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Sample records for diesel fuel-contaminated laboratory

  1. Sulfur removal from diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. H. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    Methanol is considered to be a potential on-board fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles. In current distribution systems for liquid fuels used in the transportation sector, commodity methanol can occasionally become contaminated with the sulfur in diesel fuel or gasoline. This sulfur would poison the catalytic materials used in fuel reformers for fuel cells. We tested the removal of this sulfur by means of ten activated carbons (AC) that are commercially available. Tests were conducted with methanol doped with 1 vol.% grade D-2 diesel fuel containing 0.29% sulfur, which was present essentially as 33-35 wt.% benzothiophenes (BTs) and 65-67 wt.% dibenzothiophenes (DBT). In general, coconut shell-based carbons activated by high-temperature steam were more effective at sulfur removal than coal-based carbons. Equilibrium sorption data showed linear increase in sulfur capture with the increase of sulfur concentration in methanol. Both types of carbons had similar breakthrough characteristics, with the dynamic sorption capacity of each being about one-third of its equilibrium sorption capacity. Results of this study suggest that a fixed-bed sorber of granular AC can be used, such as in refueling stations, for the removal of sulfur in diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

  2. Bioventing results in significant reduction of diesel fuel contamination after one year

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.N.; Nickerson, D.A.; Guest, P.R.

    1994-12-31

    A bioventing system was designed and installed to enhance the natural biodegradation of residual diesel fuel contaminated soils at an underground storage tank (UST) facility in Seattle, Washington. This system was designed to operate in conjunction with an existing total fluids recovery system to expose more heavily contaminated soils at the capillary fringe to injected air. A pilot study conducted at the facility indicated that an initial biodegradation rate of 2,200 milligrams of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) per kiligram of soil per year could be achieved, making bioventing a feasible remedial alternative to accelerate site cleanup. Remediation costs were reduced by installing horizontal piping arrangements at the bottom of two separate tank pit excavations during the scheduled fueling system closures. Unlike single point injection wells, this innovative system design results in a wider area of influence by creating two aerated beds through which air is dispersed into the surrounding formation. As a result, less pressure is required to distribute air in the variably permeable site soils, minimizing subsurface vapor migration. The areas of greatest contamination in the capillary fringe are directly impacted by placing impermeable caps over the aerated beds.

  3. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-08

    The 3 UNCLASSIFIED Energy Institute (EI) has published guidance documents and test methods relating to fuel quality measurement using... Energy (11) have conducted laboratory and field evaluations of particle counter technologies for fuel contamination monitoring. Testing has concluded...AND USE OF LIQUID FUELS Charleston, South Carolina USA 4-8 October 2015 LIGHT OBSCURATION PARTICLE COUNTER FUEL CONTAMINATION LIMITS Joel

  4. COMBINED LABORATORY/FIELD STUDY ON THE USE OF NITRATE FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF A FUEL-CONTAMINATED AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot demonstration project was conducted at Eglin Air Force Base, FL, to compare the extent of bioremediation of a fuel-contaminated aquifer using sprinkler application with and without nitrate addition on two adjacent 30 m x 30 m cells. Target compound groups included both B...

  5. Modified Fenton oxidation of diesel fuel in arctic soils rich in organic matter and iron.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Mary K; Cassidy, Daniel P

    2014-10-01

    Modified Fenton (MF) chemistry was tested in the laboratory to treat three diesel fuel-contaminated soils from the Canadian arctic rich in soil organic matter (SOM) and Fe oxides. Reactors were dosed with hydrogen peroxide (HP), and treatment was compared in reactors with SOM as the only chelate vs. reactors to which ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) was added. Concentrations of diesel fuel and HP were measured over time, and the oxidation of both diesel fuel and SOM were quantified in each soil. A distinct selectivity for oxidation of diesel fuel over SOM was observed. Reactors with EDTA showed significantly less diesel fuel oxidation and lower oxidant efficiency (diesel fuel oxidized/HP consumed) than reactors with SOM as the only chelate. The results from these studies demonstrate that MF chemistry can be an effective remedial tool for contaminated arctic soils, and challenge the traditional conceptual model that SOM reduces the efficiency of MF treatment through excessive scavenging of oxidant.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MOBILE LABORATORY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FINE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the development of a new mobile laboratory for the determination of the fine particle and gaseous emissions from a Class 8 diesel tractor-trailer research vehicle. The new laboratory (Diesel Emissions Aerosol Laboratory or DEAL) incorporates plume sampling ca...

