation was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with 10% and 20% blends of palm and coconut biodiesels and compared with B5 at full load condition and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. Among the all tested blends, palm blends seemed more promising in terms of engine performance, emission, and heat losses. The influence of heat losses on engine performance and emission has been discussed thoroughly in this paper.

  10. Experimental Investigation of a Multicylinder Unmodified Diesel Engine Performance, Emission, and Heat Loss Characteristics Using Different Biodiesel Blends: Rollout of B10 in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abedin, M. J.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Arbab, M. I.; Fattah, I. M. Rizwanul; Masum, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and emission analysis of a multicylinder diesel engine using biodiesel along with an in-depth analysis of the engine heat losses in different subsystems followed by the energy balance of all the energy flows from the engine. Energy balance analysis allows the designer to appraise the internal energy variations of a thermodynamic system as a function of ‘‘energy flows” across the control volume as work or heat and also the enthalpies associated with the energy flows which are passing through these boundaries. Palm and coconut are the two most potential biodiesel feed stocks in this part of the world. The investigation was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with 10% and 20% blends of palm and coconut biodiesels and compared with B5 at full load condition and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. Among the all tested blends, palm blends seemed more promising in terms of engine performance, emission, and heat losses. The influence of heat losses on engine performance and emission has been discussed thoroughly in this paper. PMID:25162046

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  12. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship.

  13. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship. PMID:26126632

  14. Emissions from combustion engines and their control

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.J.; Henein, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    This standard text for the automotive industry explains in detail the fundamentals of emission formation and control for gasoline and diesel engines. These concepts can be applied to other combustion systems, such as gas turbines and stationary power plants. Topics of discussion include: combustion in homogeneous mixtures; effect of design and operating variables on gasoline engine exhaust emissions; hydrocarbon evaporation emissions; diesel engine combustion emissions and controls; emission instrumentation; and automotive exhaust emission testing. 200 references, 197 figures.

  15. Reducing carbonyl emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine at US transient cycle test by use of paraffinic/biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Chia-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2009-12-01

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are toxic carcinogens so their reductions in diesel-engine emissions are desirable. This study investigated emissions of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) from an HDDE (heavy-duty diesel engine) at US transient cycle test, using five test fuels: premium diesel fuel (D100), P100 (100% palm-biodiesel), P20 (20% palm-biodiesel + 80% premium diesel fuel), PF80P20 (80% paraffinic fuel + 20% palm-biodiesel), and PF95P05 (95% paraffinic fuel + 5% palm-biodiesel). Experimental results indicate that formaldehyde was the major carbonyl in the exhaust, accounting for 70.1-76.2% of total CBC concentrations for all test fuels. In comparison with D100 (172 mg BHP -1 h -1), the reductions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission factor for P100, P20, PF80P20, and PF95P05 were (-16.8%, -61.8%), (-10.0%, -39.0%), (21.3%, 1.10%), and (31.1%, 19.5%), respectively. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 in the HDDE increased CBC concentrations by 14.5% and 3.28%, respectively, but using PF80P20 and PF95P05 significantly reduced CBC concentrations by 30.3% and 23.7%, respectively. Using P100 and P20 instead of D100 (2867 ton yr -1) in the HDDE increased CBC emissions by 240 and 224 ton yr -1, respectively, but using PF80P20, and PF95P05 instead of D100 in the HDDE decreased CBC emissions by 711 and 899 ton yr -1, respectively. The above results indicate that the wide usage of paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends as alternative fuels could protect the environment.

  16. Atmospheric transformation of diesel emissions.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Samy, Shar; McDonald, Jacob D; Seagrave, JeanClare

    2010-04-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that exposing diesel exhaust (DE*) to the atmosphere transforms its composition and toxicity. Our specific aims were (1) to characterize the gas- and particle-phase products of atmospheric transformations of DE under the influence of daylight, ozone (O3), hydroxyl (OH) radicals, and nitrate (NO3) radicals; and (2) to explore the biologic activity of DE before and after the transformations took place. The study was executed with the aid of the EUPHORE (European Photoreactor) outdoor simulation chamber facility in Valencia, Spain. EUPHORE is one of the largest and best-equipped facilities of its kind in the world, allowing investigation of atmospheric transformation processes under realistic ambient conditions (with dilutions in the range of 1:300). DE was generated on-site using a modern light-duty diesel engine and a dynamometer system equipped with a continuous emission-gas analyzer. The engine (a turbocharged, intercooled model with common-rail direct injection) was obtained from the Ford Motor Company. A first series of experiments was carried out in January 2005 (the winter 2005 campaign), a second in May 2005 (the summer 2005 campaign), and a third in May and June 2006 (the summer 2006 campaign). The diesel fuel that was used closely matched the one currently in use in most of the United States (containing 47 ppm sulfur and 15% aromatic compounds). Our experiments examined the effects on the composition of DE aged in the dark with added NO3 radicals and of DE aged in daylight with added OH radicals both with and without added volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to remove excess nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), a NO(x) denuder was devised and used to conduct experiments in realistic low-NO(x) conditions in both summer campaigns. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to determine the particle size and the number and volume concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in the DE. O3, NO(x), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NO

  17. Atmospheric transformation of diesel emissions.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Samy, Shar; McDonald, Jacob D; Seagrave, JeanClare

    2010-04-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that exposing diesel exhaust (DE*) to the atmosphere transforms its composition and toxicity. Our specific aims were (1) to characterize the gas- and particle-phase products of atmospheric transformations of DE under the influence of daylight, ozone (O3), hydroxyl (OH) radicals, and nitrate (NO3) radicals; and (2) to explore the biologic activity of DE before and after the transformations took place. The study was executed with the aid of the EUPHORE (European Photoreactor) outdoor simulation chamber facility in Valencia, Spain. EUPHORE is one of the largest and best-equipped facilities of its kind in the world, allowing investigation of atmospheric transformation processes under realistic ambient conditions (with dilutions in the range of 1:300). DE was generated on-site using a modern light-duty diesel engine and a dynamometer system equipped with a continuous emission-gas analyzer. The engine (a turbocharged, intercooled model with common-rail direct injection) was obtained from the Ford Motor Company. A first series of experiments was carried out in January 2005 (the winter 2005 campaign), a second in May 2005 (the summer 2005 campaign), and a third in May and June 2006 (the summer 2006 campaign). The diesel fuel that was used closely matched the one currently in use in most of the United States (containing 47 ppm sulfur and 15% aromatic compounds). Our experiments examined the effects on the composition of DE aged in the dark with added NO3 radicals and of DE aged in daylight with added OH radicals both with and without added volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to remove excess nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), a NO(x) denuder was devised and used to conduct experiments in realistic low-NO(x) conditions in both summer campaigns. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to determine the particle size and the number and volume concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in the DE. O3, NO(x), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NO

  18. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyungmin; Jeong, Yeonhwan

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  19. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  20. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  1. [Particle emission characteristics of diesel bus fueled with bio-diesel].

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Ming; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    With the use of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS), a study on the characteristics of particle emissions was carried out on a China-IV diesel bus fueled with blends of 5% , 10% , 20% , 50% bio-diesel transformed from restaurant waste oil and China-IV diesel (marked separately by BD5, BD10, BD20, BD50), pure bio-diesel (BD100) and pure diesel (BD0). The results indicated that particulate number (PN) and mass (PM) emissions of bio-diesel blends increased with the increase in bus speed and acceleration; with increasing bio-diesel content, particulate emissions displayed a relevant declining trend. In different speed ranges, the size distribution of particulate number emissions (PNSD) was bimodal; in different acceleration ranges, PNSD showed a gradual transition from bimodal shape to unimodal when bus operation was switched from decelerating to accelerating status. Bio-diesel blends with higher mixture ratios showed significant reduction in PN emissions for accumulated modes, and the particulate number emission peaks moved towards smaller sizes; but little change was obtained in PN emissions for nuclei modes; reduction also occurred in particle geometric diameter (Dg).

  2. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  3. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel applications through nondestructive evaluation, structural analysis modeling and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components. Data obtained from advanced diesel engines on the effect of thermal barrier coatings on engine fuel economy and emission has not been encouraging. Although the underlying metal component temperatures have been reduced through the use of thermal barrier coating, engine efficiency and emission trends have not been promising.

