Science.gov

Sample records for diesel engine technology

  1. Diesel Engine Technology Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-87-20 54 83-021-DET DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE Kaupert, Andrew W., Lt. Col. USAFR Air Force Reserves Detroit Detachment 2 Ann Arbor, MI...nn AFR OH 45433-6563 63723F 3139 1 01 01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kaupert...methodology for technology prediction. The objective of the present report is to update the technology transfer/ 0 development status of diesel engine

  2. Conventional engine technology. Volume 2: Status of diesel engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The engines of diesel cars marketed in the United States were examined. Prominent design features, performance characteristics, fuel economy and emissions data were compared. Specific problems, in particular those of NO and smoke emissions, the effects of increasing dieselization on diesel fuel price and availability, current R&D work and advanced diesel concepts are discussed. Diesel cars currently have a fuel economy advantage over gasoline engine powered cars. Diesel drawbacks (noise and odor) were reduced to a less objectionable level. An equivalent gasoline engine driveability was obtained with turbocharging. Diesel manufacturers see a growth in the diesel market for the next ten years. Uncertainties regarding future emission regulation may inhibit future diesel production investments. With spark ignition engine technology advancing in the direction of high compression ratios, the fuel economy advantages of the diesel car is expected to diminish. To return its fuel economy lead, the diesel's potential for future improvement must be used.

  3. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  4. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  5. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John

    2001-08-05

    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  6. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  7. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  8. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L.; Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J.

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  9. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (POSTER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETV is presenting a poster at the EPA's 2005 Science Forum from May 16-18, 2005 in Washington, DC. This poster will contain a summary of the performance results realized by the six verified diesel retrofit technologies, as well as potential impacts that could be realized if sigi...

  10. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  13. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  14. Diesel Technology: Engines. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    This diesel technology series offers secondary and postsecondary students an opportunity for learning required skills in the diesel industry. It aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in…

  15. Diesel Technology: Engines. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    This diesel technology series offers secondary and postsecondary students an opportunity for learning required skills in the diesel industry. It aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in…

  16. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  17. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted. Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions. Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  18. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP.

  19. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

  20. Potential of diesel engine, emission technology. Final report Jan-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, J.; Trella, T.

    1980-03-01

    This report surveys diesel engine emission technologies applicable to passenger cars and light trucks. The general design and operating features are presented and discussed. Current and state-of-the-art concepts are reviewed with the focus on control of diesel emissions through (1) modification of the combustion process, (2) aftertreatment systems and (3) fuel modifications.

  1. Excavator energy-saving efficiency based on diesel engine cylinder deactivation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Quan, Long; Yang, Yang

    2012-09-01

    The hydraulic excavator energy-saving research mainly embodies the following three measures: to improve the performance of diesel engine and hydraulic component, to improve the hydraulic system, and to improve the power matching of diesel-hydraulic system-actuator. Although the above measures have certain energy-saving effect, but because the hydraulic excavator load changes frequently and fluctuates dramatically, so the diesel engine often works in high-speed and light load condition, and the fuel consumption is higher. Therefore, in order to improve the economy of diesel engine in light load, and reduce the fuel consumption of hydraulic excavator, energy management concept is proposed based on diesel engine cylinder deactivation technology. By comparing the universal characteristic under diesel normal and deactivated cylinder condition, the mechanism that fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by adopting cylinder deactivation technology under part of loads condition can be clarified. The simulation models for hydraulic system and diesel engine are established by using AMESim software, and fuel combustion consumption by using cylinder-deactivation-technology is studied through digital simulation approach. In this way, the zone of cylinder deactivation is specified. The testing system for the excavator with this technology is set up based on simulated results, and the results show that the diesel engine can still work at high efficiency with part of loads after adopting this technology; fuel consumption is dropped down to 11% and 13% under economic and heavy-load mode respectively under the condition of driving requirements. The research provides references to the energy-saving study of the hydraulic excavators.

  2. Coal-fueled diesel technology development: Nozzle development for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Lee, M.; White, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct injection of a micronized coal water mixture fuel into the combustion chambers of a diesel engine requires atomizing an abrasive slurry fuel with accurately sized orifices. Five injector orifice materials were evaluated: diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, thermally stabilized diamond, tungsten carbide with cobalt binder, and tungsten carbide with nickel binder with brazed and mechanically mounted orifice inserts. Nozzle bodies were fabricated of Armco 17-4 precipitation hardening stainless steel and Stellite 6B in order to withstand cyclic injection pressures and elevated temperatures. Based on a total of approximately 200 cylinder hours of engine operation with coal water mixture fuel diamond compacts were chosen for the orifice material.

  3. Dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engines: Technology, performance, and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S. H.; Weaver, C. S.

    1994-11-01

    An investigation of current dual-fuel natural gas/diesel engine design, performance, and emissions was conducted. The most pressing technological problems associated with dual-fuel engine use were identified along with potential solutions. It was concluded that dual-fuel engines can achieve low NO(sub x) and particulate emissions while retaining fuel-efficiency and BMEP levels comparable to those of diesel engines. The investigation also examined the potential economic impact of dual-fuel engines in diesel-electric locomotives, marine vessels, farm equipment, construction, mining, and industrial equipment, and stand-alone electricity generation systems. Recommendations for further additional funding to support research, development, and demonstration in these applications were then presented.

  4. Diesel Engine Idling Test

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

    2006-02-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

  5. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hopman, Ulrich,; Kruiswyk, Richard W.

    2005-07-05

    Caterpillar's Technology & Solutions Division conceived, designed, built and tested an electric turbocompound system for an on-highway heavy-duty truck engine. The heart of the system is a unique turbochargerr with an electric motor/generator mounted on the shaft between turbine and compressor wheels. When the power produced by the turbocharger turbine exceeds the power of the compressor, the excess power is converted to electrical power by the generator on the turbo shaft; that power is then used to help turn the crankshaft via an electric motor mounted in the engine flywheel housing. The net result is an improvement in engine fuel economy. The electric turbocompound system provides added control flexibility because it is capable of varying the amount of power extracted from the exhaust gases, thus allowing for control of engine boost. The system configuration and design, turbocharger features, control system development, and test results are presented.

  6. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-08-05

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy.

  7. ADVANCED DIESEL ENGINE AND AFTERTREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR TIER 2 EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, R.; Bolton, B; Oladipo, A; Pavlova-MacKinnon, Z; Radwan, A

    2003-08-24

    Advanced diesel engine and aftertreatment technologies have been developed for multiple engine and vehicle platforms. Tier 2 (2007 and beyond) emissions levels have been demonstrated for a light truck vehicle over a FTP-75 test cycle on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. These low emissions levels are obtained while retaining the fuel economy advantage characteristic of diesel engines. The performance and emissions results were achieved by integrating advanced combustion strategies (CLEAN Combustion{copyright}) with prototype aftertreatment systems. CLEAN Combustion{copyright} allows partial control of exhaust species for aftertreatment integration in addition to simultaneous NOx and PM reduction. Analytical tools enabled the engine and aftertreatment sub-systems development and system integration. The experimental technology development methodology utilized a range of facilities to streamline development of the eventual solution including utilization of steady state and transient dynamometer test-beds to simulate chassis dynamometer test cycles.

  8. Engine Family Groups for Verification of Clean Diesel Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents show engine family boxes that represent groupings of engine families with similar characterists (i.e., the emissions standards that the engines were built to) for current and past model years.

  9. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  10. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  11. Application and development of technologies for engine-condition-based maintenance of emergency diesel generators

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K. H.; Sang, G.; Choi, L. Y. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2012-07-01

    The emergency diesel generator (EDG) of a nuclear power plant has the role of supplying emergency electric power to protect the reactor core system in the event of the loss of offsite power supply. Therefore, EDGs should be subject to periodic surveillance testing to verify their ability to supply specified frequencies and voltages at design power levels within a limited time. To maintain optimal reliability of EDGs, condition monitoring/diagnosis technologies must be developed. Changing from periodic disassemble maintenance to condition-based maintenance (CBM) according to predictions of equipment condition is recommended. In this paper, the development of diagnosis technology for CBM and the application of a diesel engine condition-analysis system are described. (authors)

  12. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  13. Demonstration of Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Naval Facilities Engineering Command NDIR non dispersive infrared NMHC non-methane hydrocarbon NORAD North American Air Defense Command NOx nitrogen...Duration Lower Quantifiable Limit (Expressed in terms of fundamental measurement) Pierburg non dispersive infrared ( NDIR ) CO2, CO 1 second 50 - 500

  14. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Jelica; Holder, Amara L; Yelverton, Tiffany L B

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) and varying power output (230 kW, 400 kW, and 600 kW) at 50% and 90% load to determine concentrations of gaseous (GROS) and PM reactive oxygen species (PMROS). In addition, the influence of three modern emission control technologies on ROS emissions was evaluated: active and passive diesel particulate filters (A-DPF and P-DPF) and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). PMROS made up 30-50% of the total ROS measured without aftermarket controls. All applied controls removed PMROS by more than 75% on average. However, the oxidative potential of PM downstream of these devices was not diminished at the same rate and particles surviving the A-PDF had an even higher oxidative potential on a per PM mass basis compared to the particles emitted by uncontrolled gensets. Further, the GROS as compared to PMROS emissions were not reduced with the same efficiency (<36%). GROS concentrations were highest with the DOC in use, indicating continued formation of GROS with this control. Correlation analyses showed that PMROS and to a lesser extent GROS have a good correlation with semivolatile organic carbon (OC1) subfraction. In addition, results suggest that chemical composition, rather than PM size, is responsible for differences in the PM oxidative potential.

  15. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  18. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  19. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  20. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  1. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Technology (CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the diesel equipment technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies,…

  2. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Fuel for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, M.

    1983-09-20

    A fuel is disclosed for a diesel engine which comprises a mixture of (A) an alcohol, (B) gas oil and (C) castor oil, wherein the contents of the respective components satisfy requirements represented by the following formulae: 0% by volume < A 80% by volume, 10% by volume B < 50% by volume, and 10% by volume C < 50% by volume.

  4. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  5. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  6. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  7. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  8. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  9. Plasma technology for increase of operating high pressure fuel pump diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovev, R. Y.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Adigamov, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a change in the service life of high pressure fuel pumps of diesel engines on the working surface of the plunger which a wear resistant dielectric plasma coatings based on silicon oxycarbonitride. Such coatings possess high wear resistance, chemical inertness and low friction.

  10. Clean-Burning Diesel Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    limited ventilation . A. Objective The objective of this program was to obtain exhaust emission rates from two diesel engines used in forklift trucks...for using diesel forklift trucks in areas of limited ventilation . The end use of these data will allow comparisons between engines; allow the Army to...MERADCOM. Engine ran very good, no vibration from idle to high idle speed. No engine crankcase blowby was observed. 2. Perkins Engine Description The

  11. Advanced Controls of Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    REFERENCES I- Kimura, S., Aoki, 0., Ogawa, H., Muranaka, S., Enomoto, Y.,"New Combustion Concept for Ultra-Clean and High- Efficiency Small DI Diesel ...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP023638 TITLE: Advanced Controls of Diesel Engines DISTRIBUTION: Approved...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP023616 thru ADP023650 UNCLASSIFIED Advanced Controls of Diesel Engines N. A. Henein Wayne State

  12. A Thermodynamic System Analysis Model of a Diesel Engine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-16

    engine technology has become even more promising recently with the introduction of the innovative adiabatic diesel engine concept. U.S. activities in the...conventional diesel engine. The most important operational characteristics of the new engine may be its uncompromisingly high fuel efficiency , as demonstrated...by a low-cooled diesel engine installed in a five-ton military truck which achieved a brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of 0.285 lb/hp-hr (Bryzik

  13. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  14. Diesel Technology: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane C.

    Competency-based teacher and student materials are provided for an introductory course on diesel technology. Twelve units of instruction cover the following topics: workplace tools, common materials, and basic related principles. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing…

  15. Development of low-expansion ceramics for diesel engine applications. Final report: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The need for stable fabricable low thermal expansion ceramics for use in advanced heat engines was first recognized in the Department of Energy Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology programs. More recently, the need for ceramic materials having low thermal expansion for use in components of advanced low heat rejection diesel engines has also been recognized. This investigation concentrated on (1) synthesis, (2) property characterization, and (3) fabrication of candidate low thermal expansion ceramics from four systems based upon aluminum phosphate, silica, mullite, and zircon. The NZP [zircon - NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}] structures clearly represent a new class of high melting, thermal shock-resistant ceramics.

  16. Detroit Diesel Engine Technology for Light Duty Truck Applications - DELTA Engine Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, Charlie

    2000-08-20

    The early generation of the DELTA engine has been thoroughly tested and characterized in the virtual lab, during engine dynamometer testing, and on light duty trucks for personal transportation. This paper provides an up-to-date account of program findings. Further, the next generation engine design and future program plans will be briefly presented.

  17. Regression-based oxides of nitrogen predictors for three diesel engine technologies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohan; Schmid, Natalia A; Wang, Lijuan; Clark, Nigel N

    2010-01-01

    Models of diesel engine emissions such as oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) are valuable when they can predict instantaneous values because they can be incorporated into whole vehicle models, support inventory predictions, and assist in developing superior engine and aftertreatment control strategies. Recent model-year diesel engines using multiple injection strategies, exhaust gas recirculation, and variable geometry turbocharging may have more transient sensitivity and demand more sophisticated modeling than for legacy engines. Emissions data from 1992, 1999, and 2004 model-year U.S. truck engines were modeled separately using a linear approach (with transient terms) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), an adaptive piece-wise regression approach that has limited prior use for emissions prediction. Six input variables based on torque, speed, power, and their derivatives were used for MARS. Emissions time delay was considered for both models. Manifold air temperature (MAT) and manifold air pressure (MAP) were further used in NO(x) modeling to build a plug-in model. The predictive performance for instantaneous NO(x) on part of the certification transient test procedure (Federal Test Procedure [FTP]) of the 2004 engine MARS was lower (R2 = 0.949) than the performance for the 1992 (R2 = 0.981) and 1999 (R2 = 0.988) engines. Linear regression performed similarly for the 1992 and 1999 engines but performed poorly (R2 = 0.896) for the 2004 engine. The MARS performance varied substantially when data from different cycles were used. Overall, the MAP and MAT plug-in model trained by MARS was the best, but the performance differences between LR and MARS were not substantial.

  18. Testing Ceramics for Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Adaptation of diesel engine allows prestressed ceramic materials evaluated under realistic pressure, temperature, and stress without introducing extraneous stress. Ceramic specimen part of prechamber of research engine. Specimen held in place by clamp, introduces required axial compressive stress. Specimen -- cylindrical shell -- surrounded by chamber vented or pressurized to introduce requisite radial stress in ceramic. Pressure chamber also serves as safety shield in case speimen disintegrates. Materials under consideration as cylinder liners for diesel engines.

  19. Spark-Ignited Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-27

    compression for ignition and would allow the diesel engine to operate at the more efficient and practical compression ratio of 12 to 1. To accomplish this, an...found to provide approximately equal efficiency under most operating conditions other than high load, and to provide instant cold start at the more ...high- efficiency diesel engine. The engine would be modified to have a moderate compression ratio, no swirl, and moderate to high squish to help improve

  20. Potential of diesel engine, diesel engine design concepts, control strategy and implementation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trella, T.; Shen, T.

    1980-03-01

    Diesel engine design concepts and control system strategies are surveyed with application to passenger cars and light trucks. The objective of the study is to indicate the fuel economy potential of the technologies investigated. The engine design parameters discussed are related to the engine configuration, combustion process, valving, friction, compression ratio, and heat transfer. Various engine control strategies and control implementation are considered.

  1. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  2. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  3. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  4. Aftertreatment Technologies for Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this program was to explore a combination of advanced injection control and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from a Tier 2 off-highway diesel engine to Tier 3 emission targets while maintaining fuel efficiency. The engine used in this investigation was a 2004 4.5L John Deere PowerTechTM; this engine was not equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to assess whether Tier 3 PM emission targets could be met solely by increasing the rail pressure. Although high rail pressure will lower the total PM emissions, it has a contrary effect to raise NOx emissions. To address this effect, a urea-SCR system was used to determine whether the enhanced NOx levels, associated with high rail pressure, could be reduced to Tier 3 levels. A key attraction for this approach is that it eliminates the need for a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) to remove PM emissions. The original CRADA effort was also performed using No.2 Diesel fuel having a maximum sulfur level of 500 ppm. After a few years, the CRADA scope was expanded to include exploration of advanced injection strategies to improve catalyst regeneration and to explore the influence of urea-SCR on PM formation. During this period the emission targets also shifted to meeting more stringent Tier 4 emissions for NOx and PM, and the fuel type was changed to ultra-low sulfur Diesel (ULSD) having a maximum sulfur concentration of 15 ppm. New discoveries were made regarding PM formation at high rail pressures and the influences of oxidation catalysts and urea-SCR catalysts. These results are expected to provide a pathway for lower PM and NOx emissions for both off- and on-highway applications. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the research results were carried out on a regular basis (annual reports and meetings) followed by

  5. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  6. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  7. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  8. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Stang

    2005-12-31

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS--NO{sub x} = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NO{sub x} = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY--The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT--Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full

  9. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stang, John H.

    2005-12-19

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS -- NOx = 0.50 g/mi; PM = 0.05 g/mi; CO = 2.8 g/mi; and NMHC = 0.07 g/mi. California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi; and PM = 0.01 g/mi. (2) FUEL ECONOMY -- The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT -- Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis

  10. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stang, John H.

    1997-12-01

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS NOx = 0.50 g/mi PM = 0.05 g/mi CO = 2.8 g/mi NMHC = 0.07 g/mi California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi PM = 0.01 g/mi (2) FUEL ECONOMY The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test

  11. Development of Technologies for a High Efficiency, Very Low Emission, Diesel Engine for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Stang, John H.

    1997-12-01

    Cummins Inc., in partnership with the Department of Energy, has developed technology for a new highly efficient, very low emission, diesel engine for light trucks and sport utility vehicles. This work began in April 1997, and started with very aggressive goals for vehicles in the 5751 to 8500 pound GCW weight class. The primary program goals were as follows: (1) EMISSIONS NOx = 0.50 g/mi PM = 0.05 g/mi CO = 2.8 g/mi NMHC = 0.07 g/mi California decided to issue new and even tougher LEV II light truck regulations late in 1999. EPA also issued its lower Tier 2 regulations late in 2000. The net result was that the targets for this diesel engine project were lowered, and these goals were eventually modified by the publication of Federal Tier 2 emission standards early in 2000 to the following: NOx = 0.07 g/mi PM = 0.01 g/mi (2) FUEL ECONOMY The fuel economy goal was 50 percent MPG improvement (combined city/highway) over the 1997 gasoline powered light truck or sport utility vehicle in the vehicle class for which this diesel engine is being designed to replace. The goal for fuel economy remained at 50 percent MPG improvement, even with the emissions goal revisions. (3) COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT Regular design reviews of the engine program will be conducted with a vehicle manufacturer to insure that the concepts and design specifics are commercially feasible. (DaimlerChrysler has provided Cummins with this design review input.) Cummins has essentially completed a demonstration of proof-of-principle for a diesel engine platform using advanced combustion and fuel system technologies. Cummins reported very early progress in this project, evidence that new diesel engine technology had been developed that demonstrated the feasibility of the above emissions goals. Emissions levels of NOx = 0.4 g/mi and PM = 0.06 g/mi were demonstrated for a 5250 lb. test weight vehicle with passive aftertreatment only. These results were achieved using the full chassis dynamometer FTP-75 test

  12. Clean-Burning Diesel Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    nm radiation. 28 * S 8. Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer Analysis Diesel particulate is collected on 20 inch by 20 inch (50.8 cm) Pallflex filters...RD-Ri52 66 CLEN-BURNING DIESEL ENGINES(U) SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST i1’,. SAN ANTONIO TX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LRB H E DIETZMRNN DEC 84...111.2 IIII2,,- MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ./ . ... . HFPfROW CED AT G;OVERNMENT F)(PENSE CLEAN-BURNING DIESEL ENGINESjt PHASE II INTERIM REPORT

  13. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  14. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Samanta, S. C.; Architetto, P.; Feingold, E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an insulating structural ceramic for application in a heavy duty adiabatic diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening (TT) by additions of zirconia-hafnia solid solution (ZHSS). The feasibility of using ZHSS as a toughening agent in mullite and alumina has been demonstrated in Phase 1 of this work. Based on Phase 1 results, a decision was made to concentrate the Phase 2 effort on process optimization of the TT mullite. A strong factor in that decision was the low thermal conductivity and high thermal shock resistance of the mullite. Results of the Phase 2 effort indicate that optimum toughening of mullite by additions of ZHSS is difficult to achieve due to apparent sensitivity to morphology. The 48 ksi room temperature modulus-of-rupture (MOR) achieved in selected specimens is approximately 50% of the original strength target. The MOR deteriorated to 34 ksi at 800 C.

  15. Recent Developments in BMW's Diesel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Steinparzer, F

    2003-08-24

    The image of BMW is very strongly associated to high power, sports biased, luxury cars in the premium car segment, however, particularly in the United States and some parts of Asia, the combination of a car in this segment with a diesel engine was up until now almost unthinkable. I feel sure that many people in the USA are not even aware that BMW produces diesel-powered cars. In Europe there is a completely contrary situation which, driven by the relative high fuel price, and the noticeable difference between gasoline and diesel prices, there has been a continuous growth in the diesel market since the early eighties. During this time BMW has accumulated more then 20 years experience in developing and producing powerful diesel engines for sports and luxury cars. BMW started the production of its 1st generation diesel engine in 1983 with a 2,4 l, turbocharged IDI engine in the 5 series model range. With a specific power of 35 kW/l, this was the most powerful diesel engine on the market at this time. In 1991 BMW introduced the 2nd generation diesel engine, beginning with a 2,5 l inline six, followed in 1994 by a 1,7 l inline four. All engines of this 2nd BMW diesel engine family were turbocharged and utilized an indirect injection combustion system. With the availability of high-pressure injection systems such as the common rail system, BMW developed its 3rd diesel engine family which consists of four different engines. The first was the 4-cylinder for the 3 series car in the spring of 1998, followed by the 6-cylinder in the fall of 1998 and then in mid 1999 by the worlds first V8 passenger car diesel with direct injection. Beginning in the fall of 2001 with the 4-cylinder, BMW reworked this DI engine family fundamentally. Key elements are an improved core engine design, the use of the common rail system of the 2nd generation and a new engine control unit with even better performance. Step by step, these technological improvements were introduce d to production for

  16. Nanocatalysts for Diesel Engine Emissions Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broad temperature operating windows to treat diesel engine emissions, thus enabling diesel engine equipment and vehicles to meet regulatory requirements.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  19. Development of Gas-Lubricated Pistons for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, W.

    1984-01-01

    Static testing of a segmented, gas-lubricated, piston-ring was accomplished. The ring utilizes high-pressure gas generated during the diesel cycle to energize a hydrostatic gas film between the piston and cylinder liner. The configuration was deficient in overall performance, because all segments of a ring set failed to form a fluid-film simultaneously, when exposed to internal preload. The difficulty was traced to the moment balance required to prevent the segments from overturning and contacting the cylinder walls. Some individual sectors formed a film and performed well in every respect including load capability to 6,000 N. These results produce optimism as to the ultimate feasibility of hydrostatic, gas-lubricated piston rings. In addition to test results, the principles of operation, and theoretical developments are presented. Breathable liner concepts are suggested for future consideration. In these configurations, solid hydrostatic pistons are coupled with flexible liners that elastically deform to form a gas-film under hydrostatic pressurization. Breathable liners afford the mechanical simplicity required for mass produced engines, and initial examination indicates satisfactory operation.

  20. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Feingold, E.; Rauch, H.; Samanta, S.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an advanced high temperature oxide structural ceramic for application to the heavy duty diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening by additions of ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution to the oxide ceramics, mullite (2Al2O3S2SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). The study is planned for three phases, each 12 months in duration. This report covers Phase 1. During this period, processing techniques were developed to incorporate the ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution in the matrices while retaining the necessary metastable tetragonal phase. Modulus of rupture and of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion, fracture toughness by indent technique and thermal diffusivity of representative specimens were measured. In Phase 2, the process will be improved to provide higher mechanical strength and to define the techniques for scale up to component size. In Phase 3, full scale component prototypes will be fabri-]cated.