  7. Predictive models for deposition of inhaled diesel exhaust particles in humans and laboratory species.

    PubMed

    Yu, C P; Xu, G B

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical and computer models of the respiratory tracts of human beings and of laboratory animals (rats, hamsters, guinea pigs) were used to estimate the deposition patterns of inhaled diesel exhaust particles from automobile emissions. The accuracy of these models was tested by comparing the calculated depositions in laboratory animals with actual laboratory data. Our goal was to be able to predict the relation between exposure to diesel exhaust particles and the deposition of these particles in the lungs of humans of various ages. Diesel exhaust particles are aggregates with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 0.2 micron. Their actual size depends on the conditions under which they are generated. Using an appropriate particle model, we derived mathematical expressions that describe the effects of diffusion, sedimentation, impaction, and interception on the deposition of these particles. Because of their small size, we found that most diesel exhaust particles deposited through diffusion, and that the role of the other mechanisms was minor. Anatomical models of the human lung from birth to adulthood, as well as models of the lungs of laboratory species were formulated mathematically using available morphometric data. We used these lung models, together with the corresponding ventilation conditions of each species, to calculate deposition of diesel exhaust particles in the lungs. Under normal breathing conditions, we calculated that 7 to 13 percent (depending on particle size) of inhaled diesel exhaust particles deposit in the alveolar region of the adult human lung. Although the breathing mode (nose or mouth breathing) did not appear to affect alveolar deposition, increasing the minute ventilation (the number of breaths per minute multiplied by the tidal volume) increased alveolar deposition significantly. The calculated deposition patterns for diesel exhaust particles in younger humans (under age 25) were similar. However, with the exception of

  8. Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization By Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam; Byron L. Rapp; Donald W. Lyons; Michael S. Graboski; Robert L. McCormick; Teresa L. Alleman; Paul Norton

    1999-05-03

    Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFHAER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more. The driving styles may be characterized as aggressive and non-aggressive, but both styles followed the CBD speed command acceptably. PM emissions were far higher for the aggressive driving style. For the NG fueled vehicles driving style had a similar, although smaller, effect on NO{sub x}. It is evident that driver habits may cause substantial deviation in emissions for the CBD cycle. When the CO emissions are used as a surrogate for driver aggression, a regression analysis shows that NO{sub x} and PM emissions from the two laboratories agree closely for equivalent driving style. Implications of driver habit for emissions inventories and regulations are briefly considered.

  9. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  10. Measuring fuel contamination using high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, S.P.; Bratton, W.L.; Akard, M.L.

    1995-10-01

    Decision processes during characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites are greatly retarded by the turnaround time and expense incurred through the use of conventional sampling and laboratory analyses. Furthermore, conventional soil and groundwater sampling procedures present many opportunities for loss of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by exposing sample media to the atmosphere during transfers between and among sampling devices and containers. While on-site analysis by conventional gas chromatography can reduce analytical turnaround time, time-consuming sample preparation procedures are still often required, and the potential for loss of VOC is not reduced. This report describes the development of a high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration testing system which can detect and measure subsurface fuel contamination in situ during the cone penetration process.

  11. Laboratory endurance test of a sunflower oil blend in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of using a 25 to 75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel in a diesel engine as compared to a baseline test on diesel fuel. There were no significant problems with engine operation during the baseline test. However, problems were experienced while using the blended fuel. The major problems were (1) abnormal buildup on the injection nozzle tips, (2) injector needle sticking, (3) secondary injection, (4) carbon buildup in the intake ports, (5) carbon deposits on the exhaust valve stems, (6) carbon filling of the compression ring grooves, and (7) abnormal lacquer and varnish buildup on the third piston land. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  13. Fundamentals of bioventing applied to fuel contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, R.R. )

    1993-02-01

    Bioventing entails the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems for the transport of oxygen to the subsurface, where indigenous organisms are stimulated to aerobically metabolize fuel components. Bioventing systems are designed and configured to optimize oxygen transfer and oxygen utilization efficiency, and are operated at much lower flow rates and with configurations much different than those of conventional SVE systems. Bioventing system applications and design are contrasted to those of conventional SVE systems, and the two key elements of bioventing system design evaluation, i.e., in situ microbial activity and air permeability determinations, are highlighted in this paper. The application of bioventing to vadose zone bioremediation was reviewed with particular emphasis on its advantages over aqueous based bioremediation systems in terms of its superior oxygen transfer efficiency. Finally, the application of bioventing and bioventing design concepts are illustrated through a case study of JP-4 jet fuel contaminated soil remediation at Hill AFB, Utah. 22 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Laboratory endurance test of sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engine fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.; Ziejewski, M.

    1983-12-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested using the test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Association. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test.