  4. Research on the impact of CeO2-based solid solution metal oxide on combustion performance of diesel engine and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Zhipeng; Tang, Yunbang; Man, Changzhong; Zhao, Yince; Ren, Jianlu

    2013-09-01

    This paper mainly studies on the performance of high-speed diesel engines and emission reduction when the engine uses heavy oil mixed with nanometer-sized additives Ce0.9Cu0.1O2 and Ce0.9Zr0.1O2. During the test, Indiset 620 combustion analyzer made by AVL, was used to make a real-time survey on the cylinder pressure, the fuel ignition moment, and establish a relation between the change trend of temperature in cylinder and the crank angle. For the engine burning heavy oil and heavy oil mixed with additives, combustion analysis software Indicom and Concerto were used to analyze its combustion process and emission conditions. Experimental investigation shows that nano-sized complex oxide can improve the performance of diesel engine fueled with heavy oil, and reduce the emission of pollutants like NOx and CO, comparing it with the pure heavy oil. According to the consequences of this experiment, the additives improve the overall performance in the use of heavy oil.

  5. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  6. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chen, Chung-Ban; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    Because of the fishery subsidy policy, the fishing boat fuel oil (FBFO) exemption from commodity taxes, business taxes and air pollution control fees, resulted in the price of FBFO was ˜50% lower than premium diesel fuel (PDF) in Taiwan. It is estimated that ˜650,000 kL FBFO was illegally used by traveling diesel-vehicles (TDVs) with a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE), which accounted for ˜16.3% of the total diesel fuel consumed by TDVs. In this study, sulfur, poly aromatic and total-aromatic contents in both FBFO and PDF were measured and compared. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) from a HDDE under transient cycle testing for both FBFO and PDF were compared and discussed. Finally, the impact caused by the illegal use of FBFO on the air quality was examined. Results show that the mean sulfur-, poly aromatic and aromatic-contents in FBFO were 43.0, 3.89 and 1.04 times higher than that of PDF, respectively. Emission factors of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq obtained by utilizing FBFO were 51.5 and 0.235 mg L -1-Fuel, which were 3.41 and 5.82 times in magnitude higher than obtained by PDF, respectively. The estimated annual emissions of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq to the ambient environment due to the illegally used FBFO were 23.6 and 0.126 metric tons, respectively, which resulted in a 17.9% and a 25.0% increment of annual emissions from all mobile sources, respectively. These results indicated that the FBFO used illegally by TDVs had a significant impact on PAH emissions to the ambient environment.

  7. Personal exposure to benzene from fuel emissions among commercial fishers: comparison of two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Ellen; Loomis, Dana; Egeghy, Peter; Nylander-French, Leena

    2007-03-01

    Commercial fishers are exposed to unburned hydrocarbon vapors and combustion products present in the emissions from their boat engines. The objective of this study was to measure personal exposure to benzene as a marker of fuel exposure, and to predict exposure levels across categories of carbureted two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines. A self-monitoring approach, employing passive monitors, was used to obtain measurements of personal exposure to benzene over time. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to predict exposure levels, identify significant effects and determine restricted maximum likelihood estimates for within- and between-person variance components. Significant fixed effects for engine type and refueling a car or truck were identified. After controlling for refueling, predicted benzene exposure levels to fishers on boats equipped with two-stroke, four-stroke and diesel engines were 58.4, 38.9 and 15.7 microg/m3, respectively. The logged within-person variance component was 1.43, larger than the between-person variance component of 1.13, indicating that the total variation may be attributable to monitor placement, environmental conditions and other factors that change over time as well as differences between individual work practices. The health consequences of exposure to marine engine emissions are not known. The predicted levels are well below those at which health effects have been attributed, however.

  8. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. PMID:22561182

  9. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  10. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.313-79 Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines. (a) The air flow...

  11. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.313-79 Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines. (a) The air flow...

  12. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.313-79 Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines. (a) The air flow...

  13. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.313-79 Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines. (a) The air flow...

  14. A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2005-11-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  15. Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Jalava, Pasi I; Tapanainen, Maija; Kuuspalo, Kari; Markkanen, Ari; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S; Pennanen, Arto S; Ihalainen, Mika; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Makkonen, Ulla; Teinilä, Kimmo; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2010-12-01

    There is increasing demand for renewable energy and the use of biodiesel in traffic is a major option when implying this increment. We investigated the toxicological activities of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine, operated with conventional diesel fuel (EN590), and two biodiesels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and hydrotreated fresh vegetable oil (HVO). The engine was operated with all fuels either with or without catalyst (DOC/POC). The particulate matter (PM(1)) samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). These samples were characterized for ions, elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (TNF-α and MIP-2), cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]) were measured. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent toxicological activity. EN590 and HVO emission particles had larger inflammatory responses than RME-derived particles. The catalyst somewhat increased the responses per the same mass unit. There were no substantial differences in the cytotoxic responses between the fuels or catalyst use. Genotoxic responses by all the particulate samples were at same level, except weaker for the RME sample with catalyst. Unlike other samples, EN590-derived particles did not significantly increase ROS production. Catalyst increased the oxidative potential of the EN590 and HVO-derived particles, but decreased that with RME. Overall, the use of biodiesel fuels and catalyst decreased the particulate mass emissions compared with the EN590 fuel. Similar studies with different types of diesel engines are needed to assess the potential benefits from biofuel use in engines with modern technologies. PMID:21029031

  16. Using Carbon-14 Isotope Tracing to Investigate Molecular Structure Effects of the Oxygenate Dibutyl Maleate on Soot Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Upatnieks, A; Martin, G C; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2004-01-07

    The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot emissions from a DI diesel engine was examined using carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) isotope tracing. Carbon atoms in three distinct chemical structures within the diesel oxygenate dibutyl maleate (DBM) were labeled with {sup 14}C. The {sup 14}C from the labeled DBM was then detected in engine-out particulate matter (PM), in-cylinder deposits, and CO{sub 2} emissions using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The results indicate that molecular structure plays an important role in determining whether a specific carbon atom either does or does not form soot. Chemical-kinetic modeling results indicate that structures that produce CO{sub 2} directly from the fuel are less effective at reducing soot than structures that produce CO before producing CO{sub 2}. Because they can follow individual carbon atoms through a real combustion process, {sup 14}C isotope tracing studies help strengthen the connection between actual engine emissions and chemical-kinetic models of combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes.

  17. Factors affecting heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nigel N; Kern, Justin M; Atkinson, Christopher M; Nine, Ralph D

    2002-01-01

    Societal and governmental pressures to reduce diesel exhaust emissions are reflected in the existing and projected future heavy-duty certification standards of these emissions. Various factors affect the amount of emissions produced by a heterogeneous charge diesel engine in any given situation, but these are poorly quantified in the existing literature. The parameters that most heavily affect the emissions from compression ignition engine-powered vehicles include vehicle class and weight, driving cycle, vehicle vocation, fuel type, engine exhaust aftertreatment, vehicle age, and the terrain traveled. In addition, engine control effects (such as injection timing strategies) on measured emissions can be significant. Knowing the effect of each aspect of engine and vehicle operation on the emissions from diesel engines is useful in determining methods for reducing these emissions and in assessing the need for improvement in inventory models. The effects of each of these aspects have been quantified in this paper to provide an estimate of the impact each one has on the emissions of diesel engines.

  18. EFFECTS OF ENGINE SPEED AND ACCESSORY LOAD ON IDLING EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  19. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L.; Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J.

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  20. Utiization of alternate fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Lestz, S.S.

    1980-09-01

    Accomplishments during three years entitled The Utilization of Alternate Fuels in Diesel Engines are summarized. Experiments were designed and test equipment set-up for the purpose of evaluating the use of methanol as a fumigant for light-duty Diesel engine service. The major experimental results were obtained from a multicylinder automotive Diesel engine. However, fundamental studies employing a GC/micro-reactor and a constant volume combustion bomb were also started. The purpose of this work was to measure some of the chemical and physical properties of methanol and methanol-air mixtures. The laminar flame velocity for various mixtures has been measured in the combustion bomb and thermal degradation studies have begun in the GC/micro-reactor. An Oldsmobile 5.7 liter V/8 Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of the study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract was also made using boh the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the B. subtilis Comptest. Generally, methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads, the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. The biological activity of the raw particulate matter was fond to be less than that of its soluble organic extract. However, for both the fumigation of methanol did enhance the biological activity.