  1. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  2. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  3. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. Brad

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying thick thermal barrier coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective Caterpillar's program to date has been to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impeded the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  4. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective of Caterpillar's subcontract with ORNL is to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  5. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  6. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  7. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  8. Research needs for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Combustion of highly non-homogeneous fuel-air mixtures and the use of hydrodynamic lubrication of piston rings are identified as barriers to long-term progress in diesel engines. The characteristics of non-homogeneous mixtures are discussed and the effects of various injection system modifications are illustrated using a turbulent fuel jet model. The problems caused by the hydrodynamic oil film at the piston rings are identified, and the potential of boundary lubrication is discussed.

  9. Analysis of new diesel engine and component design

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Contents of this book include: A root cause investigation of cylinder heat cracking in large diesel engine standby power generators; Predictive analysis of lube oil consumption for a diesel engine; Development of a new engine piston incorporating heat pipe cooling technology; Development of new torsional vibration rubber damper of compression type; Novel approach to reduce the time from concept-to-finished piston; and more.

  10. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  11. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  12. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are...

  13. Potential of diesel engine, 1979 summary source document. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trella, T.

    1980-03-01

    This document assesses the fuel economy potential of diesel engines in future passenger cars and light trucks. The primary technologies evaluated include: (1) engine control strategy and implementation, (2) the engine design variables, (3) emissions and noise, (4) fuels, (5) lubricants, (6) vehicle-engine matching, and (7) the effects of vehicle characteristics. The major findings are summarized.

  14. Thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine and diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Bailey, M. Murray

    1989-01-01

    The present state of development of thin thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines is assessed. Although current thermal barrier coatings are flying in certain gas turbine engines, additional advances will be needed for future engines. Thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines have advanced to the point where they are being seriously considered for the next generation of engine. Since coatings for truck engines is a young field of inquiry, continued research and development efforts will be required to help bring this technology to commercialization.

  15. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  16. Speed governor for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyshevich, Y.K.; Miselev, M.A.; Svistunov, N.N.

    1985-01-01

    A speed governor was developed for the 12ChSN 18/20 ship diesel engine to reduce emission of fumes and eliminate transient overloads, with pneumatic correction of the fuel injection rate according to the supercharge pressure. The device includes an electric corrector, and a hydraulic amplifier with slide valve. It is found that the regulator improves the performance, including torque and combustion characteristics and reduces the emission level to 15% within 2 s and decreases only to a 65% level. It was also tested on a Kometa hydrofoil ship with regulation of the diesel start over an 80 to 90 s acceleration period independently of the crank turning time, and maintained overloads and fume emission within prescribed limits.

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  18. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  19. Reduction of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas emission components from diesel engines running with rapeseedmethylester using oxidation catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    May, H.; Huettenberger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Up to now all engine research was based on engines, which are adapted to Diesel fuel but not to vegetableoilmethylester (VME). Caused by the special climate conditions in Europe rapeseed and sunflowers, in the US soya-beans and in the tropical countries palm trees are the favorable plants for vegetable oil production. The physical and chemical properties of Diesel fuel and VME are quite different. Therefore an engine adaption and redesign to VME is a suitable way of further reduction of noxious and climate-influencing emissions. To prove the effectiveness of the emission reduction the European test-cycle ECE/EUDC, the US-FTP 75 test for passenger cars and the European 13-stage-test-cycle for heavy duty-truck-engines has been used with and without an oxidation catalyst in each case. The results of the exhaust gas measurement both concerning regulated and unregulated components are shown. A comparison between engines fueled with fossil diesel fuel and rapeseedmethylester (RME) is given.

  20. IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, Andre L.

    2000-08-20

    potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

  1. Proceedings of the 1997 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This conference was held July 28--31, 1997 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on diesel engine emissions issues. Diesel engine manufacturers have significantly reduced emission of nitrogen oxides and particulates over the last 12 years. Currently there is concern about the 4% contribution of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels to the atmosphere and its role in the greenhouse effect. The 56 papers in this report are arranged under the following topical headings: Agency diesel engine emissions and concerns; Human health effects -- Diesel exhaust; Aftertreatment -- Non-thermal plasma; Aftertreatment and in-cylinder emissions reduction; Combustion, fuel, and air management; Fuels and associated technology; and Advanced technology. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    PubMed

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  4. Laser hardening of diesel engine valve

    SciTech Connect

    Androsov, A.P.; Aleksenko, S.I.; Boyarkin, M.V.; Kusidis, V.G.; Petrov, V.I.

    1988-07-01

    Results are presented of a complex investigation of the effect of laser treatment on the structure and properties of steel 40Kh10S2M and of engine tests with diesel engine valves hardened by the newly devised technology. Results of the investigation of the microstructure of steel 40Kh10S2M, heat-treated by a laser beam, showed that when a specimen is hardened with fusion of the surface layer, it contains two distinct zones of laser action. Results of the effect of laser treatment on the fatigue limit and the wear resistance of the steel and engine tests permit the conclusion that the suggested method of treating valves of internal engine valve gear has good prospects.

  5. Diesel Technology: Steering and Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on steering and suspension are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Eleven units of instruction cover the following topics: chassis, tires, and wheels; steering; and suspension. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing…

  6. Diesel Technology: Steering and Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on steering and suspension are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Eleven units of instruction cover the following topics: chassis, tires, and wheels; steering; and suspension. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing…

  7. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  8. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  9. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  10. Multimodel Control of Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirstoiu, Silviu; Popescu, Dumitru; Dimon, Catalin; Olteanu, Severus

    2017-01-01

    In this article it is proposed and designed a modern control configuration of the type multicontroler-multimodel (MM) that pilots the nonlinear combustion process of the Diesel engine, needed to adjust the pressure in the intake manifold and the airflow circulating through the compressor. The MM simulator developed by the authors allows the implementation of control systems represented by pairs (Mi, Ci) with the Mi candidate closest to the current operating point of the process and the paired controller Ri, for controlling the key parameters of the combustion process. The proposed configuration is built with robust controllers and thus it is able to ensure superior performance, tolerance to nonlinearities and parametric and structural perturbations in the system.

  11. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway...

  12. Diesel engine combustion of sunflower oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zubik, J.; Sorenson, S.C.; Goering, C.E.

    1984-09-01

    The performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions of diesel fuel, a blend of 25% sunflower oil in diesel fuel, and sunflower oil methyl ester have been compared. All fuels performed satisfactorily in a direct injection diesel engine, with the fuels derived from sunflower oil giving somewhat higher cylinder pressures and rates of pressure rise due to a higher percentage of 'premixed' burning than the diesel fuel. General performance and emissions characteristics of the two fuels were comparable, with the oil based fuels giving lower smoke readings. 15 references.

  13. Natural gas fueling of diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The focus of work performed by University of British Columbia researchers was on high-pressure (late cycle) injection of NG ignited by a pilot diesel-liquid injection(diesel/gas combustion). This was compared to the case of 100% liquid diesel (baseline diesel) fueling at the same load and speed. In typical direct-injected and conventionally fueled diesel engines, fuel is injected a few degrees before the end of the compression stroke into 750--900 K air in which it vaporizes, mixed with air, and auto ignites less than 2 ms after injection begins. The objectives of the researchers` work were to investigate the ignition delay and combustion duration of diesel/gas combustion by observing diesel and diesel/gas ignition sites and flame structure; determining ignition delay and combustion duration with pilot-diesel and natural gas injections; determining whether the pilot liquid flame is substantially influenced by the gas injection; and considering whether pilot-diesel/gas combustion is dominated by premixed or diffusion combustion.

  14. The Influence of Light Weight Materials on Fuel Economy and Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Paul C.

    2000-08-20

    Technologies being developed that will allow for the substitution of aluminum for cast iron in engine heads and blocks, while maintaining performance and durability. Development of lightweight diesel engine technology: funded by NAVY, DOE and TACOM

  15. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-31

    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  17. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  18. 50000Hp coal slurry diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Crippa, E.R.

    1994-12-31

    The significance of this novel 2 cycle design is that it more efficiently produces 2 power strokes per cylinder per cycle compared to a single power stroke of the current large stationary 2 and 4 cycle diesel engines.

  19. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  20. Diesel particulate emission control without engine modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Filowitz, M.S.; Vataru, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an ashless, fuel supplement which was found to typically reduce diesel particulate emissions by over 30% while significantly improving fuel economy and power output without any modifications to existing diesel engines or fuels. The treating cost is an order of magnitude less than the estimated cost of reducing aromatic content at the refinery to achieve particulate reductions. The particulate reduction is virtually all from the carbon (soot) fraction. The reduced soot formation translates into less abrasives and less soot-loading stress on the engine oil. Diesel tests conducted are also discussed.

  1. The Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, J. L.; Werner, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  2. Advanced engine technology

    SciTech Connect

    Heisler, H.

    1995-12-31

    This book provides a comprehensive reference for anyone wanting to study the way in which modern vehicle engines work, and why they are designed as they are. The book covers virtually all configurations of commercially-produced engines, and features the latest engine technology including up-to-date coverage of electronic engine management and exhaust emission control. Chapters cover valves and camshafts; camshaft chain belt and gear train drives; engine balance and vibration; combustion chamber design and engine performance; induction and exhaust systems; supercharging systems; carburetted fuel systems; fuel injection systems; ignition systems; engine testing equipment; diesel in-line fuel injection pump systems; diesel rotary and unit injector fuel injection pump systems; emission control; cooling and lubrication systems; and alternative power units.

  3. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  4. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  5. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  6. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr,. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  7. Dual fuel diesel engine operation using LPG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, Al; Nutu, N. C.

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine fuelling with LPG represents a good solution to reduce the pollutant emissions and to improve its energetic performances. The high autoignition endurance of LPG requires specialized fuelling methods. From all possible LPG fuelling methods the authors chose the diesel-gas method because of the following reasons: is easy to be implemented even at already in use engines; the engine does not need important modifications; the LPG-air mixture has a high homogeneity with favorable influences over the combustion efficiency and over the level of the pollutant emissions, especially on the nitrogen oxides emissions. This paper presents results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on operation of a LPG fuelled heavy duty diesel engine at two operating regimens, 40% and 55%. For 55% engine load is also presented the exhaust gas recirculation influence on the pollutant emission level. Was determined the influence of the diesel fuel with LPG substitution ratio on the combustion parameters (rate of heat released, combustion duration, maximum pressure, maximum pressure rise rate), on the energetic parameters (indicate mean effective pressure, effective efficiency, energetic specific fuel consumption) and on the pollutant emissions level. Therefore with increasing substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG are obtained the following results: the increase of the engine efficiency, the decrease of the specific energetic consumption, the increase of the maximum pressure and of the maximum pressure rise rate (considered as criteria to establish the optimum substitute ratio), the accentuated reduction of the nitrogen oxides emissions level.

  8. Consider the DME alternative for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, T.H.; Meurer, P.C.

    1996-07-01

    Engine tests demonstrate that dimethyl ether (DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) can provide an alternative approach toward efficient, ultra-clean and quiet compression ignition (CI) engines. From a combustion point of view, DME is an attractive alternative fuel for CI engines, primarily for commercial applications in urban areas, where ultra-low emissions will be required in the future. DME can resolve the classical diesel emission problem of smoke emissions, which are completely eliminated. With a properly developed DME injection and combustion system, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced to 40% of Euro II or U.S. 1998 limits, and can meet the future ULEV standards of California. Simultaneously, the combustion noise is reduced by as much as 15 dB(A) below diesel levels. In addition, the classical diesel advantages such as high thermal efficiency, compression ignition, engine robustness, etc., are retained.

  9. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  10. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  11. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  12. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  13. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  14. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  15. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  16. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  17. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Elsner, N. B.; Bass, J. C.; Ghamaty, S.; Krommenhoek, D.; Kushch, A.; Snowden, D.; Marchetti, S.

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  18. THE DIESEL ENGINE'S CHALLENGE IN THE NEW MILLENIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John W.

    2000-08-20

    Diesel engines are the dominant propulsion engine of choice for most of the commercial surface transportation applications in the world. Consider agricultural uses: Diesel engine power is used to prepare the soil, transport the bulk seed or seedlings, pump irrigation water, and spray fertilizers, mechanically harvest some crops and distribute the produce to market. Diesel engines power virtually all of the off-highway construction equipment. Deep water commercial freighters or containerships are almost all diesel engine powered. The passenger ships are primarily either diesel or a combination of diesel and gas turbine, referred to as CODAG or CODOG.

  19. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  20. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  1. The diesel engine for cars -- Is there a future?

    SciTech Connect

    Pischinger, F.F.

    1998-07-01

    The diesel engine is known as the most fuel efficient combustion engine. Its acceptance for use in passenger cars, however, varies geographically. Today, the diesel car plays an important role in Europe; in France, for instance, it is achieving a remarkable market share of about 42%, while in the US its market penetration can be neglected. Many questions are expressed concerning the future of diesel powered cars. The question affecting market acceptance is as follows: can the significantly better fuel efficiency of a diesel car outweigh perceived detrimental characteristics? Such unfavorable properties are thought to be low specific power, objectionable noise, higher exhaust emissions (including smoke), and higher vehicle price. These features are closely influenced by the state of passenger car diesel engine technology. This technology state and its potential must be evaluated with respect to current and future demands, for instance, tighter exhaust emission regulations. In addition, the commercial value and consumer acceptance of high fuel economy must be evaluated. It is clear that the ultimate result of weighing the pros and cons will depend not only on technological factors, but also on political factors such as fuel taxation. Regarding the state of technology, the diesel car is very promising. First, by employing a direct injection combustion system, the fuel efficiency can be improved by about 15% over current swirl chamber engines. Furthermore, the specific power (hp/ltr) can be increased by efficient supercharging to achieve values of today`s gasoline engines. By tuning the combustion system, low noise engine design features and incorporation of careful noise reduction measures on the vehicle, the noise behavior of a spark ignited vehicle can be reached. Exhaust emissions can currently be reduced to a level to satisfy today`s European and US Tier 1 emission limits. However, significant development effort remains. More stringent emission levels (California

  2. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  3. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  4. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250.610 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes...

  5. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250.510 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device...

  6. Reference handbook: Diesel engines and governors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-18

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand diesel engines and governors. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following tasks: Explain the two major differences between diesel and gasoline engines. Identify 12 major diesel engine components. Explain the function of pistons. Explain the functions of crankshafts and blowers. Define the following terms: Cylinder Block Crown End Skirt End Bosses Babbitt Compression Ignition Cycle Governor Speed Controller Fuel Injector. Describe how the crankshaft is related to the camshaft. Identify the purpose of a flywheel. Identify the four phases of the combustion cycle. Compare and contrast two-cycle and four-cycle engines. Explain the difference between a filter and a strainer. Scope: This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Diesel Engines and Governors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant.

  7. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  8. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  9. Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alt, Otto

    1924-01-01

    Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.

  10. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  11. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  12. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  13. Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  14. Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  15. Coal-fueled diesel: Technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, G.; Hsu, B.; Flynn, P.

    1989-03-01

    This project consisted of four tasks: (1) to determine if CWM could be ignited and burned rapidly enough for operation in a 1000-rpm diesel engine, (2) to demonstrate that a durable CWM-fueled engine could in principle be developed, (3) to assess current emissions control technology to determine the feasibility of cleaning the exhaust of a CWM-fueled diesel locomotive, and (4) to conduct an economic analysis to determine the attractiveness of powering US locomotives with CWM. 34 refs., 125 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  17. Restoring diesel engine camshafts by laser treatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashkevich, B. M.; Zinov'ev, G. S.; Voronin, I. N.

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of parts of the gas-distributing mechanism and drives of fuel pumps determines to a great degree the operating conditions of cylinder-piston parts and the economic characteristics of diesel engines. Intense wear of the camshaft pair disturbs the distribution phases and the lead angle of fuel supply to the diesel cylinders and increases the rigidity of the operation of the connecting rod-piston group. This causes incomplete combustion of fuel and fuming, a rise in the temperature of exhaust gases, sticking of the rings in the piston grooves and their premature failure, wear cracks, and chips and failure of the parts of the cylinder-piston unit, decreasing the efficiency of the diesel. Laser surface treatment is used to restore cams. It makes it possible to increase substantially the wear resistance of cams and restore their worn surfaces. This paper concerns the characteristics of the cams after such a treatment.

  18. Electro-Optical Techniques for Diesel Engine Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    quantitative evaluation of the molecular concentration of absorber gas is given in Appendix A. 2.0 DIESEL ENGINE MODIFICATIONS A Turner diesel engine...All Dimensions in Inches Figure 7. T A C O M engine gas -sampling spacer. 17 AI= DC-T R-77-1 7 Engine vibration is a more serious problem in...expansion sampling technique to operating diesel engines. These are due primarily to the wide ranges of gas pressure, temperature, and composition

  19. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  20. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Mullins, David R; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Wu, Zili

    2012-06-01

    conditions were provided by our collaborators at John Deere Power Systems. Among various zeolites reported here, CuFe-SSZ-13 offers the best NO{sub x} conversion activity in 150-650 C range and is hydrothermally stable when tested under accelerated aging conditions. It is important to note that Cu-SSZ-13 is now a commercial catalyst for NO{sub x} treatment on diesel passenger vehicles. Thus, our catalyst performs better than the commercial catalyst under fast SCR conditions. We initially focused on fast SCR tests to enable us to screen catalysts rapidly. Only the catalysts that exhibit high NO{sub x} conversion at low temperatures are selected for screening under varying NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio. The detailed tests of CuFe-SSZ-13 show that CuFe-SSZ-13 is more effective than commercial Cu-SSZ-13 even at NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio of 0.1. The mechanistic studies, employing stop-flow diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS), suggest that high concentration of NO{sup +}, generated by heterobimetallic zeolites, is probably responsible for their superior low temperature NO{sub x} activity. The results described in this report clearly show that we have successfully completed the first step in a new emission treatment catalyst which is synthesis and laboratory testing employing simulated exhaust. The next step in the catalyst development is engine testing. Efforts are in progress to obtain follow-on funding to carry out scale-up and engine testing to facilitate commercialization of this technology.

  1. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  2. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark

    2013-08-13

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  3. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    ScienceCinema

    Musculus, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  4. Optimum cylinder cooling for advanced diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Rodman, S.; Skerget, L.; Delic, M.

    1998-07-01

    Continuous demand for higher specific engine output simultaneously introduces problems of higher mechanical and thermal stresses of the engine components. Uneven temperature distribution in the cylinder wall of a diesel engine, especially when air-cooled, is well known. Peak local temperatures, large circumferential and longitudinal temperature gradients provoke deformations that, in turn, affect the reliability of the engine. As the result of intensive numerical and experimental investigations, a horizontal, curved channel fed with engine lubrication oil was introduced in the upper part of the air-cooled cylinder. Optimization of the channel design, its position, and determination of suitable asymmetrical split oil flow have led to more favorable cylinder temperature distribution, similar to that obtained by advanced water-cooled engines. Analyses of the local laminar oil-flow phenomena and local heat transfer distribution is curved channels are discussed in the paper and can be successfully applied to advanced liquid-cooled engines.

  5. Optimum cylinder cooling for advanced diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Rodman, S.; Skerget, L.; Delic, M.

    1996-12-31

    Continuous demand for higher specific engine output simultaneously introduces problems of higher mechanical and thermal stresses of the engine components. Uneven temperature distribution in the cylinder wall of a Diesel engine, especially when air-cooled, is well known. Peak local temperatures, large circumferential and longitudinal temperature gradients provoke deformations that in turn affect the reliability of the engine. As the result of intensive numerical and experimental investigations a horizontal, curved channel fed with engine lubrication oil was introduced in the upper part of the air-cooled cylinder. Optimization of the channel design, its position, and determination of suitable asymmetrical split oil-flow have led to more favorable cylinder temperature distribution, similar to that obtained by advanced water-cooled engines. Analyses of the local laminar oil-flow phenomena and local heat transfer distribution in curved channels can be successfully and effectively applied to advanced liquid-cooled engines.

  6. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  7. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  8. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  10. Vehicle testing of Cummins turbocompound diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brands, M. C.; Werner, J. R.; Hoehne, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two turbocompound diesel engines were installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption potential and performance characteristics. One turbocompound powered vehicle was evaluated at the Cummins Pilot Center where driveability, fuel consumption, torsional vibration, and noise were evaluated. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% benefit for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved driveability, improved gradeability, and marginally superior engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.

  11. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L Bravo...ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L...Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) L Bravo, CB Ivey, D

  12. Cavitation modeling and diesel engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandekar, Gautam; Pardue, Sally

    2003-10-01

    A common occurrence of cavitation damage is the waterside pitting of a wet sleeve liner in a diesel engine. The automotive industry utilizes an ultrasonic test of 20 kHz according to ASTM standards to quantify the effectiveness of engine coolant additives to prevent damage. However, recent tests indicate a mismatch between the ultrasonic test results and actual engine test runs. The focus of this study is to generate numerical models of bubble dynamics using already published literature. In most of the published papers higher-range frequencies (ultrasonic >15 kHz) are used. It is useful to explore the results of lower excitation frequencies as the vibrating frequencies of a diesel engine liner are between 500-9000 Hz. A Rayleigh-Plesset equation, nonlinear in nature, is used to plot the relation between bubble radius and time. Plots of the numerical solution from MATLAB are compared with plots published in the literature. Results from when the frequency of excitation is changed to the liner wall frequency and the fluid properties are changed to approximate engine conditions will be presented. Future work will examine the energy released by the bubble collapse and its correlation with erosion measured as mass change in a standard test button.

  13. Short-term performance of diesel oil and sunflower oil mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.; Marohl, M.; Kucera, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    A series of short tests were run on two different makes of diesel tractor. The fuel used in addition to the No. 2 diesel fuel were refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil and five blends of each of these fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine performance parameters measured include: engine power, volumetric fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, Bosch smoke number and fuel flow. (Refs. 3).

  14. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79...

  15. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79...

  16. Development of low-expansion ceramics for diesel engine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.J. Jr. . Center for Advanced Ceramic Materials)

    1992-04-01

    The need for stable fabricable low thermal expansion ceramics for use in advanced heat engines was first recognized in the Department of Energy Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology programs. More recently, the need for ceramic materials having low thermal expansion for use in components of advanced low heat rejection diesel engines has also been recognized. This investigation concentrated on (1) synthesis, (2) property characterization, and (3) fabrication of candidate low thermal expansion ceramics from four systems based upon aluminum phosphate, silica, mullite, and zircon. The NZP (zircon - NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}) structures clearly represent a new class of high melting, thermal shock-resistant ceramics.

  17. Dimensionless Parameter Scaling of Diesel Engine Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Filipi, Zoran

    1996-11-01

    Combustion in a modern heavy-duty Diesel engine with direct radial fuel injection typically takes place in a short nearly-cylindrical volume at a rate determined by turbulent mixing. Simple dimensionless-parameter scaling laws for turbulent gas-phase mixing and heat transfer have been shown to be effective for a variety of (oxidizer) flow and (fuel) injection conditions within a cylindrical geometry (Edwards et al., AIChE J., Vol. 31, 516 [1985].) (Breidenthal et al., JFM, Vol. 219, 531 [1990].) (Dowling et al., AIAA J. Thermophys. & HT, Vol. 4, 504 [1990].). These studies were driven by chemical laser applications emphasizing long cylinders and sidewall injection. The current investigation seeks to determine the applicability of dimensionless parameter scaling to the instantaneous in-cylinder fuel burning rate in a multi-cylinder Diesel engine typical of Class VIII trucks. Comparisons are made between scaled and unscaled fuel burning rate, as inferred from time-resolved in-cylinder pressure measurements, across the test engine's normal operating range. This research is supported by the US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center.

  18. Ignition process in Diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentzel, W

    1936-01-01

    This report analyzes the heating and vaporization process of fuel droplets in a compression-ignition engine on the basis of the theory of similitude - according to which, the period for heating and complete vaporization of the average size fuel drop is only a fraction of the actually observed ignition lag. The result is that ignition takes place in the fuel vapor air mixture rather than on the surface of the drop. The theoretical result is in accord with the experimental observations by Rothrock and Waldron. The combustion shock occurring at lower terminal compression temperature, especially in the combustion of coal-tar oil, is attributable to a simultaneous igniting of a larger fuel-vapor volume formed prior to ignition.

  19. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.

  20. Field endurance test of diesel engines fueled with sunflower oil/diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    German, T.J.; Kaufman, K.R.; Pratt, G.L.; Derry, J.