  15. Characterization of deposits formed on diesel injectors in field test and from thermal oxidative degradation of n-hexadecane in a laboratory reactor

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Ramya; Eser, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Solid deposits from commercially available high-pressure diesel injectors (HPDI) were analyzed to study the solid deposition from diesel fuel during engine operation. The structural and chemical properties of injector deposits were compared to those formed from the thermal oxidative stressing of a diesel fuel range model compound, n-hexadecane at 160°C and 450 psi for 2.5 h in a flow reactor. Both deposits consist of polyaromatic compounds (PAH) with oxygen moieties. The similarities in structure and composition of the injector deposits and n-hexadecane deposits suggest that laboratory experiments can simulate thermal oxidative degradation of diesel in commercial injectors. The formation of PAH from n-hexadecane showed that aromatization of straight chain alkanes and polycondensation of aromatic rings was possible at temperatures as low as 160°C in the presence of oxygen. A mechanism for an oxygen-assisted aromatization of cylcoalkanes is proposed. PMID:19091086

  16. Development and application of a mobile laboratory for measuring emissions from diesel engines. 2. Sampling for toxics and particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Cocker, David R; Shah, Sandip D; Johnson, Kent C; Zhu, Xiaona; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-12-15

    Limited data are available on the emission rates of speciated volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM) from mobile, in-use diesel engines operated on the road. A design for the sampling of these fractions and the first data from in-use diesel sources are presented in this paper. Emission rates for carbonyls, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylene, PM, and elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC) are reported for a vehicle driven while following the California Air Resources Board (ARB) four-mode heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) cycle and while transiting through a major transportation corridor. Results show that distance specific emission rates are substantially greater in congested traffic as compared with highway cruise conditions. Specifically, emissions of toxic compounds are 3-15 times greater, and PM is 7 times greater under these conditions. The dependence of these species on driving mode suggests that health and source apportionment studies will need to account for driving patterns in addition to emission factors. Comparison of the PM/NOx ratios obtained for the above tests provides insight into the presence and importance of "off-cycle" emissions during on-road driving. Measurements from a stationary source (operated and tested at constant engine speed) equipped with an engine similar to that in the HHDDT yielded a greater understanding of the relative dependence of emissions on load versus engine transients. These data are indicative of the type of investigations made possible by the development of this novel laboratory.

  17. Adaptations of indigenous bacteria to fuel contamination in karst aquifers in south-central Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Agymang, Daniel T.; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The

  18. COMPARISON OF METHODS TO DETERMINE OXYGEN DEMAND FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A FUEL CONTAMINATED AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four analytical methods were compared for estimating concentrations of fuel contaminants in subsurface core samples. The methods were total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, and a solvent extraction of fuel hydrocarbons combined with a gas chromatographic te...

  19. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  20. Soil invertebrate community change over fuel-contaminated sites on a subantarctic island: An ecological field-based line of evidence for site risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wasley, Jane; Mooney, Thomas J; King, Catherine K

    2016-04-01

    A number of fuel spills, of both recent and historic origins, have occurred on World Heritage-listed subantarctic Macquarie Island. Sites contaminated by mainly diesel fuels are undergoing remediation by the Australian Antarctic Division. The risks posed by these sites are being managed using a "weight of evidence" approach, for which this study provides a preliminary line of evidence for the ecological assessment component of this site management decision framework. This knowledge is pertinent, given the absence of environmental guidelines for fuel contaminants in subantarctic ecosystems. We provide a field-based, site-specific ecological risk assessment for soil invertebrate communities across the fuel spill sites, before the commencement of in situ remediation activities. Springtails (Collembola) were the most abundant taxa. Springtail community patterns showed only limited correlations with the level of fuel contamination at the soil surface, even when elevated levels occurred in the substratum layers. Of the environmental variables measured, community patterns were most strongly correlated with vegetation cover. We identify a suite of 6 species that contribute most to the community dynamics across these sites. A subset of these we propose as useful candidates for future development of single-species toxicity tests: Folsomotoma punctata, Cryptopygus caecus, Cryptopygus antarcticus and Parisotoma insularis. Findings from this study advance our understanding of soil invertebrate community dynamics within these contaminated sites, directly contributing to the improved management and restoration of the sites. Not only does this study provide an important line of evidence for the island's ecological risk assessment for fuel contaminants, it also enhances our understanding of the potential impact of fuels at other subantarctic islands.

  1. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel.

  2. Characterization and reclamation assessment for the central shops diesel storage facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The contamination of subsurface terrestrial environments by organic contaminants is a global phenomenon. The remediation of such environments requires innovative assessment techniques and strategies for successful cleanups. Using innovative approaches, the central Shops Diesel Storage Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was characterized to determine the extent of subsurface diesel fuel contamination. Effective bioremediation techniques for cleaning up of the contaminant plume were established.