  1. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  2. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  3. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  4. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  5. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...

  6. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  7. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  8. Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

    With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

  9. Time-resolved nature of exhaust gas emissions and piston wall temperature under transient operation in a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reksowardojo, I.K.; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Noboru; Enomoto, Yoshiteru; Kitamura, Toru

    1996-09-01

    Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.

  10. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  11. Field measurement of diesel particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Volkwein, Jon C; Mischler, Steven E; Davies, Brian; Ellis, Clive

    2008-03-01

    A primary means to reduce environmental levels of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure to miners is to reduce the amount of DPM emission from the engine. A quick and economic method to estimate engine particulate emission levels has been developed. The method relies on the measurement of pressure increase across a filter element that is briefly used to collect a DPM sample directly from the engine exhaust. The method has been refined with the inclusion of an annular aqueous denuder to the tube which permits dry filter samples to be obtained without addition of dilution air. Tailpipe filter samples may then be directly collected in hot and water-supersaturated exhaust gas flows from water bath-cooled coal mine engines without the need for dilution air. Measurement of a differential pressure (DP) increase with time has been related to the mass of elemental carbon (EC) on the filter. Results for laboratory and field measurements of the method showed agreement between DP increase and EC collected on the filter with R(2) values >0.86. The relative standard deviation from replicate samples of DP and EC was 0.16 and 0.11, respectively. The method may also have applications beyond mining, where qualitative evaluation of engine emissions is desirable to determine if engine or control technology maintenance may be required.

  12. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  13. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel engine applications through rig tests, structural analysis modeling, nondestructive evaluation, and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Although much conflicting literature now exists regarding the impact of thermal barrier coatings on engine performance and fuel consumption, the changes in fuel consumption appear to be less than a few percent and can be negative for state-of-the-art diesel engines. The ability of the thermal barrier coating to improve fuel economy tends to be dependent on a number of factors including the fuel injection system, combustion chamber design, and the initial engine fuel economy. Limited investigations on state-of-the-art diesel engines have indicated that the surface connected porosity and coating surface roughness may influence engine fuel economy. Current research efforts on thermal barrier coatings are primarily directed at reducing in-cylinder heat rejection, thermal fatigue protection of underlying metal surfaces and a possible reduction in diesel engine emissions. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components.

  14. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  15. Size-Resolved Density Measurements of Particulate Emissions from an Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine: Effect of Aggregate Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John Morse; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E

    2011-01-01

    We report the first in situ size-resolved density measurements of particles produced by premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and compare these with conventional diesel particles. The densities of size-classified particles were determined by measurements with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). Particle masses of the different size classes were evaluated with a proposed DMA-APM response function for aggregates. Our results indicate that the effective densities of PCCI and conventional diesel particles were approximately the same for 50 and 100 nm electrical mobility diameters (0.9 and 0.6 g/cc, respectively), but the PCCI particle effective density (0.4 g/cc) was less than the conventional (0.5 g/cc) for 150 nm. The lowest effective particle densities were observed for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels somewhat less than that required for PCCI operation. The inherent densities of conventional particles in the 50 and 100 nm size classes were 1.22 and 1.77 g/cc, which is in good agreement with Park et al. (2004). PCCI inherent particle densities for these same size classes were higher (1.27 and 2.10 g/cc), suggesting that there may have been additional adsorbed liquid hydrocarbons. For 150 nm particles, the inherent densities were nearly the same for PCCI and conventional particles at 2.20 g/cc. We expect that the lower effective density of PCCI particles may improve particulate emissions control with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The presence of liquid hydrocarbons may also promote oxidation in DPFs.

  16. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  18. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  19. Exhaust emissions from twenty light duty diesel trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, J.C.

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes the results of an exhaust emission testing program conducted for EPA by Automotive Testing laboratories. Twenty diesel-powered light-duty trucks were tested. Gross vehicle weight ratings for these trucks ranged from 5300 to 6200 lbs. The primary purpose of this program was to provide data to establish emission factors for light duty diesel-powered trucks. Secondary objectives included an assessment of the emission durability of the engines and an evaluation of fuel economy. The test vehicles were randomly selected from the general public in the St. Louis area using direct appeals to individual owners and referrals from other test participants. The test sequence included the Federal Test Procedure, the Highway Fuel Economy Test and several short tests. Mass emissions were also measured during individual steady state and transient modes of operation. The work was conducted during March and April of 1980. The average emission test results were very low and similar to those from diesel engines in passenger cars. It appears that diesel engines in light duty truck service demonstrate virtually no emission deterioration while in-use over their 'useful life' although two engines required major engine rebuilding before 50,000 miles.

  20. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  1. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  2. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results.

  3. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    PubMed Central

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  4. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  5. Impact of a NO₂-regenerated diesel particulate filter on PAH and NPAH emissions from an EURO IV heavy duty engine.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Matteo; Niessner, Reinhard

    2011-12-01

    In this study the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-derivates (NPAH) from a modern heavy duty engine were analysed. Focus was on the effects of the aftertreatment system. It consisted of an oxidation catalyst coupled to a diesel particulate filter (DPF). In such systems the process of PAH and NPAH degradation may compete with the NPAH formation. Scope of the study was to explain to which extent modern DPF could support the formation of highly mutagenic NPAH by nitration of pre-existing PAH. It was found that the diesel trap reduced the total amount of PAH and NPAH emitted both at low load and high load. Nevertheless, at low load the lower temperatures and the higher NO(2) concentration furnished better conditions for PAH nitration while they were more adverse to NPAH degradation. These effects were NPAH-specific. For these reasons, some NPAH like 3-nitrophenanthrene were still efficiently degraded but others were newly formed. For instance emissions of the highly toxic 1-benzo(a)pyrene and 6-nitrobenzo(a)pyrene where increased by a factor 15 at low load and, even if in lower amount, were formed also at high load. The super-mutagen 1,6-dinitropyrene, which was not present in raw exhaust, could be found only after the DPF, indicating a new formation. In regard to emissions from the active regeneration mode, tremendous high emissions of 1-nitropyrene were reported. More accurate investigation of such a regeneration mode would be of great interest for the future.

  6. Mine fire detection in the presence of diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.; Franks, R.A.; Friel, G.F.; Lazzara, C.P.; Opferman, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    A series of four coal combustion experiments was conducted at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Research Laboratory (PRL) in the Safety Research Coal Mine (SRCM) to evaluate the response of fire sensors to a small 0.61 m square smoldering coal fire which transitions to flaming combustion in the presence of diesel emissions. An optical path smoke sensor alarmed earlier than a point type diffusion mode ionization smoke sensor, which alarmed prior to a co alert value of 5 ppm above ambient. The presence of steady state diesel emissions resulted in a decrease in the optical smoke sensor analog output voltage signal by less than 1.4 pct for the three coal fire experiments in which a diesel engine was operating, whereas the ionization smoke sensor output decreased between 10.8 and 26.7 pct after the initial surge of the diesel engine. A commercial diesel discriminating fire sensor did not alarm for a fire in the one experiment for which it was used. The results of the experiments demonstrated that an optical path smoke sensor might be used to detect a coal fire under the experimental conditions considered of starting a diesel engine followed by a slowly developing coal fire.

  7. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  8. Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

  9. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...

  10. High-alcohol microemulsion fuel performance in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.H.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necssitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated. The apparent cetane numbers ranged from around 20 to above 50 with the majority between 30 and 45. Emissions of nitric oxide were measured for a few select fuels and were found to be 10 to 20% lower than No. 2 diesel fuel. 36 refs., 87 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of a low heat rejection engine with different air gap thicknesses with Jatropha oil based bio-diesel.