    1985-01-01

    Four John Deere and two J.I. Case tractors were fueled with 25% or 50% blends of alkali-refined, winterized sunflower oil and No. 2 diesel fuel while in farm service. All engines were turbocharged, direct injection diesel engines and each was operated for approximately 1000 hours. No power losses were detected during the test period. However, one engine experienced camshaft/valve train failure while in service. Engine deposits were measured according to the CRC Diesel Engine Rating system after the test period was completed. Statistical analysis revealed heavier deposits in most areas of the combustion chamber of the three engines fueled with the 50% sunflower oil/50% No. 2 diesel fuel blend. No detrimental engine deposits due to differences in engine size were observed. No injector coking problems or ring sticking problems were encountered. Bearing wear was normal.

  1. Particulate matter in new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) is quantitatively and qualitatively very different from that found in traditional diesel exhaust (TDE).

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Sax, Sonja N; Lapin, Charles A; McClellan, Roger O; Bunn, William B; Valberg, Peter A

    2011-09-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) characteristic of pre-1988 engines is classified as a "probable" human carcinogen (Group 2A) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has classified DE as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans." These classifications were based on the large body of health effect studies conducted on DE over the past 30 or so years. However, increasingly stringent U.S. emissions standards (1988-2010) for particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust have helped stimulate major technological advances in diesel engine technology and diesel fuel/lubricant composition, resulting in the emergence of what has been termed New Technology Diesel Exhaust, or NTDE. NTDE is defined as DE from post-2006 and older retrofit diesel engines that incorporate a variety of technological advancements, including electronic controls, ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel, oxidation catalysts, and wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As discussed in a prior review (T. W. Hesterberg et al.; Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 6437-6445), numerous emissions characterization studies have demonstrated marked differences in regulated and unregulated emissions between NTDE and "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) from pre-1988 diesel engines. Now there exist even more data demonstrating significant chemical and physical distinctions between the diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) in NTDE versus DEP from pre-2007 diesel technology, and its greater resemblance to particulate emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline engines. Furthermore, preliminary toxicological data suggest that the changes to the physical and chemical composition of NTDE lead to differences in biological responses between NTDE versus TDE exposure. Ongoing studies are expected to address some of the remaining data gaps in the understanding of possible NTDE health effects, but there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that health

  2. Speed control of automotive diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outbib, Rachid; Graton, Guillaume; Dovifaaz, Xavier; Younes, Rafic

    2014-04-01

    This paper deals with Diesel engine control. More precisely, a model-based approach is considered to stabilise engine speed around a defined value. The model taken into account is nonlinear and contains explicitly the expression of fuel conversion efficiency. In general in the literature, this experimentally obtained quantity is modelled with either a polynomial or an exponential form (see for instance Younes, R. (1993). Elaboration d'un modèle de connaissance du moteur diesel avec turbocompresseur à géométrie variable en vue de l'optimisation de ses émissions. Ecole Centrale de Lyon; Omran, R., Younes, R., Champoussin, J., & Outbib, R. (2011). New indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) model for predicting crankshaft movement. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 3376-3382). This paper focuses on engine speed feedback stabilisation when fuel conversion efficiency is modelled with an exponential form, which is more suitable for automative applications. Simulation results are proposed to highlight the closed-loop control performances.

  3. Fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Holmer, H.E.

    1981-06-16

    A fuel injection system is disclosed for direct injection diesel engines with a depression in the tops of the pistons. A first injection pump has a regulator and accompanying first injector for each cylinder , the injectors being disposed to spray the fuel in a zone around the center axis of the respective piston depression. A second injection pump has a regulator and accompanying second injector for each cylinder, the second injectors being disposed to inject fuel obliquely from the side into the respective piston depression in a direction counter to the rotation of the intake air before the fuel from the first injectors is injected.

  4. Used sunflower oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cigizoglu, K.B.; Oezaktas, T.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1997-07-01

    Used sunflower oil was blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The fuel blend was tested in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. The fuel blend and the diesel fuel were rated according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use the fuel blend has characteristics similar to those of the baseline diesel fuel and that it displayed less smoke emission than the diesel fuel.

  5. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES: MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA‘s Environmental Technology Verification program is designed to further environmental protection by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost effective technologies. This is done by providing high-quality, peer reviewed data on technology performance to those in...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES: MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA‘s Environmental Technology Verification program is designed to further environmental protection by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost effective technologies. This is done by providing high-quality, peer reviewed data on technology performance to those in...

  8. Application of instantaneous angular acceleration to diesel engine fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yunpeng; Hu, Tianyou; Liu, Xin

    2005-12-01

    Diesel engine is a kind of important power generating machine, of which the running state monitoring and fault diagnosis attracts increasing attention. The theory and the method of diesel engine fault diagnosis based on angular acceleration measurement were studied, since angular acceleration contains a lot of information for diesel engine fault diagnosing and its power balance evaluating. USB data acquisition system was designed for the angular acceleration measurement, and it was composed with AVRAT09S8515 micro-processor and PDIUSBD12 USB interface IC. At the same time, the high speed micro-processor AVRAT09S8515 with unique function of automatically capturing the rising or falling edge of square wave was studied, and it was utilized in the diesel engine's crankshaft angular acceleration measuring system. The software and hardware of the whole system was designed, which supplied a whole solution to diesel engine fault diagnosis and power balance evaluation between each cylinder.

  9. A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Thomas E; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Curran, Scott; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

  10. IET. Diesel engine for emergency generator is headed for installation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Diesel engine for emergency generator is headed for installation in shielded control building (TAN-620). Date: September 21, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12145 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Diesel Combustion and Emission Using High Boost and High Injection Pressure in a Single Cylinder Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Yuzo; Kunishima, Eiji; Asaumi, Yasuo; Aihara, Yoshiaki; Odaka, Matsuo; Goto, Yuichi

    Heavy-duty diesel engines have adopted numerous technologies for clean emissions and low fuel consumption. Some are direct fuel injection combined with high injection pressure and adequate in-cylinder air motion, turbo-intercooler systems, and strong steel pistons. Using these technologies, diesel engines have achieved an extremely low CO2 emission as a prime mover. However, heavy-duty diesel engines with even lower NOx and PM emission levels are anticipated. This study achieved high-boost and lean diesel combustion using a single cylinder engine that provides good engine performance and clean exhaust emission. The experiment was done under conditions of intake air quantity up to five times that of a naturally aspirated (NA) engine and 200MPa injection pressure. The adopted pressure booster is an external supercharger that can control intake air temperature. In this engine, the maximum cylinder pressure was increased and new technologies were adopted, including a monotherm piston for endurance of Pmax =30MPa. Moreover, every engine part is newly designed. As the boost pressure increases, the rate of heat release resembles the injection rate and becomes sharper. The combustion and brake thermal efficiency are improved. This high boost and lean diesel combustion creates little smoke; ISCO and ISTHC without the ISNOx increase. It also yields good thermal efficiency.

  12. Sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.

    1984-11-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested in direct injected, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. A test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Assocation was used. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test. Field tests and engine manufacturers evaluations are needed to further quantify the long term effect of the fuel on engine durability. 14 references.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  14. Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-05

    constituted the last transportation sector for regulation. Therefore marine vessel criteria pollutants , particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and...nonattainment” for one or more pollutants . Simply applying automatic or requested engine NSEs, and similar fuel NSEs do not advance the Navy...can be an element of a criteria pollutant inventory reduction strategy in nonattainment or maintenance (threshold of nonattainment) areas

  15. Diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer: an unproven association.

    PubMed Central

    Muscat, J E; Wynder, E L

    1995-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer associated with diesel exhaust has been calculated from 14 case-control or cohort studies. We evaluated the findings from these studies to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to implicate diesel exhaust as a human lung carcinogen. Four studies found increased risks associated with long-term exposure, although two of the four studies were based on the same cohort of railroad workers. Six studies were inconclusive due to missing information on smoking habits, internal inconsistencies, or inadequate characterization of diesel exposure. Four studies found no statistically significant associations. It can be concluded that short-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust (< 20 years) does not have a causative role in human lung cancer. There is statistical but not causal evidence that long-term exposure to diesel exhaust (> 20 years) increases the risk of lung cancer for locomotive engineers, brakemen, and diesel engine mechanics. There is inconsistent evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry. There is no evidence for a joint effect of diesel exhaust and cigarette smoking on lung cancer risk. Using common criteria for determining causal associations, the epidemiologic evidence is insufficient to establish diesel engine exhaust as a human lung carcinogen. Images p812-a PMID:7498093

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  17. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  18. Modeling pollution formation in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.

    1997-12-31

    Modeling combustion under conditions that prevail in Diesel engine presents a great challenge. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has invested Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds to accelerate progress in this area. Research has been concerned with building a chemical mechanism to interface with a high fidelity fluid code to describe aspects of Diesel combustion. The complexity of these models requires implementation on massively parallel machines. The author will describe his efforts concerned with building such a complex mechanism. He begins with C and CO{sub 2} chemistry and adds sequentially higher hydrocarbon chemistry, aromatic production chemistry, soot chemistry, and chemistry describing NO{sub x} production. The metrics against which this chemistry is evaluated are flame velocities, induction times, ignition delay times, flammability limits, flame structure measurements, and light scattering. He assembles a set of elementary reactions, kinetic rate coefficients, and thermochemistry. He modifies existing Sandia codes to be able to investigate the behavior of the mechanism in well-stirred reactors, plug flow reactors, and one-dimensional flames. The modified combustion code with a chemical mechanism at the appropriate level of complexity is then interfaced with the high fidelity fluids code. The fluids code is distinguished by its ability to solve the requisite partial differential equations with adaptively refined grids necessary to describe the strong variation in spatial scales in combustion.

  19. Towards Clean Diesel Engines. Second Symposium. Book of Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-06

    Louvain, B H. Barths , N. Peters Institut für Technische Mechanik RWTH, Aachen, D Diesel Combustion Study by Optical Diagnostics B. M. Vaglieco...Chemical Modeling of Pollutant Formation in DI-Diesel Engines H. Barths , N. Peters Institut für Technische Mechanik, RWTH Aachen Flamelet modeling...34, SAE Paper 952357, 1995. [2] Pitsch, H., Barths , H., P., Peters, N.: "Three- Dimensional Modeling of NOx and Soot Forma- tion in DI-Diesel

  20. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  1. Small engine technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Described here is the small engine technology program being sponsored at the Lewis Research Center. Small gas turbine research is aimed at general aviation, commuter aircraft, rotorcraft, and cruise missile applications. The Rotary Engine program is aimed at supplying fuel flexible, fuel efficient technology to the general aviation industry, but also has applications to other missions. The Automotive Gas Turbine (AGT) and Heavy-Duty Diesel Transport Technology (HDTT) programs are sponsored by DOE. The Compound Cycle Engine program is sponsored by the Army. All of the programs are aimed towards highly efficient engine cycles, very efficient components, and the use of high temperature structural ceramics. This research tends to be generic in nature and has broad applications. The HDTT, rotary technology, and the compound cycle programs are all examining approaches to minimum heat rejection, or 'adiabatic' systems employing advanced materials. The AGT program is also directed towards ceramics application to gas turbine hot section components. Turbomachinery advances in the gas turbine programs will benefit advanced turbochargers and turbocompounders for the intermittent combustion systems, and the fundamental understandings and analytical codes developed in the research and technology programs will be directly applicable to the system projects.

  2. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel applications through nondestructive evaluation, structural analysis modeling and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components. Data obtained from advanced diesel engines on the effect of thermal barrier coatings on engine fuel economy and emission has not been encouraging. Although the underlying metal component temperatures have been reduced through the use of thermal barrier coating, engine efficiency and emission trends have not been promising.

  3. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel engine applications through rig tests, structural analysis modeling, nondestructive evaluation, and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Although much conflicting literature now exists regarding the impact of thermal barrier coatings on engine performance and fuel consumption, the changes in fuel consumption appear to be less than a few percent and can be negative for state-of-the-art diesel engines. The ability of the thermal barrier coating to improve fuel economy tends to be dependent on a number of factors including the fuel injection system, combustion chamber design, and the initial engine fuel economy. Limited investigations on state-of-the-art diesel engines have indicated that the surface connected porosity and coating surface roughness may influence engine fuel economy. Current research efforts on thermal barrier coatings are primarily directed at reducing in-cylinder heat rejection, thermal fatigue protection of underlying metal surfaces and a possible reduction in diesel engine emissions. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components.

  4. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel engine applications through rig tests, structural analysis modeling, nondestructive evaluation, and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Although much conflicting literature now exists regarding the impact of thermal barrier coatings on engine performance and fuel consumption, the changes in fuel consumption appear to be less than a few percent and can be negative for state-of-the-art diesel engines. The ability of the thermal barrier coating to improve fuel economy tends to be dependent on a number of factors including the fuel injection system, combustion chamber design, and the initial engine fuel economy. Limited investigations on state-of-the-art diesel engines have indicated that the surface connected porosity and coating surface roughness may influence engine fuel economy. Current research efforts on thermal barrier coatings are primarily directed at reducing in-cylinder heat rejection, thermal fatigue protection of underlying metal surfaces and a possible reduction in diesel engine emissions. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components.

  5. Effect ofHydrogen Use on Diesel Engine Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceraat, A.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Nutu, C.; Mirica, I.; Fuiorescu, D.

    2016-11-01

    Necessity of pollutant emissions decreasing, a great interest aspect discussed at 2015 Paris Climate Conference, highlights the necessity of alternative fuels use at diesel engines. Hydrogen is considered a future fuel for the automotive industry due to its properties which define it as the cleanest fuel and due to the production unlimited sources. The use of hydrogen as fuel for diesel engines has a higher degree of complexity because of some hydrogen particularities which lead to specific issues of the hydrogen use at diesel engine: tendency of uncontrolled ignition with inlet backfire, in-cylinder combustion with higher heat release rates and with high NOx level, storage difficulties. Because hydrogen storing on vehicle board implies important difficulties in terms of safety and automotive range, the partial substitution of diesel fuel by hydrogen injected into the inlet manifold represents the most efficient method. The paper presents the results of the experimental researches carried on a truck diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel and hydrogen, in-cylinder phenomena's study showing the influence of some parameters on combustion, engine performance and pollutant emissions. The paper novelty is defined by the hydrogen fuelling method applied to diesel engine and the efficient control of the engine running.

  6. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  7. Supercritical fluid mixing in Diesel Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Luis; Ma, Peter; Kurman, Matthew; Tess, Michael; Ihme, Matthias; Kweon, Chol-Bum

    2014-11-01

    A numerical framework for simulating supercritical fluids mixing with large density ratios is presented in the context of diesel sprays. Accurate modeling of real fluid effects on the fuel air mixture formation process is critical in characterizing engine combustion. Recent work (Dahms, 2013) has suggested that liquid fuel enters the chamber in a transcritical state and rapidly evolves to supercritical regime where the interface transitions from a distinct liquid/gas interface into a continuous turbulent mixing layer. In this work, the Peng Robinson EoS is invoked as the real fluid model due to an acceptable compromise between accuracy and computational tractability. Measurements at supercritical conditions are reported from the Constant Pressure Flow (CPF) chamber facility at the Army Research Laboratory. Mie and Schlieren optical spray diagnostics are utilized to provide time resolved liquid and vapor penetration length measurement. The quantitative comparison presented is discussed. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU).

  8. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine dynamometer test run. 86... Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.341-79 Diesel engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only....

  9. An In-Cylinder Study of Soot and NO in a DI Diesel Engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litzinger, T.A.

    1995-10-18

    Clearly the reduction of NOx and particulate emissions remains a major challenge to Diesel engine manufacturers due to increasingly stringent emission standards in the US and other countries. The well documented NOx/particulate trade-off observed in Diesel engines makes the simultaneous reduction of both emissions particularly difficult for manufacturers to achieve. In an effort to provide an improved understanding of the fundamental processes which result in this trade-off, a program was carried out at Penn State to develop the appropriate engine facilities and laser diagnostics to permit in-cylinder studies of Diesel combustion and emissions production with the support of the Department of Energy Advanced Industrial Technology Division . This work has also been supported by the Cummins Engine Company, Lubrizol Corporation and the National Science Foundation. An optically accessible, direct injection, Diesel engine was constructed for these studies. The major objective of the, design of the engine was to maximize optical access under conditions representative of Diesel engine combustion in small bore, commercial engines. Intake air is preheated and boosted in pressure to make the in-cylinder conditions of heat release and pressure as realistic as possible. Another important objective of the design was flexibility in combustion chamber geometry to permit a variety of head and bowl geometries to be studied. In all the results reported in this report a square bowl was used to simplify the introduction of laser light sheets into the engine.

  10. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  11. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Auxiliary Findings on 2007-Compliant Diesel Engines: A Comparison With Diesel Exhaust Genotoxicity Effects Prior to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Lance M; Ward, Jonathan B; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Ameredes, Bill T

    2017-01-01

    Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines. To meet these stringent standards, manufacturers used new emission after-treatment technology, and modified fuel formulations, to bring about reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides within the exhaust. To illustrate the impact of that technological transition, a brief overview of pre-2007 diesel engine exhaust biomarkers of genotoxicity and health-related concerns is provided, to set the context for the results of our research findings, as part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), in which the effects of a 2007-compliant diesel engine were examined. In agreement with ACES findings reported in other tissues, we observed a lack of measurable 2007-compliant diesel treatment–associated DNA damage, in lung tissue (comet assay), blood serum (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] assay), and hippocampus (lipid peroxidation assay), across diesel exhaust exposure levels. A time-dependent assessment of 8-OHdG and lipid peroxidation also suggested no differences in responses across diesel exhaust exposure levels more than 24 months of exposure. These results indicated that the 2007-compliant diesel engine reduced measurable reactive oxygen species–associated tissue derangements and suggested that the 2007 standards–based mitigation approaches were effective. PMID:28659715

  12. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Auxiliary Findings on 2007-Compliant Diesel Engines: A Comparison With Diesel Exhaust Genotoxicity Effects Prior to 2007.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Lance M; Ward, Jonathan B; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Ameredes, Bill T

    2017-01-01

    Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines. To meet these stringent standards, manufacturers used new emission after-treatment technology, and modified fuel formulations, to bring about reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides within the exhaust. To illustrate the impact of that technological transition, a brief overview of pre-2007 diesel engine exhaust biomarkers of genotoxicity and health-related concerns is provided, to set the context for the results of our research findings, as part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), in which the effects of a 2007-compliant diesel engine were examined. In agreement with ACES findings reported in other tissues, we observed a lack of measurable 2007-compliant diesel treatment-associated DNA damage, in lung tissue (comet assay), blood serum (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] assay), and hippocampus (lipid peroxidation assay), across diesel exhaust exposure levels. A time-dependent assessment of 8-OHdG and lipid peroxidation also suggested no differences in responses across diesel exhaust exposure levels more than 24 months of exposure. These results indicated that the 2007-compliant diesel engine reduced measurable reactive oxygen species-associated tissue derangements and suggested that the 2007 standards-based mitigation approaches were effective.

  13. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  14. An Investigation Into the Performance of a Miniature Diesel Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, P. W.

    1970-01-01

    Reports the procedures and results of a student investigation of the performance of a miniature diesel engine. The experiments include (1) torque measurement, (2) power measurement, and (3) variation of power output with applied load. Bibliography. (LC)

  15. Monitoring diesel engine parameters based on FBG probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Bao-yan; Wang, Jun-jie

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an unprecedented systematic approach for real-time monitoring the temperature and flow of diesel engine by using embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG). By virtue of FBG's temperature effect, we design a novel sensitive FBG temperature sensing probe to measure the temperature of cylinder head and inlet flow of diesel engine. We also establish the corresponding software platform for intuitive data analysis. The experimental and complementary simulation results simultaneously demonstrate that the FBG-based optical fiber technique possesses extraordinary reproducibility and sensitivity, which makes it feasible to monitor the temperature and inlet flow of diesel engine. Our work can provide an effective way to evaluate the thermal load of cylinder head in diesel engine.

  16. 23. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FAIRBANKSMORSE DIESEL ENGINE, DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FAIRBANKS-MORSE DIESEL ENGINE, DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO FAIRBANKS-MORSE 30 KW DC GENERATOR, 125 VOLTS, 240 AMPS, 800 RPM. INSTALLED 1930. - Death Valley Ranch, Power House, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. SECONDARY GENERAL MOTORS DIESEL ENGINE WITH CONNECTION TO REDUCTION GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECONDARY GENERAL MOTORS DIESEL ENGINE WITH CONNECTION TO REDUCTION GEAR BELT DRIVE SYSTEM, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  18. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  19. An Investigation Into the Performance of a Miniature Diesel Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, P. W.

    1970-01-01

    Reports the procedures and results of a student investigation of the performance of a miniature diesel engine. The experiments include (1) torque measurement, (2) power measurement, and (3) variation of power output with applied load. Bibliography. (LC)

  20. Comparison of diesel engine exhaust using chromatographic profiling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, P.A.; Shala, F.J.; Cernansky, N.P.; Suffet, I.H. )

    1990-02-01

    An analytical method, developed for examining changes in the intensity and number of chemical compounds in the odorous fraction of diesel exhaust, has been applied to a variety of diesel engine systems. Comparisons were made using the chromatographic computer profiles of samples collected with the Diesel Odor Analysis System (DOAS) and dilution tunnel sampling systems. The different engine systems showed several areas of common peak patterns, but with distinctly different overall patterns. The benzaldehyde-odor correlation developed in a previous study worked for the engine systems tested. The differences in the overall patterns are attributed to the specific diesel fuels used and to the specific engine configurations. Samples obtained from raw and diluted (with a dilution tunnel) exhaust were compared. Diluted exhaust sample profiles were shown to contain a greater number of peaks, probably due to postcombustion reactions occurring in the dilution tunnel.

  1. 21. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO GENERAL ELECTRIC 15 KW DC GENERATOR (ON LEFT), 110 VOLTS, 136 AMPS, 1200 RPM. INSTALLED 1942. - Death Valley Ranch, Power House, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Noise reduction of diesel engine for heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Arai, S.

    1989-01-01

    Noise reduction of diesel engines installed in heavy duty vehicles is one of the highest priorities from the viewpoints of meeting the regulations for urban traffic noise abatement and noise reduction in the cabin for lightening fatigue with comfortable long driving. It is necessary that noise reduction measures then be applied to those causes. All noise reduction measures for the diesel engine researched for the purpose of practical use are described in this paper.

  3. Soybean and sunflower oil performance in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Schlick, M.L.; Hanna, M.A.; Schinstock, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a direct injection diesel engine operating on mechanically expelled-unrefined soybean oil and sunflower oil blende with number 2 diesel fuel on a 25:75 v/v basis was evaluated. The power output remained constant throughout 200 h of operation. Excessive carbon deposits on all combustion chamber parts precludes the use of these fuel blends, at least in the engine and under the specified EMA operating conditions.

  4. Small engine technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Small engine technology programs being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center are described. Small gas turbine research is aimed at general aviation, commutercraft, rotorcraft, and cruise missile applications. The Rotary Engine Program is aimed at supplying fuel flexible, fuel efficient technology to the general aviation industry, but also has applications to other missions. There is a strong element of synergism between the various programs in several respects. All of the programs are aimed towards highly efficient engine cycles, very efficient components, and the use of high temperature structural ceramics. This research tends to be generic in nature and has broad applications. The Heavy Duty Diesel Transport (HDTT), rotary technology, and the compound cycle programs are all examining approached to minimum heat rejection, or adiabatic systems employing advanced materials. The Automotive Gas Turbine (AGT) program is also directed towards ceramics application to gas turbine hot section components. Turbomachinery advances in the gas turbines will benefit advanced turbochargers and turbocompounders for the intermittent combustion systems, and the fundamental understandings and analytical codes developed in the research and technology programs will be directly applicable to the system projects.

  5. Development of wear-resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components. Volume 1, Coating development and tribological testing: Final report: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, M.G.S.