  3. Aerobic biodegradation potential of subsurface microorganisms from a jet fuel-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aelion, C.M.; Bradley, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1975, a leak of 83,000 gallons (314,189 liters) of jet fuel (JP-4) contaminated a shallow water-table aquifer near North Charleston, S.C. Laboratory experiments were conducted with contaminated sediments to assess the aerobic biodegradation potential of the in situ microbial community. Sediments were incubated with 14C-labeled organic compounds, and the evolution of 14CO2 was measured over time. Gas chromatographic analyses were used to monitor CO2 production and O2 consumption under aerobic conditions. Results indicated that the microbes from contaminated sediments remained active despite the potentially toxic effects of JP-4. 14CO2 was measured from [14C]glucose respiration in unamended and nitrate-amended samples after 1 day of incubation. Total [14C]glucose metabolism was greater in 1 mM nitrate-amended than in unamended samples because of increased cellular incorporation of 14C label. [14C]benzene and [14C]toluene were not significantly respired after 3 months of incubation. With the addition of 1 mM NO3, CO2 production measured by gas chromatographic analysis increased linearly during 2 months of incubation at a rate of 0.099 ??mol g-1 (dry weight) day-1 while oxygen concentration decreased at a rate of 0.124 ??mol g-1 (dry weight) day-1. With no added nitrate, CO2 production was not different from that in metabolically inhibited control vials. From the examination of selected components of JP-4, the n-alkane hexane appeared to be degraded as opposed to the branched alkanes of similar molecular weight. The results suggest that the in situ microbial community is active despite the JP-4 jet fuel contamination and that biodegradation may be compound specific. Also, the community is strongly nitrogen limited, and nitrogen additions may be required to significantly enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  4. Definition of Aviation Turbine Fuel Contamination under Simulated Combat Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    Antonio, Texas fcr U. S. Army Air Mobility Research and Development Laboratory D D) C Eustis Directorate Fort Eustis, Virginia \\1hIIfunder contract to L...k4~ c• U. S. Army Mobility Equipment Research U"j ,and Development Command Fort Belvoir, Virginia Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...MONITORING AGENCY. N’AMt 8, ADDRESS 15. SECURITY CLASS. (J’f this report) Unclassified United States Army Mobility Equipment. Research Command

  5. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Compared to the engine tests on the untreated 25-75 mixture, the barium smoke suppressant additive proved effective in cleaning the inside of injection nozzles (no needle sticking, no carbon build-up inside the orifices), reducing diesel exhaust smoke, and increasing engine power output. However, there was increased residue accumulation in the combustion chamber and on the exterior of the injection nozzle tips. The ashless dispersant additive also improved nozzle cleanliness but did not demonstrate any effect on engine power or cause excessive carbon buildup on the nozzle tips, top of the pistons, and cylinder head. The Lubrizol 552 dispersant looks very promising as an additive for vegetable oil diesel fuel blends for controlling excessive carbon and lacquer deposits.

  6. The effect of diesel fuel on common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2003-03-01

    When petroleum hydrocarbons contaminate soil, the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the soil is altered. The added carbon stimulates microbial numbers but causes an imbalance in the C:N ratio which may result in immobilization of soil nitrogen by the microbial biomass, leaving none available for plant growth. As members of Leguminosae fix atmospheric nitrogen to produce their own nitrogen for growth, they may prove more successful at growing on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. During a wider study on phytoremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil, particular attention was given to the performance of legumes versus other plant species. During harvesting of pot experiments containing leguminous plants, a recurring difference in the number and formation of root nodules present on control and contaminated Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) plants was observed. The total number of nodules per plant was significant reduced in contaminated plants compared to control plants but nodules on contaminated plants were more developed than corresponding nodules on control plants. Plant performance of Common vetch and Westerwold's ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) was compared to illustrate any difference between the ability of legumes and grasses to grow on diesel fuel contaminated soil. Common vetch was less affected by diesel fuel and performed better in low levels of diesel fuel contaminated soil than Westerwold's ryegrass. The total amount of diesel fuel remaining after 4 months in Common vetch planted soil was slightly less than in Westerwold's ryegrass planted soil.

  7. Characterization and reclamation assessment for the Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Bledsoe, H.

    1993-10-01

    The contamination of subsurface terrestrial environments by organic contaminants is a global phenomenon. The remediation of such environments requires innovative assessment techniques and strategies for successful clean-ups. Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility at Savannah River Site was characterized to determine the extent of subsurface diesel fuel contamination using innovative approaches and effective bioremediation techniques for clean-up of the contaminant plume have been established.

  8. Clean Diesel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Diesel Program offers DERA funding in the form of grants and rebates as well as other support for projects that protect human health and improve air quality by reducing harmful emissions from diesel engines.

  9. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobic cultivation.

    PubMed

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M; Weightman, Andrew J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by "JW") was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  10. Culture-Independent Analysis of Bacterial Fuel Contamination Provides Insight into the Level of Concordance with the Standard Industry Practice of Aerobic Cultivation ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith; Gilbert, Jack; Hill, Graham; Hill, Edward; Huse, Susan M.; Weightman, Andrew J.; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by “JW”) was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas. PMID:21602386

  11. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E.