    PubMed

    Murali Krishna, M V S; Sarita, G; Seshagiri Rao, V V R; Chowdary, R P; Ramana Reddy, Ch V

    2010-04-01

    The research work on alternate fuels has been the topic of wider interest in the context of depletion of fossil fuels and increasing of pollution levels of the engines with conventional fossil fuels. Alcohols and vegetable oils are considered to replace diesel fuels as they are renewable in nature. However, use of alcohols in internal combustion engines is limited in India, as these fuels are diverted to PetroChemical industries and hence much emphasis is given to the non-edible vegetable oils as alternate fuels in internal combustion engines. However, the drawbacks of low volatility and high viscosity associated with non-edible vegetable oils call for hot combustion chamber, provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. Investigations are carried out on a LHR diesel engine with varied air gap thicknesses and injection pressures with jatropha oil based bio-diesel at normal temperature. Performance is improved with high degree of insulation with LHR engine with vegetable oil in comparison with conventional engine (CE) with pure diesel operation. PMID:21114115

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of a low heat rejection engine with different air gap thicknesses with Jatropha oil based bio-diesel.

    PubMed

    Murali Krishna, M V S; Sarita, G; Seshagiri Rao, V V R; Chowdary, R P; Ramana Reddy, Ch V

    2010-04-01

    The research work on alternate fuels has been the topic of wider interest in the context of depletion of fossil fuels and increasing of pollution levels of the engines with conventional fossil fuels. Alcohols and vegetable oils are considered to replace diesel fuels as they are renewable in nature. However, use of alcohols in internal combustion engines is limited in India, as these fuels are diverted to PetroChemical industries and hence much emphasis is given to the non-edible vegetable oils as alternate fuels in internal combustion engines. However, the drawbacks of low volatility and high viscosity associated with non-edible vegetable oils call for hot combustion chamber, provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. Investigations are carried out on a LHR diesel engine with varied air gap thicknesses and injection pressures with jatropha oil based bio-diesel at normal temperature. Performance is improved with high degree of insulation with LHR engine with vegetable oil in comparison with conventional engine (CE) with pure diesel operation.

  14. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  16. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  17. The Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, J. L.; Werner, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  18. REAL-TIME EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS DURING STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT OPERATION OF A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW)diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emission...

  19. Compression ignition engine fuel properties of a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.

    2000-05-01

    Vegetable oils may be used with dilution modification technique as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend (20:80 {nu}/{nu}%) was investigated in a Pancar Motor E-108-type diesel engine to observe engine characteristics and exhaust emission. The effect of the compression ratio on ignition delay characteristics and smoke emissions of blend fuel was determined in this CFR engine. The results of fuel blends were compared with the reference grade No. 2-D diesel fuel.

  20. Application on Oxygenated Fuel of Mono-Ether Group in AN Idi Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Gon; Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Effect of oxygen components of fuels on exhaust emissions has been investigated by applying an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine. This research analyzed variation and/or difference of the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the IDI diesel engine by fueling the commercial diesel fuel and four different mixed ratios of oxygenated blended fuels. Effect of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) method was analyzed on the NOx emission characteristics. Ethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether (EGBE) contains 27% of oxygen components in itself, and it is a kind of effective oxygenated fuel of mono-ether group. Smoke emission from the EGBE was reduced remarkably relative to the commercial diesel fuel. The EGBE can supply oxygen components sufficiently at higher diesel engine loads and speeds. It was found that a simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx was achieved with the oxygenated fuel (10 vol-%) and the cooled EGR method (10%).

  1. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  2. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  3. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr,. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  4. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-03-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  5. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  6. Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Stang

    2000-06-19

    The Automotive Market in the United States is moving in the direction of more Light Trucks and fewer Small Cars. The customers for these vehicles have not changed, only their purchase decisions. Cummins has studied the requirements of this emerging market. Design and development of an engine system that will meet these customer needs has started. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of early testing are presented which show that the diesel is possibly a good solution.

  7. Experimental Study of Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Methyl Oleate, as a Surrogate for Biodiesel, in a Direct injection Diesel Engine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the combustion and emissions characteristics of methyl oleate (C19H36O2 CAS# 112-62) produced by transesterification from oleic acid, one of the main fatty acid components of biodiesel. The ignition delay of ultra-low sulfur diesel#2 (ULSD) and its blends with methyl oleate (O20...

  8. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  11. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  12. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  13. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    PubMed

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  14. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    PubMed

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  15. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  16. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    , the synthetic fuel contained slightly less heat energy and fewer emissions. Test results obtained from adding different levels of a small amount of hydrogen into the intake manifold of a diesel-operated engine showed no effect on exhaust heat content. In other words, both synthetic fuel and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen may not have a significant enough effect on the amount of recoverable heat and its feasibility. An economic analysis computer program was developed on Visual Basic for Application in Microsoft Excel. The program was developed to be user friendly, to accept different levels of input data, and to expand for other heat recovery applications (i.e., power, desalination, etc.) by adding into the program the simulation subroutines of the desired applications. The developed program has been validated using experimental data.

  17. THE DIESEL ENGINE'S CHALLENGE IN THE NEW MILLENIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John W.

    2000-08-20

    Diesel engines are the dominant propulsion engine of choice for most of the commercial surface transportation applications in the world. Consider agricultural uses: Diesel engine power is used to prepare the soil, transport the bulk seed or seedlings, pump irrigation water, and spray fertilizers, mechanically harvest some crops and distribute the produce to market. Diesel engines power virtually all of the off-highway construction equipment. Deep water commercial freighters or containerships are almost all diesel engine powered. The passenger ships are primarily either diesel or a combination of diesel and gas turbine, referred to as CODAG or CODOG.

  18. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  19. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  20. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  1. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon; Jindapetch, Naret; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long-term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 microm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 microm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 microm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaP(eq)) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaP(eq) decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  2. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  3. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  4. Towards the regulation of aerosol emissions by their potential health impact: Assessing adverse effects of aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine emissions by combining comprehensive data on the chemical composition and their toxicological effects on human lung cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Streibel, T.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Rheda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Czech, H.; Tiita, P.; Jalava, P.; Kasurinen, S.; Schwemer, T.; Yli-Prilä, P.; Tissari, J.; Lamberg, H.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ship engine emissions are important regarding lung and cardiovascular diseases in coastal regions worldwide. Bio mass burning is made responsible for adverse health effects in many cities and rural regions. The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. Typical lung cell responses to combustion aerosols include inflammation and apoptosis, but a molecular link with the specific chemical composition in particular of ship emissions has not been established. Through an air-liquid interface exposure system (ALI), we exposed human lung cells at-site to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on common heavy fuel oil (HFO) and cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF) as well as to emissions of wood combustion compliances. A special field deployable ALI-exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for this study. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling to characterise the cellular responses. The HFO ship emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds (transition metals, organic toxicants) and particle masses. The cellular responses included inflammation and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, the DF ship emissions, which predominantly contain rather "pure" carbonaceous soot and much less known toxicants, induced significantly broader biological effects, affecting essential cellular pathways (e.g., mitochondrial function and intracellular transport). Therefore the use of distillate fuels for shipping (this is the current emission reduction strategy of the IMO) appears insufficient for diminishing health effects. The study suggests rather reducing the particle emissions

  5. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  6. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP.

  7. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

  8. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

    2014-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng μL-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

  9. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  10. Preliminary Biofuel Treatment in Injector Bodies of Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyus, Oleh

    2012-03-01

    The paper discusses possibilities of increasing the performance parameters of a diesel engine and decreasing the emission of toxic compounds contained in exhaust gases by using preliminary catalytic treatment of biofuel, executed directly in the injector body. In order to enhance the impact of the catalyst on the flowing fuel the author proposes to utilize the phenomenon of turbulization in injector passages. The results of tests on a 359 type engine have shown an improvement of operational parameters and a decrease of toxic emission in exhaust gases.

  11. Comparison of diesel exhaust emissions using JP-8 and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Interim report, March 1994-March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.M.; Montalvo, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 wt% was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel, and that an approximate sulfur level of 0.21 wt% in kerosene-type JP-8 fuel would be equivalent to the 0.035 wt% sulfur reference fuel. Similarly, the regulated gaseous emissions for the GM 6.2L engine using JP-8 fuel are essentially equal to the values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel. All sulfur levels of kerosene-type JP-8 fuel up to the 0.30 wt% MIL-T-83133 specification maximum would be equivalent to a 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA reference fuel.

  12. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  13. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  14. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  15. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  16. Laser diagnostics in a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, E. J.; Monkhouse, P. B.; Spaanjaars, C. M. I.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2001-06-01

    Results of laser diagnostics inside a 6-cylinder heavy-duty diesel truck engine are presented. Optical access is obtained by quartz windows mounted in the cylinder head and in the piston. The engine is running on commercial diesel fuel, causing strong attenuation of the UV laser radiation. The sprays are visualized by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the diesel fuel. The measurements were focused on the formation of nitric oxide that could be detected by LIF as a function of the crank angle. The fluorescence signals were processed in order to obtain relative NO density curves during the combustion process. Evidence was obtained for the formation of NO between rather than within the spray flames.