    1992-06-01

    The tribological properties of a variety of advanced coating materials have been evaluated under conditions which simulate the piston ring -- cylinder liner environment near top ring reversal in a heavy duty diesel engine. Coated ``ring`` samples were tested against a conventional pearlitic grey cast iron liner material using a high temperature reciprocating wear test rig. Tests were run with a fresh CE/SF 15W40lubricant at 200 and 350{degrees}C, with a high-soot, engine-tested oil at 200{degrees}C and with no lubrication at 200{degrees}C. For lowest wear under boundary lubricated conditions, the most promising candidates to emerge from this study were high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) Cr{sub 3} C{sub 2} - 20% NiCr and WC - 12% Co cermets, low temperature arc vapor deposited (LTAVD) CrN and plasma sprayed chromium oxides. Also,plasma sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials were found to give excellent wear resistance in unlubricated tests and at extremely high temperatures (450{degrees}C) with a syntheticoil. All of these materials would offer substantial wear reductions compared to the conventional electroplated hard chromium ring facing and thermally sprayed metallic coatings, especially at high temperatures and with high-soot oils subjected to degradation in diesel environments. The LTAVD CrN coating provided the lowest lubricated wear rates of all the materials evaluated, but may be too thin (4 {mu}m) for use as a top ring facing. Most of the coatings evaluated showed higher wear rates with high-soot, engine-tested oil than with fresh oil, with increases of more than a factor of ten in some cases. Generally, metallic materials were found to be much more sensitive to soot/oil degradation than ceramic and cermet coatings. Thus, decreased ``soot sensitivity`` is a significant driving force for utilizing ceramic or cermet coatings in diesel engine wear applications.

  6. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    PubMed

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ < 0.1) for all fuels over the FTP cycle. Aerosol emitted during filter regeneration is significantly more CCN active and hygroscopic; average κ values range from 0.242 to 0.439 and are as high as 0.843. Regardless of fuel, the current classification of "fresh" tailpipe emissions as nonhygroscopic remains true during nonregeneration operation. However, aftertreatment technologies such as DPF, will produce significantly more hygroscopic particles during regeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant enhancement of hygroscopic materials emitted during DPF regeneration of on-road diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  7. Emission reduction potential of using ethanol-biodiesel-diesel fuel blend on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Hu; Li, Rulong

    Oxygenated diesel fuel blends have a potential to reduce the emission of particulate matter (PM) and to be an alternative to diesel fuel. This paper describes the emission characteristics of a three compounds oxygenated diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel), on a Cummins-4B diesel engine. BE-diesel is a new form of oxygenated diesel fuel blends consisted of ethanol, methyl soyate and petroleum diesel fuel. The blend ratio used in this study was 5:20:75 (ethanol: methyl soyate: diesel fuel) by volume. The results from the operation of diesel engine with BE-diesel showed a significant reduction in PM emissions and 2%-14% increase of NO x emissions. The change of CO emission was not conclusive and depended on operating conditions. Total hydrocarbon (THC) from BE-diesel was lower than that from diesel fuel under most tested conditions. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone in the exhaust were measured, and the results indicated that use of BE-diesel led to a slight increase of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone emissions. A small amount of ethanol was also detected in the exhaust from burning BE-diesel.

  8. The effect of ethanol blended diesel fuels on emissions from a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Shuai, Shi-Jin; Wang, Jian-Xin; He, Hong

    The addition of ethanol to diesel fuel simultaneously decreases cetane number, high heating value, aromatics fractions and kinematic viscosity of ethanol blended diesel fuels and changes distillation temperatures. An additive used to keep the blends homogenous and stable, and an ignition improver, which can enhance cetane number of the blends, have favorable effects on the physicochemical properties related to ignition and combustion of the blends with 10% and 30% ethanol by volume. The emission characteristics of five fuels were conducted on a diesel engine. At high loads, the blends reduce smoke significantly with a small penalty on CO, acetaldehyde and unburned ethanol emissions compared to diesel fuel. NO x and CO 2 emissions of the blends are decreased somewhat. At low loads, the blends have slight effects on smoke reduction due to overall leaner mixture. With the aid of additive and ignition improver, CO, unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions of the blends can be decreased moderately, even total hydrocarbon emissions are less than those of diesel fuel. The results indicate the potential of diesel reformation for clean combustion in diesel engines.

  9. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  10. Emissions of fuel metals content from a diesel vehicle engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Li, Chun-Teh; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Luo, Jih-Haur; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    This study was set out to assess the characteristics and significance of metal contents emitted from diesel engines. We found that the emitted concentrations of crust elements (including Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Si) were much higher than those of anthropogenic elements (including Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) from diesel vehicle engine exhausts under the transient-cycle condition. The emission concentrations of particulate matters from diesel vehicle engine were inversely proportional to the specified engine speeds. To the contrary, the increase of engine speeds resulted in increase of fractions of metal contents in particulate matters. We conducted simple linear regression analysis to relate the emission rates of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust to the consumption rates of metal contents in diesel fuel. This study yielded R2=0.999 which suggests that the emission of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust could be fully explained by the consumption of metal contents in diesel fuel. For illustration, we found that the annual emission rates of both crust and anthropogenic elements from all diesel engine vehicles (=269 000 and 58 700 kg yr -1, respectively) were significantly higher than those from the coal power plant, electrical arc furnace, and coke oven (=90 100 and 1660 kg yr -1, 2060 and 173 kg yr -1, and 60 500 and 3740 kg yr -1, respectively) in Taiwan area. The relatively high amount of metal contents emitted from diesel engines strongly suggests that the measurement on the control of metal contents in diesel fuel should be taken in the future.

  11. Differential pressure as a measure of particulate matter emissions from diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Mischler, Steven E; Volkwein, Jon C

    2005-04-01

    A diesel particulate matter analyzer capable of direct, real-time measurement of engine exhaust particulate is necessary to effectively institute source control technology currently being used on diesel equipment and to ensure that the control measures are working. To investigate the potential of a differential pressure monitor to measure diesel particulate matter in undiluted exhaust, samples were collected from three different diesel engines--Kubota, Isuzu, and Deutz--running under 12 different RPM and load scenarios. These measurements were compared to elemental carbon concentrations in the sampled exhaust as determined by using the NIOSH 5040 analytical method. Elemental carbon is used as a surrogate measurement for diesel particulate matter. The results of the two data sets were then compared using a linear regression analysis. The coefficient of determination (or R2) was calculated to be 0.98, 0.94, and 0.74 for the Kubota, Deutz, and Isuzu engines, respectively. R2 values of this magnitude indicate that this method can be successful in estimating elemental carbon emissions in the engines tested. In addition, for replicate samples, the coefficient of variation ranged from 7.1% to 10.2% with an average of 8.5%. These data indicate that this method could prove useful to mechanics as they work to maintain engines and DPM control technologies.

  12. The application of composites in diesel engines for Naval use

    SciTech Connect

    Duvall, G.D.; Guimond, D.P.

    1994-12-31

    The high speed diesel engine is the preferred primemover for a wide variety of military Naval and land applications. Its high fuel efficiency, low cost and high reliability make it an attractive choice. Diesel engines are, however, relatively heavy and require large foundations for both support and to reduce structureborne noise. There are military applications, such as high speed patrol craft, minesweepers, and amphibious vehicles, where reductions in engine weight, magnetic signature and noise would greatly enhance its effectiveness as a primemover. To facilitate these reductions, the Navy is examining the application of emerging composite materials and fabrication methods to diesel engines. The scope of the effort includes vibration modeling, materials evaluation, and full scale engine demonstrations. Material candidates include metal and ceramic matrices and polymerics, for engine structural and reciprocating components, along with various non-structural covers and housings. The cornerstone of this effort will be close working partnerships with other services and with industry, where economic benefits are significant.

  13. Surface acoustical intensity measurements on a diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.; Crocker, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of surface intensity measurements as an alternative to the conventional selective wrapping technique of noise source identification and ranking on diesel engines was investigated. A six cylinder, in line turbocharged, 350 horsepower diesel engine was used. Sound power was measured under anechoic conditions for eight separate parts of the engine at steady state operating conditions using the conventional technique. Sound power measurements were repeated on five separate parts of the engine using the surface intensity at the same steady state operating conditions. The results were compared by plotting sound power level against frequency and noise source rankings for the two methods.

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  15. Documentation of the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangerpen, Jon

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program and explains how it can be used to predict the performance of diesel engines. The program was obtained from the Garrett Turbine Engine Company but has been extensively modified since. The program is a thermodynamic simulation of the diesel engine cycle which uses a single zone combustion model. It can be used to predict the effect of changes in engine design and operating parameters such as valve timing, speed and boost pressure. The most significan change made to this program is the addition of a more detailed heat transfer model to predict metal part temperatures. This report contains a description of the sub-models used in the Benson program, a description of the input parameters and sample program runs.

  16. Comparison of exhaust emissions from Swedish environmental classified diesel fuel (MK1) and European Program on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) reference fuel: a chemical and biological characterization, with viewpoints on cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, R; Christensen, A; Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L; Rannug, U; Sjögren, M; Rafter, J; Soontjens, C; Almén, J; Grägg, K

    2001-05-01

    Diesel fuels, classified as environmentally friendly, have been available on the Swedish market since 1991. The Swedish diesel fuel classification is based upon the specification of selected fuel composition and physical properties to reduce potential environmental and health effects from direct human exposure to exhaust. The objective of the present investigation was to compare the most stringent, environmentally classified Swedish diesel fuel (MK1) to the reference diesel fuel used in the "European Program on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies" (EPEFE) program. The study compares measurements of regulated emissions, unregulated emissions, and biological tests from a Volvo truck using these fuels. The regulated emissions from these two fuels (MK1 vs EPEFE) were CO (-2.2%), HC (12%), NOx (-11%), and particulates (-11%). The emissions of aldehydes, alkenes, and carbon dioxide were basically equivalent. The emissions of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 1-nitropyrene were 88% and 98% lower than those of the EPEFE fuel, respectively. The emissions of semi-volatile PAHs and 1-nitropyrene were 77% and 80% lower than those from the EPEFE fuel, respectively. The reduction in mutagenicity of the particle extract varied from -75 to -90%, depending on the tester strain. The reduction of mutagenicity of the semi-volatile extract varied between -40 and -60%. Furthermore, the dioxin receptor binding activity was a factor of 8 times lower in the particle extracts and a factor of 4 times lower in the semi-volatile extract than that of the EPEFE fuel. In conclusion, the MK1 fuel was found to be more environmentally friendly than the EPEFE fuel.

  17. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  18. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  19. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    PubMed Central

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  20. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine with Preheated Bio Diesel with Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Vajja, Sai; Murali, R. B. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper mainly reviews about the usage of preheated bio diesel added with 0.5% Etchant as an alternative fuel and evaluates its performance for various blends with different loads. Bio diesel is added with Etchant for rapid combustion as for the bio diesel, the cetane number is high that results in shorter delay of ignition and the mixture is preheated to raise its temperature to improve the combustion process. Analysis of the parameters required to define the combustion characteristics such as IP, BP, ηbth, ηm, ISFC, BSFC, IMEP, MFC, Exhaust Gas Temperature, Heat Release and heat balance is necessary as these values are significant to assess the performance of engine and its emissions of preheated bio diesel.

  2. Product audit for heavy duty diesel engines in production environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Sanghoon; Beresford, Jim

    2005-09-01

    A product audit at manufacturing plants has become more important due to the customer's requirements on product quality. Noise and vibration performance have been a primary concern for gas engines and small size diesel engines. Lately, more interest has been shown by truck manufacturers about engine noise for heavy duty diesel application. It has been regarded that acoustic measurements requires dedicated measurement environment for detailed study. This case study shows that acoustic measurements can be performed at performance cell without any dedicated acoustic treatment at the manufacturing plant to identify some of the noise characteristics with proper preparation. Order tracking and loudness were used to identify two different characteristics related to front gear train in heavy duty diesel engines. In addition, the coordination between technical organization and manufacturing plant for the data acquisition and analysis is discussed.

  3. Emission reduction from diesel engine using fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Yao, C D

    2009-07-15

    This study is aimed to investigate the combined application of fumigation methanol and a diesel oxidation catalyst for reducing emissions of an in-use diesel engine. Experiments were performed on a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine operating at a constant speed of 1800 rev/min for five engine loads. The experimental results show that at low engine loads, the brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in fumigation methanol; but at high loads, it slightly increases with increase in fumigation methanol. The fumigation method results in a significant increase in hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emissions, but decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), smoke opacity and the particulate mass concentration. For the submicron particles, the total number of particles decreases. In all cases, there is little change in geometrical mean diameter of the particles. After catalytic conversion, the HC, CO, NO(2), particulate mass and particulate number concentrations were significantly reduced at medium to high engine loads; while the geometrical mean diameter of the particles becomes larger. Thus, the combined use of fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst leads to a reduction of HC, CO, NO(x), particulate mass and particulate number concentrations at medium to high engine loads.

  4. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  5. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine.

  6. Particle- and gas-phase PAHs toxicity equivalency quantity emitted by a non-road diesel engine with non-thermal plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianbing; Ma, Chaochen; Xing, Shikai; Zhang, Yajie; Liu, Jiangquan; Feng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ, denoted by benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration) is more meaningful when evaluating the influence of non-road diesel engines PAH toxicity on environment. Particle- and gas-phase PAH BaPeq concentrations were calculated based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) results and toxic equivalency factors. A non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor was applied to a non-road diesel engine to decrease PAH TEQ content. Only the gas-phase Nap BaPeq concentration increased slightly with the action of NTP at three different generator power outputs. BaP dominated the BaPeq concentration for 15 samples with, and without NTP except in the gas-phase at 4 kW. Almost all medium molecular weight (MMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) PAH TEQs increased for particle- and gas-phases at 3 kW power output compared to 2 kW without the use of NTP. Particle-phase Nap, Acp, and AcPy (low molecular weight, LMW) TEQ were under detection at 3 and 4 kW, while gas-phase BkF, IND, DBA, and BghiP (HMW) concentrations were below the limits of detection. The most abundant PAH TEQ compounds were MMW and HMW PAHs for gas- and particle-phase while they were BaA, CHR, BbF, BaP, and IND for PM aggregation. The total BaPeq emission factors were 15.1, 141.4, and 46.5 μg m(-3) at three engine loads, respectively. Significant BaPeq concentration percentage reduction was obtained (more than 80 and 60 %) with the use of NTP for particle- and gas-phases. A high TEQ content was observed for PM aggregation (38.8, 98.4, and 50.0 μg kg(-1)) which may have caused secondary PAH toxicity emissions. With the action of NTP, the breakup of MMW and HMW into LMW PAHs led to reduction of some PAH concentrations.

  7. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  8. Diesel engine torsional vibration control coupling with speed control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yibin; Li, Wanyou; Yu, Shuwen; Han, Xiao; Yuan, Yunbo; Wang, Zhipeng; Ma, Xiuzhen

    2017-09-01

    The coupling problems between shafting torsional vibration and speed control system of diesel engine are very common. Neglecting the coupling problems sometimes lead to serious oscillation and vibration during the operation of engines. For example, during the propulsion shafting operation of a diesel engine, the oscillation of engine speed and the severe vibration of gear box occur which cause the engine is unable to operate. To find the cause of the malfunctions, a simulation model coupling the speed control system with the torsional vibration of deformable shafting is proposed and investigated. In the coupling model, the shafting is simplified to be a deformable one which consists of several inertias and shaft sections and with characteristics of torsional vibration. The results of instantaneous rotation speed from this proposed model agree with the test results very well and are successful in reflecting the real oscillation state of the engine operation. Furthermore, using the proposed model, the speed control parameters can be tuned up to predict the diesel engine a stable and safe running. The results from the tests on the diesel engine with a set of tuned control parameters are consistent with the simulation results very well.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  11. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  12. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  13. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  14. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    PubMed

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  15. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  16. Development of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for detection and quantification of urea thermal decomposition by-products in emission from diesel engine employing selective catalytic reduction technology.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Mahmoud M; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona

    2012-03-16

    The use of urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the reduction of NOx from the exhaust of diesel-powered vehicles has the potential to emit at least six thermal decomposition by-products, ammonia, and unreacted urea from the tailpipe. These compounds may include: biuret, dicyandiamine, cyanuric acid, ammelide, ammeline and melamine. In the present study, a simple, sensitive and reliable hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)/mass spectrometry (MS) method without complex sample pre-treatment was developed for identification and determination of urea decomposition by-products in diesel exhaust. Gradient separation was performed on a SeQuant ZIC-HILIC column with a highly polar zwitterionic stationary phase, and using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (eluent A) and 15 mM ammonium formate (pH 6; eluent B). Detection and quantification were performed using a quadrupole ESI/MS operated simultaneously in negative and positive mode. With 10 μL injection volume, LODs for all target analytes were in the range of 0.2-3 μg/L. The method showed a good inter-day precision of retention time (RSD<0.5%) and peak area (RSD<3%). Satisfactory extraction recoveries from spiked blanks ranged between 96 and 98%. Analyses of samples collected during transient chassis dynamometer tests of a bus engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based SCR technology showed the presence of five target analytes with cyanuric acid and ammelide the most abundant compounds in the exhaust.

  17. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  18. High-alcohol microemulsion fuel performance in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.H.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necssitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated. The apparent cetane numbers ranged from around 20 to above 50 with the majority between 30 and 45. Emissions of nitric oxide were measured for a few select fuels and were found to be 10 to 20% lower than No. 2 diesel fuel. 36 refs., 87 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  20. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  1. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  3. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  7. Multicylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    diesel engines representative of the four -stroke cycle and two-stroke cycle main propulsion units installed in U.S. Coast Guard WPB class cutters were...performance. The test results for the four -stroke cycle engine indicated that an average diesel fuel saving of about 2.5 percent could be obtained at the...CONSUMPTION, DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE, 1000 RPM ................. 39 3-5 FUEL CONSUMPTION, DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE, FOUR SPEEDS .............. 40 3-6 FUEL INJECTION

  8. A general NMPC framework for a diesel engine air path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murilo, André; Alamir, Mazen; Alberer, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the formulation of a parameterised nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) scheme to be applied on a diesel engine air path. The most important feature of the proposed controller is that it uses no structural properties of the system model. Therefore, the proposed NMPC scheme can be applied to any nonlinear system, leading to a general framework for a diesel engine air path. Moreover, the computational burden is substantially reduced due to an optimisation problem of low dimension obtained by means of the parameterised approach. Simulation results and an experimental validation are presented in order to emphasise the controller's efficiency and the real-time implementability.

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIX, I--ENGINE TUNE-UP--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES AND THE DESIGN OF FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES USED ON DIESEL ENGINE EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) PRE-TUNE-UP CHECKS, (2) TIMING THE ENGINE, (3) INJECTOR PLUNGER AND VALVE ADJUSTMENTS, (4) FUEL PUMP ADJUSTMENTS ON THE ENGINE (PTR AND PTG),…

  11. The Role of Diesel Engines in Early Submarine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    Electric Boat Company ( EBC ) acquired licensing to build M.A.N. two stroke diesels in 1910.41 The EBC subsidiary, New London Shipbuilding and Engine Company...850 HP and 1000 HP four cycle - -- . -- 46 -- -- --- . ------ -- -- --- ----- engines in their World War I U-boats. The Ameiicans, slow to take...engines were not fully developed, but EBC built the submarines anyway. The submruines initially authorized in 1916 had so many problems the first was

  12. Assessment of Governor Control Parameter Settings of a Submarine Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    University of Technology 15. Ogata , K. (1997) Modern control engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall 16. DiStephano, J., Stubberud, A. and...UNCLASSIFIED Assessment of Governor Control Parameter Settings of a Submarine Diesel Engine Peter Hield and Michael Newman...generators to provide power for propulsion and the hotel load. The governor, often a proportional-integral controller , attempts to maintain a constant

  13. Development of Innovative Combustion Processes for a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    John Dec; Paul Miles

    1999-01-01

    In support of the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) emissions and fuel economy goals, a small-bore, high-speed, direct-injection (HSDI) diesel facility in which to conduct research into the physics of the combustion process relevant to these engines has been developed. The characteristics of this facility are described, and the motivation for selecting these characteristics and their relation to high efficiency, low-emission HSDI engine technology is discussed.

  14. Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

  15. Physical properties of bio-diesel & Implications for use of bio-diesel in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; McFarlane, Joanna; Daw, C Stuart; Ra, Youngchul; Griffin, Jelani K

    2008-01-01

    In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both regular diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study. Future studies of diesel combustion sensitivity to both physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are suggested.

  16. Assessing economic impacts of clean diesel engines. Phase 1 report: U.S.- or foreign-produced clean diesel engines for selected light trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.; Vyas, A.D.; Cuenca, R.M.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-11-02

    Light trucks' share of the US light vehicle market rose from 20% in 1980 to 41% in 1996. By 1996, annual energy consumption for light trucks was 6.0 x 10{sup 15} Btu (quadrillion Btu, or quad), compared with 7.9 quad for cars. Gasoline engines, used in almost 99% of light trucks, do not meet the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. These engines have poor fuel economy, many getting only 10--12 miles per gallon. Diesel engines, despite their much better fuel economy, had not been preferred by US light truck manufacturers because of problems with high NO{sub x} and particulate emissions. The US Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, has funded research projects at several leading engine makers to develop a new low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine, first for large trucks, then for light trucks. Recent advances in diesel engine technology may overcome the NO{sub x} and particulate problems. Two plausible alternative clean diesel (CD) engine market penetration trajectories were developed, representing an optimistic case (High Case) and an industry response to meet the CAFE standards (CAFE Case). However, leadership in the technology to produce a successful small, advanced diesel engine for light trucks is an open issue between U.S. and foreign companies and could have major industry and national implications. Direct and indirect economic effects of the following CD scenarios were estimated by using the Standard and Poor's Data Resources, Inc., US economy model: High Case with US Dominance, High Case with Foreign Dominance, CAFE Case with US Dominance, and CAFE Case with Foreign Dominance. The model results demonstrate that the economic activity under each of the four CD scenarios is higher than in the Base Case (business as usual). The economic activity is highest for the High Case with US dominance, resulting in maximum gains in such key indicators as gross domestic product, total civilian employment, and federal

  17. Emission profile of 18 carbonyl compounds, CO, CO 2, and NO x emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and ternary blends containing diesel, ethanol and biodiesel or vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; de Souza, Amanda Figueiredo; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    The impact of vehicular emissions on air depends, among other factors, on the composition of fuel and the technology used to build the engines. The reduction of vehicular emissions requires changes in the fuel composition, and improving the technologies used in the manufacturing of engines and for the after-treatment of gases. In general, improvements to diesel engines have targeted not only emission reductions, but also reductions in fuel consumption. However, changes in the fuel composition have been shown to be a more rapid and effective alternative to reduce pollution. Some factors should been taken into consideration when searching for an alternative fuel to be used in diesel engines, such as emissions, fuel stability, availability and its distribution, as well as its effects on the engine durability. In this work, 45 fuel blends were prepared and their stability was evaluated. The following mixtures (v/v/v) were stable for the 90-day period and were used in the emission study: diesel/ethanol - 90/10%, diesel/ethanol/soybean biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/castor biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/residual biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/soybean oil - 90/7/3%, and diesel/ethanol/castor oil - 90/7/3%. The diesel/ethanol fuel showed higher reduction of NO x emission at a lower load (2 kW) when compared with pure diesel. The other fuels showed a decrease of NO x emissions in the ranges of 6.9-75% and 4-85% at 1800 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. The combustion efficiencies of the diesel can be enhanced by the addition of the oxygenate fuels, like ethanol and biodiesel/vegetable oil, resulting in a more complete combustion in terms of NO x emission. In the case of CO 2 the decreases were in the ranges of 5-24% and 4-6% at 1800 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. Meanwhile, no differences were observed in CO emission. The carbonyl compounds (CC) studied were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde

  18. Fault detection and diagnosis of diesel engine valve trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flett, Justin; Bone, Gary M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) system for use with a diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) valve train. A novel feature is generated for each of the valve closing and combustion impacts. Deformed valve spring faults and abnormal valve clearance faults were seeded on a diesel engine instrumented with one accelerometer. Five classification methods were implemented experimentally and compared. The FDD system using the Naïve-Bayes classification method produced the best overall performance, with a lowest detection accuracy (DA) of 99.95% and a lowest classification accuracy (CA) of 99.95% for the spring faults occurring on individual valves. The lowest DA and CA values for multiple faults occurring simultaneously were 99.95% and 92.45%, respectively. The DA and CA results demonstrate the accuracy of our FDD system for diesel ICE valve train fault scenarios not previously addressed in the literature.