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  12. Surfactant remediation of diesel fuel polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Khalladi, Razika; Benhabiles, Ouassila; Bentahar, Fatiha; Moulai-Mostefa, Naji

    2009-05-30

    Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons has caused critical environmental and health defects and increasing attention has been paid for developing innovative technology for cleaning up this contamination. In this work, the washing process of a soil column by ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated. Water flow rate and the contamination duration (age) have been studied. The performance of water in the removal of diesel fuel was found to be non-negligible, while water contributed by 24.7% in the global elimination of n-alkanes. The effect of SDS is significant beyond a concentration of 8mM. After 4h of treatment with surfactant solution, the diesel soil content remains constant, which shows the existence of a necessary contact time needed to the surfactant to be efficient. The soil washing process at a rate of 3.2 mL/min has removed 97% of the diesel fuel. This surfactant soil remediation process was shown to be governed by the first-order kinetics. These results are of practical interest in developing effective surfactant remediation technology of diesel fuel contaminated soils.

  13. Diesel Engine Idling Test

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

    2006-02-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

  14. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    structure of the high speed jet. The turbulent Atomization in diesel engine sprays 9 !"# $ $"# % %"# &’$! ï...ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L Bravo...ARL-RP-0555 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays by L

  15. Toxicity of fuel-contaminated soil to Antarctic moss and terrestrial algae.

    PubMed

    Nydahl, Anna C; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Jolley, Dianne F; Robinson, Sharon A

    2015-09-01

    Fuel pollution is a significant problem in Antarctica, especially in areas where human activities occur, such as at scientific research stations. Despite this, there is little information on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on Antarctic terrestrial biota. The authors demonstrate that the Antarctic mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Schistidium antarctici, and Ceratodon purpureus, and the Antarctic terrestrial alga Prasiola crispa are relatively tolerant to Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) fuel-contaminated soil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons). Freshly spiked soils were more toxic to all species than were aged soils containing degraded fuel, as measured by photosynthetic efficiency (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence [Fv/Fm]), pigment content, and visual observations. Concentrations that caused 20% inhibition ranged from 16,600 mg/kg to 53,200 mg/kg for freshly spiked soils and from 30,100 mg/kg to 56,200 mg/kg for aged soils. The photosynthetic efficiency of C. purpureus and S. antarctici was significantly inhibited by exposure to freshly spiked soils with lowest-observed-effect concentrations of 27,900 mg/kg and 40,400 mg/kg, respectively. Prasiola crispa was the most sensitive species to freshly spiked soils (Fv/Fm lowest-observed-effect concentration 6700 mg/kg), whereas the Fv/Fm of B. pseudotriquetrum was unaffected by exposure to SAB fuel even at the highest concentration tested (62,900 mg/kg). Standard toxicity test methods developed for nonvascular plants can be used in future risk assessments, and sensitivity data will contribute to the development of remediation targets for petroleum hydrocarbons to guide remediation activities in Antarctica.

  16. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  17. Reformulated diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

    2006-03-28

    Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

  18. Interference of avian guano in analyses of fuel-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    James, D.E.; Johnson, T.E.; Kreamer, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    Site characterization on Johnston Island, Johnston Atoll, Pacific Ocean, has yielded preliminary data that seabird guano can be an interference in three common petroleum hydrocarbon quantification methods. Volatiles from seabird guano were measured on a hydrocarbon-specific handheld vapor meter (catalytic detector) in concentrations as high as 256 ppm by volume total hydrocarbon. Analysis of guano solids produced measurable concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) as diesel using both an immunoassay test and the EPA 8015 Modified Method. The testing was conducted on one surface sample of guano collected from a seabird roosting and nesting area. Source species were not identified. Positive hydrocarbon test results for guano raise concerns regarding the effectiveness of standard methods of petroleum-contaminated site characterization for Johnston island, other Pacific islands, and coastal areas with historic or contemporary seabird populations.

  19. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  20. Soil moisture effects during bioventing in fuel-contaminated arid soils

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, T.C.; Leeson, A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Hoeppel, R.E.; Bowling, L.

    1995-12-31

    This study evaluated the effects of soil moisture addition on microbial activity during bioventing of dry, sandy soils at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), Twentynine Palms, California. Soils at the site have been contaminated to a depth of approximately 80 ft (24 m) with gasoline, JP-5 jet fuel, and diesel fuel. Based on the low soil moisture measured at the site (2 to 3% by weight), it was determined that soil moisture may be limiting biodegradation. To evaluate the effect that moisture addition had on microbial activity under field conditions, a subsurface drip irrigation system was installed above the fuel hydrocarbon plume. Irrigation water was obtained from two monitoring wells on the site, where groundwater was approximately 192 ft (59 m) below ground surface. Advancement of the wetting front was monitored. In situ respiration rates increased significantly after moisture addition. The results of this study provide evidence for the potential applicability of moisture addition in conjunction with bioventing for site remediation in arid environments. Further work is planned to investigate optimization of moisture addition.