  17. Reformulated diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

    2006-03-28

    Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

  18. Efficiency analysis of diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, E.G. ); Milanez, L.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are equipment that play an important role in the world's energy consumption. The choice of an appropriate engine for a given application depends on the adequate identification of the working conditions and the characteristics of the engines available. In this work correlation for the efficiency of an internal combustion engine as a function of the engine speed and torque is proposed. The correlation is used for comparing engine performance results obtained in dynamometer tests.

  19. Continuous measurement of diesel particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, S.; Black, F.; King, F.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of emerging diesel-particulate emissions control technology will require analytical procedures capable of continuous measurement of transient organic and elemental carbon emissions. Procedures based on the flame ionization properties of organic carbon and the opacity or light extinction properties of elemental carbon are described. The instrumentation provided adequate time resolution to observe the transient concentrations associated with typical automobile driving patterns. Accuracy and precision are evaluated by comparing integrated average results to measurements, using classical gravimetric filtration techniques. Emissions from two diesel passenger cars with substantially different chemical compositions are examined. Mass-specific extinction coefficients are developed using the Beer-Lambert Law and a simplified linear model that proved adequate for particulate concentrations typical of diluted passenger-car exhaust.

  20. Experimental Investigations on Conventional and Semi-Adiabatic Diesel Engine Using Simarouba Biodiesel as Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, M. U.; Reddy, C. P.; Ravindranath, K.

    2013-04-01

    In view of fast depletion of fossil fuels and the rapid rate at which the fuel consumption is taking place all over the world, scientists are searching for alternate fuels for maintaining the growth industrially and economically. Hence search for alternate fuel(s) has become imminent. Out of the limited options for internal combustion engines, the bio diesel fuel appears to be the best. Many advanced countries are implementing several biodiesel initiatives and developmental programmes in order to become self sufficient and reduce the import bills. Biodiesel is biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to enhance the performance and reduce engine exhaust emissions. This is due to ready usage of existing diesel engines, fuel distribution pattern, reduced emission profiles, and eco-friendly properties of biodiesel. Simarouba biodiesel (SBD), the methyl ester of Simarouba oil is one such alternative fuel which can be used as substitute to conventional petro-diesel. The present work involves experimental investigation on the use of SBD blends as fuel in conventional diesel engine and semi-adiabatic diesel engine. The oil was triple filtered to eliminate particulate matter and then transesterified to obtain biodiesel. The project envisaged aims at conducting analysis of diesel with SBD blends (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) in conventional engine and semi-adiabatic engine. Also it was decided to vary the injection pressure (180, 190 and 200 bar) and observe its effect on performance and also suggest better value of injection pressure. The engine was made semi adiabatic by coating the piston crown with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Kirloskar AV I make (3.67 kW) vertical, single cylinder, water cooled diesel engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer with suitable measuring instrumentation/accessories used for the study. Experiments were initially carried out using pure diesel fuel to provide base line data. The test results were compared based on the performance

  1. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  2. Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alt, Otto

    1924-01-01

    Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.

  3. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  4. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  5. Real-Time Characterization of Particle and Gas Phase Diesel Emissions - Understanding the Influence of a Diesel Particulate Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Sappok, A.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Onasch, T. B.; Fortner, E.; Jayne, J.; Wong, V.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Diesel engine emissions constitute an important source of particulate black carbon (BC) and gas phase organics in the atmosphere. Particles composed of black carbon absorb incoming solar radiation having a net positive radiative forcing effect on the climate. Black carbon also has major air quality implications as BC particles from combustion sources are often coated with poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and are generally emitted in higher concentrations close to population centers. Regulations of diesel emissions target the mass of particulate matter (PM) and concentration of volatile gas phase organic compounds (VOC) produced. A third, potentially important component of diesel exhaust, is low volatility organic compounds (LVOC). Both the VOCs and LVOCs can lead to the formation of ultrafine particles (via homogeneous nucleation) and secondary organic aerosols (via oxidation). Recent development of mass spectrometric techniques to measure particulate black carbon and gas phase organics provide the opportunity to quantify and chemically characterize diesel emissions in real-time. Measurements of both the particulate and gas phase emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine will be presented. The experimental apparatus includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) integrated in the exhaust line, which is a requirement for all 2007 and newer on-road diesel engines in the U.S. Measurements taken over the regeneration cycle of the DPF provide insight into how this after-treatment technology influences the gas phase and particle phase composition of the emissions. Gas phase measurements were made with a newly developed Total Gas-Phase Organic (TGO) instrument. Particulate species were characterized with a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS). The combined utility of the TGO and SP-AMS instruments for emissions characterization studies will be demonstrated.

  6. Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  7. Effect of EGR contamination of diesel engine oil on wear.

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Aldajah, S.; Goldblatt, I. L.; Energy Systems; United Arab Emirates Univ.; BP-Global Lubricants Technology

    2007-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the effective means to reduce the NO{sub X} emission from diesel engines. Returning exhaust product to the diesel engine combustion chamber accelerated the degradation of the lubricant engine oil, primarily by increasing the total acid number (TAN) as well as the soot content and, consequently, the viscosity. These oil degradation mechanisms were observed in engine oil exposed to EGR during a standard Cummins M-l 1 diesel engine test. Four-ball wear tests with M-50 balls showed that, although the used oils slightly decrease the friction coefficients, they increased the ball wear by two orders of magnitude when compared to tests with clean oil. Wear occurred primarily by an abrasive mechanism, but in oil with the highest soot loading of 12%, scuffing and soot particle embedment were also observed. Laboratory wear tests showed a linear correlation with the TAN, while the crosshead wear during the engine test was proportional to the soot content.

  8. Impacts of continuously regenerating trap and particle oxidation catalyst on the NO2 and particulate matter emissions emitted from diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; He, Chao; Shah, Asad Naeem; Ding, Yan; Yu, Linxiao; Zhao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) with different configurations and one particles oxidation catalyst (POC) were employed to perform experiments in a controlled laboratory setting to evaluate their effects on NO2, smoke and particle number emissions. The results showed that the application of the after-treatments increased the emission ratios of NO2/NOx significantly. The results of smoke emissions and particle number (PN) emissions indicated that both CRDPFs had sufficient capacity to remove more than 90% of total particulate matter (PM) and more than 97% of solid particles. However, the POC was able to remove the organic components of total PM, and only partially to remove the carbonaceous particles with size less than 30 nm. The negligible effects of POC on larger particles were observed due to its honeycomb structure leads to an inadequate residence time to oxidize the solid particles or trap them. The particles removal efficiencies of CRDPFs had high degree of correlations with the emission ratio of NO2/NOx. The PN emission results from two CRDPFs indicated that more NO2 generating in diesel oxidation catalyst section could obtain the higher removal efficiency of solid particles. However this also increased the risk of NO2 exposure in atmosphere.

  9. Impacts of continuously regenerating trap and particle oxidation catalyst on the NO2 and particulate matter emissions emitted from diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; He, Chao; Shah, Asad Naeem; Ding, Yan; Yu, Linxiao; Zhao, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Two continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) with different configurations and one particles oxidation catalyst (POC) were employed to perform experiments in a controlled laboratory setting to evaluate their effects on NO2, smoke and particle number emissions. The results showed that the application of the after-treatments increased the emission ratios of NO2/NOx significantly. The results of smoke emissions and particle number (PN) emissions indicated that both CRDPFs had sufficient capacity to remove more than 90% of total particulate matter (PM) and more than 97% of solid particles. However, the POC was able to remove the organic components of total PM, and only partially to remove the carbonaceous particles with size less than 30 nm. The negligible effects of POC on larger particles were observed due to its honeycomb structure leads to an inadequate residence time to oxidize the solid particles or trap them. The particles removal efficiencies of CRDPFs had high degree of correlations with the emission ratio of NO2/NOx. The PN emission results from two CRDPFs indicated that more NO2 generating in diesel oxidation catalyst section could obtain the higher removal efficiency of solid particles. However this also increased the risk of NO2 exposure in atmosphere. PMID:22894096

  10. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. Brad

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying thick thermal barrier coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective Caterpillar's program to date has been to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impeded the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  11. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective of Caterpillar's subcontract with ORNL is to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  12. Effects of inhaled diesel emissions and coal dust in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Karagianes, M.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Busch, R.H.