  19. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  20. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IX, ENGINE COMPONENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, FUNCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF DIESEL ENGINE CRANKSHAFTS, CAMSHAFTS, AND ASSOCIATED BEARINGS. TOPICS ARE SHAFTS AND BEARINGS, CAMSHAFTS, BEARINGS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE, AND DETECTING FAILURE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED…

  2. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  3. Dicarboxylic Acid Emissions from Aftertreatment Equipped Diesel Engines.

    PubMed

    Bock, Noah; Baum, Marc M; Anderson, Mackenzie B; Pesta, Anaïs; Northrop, William F

    2017-10-10

    Dicarboxylic acids play a key role in atmospheric particle nucleation. Though long assumed to originate from primary sources, little experimental evidence exists directly linking combustion to their emissions. In this work, we sought definitive proof that dicarboxylic acids are produced in diesel engines and that they can slip through a modern aftertreatment system (ATS) at low exhaust temperatures. One difficulty in measuring dicarboxylic acid emissions is that they cannot be identified using conventional mass spectroscopy techniques. In this work, we refined a derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique to measure 11 mono- and dicarboxylic acids from plain and KOH impregnated quartz filters. Filters were loaded with exhaust from a modern passenger car diesel engine on a dynamometer sampled before and after an ATS consisting of an oxidation catalyst and diesel particulate filter. Our findings confirm that dicarboxylic acids are produced in diesel engine combustion, especially during low temperature combustion modes that emit significant concentrations of partially combusted hydrocarbons. Exhaust acids were largely removed by a fully warmed-up ATS, mitigating their environmental impact. Our results also suggest that dicarboxylic acids do not participate in primary particle formation in dilute engine exhaust as low quantities were collected on unimpregnated filters.

  4. Viscosity of diesel engine fuel oil under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, Mayo D

    1929-01-01

    In the development of Diesel engine fuel injection systems it is necessary to have an approximate knowledge of the absolute viscosity of the fuel oil under high hydrostatic pressures. This report presents the results of experimental tests conducted by Mr. Jackson Newton Shore, utilizing the A.S.M.E. high pressure equipment.

  5. Advanced radiation techniques for inspection of diesel engine combustion chamber materials components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-09

    Heavy duty truck engines must meet stringent life cycle cost and regulatory requirements. Meeting these requirements has resulted in convergence on 4-stroke 6-in-line, turbocharged, and after-cooled engines with direct-injection combustion systems. These engines provide much higher efficiencies (42%, fuel consumption 200 g/kW-hr) than automotive engines (31%, fuel consumption 270 g/kW-hr), but at higher initial cost. Significant near-term diesel engine improvements are necessary and are spurred by continuing competitive, Middle - East oil problems and Congressional legislation. As a result of these trends and pressures, Caterpillar has been actively pursuing a low-fuel consumption engine research program with emphasis on product quality through process control and product inspection. The goal of this project is to combine the nondestructive evaluation and computational resources and expertise available at LLNL with the diesel engine and manufacturing expertise of the Caterpillar Corporation to develop in-process monitoring and inspection techniques for diesel engine combustion chamber components and materials. Early development of these techniques will assure the optimization of the manufacturing process by design/inspection interface. The transition from the development stage to the manufacturing stage requires a both a thorough understanding of the processes and a way of verifying conformance to process standards. NDE is one of the essential tools in accomplishing both elements and in this project will be integrated with Caterpillar`s technological and manufacturing expertise to accomplish the project goals.

  6. DELTA-DIESEL ENGINE LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATION Contract DE-FC05-97OR22606 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike

    2003-05-27

    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  7. Prototype thin-film thermocouple/heat-flux sensor for a ceramic-insulated diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Walter S.; Barrows, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A platinum versus platinum-13 percent rhodium thin-film thermocouple/heat-flux sensor was devised and tested in the harsh, high-temperature environment of a ceramic-insulated, low-heat-rejection diesel engine. The sensor probe assembly was developed to provide experimental validation of heat transfer and thermal analysis methodologies applicable to the insulated diesel engine concept. The thin-film thermocouple configuration was chosen to approximate an uninterrupted chamber surface and provide a 1-D heat-flux path through the probe body. The engine test was conducted by Purdue University for Integral Technologies, Inc., under a DOE-funded contract managed by NASA Lewis Research Center. The thin-film sensor performed reliably during 6 to 10 hr of repeated engine runs at indicated mean surface temperatures up to 950 K. However, the sensor suffered partial loss of adhesion in the thin-film thermocouple junction area following maximum cyclic temperature excursions to greater than 1150 K.

  8. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  10. Failure Modes and Predictive Diagnostics Considerations for Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    Collacott, R. A., Mechanical Fault Diagnosis and Condition Monitoring. Halstead Press: New York, 1977. 9. Maynard, K. P., et al, Application of Double...engines contributing to reduced readiness and increased maintenance costs. These faults can be addressed and studied using scaled testing to build the...bed is used for experimental collection of healthy, seeded fault , and transitional fault test data from the diesel engine and driveline components. The

  11. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  12. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  13. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  14. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  15. A 150 and 300 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine was reinvestigated as an aircraft powerplant through design study conducted to arrive at engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed, a 300 kW six-cylinder engine for twin engine general aviation aircraft and a 150 kW four-cylinder engine for single engine aircraft. Descriptions of each engine include concept drawings, a performance analysis, stress and weight data, and a cost study. This information was used to develop two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consists of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs, and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data show a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft.

  16. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  17. Effect of EGR contamination of diesel engine oil on wear.

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Aldajah, S.; Goldblatt, I. L.; Energy Systems; United Arab Emirates Univ.; BP-Global Lubricants Technology

    2007-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the effective means to reduce the NO{sub X} emission from diesel engines. Returning exhaust product to the diesel engine combustion chamber accelerated the degradation of the lubricant engine oil, primarily by increasing the total acid number (TAN) as well as the soot content and, consequently, the viscosity. These oil degradation mechanisms were observed in engine oil exposed to EGR during a standard Cummins M-l 1 diesel engine test. Four-ball wear tests with M-50 balls showed that, although the used oils slightly decrease the friction coefficients, they increased the ball wear by two orders of magnitude when compared to tests with clean oil. Wear occurred primarily by an abrasive mechanism, but in oil with the highest soot loading of 12%, scuffing and soot particle embedment were also observed. Laboratory wear tests showed a linear correlation with the TAN, while the crosshead wear during the engine test was proportional to the soot content.

  18. Unregulated emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine with various fuels and emission control systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shida; Frank, Brian P; Lanni, Thomas; Rideout, Greg; Meyer, Norman; Beregszaszy, Chris

    2007-07-15

    This study evaluated the effects of various combinations of fuels and emission control technologies on exhaust emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine tested on an engine dynamometer. Ten fuels were studied in twenty four combinations of fuel and emission control technology configurations. Emission control systems evaluated were diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF), and the CRDPF coupled with an exhaust gas recirculation system (EGRT). The effects of fuel type and emission control technology on emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), and 1,3-butadiene, elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC/OC), carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-PAHs (n-PAHs) are presented in this paper. Regulated gaseous criteria pollutants of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been reported elsewhere. In general, individual unregulated emission with a CRDPF or an EGRT system is similar (at very low emission level) or much lower than that operating solely with a DOC and choosing a "best" fuel. The water emulsion PuriNO(x) fuel exhibited higher BTEX, carbonyls and PAHs emissions compared to other ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels tested in this study while n-PAH emissions were comparable to that from other ULSD fuels. Naphthalene accounted for greater than 50% of the total PAH emissions in this study and there was no significant increase of n-PAHs with the usage of CRDPF.

  19. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  20. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  1. On the Ignition and Combustion Variances of Jet Propellant-8 and Diesel Fuel in Military Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-22

    1 ON THE IGNITION AND COMBUSTION VARIANCES OF JET PROPELLANT-8 AND DIESEL FUEL IN MILITARY DIESEL ENGINES Peter Schihl* and Laura Hoogterp... engines for tactical wheeled vehicles due to a variety of reasons related to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission regulations. Such reasons...JP-8. This submission will briefly discuss these practical engine system issues and then present recent applied research that has focused on

  2. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    PubMed

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines.

  3. Laser-induced incandescence measurements in a fired diesel engine at 3 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxx, I. G.; Heinold, O.; Geigle, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced incandescence (LII) was performed at 3 kHz in an optically accessible cylinder of a fired diesel engine using a commercially available diode-pumped solid-state laser and an intensified CMOS camera. The resulting images, acquired every 3° of crank angle, enabled the spatiotemporal tracking of soot structures during the expansion/exhaust stroke of the engine cycle. The image sequences demonstrate that soot tends to form in thin sheets that propagate and interact with the in-cylinder flow. These sheets tend to align parallel to the central axis of the cylinder and are frequently wrapped into conical spirals by aerodynamic swirl. Most of the soot is observed well away from the cylinder walls. Quantitative soot measurements were beyond the scope of this study but the results demonstrate the practical utility of using kHz-rate LII to acquire ensemble-averaged statistical data with high crank angle resolution over a complete engine cycle. Based on semi-quantitative measures of soot distribution, it was possible to identify soot dynamics related to incomplete charge exchange. This study shows that long-duration, multi-kHz acquisition rate LII measurements are viable in a fired diesel engine with currently available laser and camera technology, albeit only in the expansion and exhaust phase of the cycle at present. Furthermore, such measurements yield useful insight into soot dynamics and therefore constitute an important new tool for the development and optimization of diesel engine technology.

  4. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  5. Diesel Engine Grants Help Communities Breathe Cleaner, Healthier Air in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 23, 2016) Clean diesel grants aimed at cleaning up old diesel engines have greatly improved public health by cutting harmful pollution that causes premature deaths, asthma attacks, and missed school and workdays, according to a new report

  6. EPA Report: Diesel Engine Clean-up Program Nets Major Air, Public Health Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Atlanta, GA - Clean diesel grants aimed at cleaning up old diesel engines have greatly improved public health by cutting harmful pollution that causes premature deaths, asthma attacks, and missed school and workdays, according to a new report by the

  7. EPA Report: Diesel Engine Grant Program Nets Major Air, Public Health Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Clean diesel grants aimed at cleaning up old diesel engines have greatly improved public health by cutting harmful pollution that causes premature deaths, asthma attacks, and missed school and workdays, according to a new report by the

  8. Utilization of sunflower seed oil as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruwer, J.J.; van der Boshoff, B.; Hugo, F.J.C.; Fuls, J.; Hawkins, C.; van der Walt, A.N.; Engelbrecht, A.; du Plessis, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Research, using several makes of diesel engine, showed that sunflower seed oil, and particularly an ethyl ester mixture, has the potential to extend diesel fuel provided solutions are found for injector coking problems. (MHR)

  9. EPA Announces Availability of $26 Million to Clean Up Diesel Engines Nationwide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Washington, D.C.) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced the availability of $26 million in grant funding to establish clean diesel projects aimed at reducing emissions from the nation's existing fleet of diesel engines. Di

  10. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  11. A reevaluation of the literature regarding the health assessment of diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bunn, William B; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Valberg, Peter A; Slavin, Thomas J; Hart, Georgia; Lapin, Charles A

    2004-12-15

    While the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified diesel exhaust (DE) as a"probable"carcinogen in 1989 based primarily on"sufficient"animal data, other investigators have since concluded that the lung tumors found in the rat studies were a result of particle overloading. Subsequent health risk assessments of DE have not used the rat cancer data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in developing its 2002 Health Assessment Document (HAD) for DE, primarily considered the epidemiology studies of railroad workers and truck drivers to develop health risk assessments of DE. However, both sets of epidemiology studies have serious weaknesses that make them unsuitable for cancer risk assessment. Major shortcomings were the lack of contemporaneous measurements of exposures to DE, difficulties with exposure history reconstruction, and adequately accounting for other exposures such as gasoline exhaust and cigarette smoke. To compound these problems, there was not, and there is still not, a specific exposure marker for DE. Interestingly, in the underground mining industry, where diesel exposures are much higher than observed in railroad workers and truck drivers, there was no increase in lung cancer. These problems and concerns led the U.S. EPA to conclude that while DE was a"likely"carcinogen, a unit risk value or range of risk cannot be calculated from existing data and that the risk could be zero. In addition, the DE emissions have changed and continue to change with the implementation of new emission control technologies. The HAD recognized this fact and noted that further studies are needed to assess new diesel engine emissions. Recent chemical characterization studies on low-emitting diesel engines with catalyzed particulate filters have shown emissions rates for several chemicals of concern that are even lower than comparable compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled engines. With lower emissions, better fire safety, and improved cost

  12. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  13. Impact of High Sulfur Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler Condensate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-14

    2008-01-1081 Impact of High Sulfur Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler Condensate Michael Mosburger, Jerry Fuschetto, Dennis...International ABSTRACT Low-sulfur “clean” diesel fuel has been mandated in the US and Europe. However, quality of diesel fuel, particularly the sulfur...on local fuel supplies, which exposes vehicles to diesel fuel or jet fuel (JP-8) with elevated levels of sulfur. Modern engines typically use

  14. Performance and emissions characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine with vegetable oil fuels - 2

    SciTech Connect

    Humke, A.L.; Barsic, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A naturally aspirated, direct injected diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a crude soybean oil, a 50 percent (by volume) mixture of crude soybean oil and no. 2 diesel fuel, and a degummed soybean oil. The data were compared with previous tests conducted on the same engine using diesel fuel, crude sunflower oil and a 50 percent mixture of crude sunflower oil and diesel fuel. 18 refs.

  15. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Automotive and Diesel Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of ten learning modules is equivalent to the content of a five-credit hour class in automotive technology or diesel technology. Almost all the modules contain technological application in the form of laboratory experiments or…

  16. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Automotive and Diesel Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of ten learning modules is equivalent to the content of a five-credit hour class in automotive technology or diesel technology. Almost all the modules contain technological application in the form of laboratory experiments or…

  17. Fate of SO{sub 2} During Plasma Treatment of Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-10-25

    Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} to achieve efficient reduction of NO{sub x} and particulates in diesel engine exhaust. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO{sub 2} is also active in converting SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} without oxidizing SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. It is shown that the presence of hydrocarbons in the plasma is essential for enhancing the selective partial oxidation of NO and suppressing the oxidation of SO{sub 2}.

  18. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    PubMed Central

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    (90 to >99%) lower than pre-2007-technology engine emissions, and also substantially (46 to >99%) lower than the 2007-technology engine emissions characterized in the previous study. Implications: Heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines equipped with DOC/DPF/SCR/AMOX and fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel produced lower emissions than the stringent 2010 emission standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They also resulted in significant reductions in a wide range of unregulated toxic emission compounds relative to older technology engines. The increased use of newer technology (2010+) diesel engines in the on-highway sector and the adaptation of such technology by other sectors such as nonroad, displacing older, higher emissions engines, will have a positive impact on ambient levels of PM, NOx, and volatile organic compounds, in addition to many other toxic compounds. PMID:26037832

  19. Lab-scale Lidar Sensing of Diesel Engines Exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borghese, A.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion technology and its environmental concerns are being considered with increasing attention, not only for global-scale effects, but also for toxicological implications, particularly in the lift conditions of traffic-congested areas and industrial sites. Majority combustion by-products (CO, NO(sub x)) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), are already subject to increasingly severe regulations; however other, non-regulated minority species, mainly soot and heavy aromatic molecules, involve higher health risks, as they are suspected to be agents of serious pathologies and even mutagenic effects. This is but one of the reasons why much research work is being carried out worldwide on the physical properties of these substances. Correspondingly, the need arises to detect their presence in urban environments, with as high a sensitivity as is required by their low concentrations, proper time- and space-resolutions, and 'real-time' capabilities. Lidar techniques are excellent candidates to this purpose, although severe constraints limit their applicability, eye-safety problems and aerosol Mie scattering uncertainties above all. At CNR's Istituto Motori in Napels, a Lidar-like diagnostic system is being developed, aimed primarily at monitoring the dynamic behavior of internal combustion engines, particularly diesel exhausts, and at exploring the feasibility of a so-called 'Downtown Lidar'.

  20. Lab-scale Lidar Sensing of Diesel Engines Exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borghese, A.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion technology and its environmental concerns are being considered with increasing attention, not only for global-scale effects, but also for toxicological implications, particularly in the lift conditions of traffic-congested areas and industrial sites. Majority combustion by-products (CO, NO(sub x)) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), are already subject to increasingly severe regulations; however other, non-regulated minority species, mainly soot and heavy aromatic molecules, involve higher health risks, as they are suspected to be agents of serious pathologies and even mutagenic effects. This is but one of the reasons why much research work is being carried out worldwide on the physical properties of these substances. Correspondingly, the need arises to detect their presence in urban environments, with as high a sensitivity as is required by their low concentrations, proper time- and space-resolutions, and 'real-time' capabilities. Lidar techniques are excellent candidates to this purpose, although severe constraints limit their applicability, eye-safety problems and aerosol Mie scattering uncertainties above all. At CNR's Istituto Motori in Napels, a Lidar-like diagnostic system is being developed, aimed primarily at monitoring the dynamic behavior of internal combustion engines, particularly diesel exhausts, and at exploring the feasibility of a so-called 'Downtown Lidar'.

  1. Ceramics Technology Project database: September 1991 summary report. [Materials for piston ring-cylinder liner for advanced heat/diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    The piston ring-cylinder liner area of the internal combustion engine must withstand very-high-temperature gradients, highly-corrosive environments, and constant friction. Improving the efficiency in the engine requires ring and cylinder liner materials that can survive this abusive environment and lubricants that resist decomposition at elevated temperatures. Wear and friction tests have been done on many material combinations in environments similar to actual use to find the right materials for the situation. This report covers tribology information produced from 1986 through July 1991 by Battelle columbus Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc., and Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP). All data in this report were taken from the project's semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and cover base materials, coatings, and lubricants. The data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP database and are available to all project participants on request. Objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies, but not to draw conclusions from these data.

  2. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-12-31

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  3. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  4. Study of Lean NOx Technology for Diesel Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.

    2000-08-20

    Diesel engines because of their reliability and efficiency are a popular mobile source. The diesel engine operates at higher compression ratios and with leaner fuel mixtures and produces lower carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. The oxygen-rich environment leads to higher nitrogen oxides in the form of NO. Catalysts selectively promoting the reduction of NOx by HCs in a lean environment have been termed lean NOx catalyst ''LNC''. The two groups that have shown most promise are, Copper exchanged zeolite Cu/ZSM5, and Platinum on alumina Pt/Al2O3.

  5. Annular nozzle engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, AL

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include: (1) driver rocket subsystem; (2) annular nozzle engine technology; (3) expansion-deflection nozzle; (4) aerospike-nozzled engine background; (5) aerospike testing; (6) linear aerospike; and (7) the combined cycle engine.

  6. Haze, oxidation, and corrosion resistant diesel engine lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

    1987-11-10

    This patent describes a haze, oxidation, and corrosion resistant diesel engine lubricant composition, particularly useful in marine and railway diesel engines, contains 0.1-5.0 weight percent of a reaction product additive. The reaction product additive is produced by first reacting substantially equimolar amounts of an anhydride compound which is either a dibasic acid anhydride or isatoic anhydride and a hydrocarbon-substituted mono primary amine or ether amine at a temperature range of 50/sup 0/C-150/sup 0/C to produce an intermediate reaction product. The intermediate reaction product is thereafter further reacted at an elevated temperature with a substantially equimolar amount of a heterocyclic azole or polyalkylene polyamine compound to form the final reaction product.

  7. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  8. Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    diesel internal combustion engine operating condition and health. A commercial-off- the-shelf AE monitoring system and a purpose-built data acquisition...increases in big end bearing clearance were not definitely identified from the acoustic emission signals. DST Group recommends that for any subsequent...Acoustics Corporation (PAC) and secondly a purpose-built system constructed around a National Instruments (NI) PXI data acquisition system. Initial

  9. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  10. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  11. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results.

  12. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  13. Soot reduction in diesel engines by catalytic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, R; Butcher, T; Krishna, C; Gaffney, J

    1980-01-01

    Recent tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory indicate that both small additions of alcohols to the fuel and the presence of platinum surfaces in the combustion chamber can reduce soot emissions in a diesel engine. These tests were conducted over a limited range of operation in a single cylinder CFR engine. Most of the testing was done using pure cetane as a fuel at constant speed and load. Possible major features of the reaction mechanisms for both fuel additives and surface catalyst effectiveness are presented.

  14. Diesel reformulation using bio-derived propanol to control toxic emissions from a light-duty agricultural diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Thillainayagam, Muthukkumar; Venkatesan, Krishnamoorthy; Dipak, Rana; Subramani, Saravanan; Sethuramasamyraja, Balaji; Babu, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In the Indian agricultural sector, millions of diesel-driven pump-sets were used for irrigation purposes. These engines produce carcinogenic diesel particulates, toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions which threaten the livelihood of large population of farmers in India. The present study investigates the use of n-propanol, a less-explored high carbon bio-alcohol that can be produced by sustainable pathways from industrial and crop wastes that has an attractive opportunity for powering stationary diesel engines meant for irrigation and rural electrification. This study evaluates the use of n-propanol addition in fossil diesel by up to 30% by vol. and concurrently reports the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions of an agricultural DI diesel engine. Three blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 were prepared by mixing 10, 20, and 30% by vol. of n-propanol with fossil diesel. Results when compared to baseline diesel case indicated that smoke density reduced with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced smoke density by 13.33, 33.33, and 60%, respectively. NOx emissions increased with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. Later, three EGR rates (10, 20, and 30%) were employed. At any particular EGR rate, smoke density remained lower with increasing n-propanol content in the blends under increasing EGR rates. NOx reduced gradually with EGR. At 30% EGR, the blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced NOx emissions by 43.04, 37.98, and 34.86%, respectively when compared to baseline diesel. CO emissions remained low but hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were high for n-propanol/diesel blends under EGR. Study confirmed that n-propanol could be used by up to 30% by vol. with diesel and the blends delivered lower soot density, NOx, and CO emissions under EGR.

  15. Carcinogenicity studies of diesel engine exhausts in laboratory animals: a review of past studies and a discussion of future research needs.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Bunn, William B; McClellan, Roger O; Hart, Georgia A; Lapin, Charles A

    2005-06-01

    Diesel engines play a vital role in world economy, especially in transportation. Exhaust from traditional diesel engines using high-sulfur fuel contains high concentrations of respirable carbonaceous particles with absorbed organic compounds. Recognition that some of these compounds are mutagenic has raised concern for the cancer-causing potential of diesel exhaust exposure. Extensive research addressing this issue has been conducted during the last three decades. This critical review is offered to facilitate an updated assessment of the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust and to provide a rationale for future animal research of new diesel technology. Life-span bioassays in rats, mice, and Syrian hamsters demonstrated that chronic inhalation of high concentrations of diesel exhaust caused lung tumors in rats but not in mice or Syrian hamsters. In 1989, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) characterized the rat findings as "sufficient evidence of animal carcinogenicity," and, with "limited" evidence from epidemiological studies, classified diesel exhaust Category 2A, a "probable human carcinogen." Subsequent research has shown that similar chronic high concentration exposure to particulate matter generally considered innocuous (such as carbon black and titanium dioxide) also caused lung tumors in rats. Thus, in 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that the findings in the rats should not be used to characterize the cancer hazard or quantify the cancer risk of diesel exhaust. Concurrent with the conduct of the health effects studies, progressively more stringent standards have been promulgated for diesel exhaust particles and NOx. Engine manufacturers have responded with new technology diesel (improved engines, fuel injection, fuels, lubricants, and exhaust treatments) to meet the standards. This review concludes with an outline of research to evaluate the health effects of the new technology, research that is consistent with

  16. Commercialization of coal diesel engines for non-utility and export power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Mayville, R.A.; Itse, D.; Kimberley, J.; Parkinson, J.