  1. Diesel exhaust, diesel fumes, and laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Muscat, J E; Wynder, E L

    1995-03-01

    A hospital-based, case-control study of 235 male patients with laryngeal cancer and 205 male control patients was conducted to determine the effects of exposure to diesel engine exhaust and diesel fumes and the risk of laryngeal cancer. All patients were interviewed directly in the hospital with a standardized questionnaire that gathered information on smoking habits, alcohol consumption, employment history, and occupational exposures. Occupations that involve substantial exposure to diesel engine exhaust include mainly truck drivers, as well as mine workers, firefighters, and railroad workers. The odds ratio for laryngeal cancer associated with these occupations was 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 1.8). The odds ratio for self-reported exposure to diesel exhaust was 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 4.1). An elevated risk was found for self-reported exposure to diesel fumes (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 22.6). No association was observed between jobs that entail exposure to diesel fumes, such as automobile mechanics, and the risk of laryngeal cancer. These results show that diesel engine exhaust is unrelated to laryngeal cancer risk. The different findings for self-reported diesel fumes and occupations that involve exposure to diesel fumes could reflect a recall bias.

  2. Learn About Clean Diesel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The clean diesel program is designed to aggressively reduce the pollution emitted from diesel engines across the country through the implementation of varied control strategies and the aggressive involvement of national, state, and local partners.

  3. Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative (MCDI) is a collaboration of federal, state and local agencies, along with communities, non-profit organizations and private companies working together by reducing exposure to emissions from diesel engines

  4. Clean Diesel Tribal Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The DERA Tribal Program awards clean diesel grants specifically for tribal nations. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication Numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  5. Clean Diesel National Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Funding Assistance Program administers competitive grants for clean diesel projects. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  6. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  7. Diesel Vehicle Maintenance Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Robert; And Others

    Designed to provide a model set of competencies, this manual presents tasks which were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary diesel vehicle maintenance curriculum. The tasks are divided into seven major component areas of instruction: chassis and suspension, diesel engines, diesel fuel, electrical,…

  8. Diesel emissions in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, H.; Kreiner, I.; Norek, C.; Preining, O.; Georgi, B.

    The aerosol in a non-industrial town normally is dominated by emissions from vehicles. Whereas gasoline-powered cars normally only emit a small amount of particulates, the emission by diesel-powered cars is considerable. The aerosol particles produced by diesel engines consist of graphitic carbon (GC) with attached hydrocarbons (HCs) including also polyaromatic HCs. Therefore the diesel particles can be carcinogenic. Besides diesel vehicles, all other combustion processes are also a source for GC; thus source apportionment of diesel emissions to the GC in the town is difficult. A direct apportionment of diesel emissions has been made possible by marking all the diesel fuel used by the vehicles in Vienna by a normally not occurring and easily detectable substance. All emitted diesel particles thus were marked with the tracer and by analyzing the atmospheric samples for the marking substance we found that the mass concentrations of diesel particles in the atmosphere varied between 5 and 23 μg m -3. Busy streets and calm residential areas show less difference in mass concentration than expected. The deposition of diesel particles on the ground has been determined by collecting samples from the road surface. The concentration of the marking substance was below the detection limit before the marking period and a year after the period. During the period when marked diesel fuel was used, the concentrations of the diesel particles settling to the ground was 0.012-0.07 g g -1 of collected dust. A positive correlation between the diesel vehicle density and the sampled mass of diesel vehicles exists. In Vienna we have a background diesel particle concentration of 11 μg m -3. This value increases by 5.5 μg m -3 per 500 diesel vehicles h -1 passing near the sampling location. The mass fraction of diesel particles of the total aerosol mass varied between 12.2 and 33%; the higher values were found in more remote areas, since diesel particles apparently diffuse easily

  9. Modeling JP-8 Fuel Effects on Diesel Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-24

    curve, and cetane number) that may result in fuel-affected varying combustion behavior in diesel engines under various operating conditions. Since... engine manufacturers rely solely on DF- 2 for commercial vehicle applications most domestic industry, university, and national laboratory lead diesel... engine combustion system research activities have not encompassed JP fuels. Instead, much effort has been spent exploring DF-2 evaporation behavior

  10. Modeling JP-8 Fuel Effects on Diesel Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    curve, and cetane number) that may result in fuel-affected varying combustion behavior in diesel engines under various operating conditions. Since... engine manufacturers rely solely on DF- 2 for commercial vehicle applications most domestic industry, university, and national laboratory led diesel... engine combustion system research activities have not encompassed JP fuels. Instead, much effort has been spent exploring DF-2 evaporation behavior

  11. Recovering Greater Fungal Diversity from Pristine and Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sub-Antarctic Soil Through Cultivation Using Both a High and a Low Nutrient Media Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Belinda C.; Zhang, Chengdong; van Dorst, Josie