    1981-05-01

    Rats were exposed to coal dust and diesel exhaust emissions, separately and in combination, for 20 months to evaluate the potential health effects of these specific mine air materials. The diesel exhaust was produced by an engine operated in a load, no-load mode and acceleration, deceleration cycle. It was also modified to simulate an inefficiently tuned engine. Exposure to coal dust was performed in a whole-body rodent inhalation system. Mortality, body weight and hematologic parameters examined were normal compared with those of control rats. Lesions observed were primarily restricted to the lungs and were similar to those described for simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Lesion progression and severity was related to exposure duration and exposure material. Alveolar bronchiolization, though not reported in human CWP, was present in the lungs of some rats in all exposure groups except the control animals.

  13. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark

    2013-08-13

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  14. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    ScienceCinema

    Musculus, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  15. Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E.

    1997-10-01

    For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

  16. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  17. Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, Francisco; Bermúdez, Vicente R.; Tormos, Bernardo; Linares, Waldemar G.

    Diesel engine emissions are composed of a long list of organic compounds, ranging from C 2 to C 12+, and coming from the hydrocarbons partially oxidized in combustion or produced by pyrolisis. Many of these are considered as ozone precursors in the atmosphere, since they can interact with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone under atmospheric conditions in the presence of sunlight. In addition to problematic ozone production, Brookes, P., and Duncan, M. [1971. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons and human cells in culture. Nature.] and Heywood, J. [1988. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-1000499-8.] determined that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in exhaust gases are dangerous to human health, being highly carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to identify by means of gas chromatography the amount of each hydrocarbon species present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines operating with different biodiesel blends. The levels of reactive and non-reactive hydrocarbons present in diesel engine exhaust gases powered by different biodiesel fuel blends were also analyzed. Detailed speciation revealed a drastic change in the nature and quantity of semi-volatile compounds when biodiesel fuels are employed, the most affected being the aromatic compounds. Both aromatic and oxygenated aromatic compounds were found in biodiesel exhaust. Finally, the conservation of species for off-side analysis and the possible influence of engine operating conditions on the chemical characterization of the semi-volatile compound phase are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuel blends shows a reduction in the Engine-Out emissions of total hydrocarbons. But the potential of the hydrocarbon emissions is more dependent on the compositions of these hydrocarbons in the Engine-Out, to the quantity; a large percent of hydrocarbons existing in the exhaust, when biodiesel blends are used, are partially burned hydrocarbons, and are interesting as they have the maximum

  18. Aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Regulated emissions of biodiesel blends are reasonably well documented in several works, non-regulated emissions, on the contrary, lack research. In this work, mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs, respectively) emission tests were performed with a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5) and 20% (B20%). The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the biodiesel addition on the emission profile of MAHs and PAHs. The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1500 rpm. The PAHs were sampled with Teflon filters and XAD-2 cartridges and were identified by gaseous chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and quantified by flame ionization detection (GC/FID). The MAHs were sampled with active charcoal cartridges and analyzed by GC/FID. Both MAHs and PAHs filters and cartridges were extracted with dichloromethane in an ultrasonic bath. Ten PAHs and eight MAHs were identified and the average reduction of MAHs was 4.2% (B5), 8.2% (B5), and 21.1% (B20). The average reduction for PAHs was 2.7% (B2), 6.3% (B5), and 17.2% (B20). However, some PAHs and MAHs emissions increased because of/due to the biodiesel blends like phenanthrene, ethyl benzene, and trimethyl benzenes.

  19. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions. PMID:25318418

  20. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions.

  1. An In-Cylinder Study of Soot and NO in a DI Diesel Engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litzinger, T.A.

    1995-10-18

    Clearly the reduction of NOx and particulate emissions remains a major challenge to Diesel engine manufacturers due to increasingly stringent emission standards in the US and other countries. The well documented NOx/particulate trade-off observed in Diesel engines makes the simultaneous reduction of both emissions particularly difficult for manufacturers to achieve. In an effort to provide an improved understanding of the fundamental processes which result in this trade-off, a program was carried out at Penn State to develop the appropriate engine facilities and laser diagnostics to permit in-cylinder studies of Diesel combustion and emissions production with the support of the Department of Energy Advanced Industrial Technology Division . This work has also been supported by the Cummins Engine Company, Lubrizol Corporation and the National Science Foundation. An optically accessible, direct injection, Diesel engine was constructed for these studies. The major objective of the, design of the engine was to maximize optical access under conditions representative of Diesel engine combustion in small bore, commercial engines. Intake air is preheated and boosted in pressure to make the in-cylinder conditions of heat release and pressure as realistic as possible. Another important objective of the design was flexibility in combustion chamber geometry to permit a variety of head and bowl geometries to be studied. In all the results reported in this report a square bowl was used to simplify the introduction of laser light sheets into the engine.

  2. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  3. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-31

    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  4. Complete modeling for systems of a marine diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahim, Hassan Moussa; Younes, Rafic; Nohra, Chadi; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine's output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  5. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions.

  6. The Influence of Non-Esterification Biodiesel in AN Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel as alternative energy source of the traditional petroleum fuels has increased interest, because environmental pollution based exhaust emissions from vehicle became serious. The advantage of biodiesel produced from esterification of vegetable and animal oils can be used without the modification of existing diesel engine, but glycerin is generated by production process. In this study, the usability of non-esterification biodiesel as an alternative fuel was investigated in an indirect injection diesel engine. The non-esterification biodiesel has not generated glycerin in esterification process and reduced the 20 percent of cost because it has not used methanol in the production process. Experiments were conducted by using the 5, 10 and 20 percentage of biodiesel and 4 and 8 percentage of biodiesel with 1 and 2 percentage of WDP in baseline diesel fuel. The smoke emission of biodiesel was reduced in comparison with diesel fuel, but power, torque and brake specific energy consumption was similar to diesel fuel.

  7. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  9. Vehicle testing of Cummins turbocompound diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brands, M. C.; Werner, J. R.; Hoehne, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two turbocompound diesel engines were installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption potential and performance characteristics. One turbocompound powered vehicle was evaluated at the Cummins Pilot Center where driveability, fuel consumption, torsional vibration, and noise were evaluated. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% benefit for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved driveability, improved gradeability, and marginally superior engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.

  10. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  11. Experimental investigations of the hydrogen addition effects on diesel engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, A.; Nutu, C.

    2016-08-01

    In the global content regarding the impact on the environmental of the gases emissions resulted from the fossil fuels combustion, an interest aspect discussed on the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties from the 2015 Paris Climate Conference and the gradual diminution of the worldwide oil reserves contribute to the necessity of searching of alternative energy from durable and renewable resources. At the use of hydrogen as addition in air to diesel engine, the level of CO, HC and smoke from the exhaust gases will decrease due to the improvement of the combustion process. At low and medium partial loads and low hydrogen energetic ratios used the NOX emission level can decrease comparative to classic diesel engine. The hydrogen use as fuel for diesel engine leads to the improving of the energetic and emissions performance of the engine due to combustion improvement and reduction of carbon content. The paper presents, in a comparative way, results of the experimental researches carried on a truck compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel fuel and with hydrogen diesel fuel and hydrogen as addition in air at different engine operation regimes. The results obtained during experimental investigations show better energetic and pollution performance of the engine fuelled with hydrogen as addition in air comparative to classic engine. The influences of hydrogen addition on engine operation are shown.

  12. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced.

  13. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced. PMID:19683439

  14. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-07-15

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  15. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  16. Laser hardening of diesel engine valve

    SciTech Connect

    Androsov, A.P.; Aleksenko, S.I.; Boyarkin, M.V.; Kusidis, V.G.; Petrov, V.I.