    1993-11-01

    The basic motivation behind this project is to develop coal-burning heat engine technology primarily for 10-100 MW modular stationary power applications in the late 1990`s and beyond, when oil and gas prices may return to the $5--7/MMBtu range. The fuel is a low-cost, coal-based liquid with the consistency of black paint, composed of 12-micron mean size premium 2% ash coal dust mixed 50/50 with water. The Clean Coal Diesel Plant of the future is targeted for the 10-100 MW non-utility generation (NUG) and small utility markets, including independent power producers (IPP) and cogeneration. A family of plant designs will be offered using the Cooper-Bessemer 3.8, 5.0, and 6.3 MW Model LS engines as building blocks. In addition, larger plants will be configured with an engine in the 10-25 MW class (Cooper will license the technology to other large bore stationary engine manufacturers). The reciprocating engine offers a remarkable degree of flexibility in selecting plant capacity. This flexibility exists because the engines are modular in every sense (fuel cell stacks have similar modularity). Scale-up is accomplished simply by adding cylinders (e.g., 20 vs 16) or by adding engines (4 vs 3). There is no scale-up of the basic cylinder size. Thus, there is essentially no technical development needed to scale-up the Cooper-Bessemer Clean Coal Diesel Technology all the way from 2 MW (one 6-cylinder engine) to 50 MW (eight 20-cylinder engines), other than engineering adaptation of the turbocharger to match the engine.

  17. Development of Diesel Engine Diagnostics for U.S. Coast Guard Cutters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    hIbis program involved an investigation of techniques to perform engine fault diagnosis on the large medium-speed diesel engines used as main...Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center (TSC), has developed a method for testing equipment for fault diagnosis of large marine diesel...Phase II. The primary objectives of thi" task were to examine candidate methods 1 of diesel engine fault location and diagnosis , to select promising

  18. Supercritical and Transcritical Real-Fluid Mixing in Diesel Engine Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-RP-0551 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Supercritical and Transcritical Real-Fluid Mixing in Diesel Engine...ARL-RP-0551 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Supercritical and Transcritical Real-Fluid Mixing in Diesel Engine Applications by...COVERED (From - To) 1 January 2014–30 September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Supercritical and Transcritical Real-Fluid Mixing in Diesel Engine

  19. Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that future NOx and PM emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion methodology with an aftertreatment technology will be required. In this study, NOx reduction, fuel efficiency, and regeneration performance of lean NOx trap (LNT) were evaluated for four operating conditions. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without EGR, two exhaust enrichment methods (post injection and delayed injection), and one advanced combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine was operated under five conditions, which represent key interest points for light-duty diesel operation. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable. HECC was also reached under more moderate loads and the exhaust temperatures were high enough to enable even further NOx reductions by the LNT. At high loads HECC becomes difficult but the LNT performance improves and acceptable regeneration can be met with enrichment methodologies.

  20. CAD techniques applied to diesel engine design. Extension of the RK range. [Ruston diesels

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K.; Buckthorpe, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rustion Diesels Ltd. produce three ranges of engines, the AP range covering engine powers from 500 to 1400 bhp (350 to 1000 kW electrical), the RK range covering 1410 to 4200 bhp (1 to 3 MW electrical), and the AT range covering 1650 to 4950 bhp (1-2 to 3-5 MW electrical). The AT engine range is available at speeds up to 600 rev/min, whereas the AP and RK ranges cover engine speeds from 600 to 1000 rev/min. The design philosophy and extension of the RK range of engines are investigated. This is a 251 mm (ten inch) bore by 305mm (twelve inch) stroke engine and is available in 6-cylinder in-line form and 8-, 12-, and 16-cylinder vee form. The RK engine features a cast-iron crankcase and bedplate design with a forged alloy-steel crankshaft. Combustion-chamber components consist of a cast-iron cylinder head and liner, steel exhaust and inlet valves, and a single-piece aluminium piston. The durability and reliability of RK engines have been fully proven in service with over 30 years' experience in numerous applications for power generation, reaction, and marine propulsion.

  1. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  3. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa. PMID:21234367

  4. Hydrogen-fueled diesel engine without timed ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, H. S.; De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Reynolds, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of converting a diesel engine to hydrogen-fueled operation without providing a timed ignition system. Use was made of a glow plug and a multiple-strike spark plug. The glow plug was found to provide reliable ignition and smooth engine operation. It caused the hydrogen to ignite almost immediately upon the start of injection. Indicated mean effective pressures were on the order of 1.3 MPa for equivalence ratios between 0.1 and 0.4 at a compression ratio of 18. This is significantly higher than the corresponding result obtained with diesel oil (about 0.6 MPa for equivalence ratios between 0.3 and 0.9). Indicated thermal efficiencies were on the order of 0.4 for hydrogen and 0.20-0.25 for diesel oil. Operation with the multiple-strike spark system yielded similar values for IMEP and efficiency, but gave rise to large cycle-to-cycle variations in the delay between the beginning of injection and ignition. Large ignition delays were associated with large amplitude pressure waves in the combustion chamber. The measured NO(x) concentrations in the exhaust gas were of the order of 50-100 ppm. This is significantly higher than the corresponding results obtained with premixed hydrogen and air at low equivalence ratios. Compression ignition could not be achieved even at a compression ratio of 29.

  5. Adiabatic diesel engine component development: Reference engine for on-highway applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakim, Nabil S.

    1986-01-01

    The main objectives were to select an advanced low heat rejection diesel reference engine (ADRE) and to carry out systems analysis and design. The ADRE concept selection consisted of: (1) rated point performance optimization; (2) study of various exhaust energy recovery scenarios; (3) components, systems and engine configuration studies; and (4) life cycle cost estimates of the ADRE economic worth. The resulting ADRE design proposed a reciprocator with many advanced features for the 1995 technology demonstration time frame. These included ceramic air gap insulated hot section structural components, high temperature tribology treatments, nonmechanical (camless) valve actuation systems, and elimination of the cylinder head gasket. ADRE system analysis and design resulted in more definition of the engine systems. These systems include: (1) electro-hydraulic valve actuation, (2) electronic common rail injection system; (3) engine electronic control; (4) power transfer for accessory drives and exhaust energy recovery systems; and (5) truck installation. Tribology and performance assessments were also carried out. Finite element and probability of survival analyses were undertaken for the ceramic low heat rejection component.

  6. Complete modeling for systems of a marine diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahim, Hassan Moussa; Younes, Rafic; Nohra, Chadi; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine's output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  7. 76 FR 33660 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... 2010-23-09, Amendment 39-16498 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010), for Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect... FR 68179, November 5, 2010), and adding the following new AD: Austro Engine GmbH: Docket No....

  8. Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

  9. International Standards to Reduce Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines and Their Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of EPA coordination with International Maritime Organization including a list of all international regulations and materials related to emissions from marine compression-ignition (diesel) engines.

  10. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  11. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  12. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends.

  13. Experimental investigation of performance and emissions of a VCR diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol diesel blends under varying engine parameters.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Ashish; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Mathur, Alok

    2017-07-13

    The continuous rise in the cost of fossil fuels as well as in environmental pollution has attracted research in the area of clean alternative fuels for improving the performance and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines. In the present work, n-butanol is treated as a bio-fuel and investigations have been made to evaluate the feasibility of replacing diesel with a suitable n-butanol-diesel blend. In the current research, an experimental investigation was carried out on a variable compression ratio CI engine with n-butanol-diesel blends (10-25% by volume) to determine the optimum blending ratio and optimum operating parameters of the engine for reduced emissions. The best results of performance and emissions were observed for 20% n-butanol-diesel blend (B20) at a higher compression ratio as compared to diesel while keeping the other parameters unchanged. The observed deterioration in engine performance was within tolerable limits. The reductions in smoke, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed up to 56.52, 17.19, and 30.43%, respectively, for B20 in comparison to diesel at rated power. However, carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (HC) were found to be higher by 17.58 and 15.78%, respectively, for B20. It is concluded that n-butanol-diesel blend would be a potential fuel to control emissions from diesel engines. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  14. Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Nurhayati Yong-kwan, Lee

    2014-02-12

    Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort.

  15. EXPLORING LOW EMISSION DIESEL ENGINE OILS WORKSHOP - A SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Joseph

    2000-08-20

    This paper discusses and summarizes some of the results of the title workshop. The workshop was held January 31-February 2, 2000 in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of the workshop was ''To craft a shared vision for Industry-Government (DOE) research and development collaboration in Diesel Engine Oils to minimize emissions while maintaining or enhancing engine performance''. The final report of the workshop (NREL/SR-570-28521) was issued in June 2000 by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393. There were some 95 participants at the workshop representing industry, government and academia, Figure 1. The format for the workshop is described in Figure 2. This format allowed for considerable discussion of the various issues prior to deliberations in breakout groups. This process resulted in recommendations to solve the issues related to the next generation of diesel engine oils. Keynote addresses by SAE President Rodica Baranescu (International Truck and Engine Corporation), James Eberhardt of DOE and Paul Machiele of EPA focused on diesel progress, workshop issues and regulatory fuel issues. A panel of experts further defined the issues of interest, presenting snapshots of the current status in their areas of expertise. A Q&A session was followed by a series of technical presentations discussing the various areas. Some two dozen presentations covered the technical issues, Figure 3. An open forum was held to allow any participant to present related studies or comment on any of the technical issues. The participants broke into work groups addressing the various areas found on Figure 2. A group leader was appointed and reported on their findings, recommendations, suggested participants for projects and on related items.

  16. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults.

  17. Attempts to minimize nitrogen oxide emission from diesel engine by using antioxidant-treated diesel-biodiesel blend.

    PubMed

    Rashedul, Hasan Khondakar; Kalam, Md Abdul; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Teoh, Yew Heng; How, Heoy Geok; Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Imdadul, Hassan Kazi

    2017-04-01

    The study represents a comprehensive analysis of engine exhaust emission variation from a compression ignition (CI) diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel blends. Biodiesel used in this investigation was produced through transesterification procedure from Moringa oleifera oil. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, naturally aspirated diesel engine was used for this purpose. The pollutants from the exhaust of the engine that are monitored in this study are nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke opacity. Engine combustion and performance parameters are also measured together with exhaust emission data. Some researchers have reported that the reason for higher NO emission of biodiesel is higher prompt NO formation. The use of antioxidant-treated biodiesel in a diesel engine is a promising approach because antioxidants reduce the formation of free radicals, which are responsible for the formation of prompt NO during combustion. Two different antioxidant additives namely 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) (MBEBP) were individually dissolved at a concentration of 1% by volume in MB30 (30% moringa biodiesel with 70% diesel) fuel blend to investigate and compare NO as well as other emissions. The result shows that both antioxidants reduced NO emission significantly; however, HC, CO, and smoke were found slightly higher compared to pure biodiesel blends, but not more than the baseline fuel diesel. The result also shows that both antioxidants were quite effective in reducing peak heat release rate (HRR) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) as well as improving brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and oxidation stability. Based on this study, antioxidant-treated M. oleifera biodiesel blend (MB30) can be used as a very promising alternative source of fuel in diesel engine without any modifications.

  18. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

  19. Aerosol emissions of a ship diesel engine operated with diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Streibel, Thorsten; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Czech, Hendryk; Harndorf, Horst; Jakobi, Gert; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Karg, Erwin; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Michalke, Bernhard; Müller, Laarnie; Orasche, Jürgen; Passig, Johannes; Radischat, Christian; Rabe, Rom; Reda, Ahmed; Rüger, Christopher; Schwemer, Theo; Sippula, Olli; Stengel, Benjamin; Sklorz, Martin; Torvela, Tiina; Weggler, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a ship diesel research engine were elaborately analysed by a large assembly of measurement techniques. Applied methods comprised of offline and online approaches, yielding averaged chemical and physical data as well as time-resolved trends of combustion by-products. The engine was driven by two different fuels, a commonly used heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a standardised diesel fuel (DF). It was operated in a standardised cycle with a duration of 2 h. Chemical characterisation of organic species and elements revealed higher concentrations as well as a larger number of detected compounds for HFO operation for both gas phase and particulate matter. A noteworthy exception was the concentration of elemental carbon, which was higher in DF exhaust aerosol. This may prove crucial for the assessment and interpretation of biological response and impact via the exposure of human lung cell cultures, which was carried out in parallel to this study. Offline and online data hinted at the fact that most organic species in the aerosol are transferred from the fuel as unburned material. This is especially distinctive at low power operation of HFO, where low volatility structures are converted to the particulate phase. The results of this study give rise to the conclusion that a mere switching to sulphur-free fuel is not sufficient as remediation measure to reduce health and environmental effects of ship emissions.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  2. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.; Northrop, William F.; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Assanis, Dennis N.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  3. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A; Northrop, William F; Bohac, Stanislav V; Assanis, Dennis N

    2012-11-15

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  4. The emission characteristics of a small D.I. diesel engine using biodiesel blended fuels.

    PubMed

    Lue, Y F; Yeh, Y Y; Wu, C H

    2001-05-01

    Biodiesel and biodiesel blends provide low emissions without modification on the fuel system of conventional diesel engines. This study aims to develop a new domestic biodiesel production procedure which makes use of waste fryer vegetable oil by transesterification method, and further investigates the emission characteristics of a small D.I. diesel engine using biodiesel blends and diesel fuels, respectively. The 20/80 and 30/70 blends of biodiesel to diesel fuel are used in this study. The emission characteristics include smoke emissions, gaseous emissions (CO, HC, NOx and SO2), particle size distributions and number concentrations at a variety of steady state engine speed points. We have found that diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends emits more PM2 particle number concentrations than those with diesel fuel, and PM2 number concentration increases as biodiesel concentration increases. As for the smoke and gaseous emissions, such as CO, HC, NOx and SO2, the results favored biodiesel blends.

  5. Modelling of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel using engine simulation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Mohd Farid Muhamad; Said, Mazlan; Aziz, Azhar Abdul

    2012-06-01

    This paper is about modelling of a diesel engine that operates using biodiesel fuels. The model is used to simulate or predict the performance and combustion of the engine by simplified the geometry of engine component in the software. The model is produced using one-dimensional (1D) engine simulation software called GT-Power. The fuel properties library in the software is expanded to include palm oil based biodiesel fuels. Experimental works are performed to investigate the effect of biodiesel fuels on the heat release profiles and the engine performance curves. The model is validated with experimental data and good agreement is observed. The simulation results show that combustion characteristics and engine performances differ when biodiesel fuels are used instead of no. 2 diesel fuel.

  6. Diesel Technology: Introduction. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane

    This complete teacher edition of a diesel technology course consists of introductory pages, teacher pages, and the student edition. The introductory pages provide these tools: training and competency profile; National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation Crosswalk; instructional/task analysis; basic skills icons and classifications; basic…

  7. Diesel Technology: Safety Skills. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials are provided for three units on safety skills as part of a diesel technology curriculum. The units cover the following topics: general safety; workplace safety; and first aid. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing instructional…

  8. Diesel Technology: Brakes. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert; Scarberry, Terry; Kellum, Mary

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course on brakes in the diesel technology curriculum. The course consists of 12 units organized in three sections. The three units of the introductory section cover: (1) brakes; (2) wheel bearings and seals; and (3) antilock brake systems. The second section, Hydraulic Brakes, contains the…

  9. Diesel Technology: Brakes. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert; Scarberry, Terry; Kellum, Mary

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course on brakes in the diesel technology curriculum. The course consists of 12 units organized in three sections. The three units of the introductory section cover: (1) brakes; (2) wheel bearings and seals; and (3) antilock brake systems. The second section, Hydraulic Brakes, contains the…

  10. Diesel Technology: Introduction. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane

    This complete teacher edition of a diesel technology course consists of introductory pages, teacher pages, and the student edition. The introductory pages provide these tools: training and competency profile; National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation Crosswalk; instructional/task analysis; basic skills icons and classifications; basic…

  11. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in

  12. Studies of diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Storey, John Morse; Domingo, Norberto; Huff, Shean P; Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Lee, Doh-Won

    2006-01-01

    Diesel engine particle emissions during transient operations, including emissions during FTP transient cycles and during active regenerations of a NOx adsorber, were studied using a fast Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). For both fuels tested, a No. 2 certification diesel and a low sulfur diesel (BP-15), high particle concentrations and emission rates were mainly associated with heavy engine acceleration, high speed, and high torque during transient cycles. Averaged over the FTP transient cycle, the particle number concentration during tests with the certification fuel was 1.2e8/cm3, about four times the particle number concentration observed during tests using the BP-15 fuel. The effect of each engine parameter on particle emissions was studied. During tests using BP-15, the particle number emission rate was mainly controlled by the engine speed and torque, whereas for Certification fuel, the engine acceleration also had a strong effect on number emission rates. The effects of active regenerations of a diesel NOx adsorber on particle emissions were also characterized for two catalyst regeneration strategies: Delayed Extended Main (DEM) and Post 80 injection (Post80). Particle volume concentrations observed during DEM regenerations were much higher than those during Post80 regenerations, and the minimum air to fuel ratio achieved during the regenerations had little effect on particle emission for both strategies. This study provides valuable information for developing strategies that minimize the particle formation during active regenerations of NOx adsorbers.

  13. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2017-10-12

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P < 0.001) and showed a strong decreasing trend with increasing PM2.5 concentrations in all subjects (Ptrend  < 0.001) as well as in exposed subjects only (Ptrend  = 0.001). Levels of IL-8 and MIP-1β were significantly lower in workers in the highest exposure tertile of PM2.5 (>397 µg/m(3) ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  15. Compression ignition engine fuel properties of a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.

    2000-05-01

    Vegetable oils may be used with dilution modification technique as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend (20:80 {nu}/{nu}%) was investigated in a Pancar Motor E-108-type diesel engine to observe engine characteristics and exhaust emission. The effect of the compression ratio on ignition delay characteristics and smoke emissions of blend fuel was determined in this CFR engine. The results of fuel blends were compared with the reference grade No. 2-D diesel fuel.

  16. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  17. Modeling of Engine Parameters for Condition Based Maintenance of the MTU Series 2000 Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    59 APPENDIX. MTU SERIES 2000 DIESEL ENGINE DIAGRAMS ...........................61 LIST OF...parameters. a. Engine Speed Dataset 19 is collected over a period of 1.5 hours from about 09:30 hr until 11:05 hr , as shown in Figure 3. During...that period of time, we observe that at around 09:30 hr , the engine is picking up speed, and it reaches about 2200 RPM for a period of 10 minutes

  18. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions.

  19. Chemiions and nanoparticle formation in diesel engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangqun

    The nanoparticles (diameter < 50 nm) emitted by diesel engines have received increasing attention due to their potential health effects. We propose that chemiions generated during combustion play an important role in the formation of these nanoparticles. The predicted nanoparticle properties based on our chemiion theory closely match measurements in terms of total nanoparticle concentrations, and their sensitivity to fuel sulfur contents and second stage dilution conditions, while the classical homogeneous nucleation fails to explain these observed properties. Our study indicates that total number of nanoparticles formed is very sensitive to chemiion concentrations, and we propose a technique to effectively reduce vehicle nanoparticle emissions by removing ions in the exhaust.

  20. Digital Image Analysis Algorithm For Determination of Particle Size Distributions In Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, O.; Ballesteros, R.; Gomez, A.

    One of the most serious problems associated to Diesel engines is pollutant emissions, standing out nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. However, although current emis- sions standards in Europe and America with regard to light vehicles and heavy duty engines refer the particulate limit in mass units, concern for knowing size and number of particles emitted by engines is being increased recently. This interest is promoted by last studies about particle harmful effects on health and is enhanced by recent changes in internal combustion engines technology. This study is focused on the implementation of a method to determine the particle size distribution made up in current methodology for vehicles certification in Europe. It will use an automated Digital Image Analysis Algorithm (DIAA) to determine particle size trends from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of filters charged in a dilution system used for measuring specific particulate emissions. The experimental work was performed on a steady state direct injection Diesel en- gine with 0.5 MW rated power, being considered as a typical engine in middle power industries. Particulate size distributions obtained using DIAA and a Scanning Mobil- ity Particle Sizer (SMPS), nowadays considered as the most reliable technique, were compared. Although number concentration detected by this method does not repre- sent real flowing particle concentration, this algorithm fairly reproduces the trends observed with SMPS when the engine load is varied.

  1. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  2. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  3. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  4. Transformation of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles from a Diesel Fuel Additive during Combustion in a Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Dale, James G; Cox, Steven S; Vance, Marina E; Marr, Linsey C; Hochella, Michael F

    2017-02-21

    Nanoscale cerium oxide is used as a diesel fuel additive to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, but its fate in the environment has not been established. Cerium oxide released as a result of the combustion of diesel fuel containing the additive Envirox, which utilizes suspended nanoscale cerium oxide to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, was captured from the exhaust stream of a diesel engine and was characterized using a combination of bulk analytical techniques and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The combustion process induced significant changes in the size and morphology of the particles; ∼15 nm aggregates consisting of 5-7 nm faceted crystals in the fuel additive became 50-300 nm, near-spherical, single crystals in the exhaust. Electron diffraction identified the original cerium oxide particles as cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2, standard FCC structure) with no detectable quantities of Ce(III), whereas in the exhaust the ceria particles had additional electron diffraction reflections indicative of a CeO2 superstructure containing ordered oxygen vacancies. The surfactant coating present on the cerium oxide particles in the additive was lost during combustion, but in roughly 30% of the observed particles in the exhaust, a new surface coating formed, approximately 2-5 nm thick. The results of this study suggest that pristine, laboratory-produced, nanoscale cerium oxide is not a good substitute for the cerium oxide released from fuel-borne catalyst applications and that future toxicity experiments and modeling will require the use/consideration of more realistic materials.

  5. Reduction of diesel engine exhaust noise in the petroleum mining industry. [by resonator type diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinov, T.

    1974-01-01

    An important noise source in a drilling plant is Diesel engine exhaust. In order to reduce this noise, a reactive silencer of the derivative resonator type was proposed, calculated from the acoustic and design point of view and applied. As a result of applying such a silencer on the exhaust conduit of a Diesel engine the noise level dropped down to 18 db.

  6. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE NOX EMISSIONS USING ETHANOL AS A REDUCTANT

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M; Thomas, J; Lewis, S; Storey, J; Domingo, N; Graves, R Panov, A

    2003-08-24

    NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400 C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.

  7. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  8. Exhaust emissions from engines of the Detroit Diesel Corporation in transit buses: a decade of trends.

    PubMed

    Prucz, J C; Clark, N N; Gautam, M; Lyons, D W

    2001-05-01

    In the U.S.A., exhaust emissions from city buses fueled by diesel are not characterized well because current emission standards require engine tests rather than tests of whole vehicles. Two transportable chassis dynamometer laboratories developed and operated by West Virginia University (WVU) have been used extensively to gather realistic emission data from heavy-duty vehicles, including buses, tested in simulated driving conditions. A subset of these data has been utilized for a comprehensive introspection into the trends of regulated emissions from transit buses over the last 7 years, which has been prompted by continuously tightening restrictions on one hand, along with remarkable technological progress, on the other hand. Two widely used models of diesel engines manufactured by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) have been selected as a case-study for such an overview, based on full-scale, on-site testing of actual city buses, driven in accordance with the SAE J1376 standard of a Commercial Business District (CBD) cycle. The results provide solid, quantitative evidence that most regulated emissions from engines produced by DDC have declined over the years, especially with the transition from the 6V-92TA to the Series 50 models. This improvement is remarkable mainly for the emissions of particulate matter (PM), that are lower by over 70%, on average, for the Series 50 engines, though the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) exhibit a reversed trend, showing a degradation of about 6%, on average, with the transition from 6V-92TA to the Series 50 engines. The expected trend of decreasing emission levels with the model year of the engine is clear and consistent for particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx), starting with the 1990 models, although it is not conclusive for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIV, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT REMOVAL--TRANSMISSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSMISSION REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) DEFINITION OF TERMS RELATED TO THE DIESEL AIR SYSTEM, (2) PRNCIPLES OF DIESEL AIR COMPRESSORS, (3) PRINCIPLES OF AIR STARTING MOTORS, (4)…

  10. Combustion and emission analysis of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Xue; Wang, Xiancheng; Zhou, Jingkai

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the research on combustion and emission characteristics of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine, a bench test was carried out for PM and NOx emission for a certain type diesel engine under different speed and loads. Results shows that for this type of heavy-duty vehicle diesel engine, ignition delay is longer and the proportion of diffusion combustion increases under high speed of external characteristics conditions. Under the speed of 1400 r/min, ignition delay decreases with load increases, combustion duration shortened at first, then increases, the proportion of diffusion combustion increases. The ignition delay is longer and cylinder temperature is higher under lower speed external characteristics of diesel engine, the emissions of soot and NOx are heavier; with large load of external characteristics of diesel engine, the emissions of soot and NOx are heavy as well.