    2011-01-01

    Novel cultivation strategies for bacteria are widespread and well described for recovering greater diversity from the “hitherto” unculturable majority. While similar approaches have not yet been demonstrated for fungi it has been suggested that of the 1.5 million estimated species less than 5% have been recovered into pure culture. Fungi are known to be involved in many degradative processes, including the breakdown of petroleum hydrocarbons, and it has been speculated that in Polar Regions they contribute significantly to bioremediation of contaminated soils. Given the biotechnological potential of fungi there is a need to increase efforts for greater species recovery, particularly from extreme environments such as sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. In this study, like the yet-to-be cultured bacteria, high concentrations of nutrients selected for predominantly different fungal species to that recovered using a low nutrient media. By combining both media approaches to the cultivation of fungi from contaminated and non-contaminated soils, 91 fungal species were recovered, including 63 unidentified species. A preliminary biodegradation activity assay on a selection of isolates found that a high proportion of novel and described fungal species from a range of soil samples were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and should be characterized further. PMID:22131985

  12. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of jet fuel contamination in a shallow aquifer, Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Frank; Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies show that microorganisms indigenous to the ground-water system underlying Tank Farm C, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, S.C., degrade petroleum hydrocarbons under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic conditions, sediments from the shallow aquifer underlying the site mineralized radiolabeled (14C) toluene to 14CO2 with first-order rate constants of about -0.29 per day. Sediments incubated under anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled toluene more slowly, with first-order rate constants of -0.001 per day. Although anaerobic rates of biodegradation are low, they are significant in the hydrologic and geochemical context of the site. Because of low hydraulic conductivities (1.9-9.1 feet per day) and low hydraulic gradients (about 0.004 feet per feet), ground water flows slowly (approximately 20 feet per year) at this site. Furthermore, aquifer sediments contain organic-rich peat that has a high sorptive capacity. Under these conditions, hydrocarbon contaminants have moved no further than 10 feet downgradient of the jet fuel free product. Digital solute-transport simulations, using the range of model parameters measured at the site, show that dissolved contaminants will be completely degraded before they are discharged from the aquifer into adjacent surface-water bodies. These results show that natural attenuation processes are containing the migration of soluble hydrocarbons, and that intrinsic bioremediation is a potentially effective remedial strategy at this site.

  13. IET. Diesel engine for emergency generator is headed for installation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Diesel engine for emergency generator is headed for installation in shielded control building (TAN-620). Date: September 21, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12145 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  15. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  16. Diesel Engine Technology Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-87-20 54 83-021-DET DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE Kaupert, Andrew W., Lt. Col. USAFR Air Force Reserves Detroit Detachment 2 Ann Arbor, MI...nn AFR OH 45433-6563 63723F 3139 1 01 01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kaupert...methodology for technology prediction. The objective of the present report is to update the technology transfer/ 0 development status of diesel engine

  17. Why make premium diesel?

    SciTech Connect

    Pipenger, G.G.

    1997-01-01

    In the last issue of Hart`s Fuel Technology & Management (Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 62-64), a discussion of the evolution of premium diesel fuels in the US and Europe was begun. Cetane and ignition improvers were discussed. In this concluding article, different additive components such as fuel stabilizers, corrosion inhibitors and lubricity additives are reviewed--all of which are key components of any top-quality diesel fuel today. An excerpt from {open_quotes}The Making of Premium Diesel,{close_quotes} which categorizes (costs, benefits, dosage rates) the additives necessary to improve diesel quality is presented.

  18. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-24

    replacement of water bottom removal.  Recirculation – Air was purged from the filter separator vessel and fuel was again pumped from the tank , through...8, Automatic Particle Counter, cleanliness, free water , Diesel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT none 18. NUMBER OF...Advanced Aviation Forward Area Refueling System Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release

  19. Transportation fuels: Desulfurizing diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamonier, Carole

    2017-02-01

    Transportation fuels such as diesel contain organosulfur molecules that, when combusted, form sulfur oxides that are toxic and poison vehicles' catalytic convertors. Now, a method is demonstrated that can reduce the sulfur concentration of diesel fuel to very low levels at low temperatures and pressures.

  20. Diesels boost productivity, safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1984-02-01

    In the US, the use of diesel equipment in underground coal mines is increasing, despite the controversy over the harmful effects of the emissions. The pros and cons of using diesels are discussed, and British experience is quoted. A list of manufacturers in the US, West Germany and the UK is given.

  1. Diesel Mechanics: Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William; And Others

    This publication is the first in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the basic concepts related to employment in a diesel trade. Six sections contain 29 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities for…

  2. Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William; And Others

    This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

  3. Diesel Mechanics: Fuel Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William

    This publication is the third in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to fuel injection systems in a diesel trade. The text contains eight units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested activities…

  4. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  5. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  6. Influence of long-term diesel fuel pollution on nitrite-oxidising activity and population size of nitrobacter spp in soil.