    1988-07-01

    Results are presented of a complex investigation of the effect of laser treatment on the structure and properties of steel 40Kh10S2M and of engine tests with diesel engine valves hardened by the newly devised technology. Results of the investigation of the microstructure of steel 40Kh10S2M, heat-treated by a laser beam, showed that when a specimen is hardened with fusion of the surface layer, it contains two distinct zones of laser action. Results of the effect of laser treatment on the fatigue limit and the wear resistance of the steel and engine tests permit the conclusion that the suggested method of treating valves of internal engine valve gear has good prospects.

  17. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the...

  18. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250.610 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a...

  19. Experimental and numerical assessment of on-road diesel and biodiesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.H.; Storey, J.M.; Lewis, S.A.; Devault, G.L.; Green, J.B.; Sluder, C.S.; Hodgson, J.W.; Moore, B.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Federal Highway Administration`s TRAF-series of models use modal data to estimate fuel consumption and emissions for different traffic scenarios. A process for producing data-based modal models from road and dynamometer measurements has been developed and applied to a number of light-duty gasoline vehicles for the FHWA. The resulting models, or lookup tables, provide emissions and fuel consumption as functions of vehicle speed and acceleration. Surface plots of the data provide a valuable visual benchmark of the emissions characteristics of the vehicles. Due to the potential fuel savings in the light-duty sector via introduction of diesels, and the concomitant growing interest in diesel engine emissions, the measurement methodology has been extended under DOE sponsorship to include a diesel pickup truck running a variety of fuels, including number 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch, and blends.

  20. Effect of fuel composition and engine operating conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a fleet of heavy-duty diesel buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Rohan Jayaratne, E.

    Emissions from 12 in-service heavy-duty buses powered by low- (LSD) and ultra low-sulfur (ULSD) diesel fuels were measured with the aim to characterize the profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exhaust and to identify the effect of different types of fuels on the emissions. To mimic on-road conditions as much as possible, sampling was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at four driving modes, namely: mode 7 or idle (0% power), mode 11 (25% power), mode 10 (50% power) and mode 8 (100% power). Irrespective of the type of fuel used, naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene were found to be the dominant PAHs in the exhaust emissions of the buses. However, the PAH composition in the exhausts of ULSD buses were up to 91±6% less than those in the LSD buses. In particular, three- and four-ringed PAHs were more abundant in the later than in the former. Lowering of fuel sulfur content not only reduced PAH emission, but also decreased the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BAP eq) and hence the toxicity of the exhaust. Result from multicriteria decision-making and multivariate data analysis techniques showed that the use of ULSD afforded cleaner exhaust compositions and emissions with characteristics that are distinct from those obtained by the use of LSD.

  1. Characteristics of particulate emissions from a diesel generator fueled with varying blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the particulate matter (PM), particle-bound carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a diesel-engine generator fuelled with blends of pure fossil diesel oil (D100) and varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel (W10, 10 vol %; W20, 20 vol %; W30, 30 vol %; and W50, 50 vol %) under generator loads of 0, 1.5, and 3 kW. On average, the PM emission factors of all blends was 30.5 % (range, 13.7-52.3 %) lower than that of D100 under the tested loads. Substituting pure fossil diesel oil with varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel reduced emissions of particle-bound total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC). The W20 blend had the lowest particle-bound organic carbon (OC) emissions. Notably, W10, W20, and W30 also had lower Total-PAH emissions and lower total equivalent toxicity (Total-BaP(eq)) compared to D100. Additionally, the brake-specific fuel consumption of the generator correlated positively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. However, generator energy efficiency correlated negatively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel.

  2. Ignition process in Diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentzel, W

    1936-01-01

    This report analyzes the heating and vaporization process of fuel droplets in a compression-ignition engine on the basis of the theory of similitude - according to which, the period for heating and complete vaporization of the average size fuel drop is only a fraction of the actually observed ignition lag. The result is that ignition takes place in the fuel vapor air mixture rather than on the surface of the drop. The theoretical result is in accord with the experimental observations by Rothrock and Waldron. The combustion shock occurring at lower terminal compression temperature, especially in the combustion of coal-tar oil, is attributable to a simultaneous igniting of a larger fuel-vapor volume formed prior to ignition.

  3. Short-term performance of diesel oil and sunflower oil mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.; Marohl, M.; Kucera, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    A series of short tests were run on two different makes of diesel tractor. The fuel used in addition to the No. 2 diesel fuel were refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil and five blends of each of these fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine performance parameters measured include: engine power, volumetric fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, Bosch smoke number and fuel flow. (Refs. 3).

  4. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li-Ping Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Litak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-15

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  5. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  6. CROSS-SPECIES DOSE EXTRAPOLATION FOR DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models for cross-species (rat to human) dose extrapolation of diesel emission were evaluated for purposes of establishing guidelines for human exposure to diesel emissions (DE) based on DE toxicological data obtained in rats. Ideally, a model for this extrapolation would provide...

  7. High NO2/NOx emissions downstream of the catalytic diesel particulate filter: An influencing factor study.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Li, Jiaqiang; Ma, Zhilei; Tan, Jianwei; Zhao, Longqing

    2015-09-01

    Diesel vehicles are responsible for most of the traffic-related nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The use of after-treatment devices increases the risk of high NO2/NOx emissions from diesel engines. In order to investigate the factors influencing NO2/NOx emissions, an emission experiment was carried out on a high pressure common-rail, turbocharged diesel engine with a catalytic diesel particulate filter (CDPF). NO2 was measured by a non-dispersive ultraviolet analyzer with raw exhaust sampling. The experimental results show that the NO2/NOx ratios downstream of the CDPF range around 20%-83%, which are significantly higher than those upstream of the CDPF. The exhaust temperature is a decisive factor influencing the NO2/NOx emissions. The maximum NO2/NOx emission appears at the exhaust temperature of 350°C. The space velocity, engine-out PM/NOx ratio (mass based) and CO conversion ratio are secondary factors. At a constant exhaust temperature, the NO2/NOx emissions decreased with increasing space velocity and engine-out PM/NOx ratio. When the CO conversion ratios range from 80% to 90%, the NO2/NOx emissions remain at a high level.

  8. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  9. High NO2/NOx emissions downstream of the catalytic diesel particulate filter: An influencing factor study.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Li, Jiaqiang; Ma, Zhilei; Tan, Jianwei; Zhao, Longqing

    2015-09-01

    Diesel vehicles are responsible for most of the traffic-related nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The use of after-treatment devices increases the risk of high NO2/NOx emissions from diesel engines. In order to investigate the factors influencing NO2/NOx emissions, an emission experiment was carried out on a high pressure common-rail, turbocharged diesel engine with a catalytic diesel particulate filter (CDPF). NO2 was measured by a non-dispersive ultraviolet analyzer with raw exhaust sampling. The experimental results show that the NO2/NOx ratios downstream of the CDPF range around 20%-83%, which are significantly higher than those upstream of the CDPF. The exhaust temperature is a decisive factor influencing the NO2/NOx emissions. The maximum NO2/NOx emission appears at the exhaust temperature of 350°C. The space velocity, engine-out PM/NOx ratio (mass based) and CO conversion ratio are secondary factors. At a constant exhaust temperature, the NO2/NOx emissions decreased with increasing space velocity and engine-out PM/NOx ratio. When the CO conversion ratios range from 80% to 90%, the NO2/NOx emissions remain at a high level. PMID:26354692

  10. Evaluation of the impacts of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on NO(x) emissions for CARB diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Hajbabaei, Maryam; Johnson, Kent C; Okamoto, Robert A; Mitchell, Alexander; Pullman, Marcie; Durbin, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%. NO(x) emissions consistently increased with increasing biodiesel blend level, while increasing renewable diesel and GTL blends showed NO(x) emissions reductions with blend level. NO(x) increases ranged from 1.5% to 6.9% for B20, 6.4% to 18.2% for B50, and 14.1% to 47.1% for B100. The soy-biodiesel showed higher NO(x) emissions increases compared to the animal-biodiesel. NO(x) emissions neutrality with the CARB diesel was achieved by blending GTL or renewable diesel fuels with various levels of biodiesel or by using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). It appears that the impact of biodiesel on NO(x) emissions might be a more important consideration when blended with CARB diesel or similar fuels, and that some form of NO(x) mitigation might be needed for biodiesel blends with such fuels.