  11. Bayesian network based on a fault tree and its application in diesel engine fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Gang; Zheng, Shengguo; Cao, Longhan

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the faults diagnosis of diesel engine systems. This research aims at the optimization of the diagnosis results. Inspired by Bayesian Network (BN) possessing good performance in solving uncertainty problems, a new method was proposed for establishing a BN of diesel engine faults quickly, and diagnosing faults exactly. This method consisted of two stages,namely the establishment of a BN model, and a faults diagnosis of the diesel engine system using that BN mode. For the purpose of establishing the BN, a new algorithm, which can establish a BN quickly and easily, is presented. The Fault Tree (FT) diagnosis model of the diesel engine system was established first. Then it was transformed it into a BN by using our algorithm. Finally, the BN was used to diagnose the faults of a diesel engine system. Experimental results show that the diagnosis speed is increased and the accuracy is improved.

  12. 9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, P; Wright, J; Harris, G; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2003-08-24

    The PowerTrap{trademark} is a non-exhaust temperature dependent system that cannot become blocked and features a controlled regeneration process independent of the vehicle's drive cycle. The system has a low direct-current power source requirement available in both 12-volt and 24-volt configurations. The system is fully programmable, fully automated and includes Euro IV requirements of operation verification. The system has gained European component-type approval and has been tested with both on- road and off-road diesel fuel up to 2000 parts per million. The device is fail-safe: in the event of a device malfunction, it cannot affect the engine's performance. Accumulated mileage testing is in excess of 640,000 miles to date. Vehicles include London-type taxicabs (Euro 1 and 2), emergency service fire engines (Euro 1, 2, and 3), inner city buses, and light-duty locomotives. Independent test results by Shell Global Solutions have consistently demonstrated 85-99 percent reduction of ultrafines across the 7-35 nanometer size range using a scanning mobility particle sizer with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and off-road high-sulfur fuel.

  13. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that

  14. In-situ Characterization of Gas Phase Organic Emissions from a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Sappok, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Jayne, J.; Wong, V. W.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    With volatilities slightly lower than VOCs, intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs; e.g. C13-C20 n-alkanes) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs; e.g. C21-C32 n-alkanes) comprise an important, largely unmeasured part of the organic carbon emission profile of a diesel engine. Similar to VOCs, I/SVOCs have important impacts on air quality and climate, serving as precursor species to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but a detailed understanding of SOA formation from I/SVOCs remains incomplete due to a lack of fast, reliable measurement techniques that target I/SVOCs. This paper presents experimental results obtained with a recently developed technique that combines cryogenic collection and electron-impact, high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry to enable fast, quantitative, volatility-resolved, bulk characterization of I/SVOCs. In this experiment, I/SVOC tailpipe emissions from a Cummins (5.9 L) 2002 ISB 300 engine were measured as a function of engine speed and load during steady-state and transient conditions, including numerous cold starts. Analysis of the high resolution mass spectra reveal evolving hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon signatures as a function of engine block temperature and engine load. The exhaust sampling apparatus included the ability to test different emission control technologies. For a subset of tests, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) was integrated into the exhaust system to characterize post-DPF I/SVOC emissions during soot loading and DPF-regeneration cycles.

  15. The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines, and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-16

    Dr. Pete Schihl The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines , and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards TARDEC Propulsion Laboratory Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines , and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...transmission, engine (fuel), ducting requirements — Ex. Bradley FIV: PD=3 2. High Power Density Engines (Future Combat System ~ 20 ton vehicle

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XVII, I--MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL--DRIVE LINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE DRIVE LINE USED IN DIESEL ENGINE POWER DISTRIBUTION. TOPICS ARE (1) PROLONGING ENGINE LIFE, (2) FUNCTIONS OF THE LUBRICATING SYSTEM, (3) TRACING THE LUBRICANT FLOW, (4) DETERMINING…

  17. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles from an engine with differing exhaust after treatments.

    PubMed

    Shi, X-C; Keane, M J; Ong, T; Li, S-Q; Bugarski, A B

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatments on the mutagenicity of diesel particulate matter (DPM) collected directly in an underground mine environment. A number of after-treatment devices are currently used on diesel engines in mines, but it is critical to determine whether reductions in DPM concentrations result in a corresponding decrease in adverse health effects. An eddy-current dynamometer was used to operate naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine at several steady-state conditions. The samples were collected when the engine was equipped with a standard muffler, a diesel oxidation catalytic converter, two types of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter systems, and three types of disposable diesel particulate filter elements. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on acetone extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. The results indicated strong correlation between engine operating conditions and mutagenic activity of DPM. When the engine was fitted with muffler, the mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected from light-load, but not heavy-load operating conditions. When the engine was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst, the samples did not exhibit mutagenic activity for any of four engine operating conditions. Mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected when the engine was retrofitted with three types of disposable filters and sintered metal diesel particulate filter and operated at light load conditions. However, those filtration systems substantially reduced the concentration-normalized mutagenic activity from the levels observed for the muffler.

  18. High-pressure fuel injection system for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Y.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a high-pressure fuel injection system for a diesel engine. This system consists of: (a) main pumps for injecting fuel each located at one of cylinders of the engine and formed with a fuel injecting port, a discharge valve located in a path connecting the first injected fuel space with the fuel injecting port. The discharge valve is opened when the fuel to be injected reaches a predetermined pressure level. A first injection timing fuel space fluidly connected with the first injected fuel space through a movable shuttle is filled with injection timing fuel, and a plunger varies the volume of the first injection timing fuel space; (b) a metering and distributing pump formed with injection fuel outputs and injection timing fuel outlets corresponding in number to the cylinders of the engine for discharging fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine; (c) fuel metering valves for metering fuel flowing into the second injected fuel space and second injection timing fuel space respectively; (d) pipes for fluidly connecting the first injected fuel space and first injection timing fuel space of the main pump for injecting fuel with the injected fuel outlets and injection timing fuel outlets of the metering and distributing pump respectively; and (e) a rocker arm mechanism for driving the plunger of the main pump for injecting fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine.

  19. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  20. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    PubMed

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  1. The effect of fuel processes on heavy duty automotive diesel engine emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of fuel quality on exhaust emissions from 2 heavy duty diesel engines has been measured over the ECE R49 test cycle. The engines were selected to represent technologies used to meet Euro 1 and 2 emission standards (1992/93 and 1995/96); engines 1 and 2 respectively. The test fuels were prepared by a combination of processing, blending and additive treatment. When comparing the emissions from engines 1 and 2, using base line data generated on the CEC reference fuel RF73-T-90, engine technology had the major effect on emission levels. Engine 2 reduced both particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide levels by approximately 50%, with total hydrocarbon (THC) being approximately 75% lower. Oxides of nitrogen levels were similar for both engines. The variations in test fuel quality had marginal effects on emissions, with the two engines giving directionally opposite responses in some cases. For instance, there was an effect on CO and NOx but where one engine showed a reduction the other gave an increase. There were no significant changes in THC emissions from either engine when operating on any of the test fuels. When the reference fuel was hydrotreated, engine 1 showed a trend towards reduced particulate and NOx but with CO increasing. Engine 2 also showed a trend for reduced particulate levels, with an increase in NOx and no change in CO. Processing to reduce the final boiling point of the reference fuel showed a trend towards reduced particulate emissions with CO increasing on engine 1 but decreasing on engine 2.

  2. Experimental Investigations on Conventional and Semi-Adiabatic Diesel Engine Using Simarouba Biodiesel as Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, M. U.; Reddy, C. P.; Ravindranath, K.

    2013-04-01

    In view of fast depletion of fossil fuels and the rapid rate at which the fuel consumption is taking place all over the world, scientists are searching for alternate fuels for maintaining the growth industrially and economically. Hence search for alternate fuel(s) has become imminent. Out of the limited options for internal combustion engines, the bio diesel fuel appears to be the best. Many advanced countries are implementing several biodiesel initiatives and developmental programmes in order to become self sufficient and reduce the import bills. Biodiesel is biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to enhance the performance and reduce engine exhaust emissions. This is due to ready usage of existing diesel engines, fuel distribution pattern, reduced emission profiles, and eco-friendly properties of biodiesel. Simarouba biodiesel (SBD), the methyl ester of Simarouba oil is one such alternative fuel which can be used as substitute to conventional petro-diesel. The present work involves experimental investigation on the use of SBD blends as fuel in conventional diesel engine and semi-adiabatic diesel engine. The oil was triple filtered to eliminate particulate matter and then transesterified to obtain biodiesel. The project envisaged aims at conducting analysis of diesel with SBD blends (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) in conventional engine and semi-adiabatic engine. Also it was decided to vary the injection pressure (180, 190 and 200 bar) and observe its effect on performance and also suggest better value of injection pressure. The engine was made semi adiabatic by coating the piston crown with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Kirloskar AV I make (3.67 kW) vertical, single cylinder, water cooled diesel engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer with suitable measuring instrumentation/accessories used for the study. Experiments were initially carried out using pure diesel fuel to provide base line data. The test results were compared based on the performance

  3. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  4. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  5. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  6. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  7. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  8. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  9. Green fuel utilization for diesel engine, combustion and emission analysis fuelled with CNSO diesel blends with Diethyl ether as additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Rajan, K.; Senthil Kumar, K. R.; Maiyappan, K.; Rasheed, Usama Tariq

    2017-05-01

    The experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects by using Diethyl ether (DEE) as an additive. The Cashew Nut Shell Oil diesel blends (CDB) are tested in a 4-stroke single cylinder DI unmodified diesel engine, rated power is 4.4 kW at a speed of 1500 rpm. The effect of combustion analysis of test fuels on net heat release rate, cylinder pressure, engine power, BSFC, BTE, EGT were observed by the performance tests. The combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with an additive of high cetane number is utilized with CDB and thus investigated. The influence of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity is investigated by emission tests. Initially, the experiment was conducted with different blends of CDB diesel blends like 10%, 20%, & 30% by volume basis in a diesel engine. Among this blends B20 shows reasonable result and heat dissipation rate at full load conditions. The BTE of B20 is 27.52% whereas base diesel fuel is 29.73%. Addition of the DEE by 5%, 10% and 15% by volume basis with B20 which is a base fuel has resulted with improved estimates. The result shows that at full load conditions BTE of B20D10 is 28.96% which is close to the base fuel i.e. B20. The emissions like CO2 shows reducing trends while HC emission rises with increase in CNSO blends. The HC in diesel corresponds to 30ppm and in B20 it is 34ppm, but addition of DEE shows a decreasing trend as in B20D5 has 29ppm and B20D15 has 23ppm respectively. NOx also shows increasing trends with CNSO blend, after addition of DEE it shows declining trend. The NOx for diesel, B20, B30, B20D5, B20D10 and B20D15 emits 1195, 1450, 1511, 1327, 1373 and 1200ppm respectively. The smoke emission is 3.96, 3.38, 3.15 FSN of B20, B20D15 and diesel respectively.

  10. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  11. Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project was developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) in Conservation and Renewable Energy. This project, part of the OTS's Advanced Materials Development Program, was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the OTS's automotive technology programs. Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic hearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  12. A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Howard L.; Huang, Shyan C.; Yu, Robert C.; Wan, C. Z.; Howden, Ken

    2002-10-01

    Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed. Development of the NOx adsorber technology is discussed. Spectroscopic techniques are applied to understand the underlying chemical reactions over the catalyst surface during NOx trapping and regeneration periods. In-situ surface probes are useful in providing not only thermodynamic and kinetics information required for model development but also a fundamental understanding of storage capacity and degradation mechanisms. The distribution of various nitration/sulfation species is related to surface basicity. Surface displacement reactions of carbonates also play roles in affecting the trapping capability of NOx adsorbers. When ultralow-S fuel is used as a reductant during the regeneration, sulfur induced performance degradation is still observed in an aged catalyst. Other possible sources related to catalyst deactivation include incomplete reduction of surface nitration, coke formation derived from incomplete hydrocarbon burning, and lubricant formulations. Sulfur management and the

  13. Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Lamani, Venkatesh Tavareppa; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gottekere, Kumar Narayanappa

    2017-08-25

    Nitrogen oxides and smoke are the substantial emissions for the diesel engines. Fuels comprising high-level oxygen content can have low smoke emission due to better oxidation of soot. The objective of the paper is to assess the potential to employ oxygenated fuel, i.e., n-butanol and its blends with the neat diesel from 0 to 30% by volume. The experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is carried out to estimate the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of n-butanol-diesel blends for various injection timings (9°, 12°, 15°, and 18°) using modern twin-cylinder, four-stroke, common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Experimental results reveal the increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by ~ 4.5, 6, and 8% for butanol-diesel blends of 10% (Bu10), 20% (Bu20), and 30% (Bu30), respectively, compared to neat diesel (Bu0). Maximum BTE for Bu0 is 38.4%, which is obtained at 12° BTDC; however, for Bu10, Bu20 and Bu30 are 40.19, 40.9, and 41.7%, which are obtained at 15° BTDC, respectively. Higher flame speed of n-butanol-diesel blends burn a large amount of fuel in the premixed phase, which improves the combustion as well as emission characteristics. CFD and experimental results are compared and validated for all fuel blends for in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NOx), and found to be in good agreement. Both experimental and simulation results witnessed in reduction of smoke opacity, NOx, and carbon monoxide emissions with the increasing n-butanol percentage in diesel fuel.

  14. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Fault Diagnosis Based on Features Extraction Techniques and FastICA-SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ya-Bing; Liu, Chang-Wen; Bi, Feng-Rong; Bi, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Xia; Shao, Kang

    2017-07-01

    Numerous vibration-based techniques are rarely used in diesel engines fault diagnosis in a direct way, due to the surface vibration signals of diesel engines with the complex non-stationary and nonlinear time-varying features. To investigate the fault diagnosis of diesel engines, fractal correlation dimension, wavelet energy and entropy as features reflecting the diesel engine fault fractal and energy characteristics are extracted from the decomposed signals through analyzing vibration acceleration signals derived from the cylinder head in seven different states of valve train. An intelligent fault detector FastICA-SVM is applied for diesel engine fault diagnosis and classification. The results demonstrate that FastICA-SVM achieves higher classification accuracy and makes better generalization performance in small samples recognition. Besides, the fractal correlation dimension and wavelet energy and entropy as the special features of diesel engine vibration signal are considered as input vectors of classifier FastICA-SVM and could produce the excellent classification results. The proposed methodology improves the accuracy of feature extraction and the fault diagnosis of diesel engines.

  15. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  16. Particle emissions from diesel passenger cars equipped with a particle trap in comparison to other technologies.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Martin; Forss, Anna-Maria; Lehmann, Urs

    2006-04-01

    Tail pipe particle emissions of passenger cars, with different engine and aftertreatment technologies, were determined with special focus on diesel engines equipped with a particle filter. The particle number measurements were performed, during transient tests, using a condensation particle counter. The measurement procedure complied with the draft Swiss ordinance, which is based on the findings of the UN/ECE particulate measurement program. In addition, particle mass emissions were measured by the legislated and a modified filter method. The results demonstrate the high efficiency of diesel particle filters (DPFs) in curtailing nonvolatile particle emissions over the entire size range. Higher emissions were observed during short periods of DPF regeneration and immediately afterward, when a soot cake has not yet formed on the filter surface. The gasoline vehicles exhibited higher emissions than the DPF equipped diesel vehicles but with a large variation depending on the technology and driving conditions. Although particle measurements were carried out during DPF regeneration, it was impossible to quantify their contribution to the overall emissions, due to the wide variation in intensity and frequency of regeneration. The numbers counting method demonstrated its clear superiority in sensitivity to the mass measurement. The results strongly suggest the application of the particle number counting to quantify future low tailpipe emissions.

  17. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  18. A Comparative Study of Almond Biodiesel-Diesel Blends for Diesel Engine in Terms of Performance and Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Alnefaie, Khaled A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NOx using blends of almond biodiesel was measured. PMID:25874218

  19. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  20. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Repair & Service (Program CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for diesel engine mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program…

  1. Impact of Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-07

    Filipi, Z., Assanis, D., Kuo, T.-W., Najt, P., Rask, R. “New Heat Transfer Correlation for the HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of...Impact of Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Gerald Fernandes1, Jerry Fuschetto1, Zoran Filipi1 and Dennis...with the operation of a diesel engine with JP- 8 fuel due to its lower density and viscosity, but few experimental studies suggest that kerosene

  2. Detecting Injector Deactivation Failure Modes in Diesel Engines Using Time and Order Domain Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Society 2012 2 In 2010, TARDEC conducted diesel engine dynamometer testing on a seven liter diesel engine. As part of the dynamometer test...on an engine dynamometer test stand while seeding one injector fault electronically. The data in Figure 5 illustrates a representative plot over...positioned accelerometer is capable of detecting injector misfire events at this operating condition on the dynamometer test stand. Annual

  3. Effect of Biodiesel on Diesel Engine Nitrogen Oxide and Other Regulated Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    more specifically in paragraph 86.1310-2007 “Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel -fueled engines...DoD) operated diesel powered engines. Emissions data was obtained from 8 vehicles, primarily buses and trucks , and 2 portable generators. All...are the most efficient of internal combustion engines and have favorable characteristics in the reduction of green-house gas emissions, concerns

  4. Velocity and concentration measurements in a model diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcoumanis, C.; Green, H. G.; Whitelaw, J. H.

    1985-09-01

    Laser Doppler anemometry and Rayleigh scattering have been used to quantify the velocity and concentration fields after the start of injection in a model diesel engine motored at 200 rpm in the absence of compression. Fuel injection was simulated by a transient jet of vapour Freon-12 initiated at 40 degrees before top-dead-centre through a nozzle incorporated into the centre of a permanently open intake valve. Swirl was induced by means of 60 degree vanes located in the inlet, port. The piston configurations comprised a flat and a re-entrant piston-bowl. The results indicate that for the two nozzle geometries investigated the mass flux decays faster than momentum with nearly constant decay rates along the centreline. The nozzle with the larger exit diameter and wider jet angle gave rise to slower decay of both mass and momentum with associated lower velocity and concentration fluctuations.

  5. Engineering Technology Curriculum Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes curriculum guidelines for the following engineering technologies: chemical, industrial, mining, petroleum, nuclear, civil, mechanical, electrical, automotive, and manufacturing. In a few years, these Engineering Council for Professional Development committee guidelines are intended to become the criteria by which programs will be judged…

  6. Engineering Technology Curriculum Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes curriculum guidelines for the following engineering technologies: chemical, industrial, mining, petroleum, nuclear, civil, mechanical, electrical, automotive, and manufacturing. In a few years, these Engineering Council for Professional Development committee guidelines are intended to become the criteria by which programs will be judged…

  7. Electronics Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train electronics engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of electronics engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard electronics engineering…

  8. Mechanical Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train mechanical engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of mechanical engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard mechanical engineering…

  9. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    PubMed

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  10. Control of aldehyde emissions in the diesel engines with alcoholic fuels.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V S Murali; Varaprasad, C M; Reddy, C Venkata Ramana

    2006-01-01

    The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions.

  11. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  12. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li-Ping Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Litak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-15

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  13. EPA Report: Diesel Engine Clean-up Program Nets Major Air, Public Health Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) Clean diesel grants aimed at cleaning up old diesel engines have greatly improved public health by cutting harmful pollution that causes premature deaths, asthma attacks, and missed school and workdays, according to a new report by the U.S

  14. Stationary diesel engines for use with generators to supply electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The procurement of stationary diesel engines for on-site generation of electric power deals with technical criteria and policy relating to federal agency, not electrical components of diesel-generator sets or for the design of electric-power generating plants or their air-pollution or noise control equipment.

  15. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  16. EPA Report: Diesel Engine Grants Program Nets Major Air, Public Health Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clean diesel grants aimed at cleaning up old diesel engines have greatly improved public health by cutting harmful pollution that causes premature deaths, asthma attacks, and missed school and workdays, according to a new report by the U.S. EPA.

  17. EPA Announces Availability of $26 Million to Clean Up Diesel Engines Nationwide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the availability of $4.4 million in grant funding to establish clean diesel projects aimed at reducing emissions from the existing fleet of diesel engines in Arizona, California, Haw

  18. Application of advanced diesel technology to inland waterway towboats. variable timing, electronic fuel injection. Final report, September 1985-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, D.P.

    1989-03-01

    This report represents the test and evaluation of advanced diesel technology components on the DDC Series 149 Marine engine. The tests were conducted on an inland-waterways towboat and consist of over 20,000 engine hours of operation during the testing. The Detroit Diesel Series 16V-149 engine rated at 900 SHP was tested aboard the M/V ESCATAWPA owned and operated by Warrior and Gulf Navigation Company. Both port and starboard engines were instrumented to measure engine operating parameters, propeller-shaft torque, and fuel consumption. The data were collected by a computer-based data-acquisition system and written to floppy disc for analysis. The tasks included: (1) baseline evaluation of naturally-aspirated (NA) engines; (2) upgrade both engines to turbocharged intercooled and blower bypassed (TIB) configuration and measure performance; (3) upgrade port engine with Detroit Diesel electronic control (DDEC) and measure performance; (4) change port engine to high-torque rise governor setting and measure performance; (5) upgrade starboard engine with DDEC.

  19. A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N.; Butcher, T.

    2010-08-31

    This project, funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Agency (NYSERDA), investigated the potential for an oil-fired combined heat and power system (micro-CHP system) for potential use in residences that use oil to heat their homes. Obviously, this requires the power source to be one that uses heating oil (diesel). The work consisted of an experimental study using a diesel engine and an analytical study that examined potential energy savings and benefits of micro-CHP systems for 'typical' locations in New York State. A search for a small diesel engine disclosed that no such engines were manufactured in the U.S. A single cylinder engine manufactured in Germany driving an electric generator was purchased for the experimental work. The engine was tested using on-road diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur), and biodiesel blends. One of the main objectives was to demonstrate the possibility of operation in the so-called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode. The HCCI mode of operation of engines is being explored as a way to reduce the emission of smoke, and NOx significantly without exhaust treatment. This is being done primarily in the context of engines used in transportation applications. However, it is felt that in a micro-CHP application using a single cylinder engine, such an approach would confer those emission benefits and would be much easier to implement. This was demonstrated successfully by injecting the fuel into the engine air intake using a heated atomizer made by Econox Technologies LLC to promote significant vaporization before entering the cylinder. Efficiency and emission measurements were made under different electrical loads provided by two space heaters connected to the generator in normal and HCCI modes of operation. The goals of the analytical work were to characterize, from the published literature, the prime-movers for micro-CHP applications, quantify parametrically the expected energy savings of using micro-CHP systems

  20. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  1. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced.

  2. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  3. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  4. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  5. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  6. Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a single-cylinder diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.

    1991-11-01

    This report contains the data gathered from tests conducted on a single-cylinder diesel engine to study the benefits and problems of oxygen-enriched diesel combustion and the use of water-emulsified and low-grade diesel fuels. This research, funded by the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in the United States Department of Energy, is being conducted in support of the Industrial Cogeneration Program. The report is made up of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the description of the experiments, selected data points, discussion of trends, and conclusions and recommendations; Volume 2 contains the data sets. With the two-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

  7. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-05-15

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  8. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih, Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-05-01

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel's speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel's speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  9. Diesel Engines: Environmental Impact and Control-A Critical Review Introduction.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C

    2001-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used to power trucks, buses, passenger cars, locomotives, and ships. These engines power the heavy equipment that plants and harvests crops, tills soil, clears and reshapes land for roads and buildings, and hauls ores from mines to processing centers. Diesel engines generate electricity as portable power sources, peaking units, and emergency backups when line power is out. They are also employed to pump water and fuel at remote locations. Much of our national defense depends on the mobility, portability, and safety provided by diesel engines and fuels. Diesel fuel has a lower vapor pressure than gasoline and rarely ignites at ambient temperatures in the presence of an open flame. Diesel engines are more attractive than gasoline engines because they deliver more power per unit of fuel consumed; have lower emissions of CO2, CO, and hydrocarbons (HCs) for the same energy output; and last longer. Although their initial cost is higher than comparable gasoline engines, their lifetime operating costs are substantially lower. Diesel engines are widely used in passenger cars outside the United States due to differences in fuel pricing policies.

  10. Toxicological characterization of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and a closed soot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooter, Ingeborg M.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Jedynska, Aleksandra D.; Tromp, Peter C.; Houtzager, Marc M. G.; Verbeek, Ruud P.; Kadijk, Gerrit; Mulderij, Mariska; Krul, Cyrille A. M.

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the toxicity (oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity) in extracts of combustion aerosols. A typical Euro III heavy truck engine was tested over the European Transient Cycle with three different fuels: conventional diesel EN590, biodiesel EN14214 as B100 and blends with conventional diesel (B5, B10, and B20) and pure plant oil DIN51605 (PPO). In addition application of a (wall flow) diesel particulate filter (DPF) with conventional diesel EN590 was tested. The use of B100 or PPO as a fuel or the DPF reduced particulate matter (PM) mass and numbers over 80%. Similarly, significant reduction in the emission of chemical constituents (EC 90%, (oxy)-PAH 70%) were achieved. No significant changes in nitro-PAH were observed. The use of B100 or PPO led to a NOx increase of about 30%, and no increase for DPF application. The effects of B100, PPO and the DPF on the biological test results vary strongly from positive to negative depending on the biological end point. The oxidative potential, measured via the DTT assay, of the B100 and PPO or DPF emissions is reduced by 95%. The cytotoxicity is increased for B100 by 200%. The measured mutagenicity, using the Ames assay test with TA98 and YG1024 strains of Salmonella typhimurium indicate a dose response for the nitroarene sensitive YG1024 strain for B100 and PPO (fold induction: 1.6). In summary B100 and PPO have good potential for the use as a second generation biofuel resulting in lower PM mass, similar to application of a DPF, but caution should be made due to potential increased toxicity. Besides regulation via mass, the biological reactivity of exhaust emissions of new (bio)fuels and application of new technologies, needs attention. The different responses of different biological tests as well as differences in results between test laboratories underline the need for harmonization of test methods and international cooperation.

  11. Evaluation of Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel (HRD) Fuel in a Caterpillar Engine Using the 210 Hour TWV Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED EVALUATION OF HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL (HRD) FUEL IN A CATERPILLAR ENGINE USING THE 210 HOUR TWV CYCLE...Report 3. DATES COVERED 01-06-2011 to 01-05-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL (HRD) FUEL IN A CATERPILLAR ...Reference Diesel Fuel (RDF). The use of Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel fuel in the Caterpillar C7 engine provides adequate performance without any

  12. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion.

  13. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions.

  14. [Experimental study on the characteristics polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions of diesel engine burnt by different fuels].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; An, Yu-Guang; Xu, Guang-Ju; Wang, Xiao-Zhe

    2011-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured by glass fiber filter and XAD-2 collector, ultrasonic extraction, soxhlet extraction and GC-MS analysis equipment. The exhaust emission of the DI single cylinder diesel engine fueled with pure diesel, biodiesel and biodiesel blends of 50% (B50) were measured. The results indicate that the particle-phase PAHs emissions of diesel engine decrease with the increasing of load. The gas-phase PAHs emissions of diesel engine decrease with the increasing of load in the beginning and it turns to going up with further increasing of load. The particle-phase and gas-phase PAHs emissions of biodiesel decrease and mean concentration are lower than that of diesel. The total PAHs emission concentration of biodisesl is 41.1-70.1 microg/m3. Total PAHs mean concentration emissions of biodiesel is decreased 33.3% than that of diesel. The mass proportion of three-ring PAHs emissions of those 3 kinds tested fuels is about 44% in the total PAHs. Biodiesel can increase the proportion of three-ring PAHs. Toxic equivalence of PAHs emissions of biodiesel are greatly lower than that of diesel. It is less harmful to human than diesel fuel.

  15. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 μg/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 μg/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 μg/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  16. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  17. Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-09-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

  18. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  19. The Influence of Non-Esterification Biodiesel in AN Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel as alternative energy source of the traditional petroleum fuels has increased interest, because environmental pollution based exhaust emissions from vehicle became serious. The advantage of biodiesel produced from esterification of vegetable and animal oils can be used without the modification of existing diesel engine, but glycerin is generated by production process. In this study, the usability of non-esterification biodiesel as an alternative fuel was investigated in an indirect injection diesel engine. The non-esterification biodiesel has not generated glycerin in esterification process and reduced the 20 percent of cost because it has not used methanol in the production process. Experiments were conducted by using the 5, 10 and 20 percentage of biodiesel and 4 and 8 percentage of biodiesel with 1 and 2 percentage of WDP in baseline diesel fuel. The smoke emission of biodiesel was reduced in comparison with diesel fuel, but power, torque and brake specific energy consumption was similar to diesel fuel.

  20. EPA Report: Diesel Engine Grants Program Nets Major Air, Public Health Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (April 4, 2016) Grants aimed at cleaning up old diesel engines have greatly improved public health by cutting harmful pollution that causes premature deaths, asthma attacks, and missed school and workdays, according to a new report by the U

  1. Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  2. Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Pollutant HC Hydrocarbon HPLC/UV High Performance Liquid Chromatography / Ultraviolet KPa Kilo-Pascals NDIR Non Dispersive Infrared...Limit (Expressed in terms of fundamental measurement) Pierburg NDIR CO2, CO 1 s 50 - 500 ppm California Analytical Instruments/Flame Ionization

  3. Technology developments for a compound cycle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, George A.; Wintucky, William T.; Castor, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the light weight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hour (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. Results of recent activities in a program to establish the technology base for a CCE are presented. The objective of this program is to research and develop those critical technologies which are necessary for the demonstration of a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990s. A major accomplishment was the initial screening and identification of a lubricant which has potential for meeting the material wear rate limits of the application. An in-situ wear measurement system also was developed to provide accurate, readily obtainable, real time measurements of ring and liner wear. Wear data, from early single cylinder engine tests, are presented to show correlation of the in-situ measurements and the system's utility in determining parametric wear trends. A plan to demonstrate a compound cycle engine by the mid 1990s is included.

  4. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwar, Jitendra N.; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel.

  5. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles... diesel HDEs only). (iii) Particulate. (A) For diesel engines to be used in urban buses, 0.05 gram...

  6. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section 250.405 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take... is continuously manned, you may equip the engine with either an automatic or remote manual air intake...

  7. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section 250.405 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take... is continuously manned, you may equip the engine with either an automatic or remote manual air intake...

  8. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section 250.405 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take... is continuously manned, you may equip the engine with either an automatic or remote manual air intake...

  9. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. S.; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Zhen

    Experiments were carried out on a diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with methanol. The blended fuels contain 5%, 10% and 15% by volume of methanol. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev min -1 to assess the performance and the emissions of the engine associated with the application of the different fuels. The results indicate an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the diesel engine was operated with biodiesel and the blended fuels, compared with the diesel fuel. The blended fuels could lead to higher CO and HC emissions than biodiesel, higher CO emission but lower HC emission than the diesel fuel. There are simultaneous reductions of NO x and PM to a level below those of the diesel fuel. Regarding the unregulated emissions, compared with the diesel fuel, the blended fuels generate higher formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and unburned methanol emissions, lower 1,3-butadiene and benzene emissions, while the toluene and xylene emissions not significantly different.

  10. Experimental investigations of the hydrogen addition effects on diesel engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, A.; Nutu, C.

    2016-08-01

    In the global content regarding the impact on the environmental of the gases emissions resulted from the fossil fuels combustion, an interest aspect discussed on the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties from the 2015 Paris Climate Conference and the gradual diminution of the worldwide oil reserves contribute to the necessity of searching of alternative energy from durable and renewable resources. At the use of hydrogen as addition in air to diesel engine, the level of CO, HC and smoke from the exhaust gases will decrease due to the improvement of the combustion process. At low and medium partial loads and low hydrogen energetic ratios used the NOX emission level can decrease comparative to classic diesel engine. The hydrogen use as fuel for diesel engine leads to the improving of the energetic and emissions performance of the engine due to combustion improvement and reduction of carbon content. The paper presents, in a comparative way, results of the experimental researches carried on a truck compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel fuel and with hydrogen diesel fuel and hydrogen as addition in air at different engine operation regimes. The results obtained during experimental investigations show better energetic and pollution performance of the engine fuelled with hydrogen as addition in air comparative to classic engine. The influences of hydrogen addition on engine operation are shown.

  11. Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

  12. Production of Diesel Engine Turbocharger Turbine from Low Cost Titanium Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T. R.; Mayer, R.

    2012-05-04

    Turbochargers in commercial turbo-diesel engines are multi-material systems where usually the compressor rotor is made of aluminum or titanium based material and the turbine rotor is made of either a nickel based superalloy or titanium, designed to operate under the harsh exhaust gas conditions. The use of cast titanium in the turbine section has been used by Cummins Turbo Technologies since 1997. Having the benefit of a lower mass than the superalloy based turbines; higher turbine speeds in a more compact design can be achieved with titanium. In an effort to improve the cost model, and develop an industrial supply of titanium componentry that is more stable than the traditional aerospace based supply chain, the Contractor has developed component manufacturing schemes that use economical Armstrong titanium and titanium alloy powders and MgR-HDH powders. Those manufacturing schemes can be applied to compressor and turbine rotor components for diesel engine applications with the potential of providing a reliable supply of titanium componentry with a cost and performance advantage over cast titanium.

  13. Unregulated emissions from diesel engine with particulate filter using Fe-based fuel borne catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Ge, Yunshan; Zhang, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jipeng; Tan, Jianwei; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-10-01

    The alteration and formation of toxic compounds and potential changes in the toxicity of emissions when using after-treatment technologies have gained wide attention. Volatile organic compound (VOC), carbonyl compound and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were tested at European Steady State Cycle (ESC) to study unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with a fuel-borne catalyst and diesel particulate filter (FBC-DPF). An Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst was used for this study. According to the results, brake specific emissions of total VOCs without and with DPF were 4.7 and 4.9mg/kWh, respectively, showing a 4.3% increase. Benzene and n-undecane emissions increased and toluene emission decreased, while other individual VOC emissions basically had no change. When retrofitted with the FBC-DPF, total carbonyl compound emission decreased 15.7%, from 25.8 to 21.8mg/kWh. The two highest carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were reduced from 20.0 and 3.7 to 16.5 and 3.3mg/kWh respectively. The specific reactivity (SR) with DPF was reduced from 6.68 to 6.64mg/kWh. Total particle-phase PAH emissions decreased 66.4% with DPF compared to that without DPF. However, the Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) with DPF had increased from 0.016 to 0.030mg/kWh. Fluoranthene and Pyrene had the greatest decrease, 91.1% and 88.4% respectively. The increase of two- and three-ring PAHs with DPF indicates that the fuel-borne catalyst caused some gas-phase PAHs to adsorb on particles. The results of this study expand the knowledge of the effects of using a particulate filter and a Fe-based fuel-borne catalyst on diesel engine unregulated emissions.

  14. Study of CNG/diesel dual fuel engine's emissions by means of RBF neural network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-tao; Fei, Shao-mei

    2004-08-01

    Great efforts have been made to resolve the serious environmental pollution and inevitable declining of energy resources. A review of Chinese fuel reserves and engine technology showed that compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual fuel engine (DFE) was one of the best solutions for the above problems at present. In order to study and improve the emission performance of CNG/diesel DFE, an emission model for DFE based on radial basis function (RBF) neural network was developed which was a black-box input-output training data model not require priori knowledge. The RBF centers and the connected weights could be selected automatically according to the distribution of the training data in input-output space and the given approximating error. Studies showed that the predicted results accorded well with the experimental data over a large range of operating conditions from low load to high load. The developed emissions model based on the RBF neural network could be used to successfully predict and optimize the emissions performance of DFE. And the effect of the DFEmain performance parameters, such as rotation speed, load, pilot quantity and injection timing, were also predicted by means of this model. In resumé, an emission prediction model for CNG/diesel DFE based on RBF neural network was built for analyzing the effect of the main performance parameters on the CO, NOx, emissions of DFE. The predicted results agreed quite well with the traditional emissions model, which indicated that the model had certain application value, although it still has some limitations, because of its high dependence on the quantity of the experimental sample data.

  15. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  16. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  17. Liquid sprays and flow studies in the direct-injection diesel engine under motored conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee; Carpenter, Mark H.; Ramos, Juan I.; Schock, Harold J.; Stegeman, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A two dimensional, implicit finite difference method of the control volume variety, a two equation model of turbulence, and a discrete droplet model were used to study the flow field, turbulence levels, fuel penetration, vaporization, and mixing in diesel engine environments. The model was also used to study the effects of engine speed, injection angle, spray cone angle, droplet distribution, and intake swirl angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in motored two-stroke diesel engines. It is shown that there are optimum conditions for injection, which depend on droplet distribution, swirl, spray cone angle, and injection angle. The optimum conditions result in good spray penetration and vaporization and in good fuel mixing. The calculation presented clearly indicates that internal combustion engine models can be used to assess, at least qualitatively, the effects of injection characteristics and engine operating conditions on the flow field and on the spray penetration and vaporization in diesel engines.

  18. 78 FR 28719 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Certificate No. 3A13 to include the new Model J182T with the Societe de Motorisation Aeronautiques (SMA... SMA SR305- 230E-C1 diesel cycle engine and associated systems installed. In anticipation of the... the Cessna installation, the SMA engine type, the SMA engine requirements, and Policy Statement PS...

  19. Biodiesel: The clean, green fuel for diesel engines (fact sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    2000-04-11

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean-burning biodiesel fuels. As its name implies, biodiesel is like diesel fuel except that it's organically produced. It's also safe for the environment, biodegradable, and produces significantly less air pollution than diesel fuel.

  20. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  1. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  2. Influence of diesel engine combustion parameters on primary soot particle diameter.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Urs; Mohr, Martin; Kaegi, Ralf; Bertola, Andrea; Boulouchos, Konstantinos

    2005-03-15

    Effects of engine operating parameters and fuel composition on both primary soot particle diameter and particle number size distribution in the exhaust of a direct-injected heavy-duty diesel engine were studied in detail. An electrostatic sampler was developed to deposit particles directly on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Using TEM, the projected area equivalent diameter of primary soot particles was determined. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used for the measurement of the particle number size distribution. Variations in the main engine operating parameters (fuel injection system, air management, and fuel properties) were made to investigate soot formation and oxidation processes. Primary soot particle diameters determined by TEM measurements ranged from 17.5 to 32.5 nm for the diesel fuel and from 24.1 to 27.2 nm for the water-diesel emulsion fuel depending on the engine settings. For constant fuel energy flow rate, the primary particle size from the water-diesel emulsion fuel was slightly larger than that from the diesel fuel. A reduction in primary soot particle diameter was registered when increasing the fuel injection pressure (IP) or advancing the start of injection (SOI). Larger primary soot particle diameters were measured while the engine was operating with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Heat release rate analysis of the combustion process revealed that the primary soot particle diameter decreased when the maximum flame temperature increased for the diesel fuel.

  3. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  4. Carbonyls emission from ethanol-blended gasoline and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel used in engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; Yuan, Juan; He, Hong

    Detailed carbonyls emissions from ethanol-blended gasoline (containing 10% v/v, ethanol, E-10) and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel (BE-diesel) were carefully investigated on an EQ491i gasoline engine equipped with a three-way-catalyst (TWC) and a Commins-4B diesel engine. In engine-out emissions for the gasoline engine, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 66.7-99.4 mg kW -1 h -1, which was 3.1-8.2% less than those from fossil gasoline (E-0). In tailpipe emissions, total carbonyls from E-10 varied in the range of 9.2-20.7 mg kW -1 h -1, which were 3.0-61.7% higher than those from E-0. The total carbonyls emissions from BE-diesel were 1-22% higher than those from diesel at different engine operating conditions. Compared with fossil fuels, E-10 can slightly reduce CO emission, and BE-diesel can substantially decrease PM emission, while both alternative fuels increased slightly NO x emission.

  5. Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

    1983-09-01

    This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

  6. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  7. Diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wakasa, S.; Okazaki, T.

    1987-12-15

    A diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment is described comprising: (a) housing means; (b) a plunger assembly reciprocably mounted within the housing means and defining a pumping chamber therein; (c) the housing means having defined therein a fuel inlet port to the pumping chamber in a predetermined position in the longitudinal direction of the pumping chamber; (d) drive means for reciprocably moving the plunger assembly within the pumping chamber between a first extreme position; (e) the plunger assembly being formed of at least two transversely split segments movable toward and away from each other within limits and including resilient means biasing the segments of the plunger assembly toward each other; and (f) the housing means further including a timing fluid inlet port for introduction of a timing fluid under variable pressure between the segments of the plunger assembly to move the plunger assembly segments away from each other to an extent that timing fluid pressure is counterbalanced by force of the resilient means for controllably varying the distance therebetween and, in consequence, for varying the prestroke of the plunger assembly solely in response to variation of the timing fluid pressure to effect adjustment of injection timing.

  8. Environmental concerns of the light-duty-diesel engine: do we know enough. [Concerns and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L. R.; Bernard, M.J. III, Moses, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine represents one of the near-term technology options available for fuel conservation in the nation's light-duty vehicles. If light-duty-diesel (LDD) sales continue to grow at their current pace, then diesel vehicles could represent a significant portion of the light-duty-vehicle fleet by 1985. While their benefit is seen as petroleum conservation, major public-health and air-quality concerns need to be resolved before LDD use becomes widespread. Unfortunately, the time to perform the required research is long, and major commitments to the LDD are being made. This paper identified the environmental concerns of LDD commercialization as well as the environmental research that is needed. The major risks appear to be the potential of chronic lung disease and cancer due to compounds associated with the carbonaceous particulate emitted in the diesel exhaust. The extremely small size of the LDD emitted particulates enables the particulates to easily penetrate into the deep lung cavities with yet-to-be-assessed human health effects. Risk statements are developed as the basis for identifying the research required for concern resolution. Specifically, research needs for identified that will determine the health effects, including dose/response impacts and tht will make possible a comparative evaluation of similar concerns that relate to gasoline engines.

  9. Diesel-fuel alternatives for engines in civil works prime movers. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwinski, B.J.; Corcoran, E.

    1984-09-01

    This is the first phase of research to determine fuel alternatives for Corps of Engineers medium-speed diesel engines. The literature has been searched to provide a background in current research and to identify the most promising alternatives to petroleum fuel. The criteria assessed were performance-based, with most variables compared to a No. 2 diesel fuel baseline. Results indicate that liquified coal, cetane-improved alcohol, and vegetable oils may be suitable alternatives. However, since much of the data reviewed were based on high-speed engines, additional data on medium-speed engines must be gathered making final recommendations.

  10. EPA Awards over $2.1 Million to Clean Up Diesel Engines in La., Okla. and Texas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (March 20, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is awarding over $2.1 million for three clean diesel projects to help reduce emissions from the nation's existing fleet of diesel engines. This funding is part of EPA's Diesel

  11. Experimental Investigation of Performance and emission characteristics of Various Nano Particles with Bio-Diesel blend on Di Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, N.; Goldwin Xavier, X.; Rajasekar, R.; Ganesh Bairavan, P.; Dhanseelan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Present study provides the effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles additives on the Performance and emission uniqueness of Jatropha. Jatropha blended fuel is prepared by the emulsification technique with assist of mechanical agitator. Nano particles (Zinc Oxide (ZnO)) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2)) mixed with Jatropha blended fuel in mass fraction (100 ppm) with assist of an ultrasonicator. Experiments were conducted in single cylinder constant speed direct injection diesel engine for various test fuels. Performance results revealed that Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) is 3% and 11% higher than Jatropha blended zinc oxide (B20ZO) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) and 4% lower than diesel fuel (D100) at full load conditions. Emission result shows that HC and CO emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) are (6%, 22%, 11% and 6%, 15%, 12%) less compared with Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide (B20ZO), diesel (D100) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) at full load conditions. NOx emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide is 1 % higher than diesel fuel (D100) and 2% and 5% lower than Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide, and jatropha blended fuel.

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXV, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM D-8 AND 824 MODELS, II--TIRES AND TIRE HARDWARE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTION OF HEAVY TIRES AND WHEELS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THEORY OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) MAINTENANCE TIPS (COOLING SYSTEM), (4)…

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXI, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING REAR END SUSPENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND REAR AXLE SUSPENSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM, (2) VALVE MECHANISM, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING THE AIR SYSTEM, (4) PURPOSE OF VEHICLE SUSPENSION, (5) TANDEM…

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I)--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENTIAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE UNITS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FUEL SYSTEM COMPARISONS, (2) FUEL SYSTEM SUPPLY COMPONENTS, (3) FUEL SUPPLY SECTION MAINTENANCE, (4) FUNCTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL,…

  16. Physicochemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from Ship Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Jeong, S.; Jin, H. C.; Kim, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Shipping contributes significantly to the anthropogenic burden of particulate matter (PM), and is among the world's highest polluting combustion sources per fuel consumed. Moreover, ships are a highly concentrated source of pollutants which are emitted into clean marine environments (e.g., Artic region). Shipping utilizes heavy fuel oil (HFO) which is less distilled compared to fuels used on land and few investigations on shipping related PM properties are available. BC is one of the dominant combustion products of ship diesel engines and its chemical and microphysical properties have a significant impact on climate by influencing the amount of albedo reduction on bright surfaces such as in polar regions. We have carried out a campaign to characterize the PM emissions from medium-sized marine engines in Gunsan, Jeonbuk Institute of Automotive Technology. The properties of ship-diesel PM have characterized depending on (1) fuel sulfur content (HFO vs. ULSD) and (2) engine conditions (Running state vs. Idling state). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy were used for physicochemical analysis. Optical properties, which are ultimately linked to the snow/ice albedo decrease impacting climate, were assessed as well. PM generated under high engine temperature conditions had typical features of soot, e.g., concentric circles comprised of closely packed graphene layers, however PM generated by the idling state at low combustion temperature was characterized by amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystalline structure. Significant differences in optical properties depending on the combustion conditions were also observed. Particles from running conditions showed wavelength-independent absorbing properties, whereas the particles from idling conditions showed enhanced absorption at shorter wavelengths, which is

  17. Research on EHN additive on the diesel engine combustion characteristics in plateau environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhixin; Li, Ruoting; Wang, Xiancheng; Hu, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the combustion deterioration problem of diesel engine in plateau environment, a bench test was carried out for the effects of EHN additive on combustion characteristics of the diesel engine with intake pressure of 0.68 kPa. Test results showed that with the full load working condition of 1 400 r/min: Cylinder pressure and pressure uprising rate decreased with EHN additive added in, mechanical load on the engine could be relieved; peak value of the heat release rate decreased and its occurrence advanced, ignition delay and combustion duration were shortened; cylinder temperature and exhaust gas temperature declined, thermal load on the engine could be relieved, output torque increased while specific oil consumption decreased, and effective thermal efficiency of diesel engine increased.

  18. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Heywood,J.; Rabinovich, A.

    2002-08-25

    Plasmatron reformers can provide attractive means for conversion of diesel fuel into hydrogen rich gas. The hydrogen rich gas can be used for improved NOx trap technology and other aftertreatment applications.

  20. Aerosols emitted in underground mine air by diesel engine fueled with biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Cauda, Emanuele G; Janisko, Samuel J; Hummer, Jon A; Patts, Larry D

    2010-02-01

    Using biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel is considered by several underground metal and nonmetal mine operators to be a viable strategy for reducing the exposure of miners to diesel particulate matter. This study was conducted in an underground experimental mine to evaluate the effects of soy methyl ester biodiesel on the concentrations and size distributions of diesel aerosols and nitric oxides in mine air. The objective was to compare the effects of neat and blended biodiesel fuels with those of ultralow sulfur petroleum diesel. The evaluation was performed using a mechanically controlled, naturally aspirated diesel engine equipped with a muffler and a diesel oxidation catalyst. The effects of biodiesel fuels on size distributions and number and total aerosol mass concentrations were found to be strongly dependent on engine operating conditions. When fueled with biodiesel fuels, the engine contributed less to elemental carbon concentrations for all engine operating modes and exhaust configurations. The substantial increases in number concentrations and fraction of organic carbon (OC) in total carbon over the baseline were observed when the engine was fueled with biodiesel fuels and operated at light-load operating conditions. Size distributions for all test conditions were found to be single modal and strongly affected by engine operating conditions, fuel type, and exhaust configuration. The peak and total number concentrations as well as median diameter decreased with an increase in the fraction of biodiesel in the fuels, particularly for high-load operating conditions. The effects of the diesel oxidation catalyst, commonly deployed to counteract the potential increase in OC emissions due to use of biodiesel, were found to vary depending upon fuel formulation and engine operating conditions. The catalyst was relatively effective in reducing aerosol number and mass concentrations, particularly at light-load conditions, but also showed the potential for an