  11. On-road remote sensing of diesel vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. L.; Ning, Z.

    In the present study, the real world on-road diesel vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated at nine sites in Hong Kong. A regression analysis approach based on the measured vehicle emission data was used to estimate the on-road diesel vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the diesel vehicle model years, engine sizes, vehicle types and driving patterns have a strong correlation with their emission factors. A comparison was made between the average diesel and petrol vehicle emissions factors in Hong Kong. The deviation of the average emission factors of aggregate diesel vehicles reflects the variability of local road condition, vehicle traffic fleet and volume, driving pattern, fuel composition and ambient condition etc. Finally, a unique database of the correlation of diesel vehicle emission factors (i.e., g km -1 and g l -1) on different model years and vehicle types for urban driving patterns in Hong Kong was established.

  12. An evaluation of the tapered element oscillating microbalance method for measuring diesel particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nelson A; Morgan, Chris

    2002-12-01

    We determined the usefulness of tapered element oscillating microbalances (TEOMs) for researchers and engineers involved with measuring diesel particulate mass. Two different test facilities were used for generating diesel particulates and comparing the TEOM to the commonly used U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) manual filter method. The EPA method is very labor-intensive and requires long periods of time to complete. The TEOM is an attractive approach because it has the potential to reduce the amount of time and labor required in diesel testing, as well as to provide real-time particulate-mass data that are not obtainable with the EPA method. It was found that the TEOM was a precise and easy-to-operate instrument that could measure the mass concentration (MC) of diesel particulate emissions in real time. Although the TEOM diesel particulate MC measurements were highly correlated with the manual filter measurements, the two techniques were not equivalent because the TEOM consistently reported MC results that were 20-25% lower than those obtained using the manual filter technique. In conclusion, the TEOM can be used to increase test-cell throughput and to measure transient values of diesel particulate emissions at sites performing diesel-engine testing. However, unless EPA is able to certify the TEOM as an equivalent method, it cannot replace the manual filter method for diesel certification work.

  13. Speed control of automotive diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outbib, Rachid; Graton, Guillaume; Dovifaaz, Xavier; Younes, Rafic

    2014-04-01

    This paper deals with Diesel engine control. More precisely, a model-based approach is considered to stabilise engine speed around a defined value. The model taken into account is nonlinear and contains explicitly the expression of fuel conversion efficiency. In general in the literature, this experimentally obtained quantity is modelled with either a polynomial or an exponential form (see for instance Younes, R. (1993). Elaboration d'un modèle de connaissance du moteur diesel avec turbocompresseur à géométrie variable en vue de l'optimisation de ses émissions. Ecole Centrale de Lyon; Omran, R., Younes, R., Champoussin, J., & Outbib, R. (2011). New indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) model for predicting crankshaft movement. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 3376-3382). This paper focuses on engine speed feedback stabilisation when fuel conversion efficiency is modelled with an exponential form, which is more suitable for automative applications. Simulation results are proposed to highlight the closed-loop control performances.

  14. Exhaust gas turbocharger for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Regar, K.N.

    1982-01-26

    An exhaust gas turbocharger is described for a diesel engine, the turbocharger including a compressor, an exhaust gas turbine, and a shaft joining the compressor and turbine. A flywheel is mounted on another shaft, and a device, such as a freewheel, alternatively couples and uncouples the flywheel shaft and turbocharger shaft. The flywheel shaft is in two sections, and a summation mechanism, such as a planetary gear arrangement, is between the two shaft sections. The summation mechanism is controlled by a hydrostatic device and/or an electronic device. A brake is provided for selectively preventing rotation of the flywheel shaft section between the summation mechanism and the turbocharger shaft.

  15. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

    2002-08-25

    Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

  16. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  17. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles. PMID:26886254

  18. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Hanson, Reed M; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  19. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Elsner, N. B.; Bass, J. C.; Ghamaty, S.; Krommenhoek, D.; Kushch, A.; Snowden, D.; Marchetti, S.

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  20. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  1. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  2. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  3. On the concept of separate aftercooling for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Uzkan, T.; Lenz, M.A.

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes a patented cooling system concept for a turbocharged diesel engine. In particular, it defines a cooling system having the capability of transferring some of the cooling capacity of transferring some of the cooling capacity of engine jacket and engine oil cooling to cool the cylinder inlet air when more than the cooling capacity built into the system through the size of the radiators and fans is needed. This increased aftercooling will improve the engine performance and reduce emission levels. The cooling capacity of a locomotive is essentially determined by the radiator and fan size, among other factors, and is designed to cool the engine within acceptable metal temperatures at a specified maximum ambient temperature and at the maximum engine power. On the other hand, at lower ambient temperatures or engine power levels, the cooling needs of the engine will be less than this maximum cooling capacity of the cooling system. There remains some excess capacity. This paper describes the concept called the ``Separate Aftercooling System`` that uses some of this excess cooling capacity to cool the engine inlet air at the aftercoolers. It shows the feasibility of such a system, describes the order of magnitude of benefits that can be expected from such a system, and outlines the implementation of this concept to EMD built locomotives.

  4. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    PubMed

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature.

  5. Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Longman, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO[sub x] due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO[sub x] emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

  6. Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.; Longman, D.E.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO{sub x} due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO{sub x} emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

  7. IET. Diesel engine for emergency generator is headed for installation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Diesel engine for emergency generator is headed for installation in shielded control building (TAN-620). Date: September 21, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12145 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Model Identification for Optimal Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Sun, Yannan; Song, Xiaobo; Parker, Gordon

    2013-06-20

    In this paper we develop a model based con- troller for diesel emission reduction using system identification methods. Specifically, our method minimizes the downstream readings from a production NOx sensor while injecting a minimal amount of urea upstream. Based on the linear quadratic estimator we derive the closed form solution to a cost function that accounts for the case some of the system inputs are not controllable. Our cost function can also be tuned to trade-off between input usage and output optimization. Our approach performs better than a production controller in simulation. Our NOx conversion efficiency was 92.7% while the production controller achieved 92.4%. For NH3 conversion, our efficiency was 98.7% compared to 88.5% for the production controller.

  9. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  10. Experimental study on the spiral and oval spiral EGR cooler efficiencies in a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2014-12-01

    The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system is one of the most effective techniques currently available for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions in diesel engine. Because the combustion characteristics in diesel engine involves high temperature and load, the amount of particulate matter (PM) emission tends to increase, thereby the PM fouling in EGR cooler degrades the heat transfer performance considerably, which in turn has a significant influence on the design of the EGR cooler. In the present study, engine dynamometer tests are performed to investigate the influences of PM fouling on the heat exchange characteristics of spiral and oval-spiral type EGR coolers equipped with a diesel engine. The evaluation test results show that the oval-spiral type EGR cooler has higher efficiency by approximate 10 % than the spiral type EGR cooler because of the increase of heat transfer area and the increased removal of PM from the deposit layer due to fluid shear force.

  11. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  12. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  13. Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust aerosol particle and ion measurements.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Schuck, Tanja J; Pirjola, Liisa; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kulmala, Markku; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    Heavy duty EURO 4 diesel engine exhaust particle and ion size distributions were measured atthetailpipe using dynamometer testing. Measurements of particle volatility and electrical charge were undertaken to clarify diesel exhaust nucleation mode characteristics with different exhaust after-treatment systems. Nucleation mode particle volatility and charging probability were dependent on exhaust after-treatment particles were volatile and uncharged when the engine was equipped with diesel particulate filter and partly volatile and partly charged in exhaust without any after-treatment or with an oxidation catalyst only. The absence of charged particles in the nucleation mode of diesel particulate filtered exhaust excludes the ion mediated process as a nucleation particle formation mechanism.

  14. The influence of the biofuel blends on the energetic and ecological performances of the Diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, B. C.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents the influence of the diesel fuel blended with biodiesel fuel obtained from sunflower oil, corn oil and peanut oil on the energetic performances, combustion process and pollutant emissions. This research was done virtually and experimentally. In this study pure diesel fuel and two concentrations (6% and 10%) of blends with biofuels were used for experimentally tests on a Renault K9K diesel engine. Five parameters were observed during experimental tests: engine power, fuel consumption, cylinder pressure, and the amount of CO and NOx emissions. The same five parameters were simulated using AVL Boost program. The variations of effective power and maximal cylinder pressure are caused due to the lower calorific value of the tested fuels. Better oxidation of the biofuels induces a better combustion in cylinder and less CO and NOx emissions. The CO e