    PubMed

    Deni, Jamal; Penninckx, Michel J

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that ammonia oxidation is not inhibited by diesel fuel in a soil with a long history of contamination contrary to a non-contaminated soil. As a consequence, ammonia oxidation does not constitute a Limited step in nitrification process (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65 (1999) 4008). Moreover, this type of soil also has had the opportunity to develop an abundant microbial population able to metabolise the diesel hydrocarbons. Whether the properties of soil with a long history of diesel fuel contamination may affect the activity of nitrite-oxidising bacteria was investigated. It was observed that re-exposure of soil to diesel fuel apparently stimulated the proliferation of nitrite-oxidising bacteria, as determined by most probable number (MPN) culture technique and MPN-polymerase chain reaction technique. The potential of nitrite-oxidising activity in soil treated with diesel fuel was about 4 times higher than in the control without addition. In the presence of diesel fuel and ammonium, the potential nitrite-oxidising activity was 40% higher than in presence of ammonium only. However, in the presence of hydrocarbon only, low proliferation of Nitrobacter was observed, probably because the heterotrophic bacteria were strongly limited by lack of nitrogen and did not produce sufficient organic metabolites that could be used by the Nitrobacter cells.

  7. Performance and cost evaluation of internal combustion engines for the destruction of hydrocarbon vapors from fuel-contaminated soils. Report for 18 October 1993-14 January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Archabal, S.R.; Downey, D.C.

    1994-12-01

    This document describes the performance and costs associated with a modified internal combustion engine (ICE) used for the destruction of hydrocarbon vapors extracted from fuel contaminated soils. During the period of 18 October 1993 to 14 January 1994, an ICE treatment system manufactured by VR Systems Inc. in Anaheim, California was tested at the Patrick Air Force Base (AFB), Florida, active Base Exchange (BX) service station. The purpose of this test was to independently measure both the performance and the cost of ICE operation, and to determine how this technology can be most effectively used to complement the bioventing technology.

  8. The diesel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1993-04-01

    Whether for standby or baseload capacity, diesel generator sets are being used in markets worldwide. Companies are taking a variety of approaches to tapping these markets. The markets for diesel generators follow two basic paths. In the US, they are used primarily for standby or peaking applications. Outside the US, the market includes standby applications but is more often for baseload or prime-power applications.

  9. Renewable synthetic diesel fuel from triglycerides and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hillard, J.C.; Strassburger, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    A renewable, synthetic diesel fuel has been developed that employs ethanol and organic waste materials. These organic materials, such as soybean oil or animal fats, are hydrolized to yield a mixture of solid soap like materials and glycerol. These soaps, now soluble in ethanol, are blended with ethanol; the glycerol is nitrated and added as well as castor oil when necessary. The synthetic fuel is tailored to match petroleum diesel fuel in viscosity, lubricity and cetane quality and, therefore, does not require any engine modifications. Testing in a laboratory engine and in a production Oldsmobile Cutlass has revealed that this synthetic fuel is superior to petroleum diesel fuel in vehicle efficiency, cetane quality, combustion noise, cold start characteristics, exhaust odor and emissions. Performance characteristics are indistinguishable from those of petroleum diesel fuel. These soaps are added to improve the calorific value, lubricity and cetane quality of the ethanol. The glycerol from the hydrolysis process is nitrated and added to the ethanol as an additional cetane quality improver. Caster oil is added to the fuel when necessary to match the viscosity and lubricity of petroleum diesel fuel as well as to act as a corrosion inhibitor, thereby, precluding any engine modifications. The cetane quality of the synthetic fuel is better than that of petroleum diesel as the fuel carries its own oxygen. The synthetic fuel is also completely miscible with petroleum diesel.

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  11. Railway diesel crankcase lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

    1987-06-30

    A railway diesel crankcase lubricant composition is described comprising a diesel lubricating oil and from about 0.25 to 2.0 weight percent of minor amount of oxidation and corrosion inhibiting agent. The reaction product is of a polyoxyisopropylene diamine, diabasic acid anhydride and polyalkylene polyamine wherein: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyoxyisopropylenediamine where x is a numeral of about 2 to about 50, forming a maleamic acid; (ii) reacting the maleamic acid with a polyalkylene polyamine, forming a condensate product and; (iii) recovering the condensate product.

  12. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  13. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  14. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  15. Diesel Technology: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane C.

    Competency-based teacher and student materials are provided for an introductory course on diesel technology. Twelve units of instruction cover the following topics: workplace tools, common materials, and basic related principles. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing…

  16. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  17. DIESEL NOX CONTROL APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a project to design, develop, and demonstrate a diesel engine nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) control package that will meet the U.S. Navy's emission control requirements. (NOTE: In 1994, EPA issued a Notice for Proposed Rule Making (NP...

  18. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Fuel for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, M.

    1983-09-20

    A fuel is disclosed for a diesel engine which comprises a mixture of (A) an alcohol, (B) gas oil and (C) castor oil, wherein the contents of the respective components satisfy requirements represented by the following formulae: 0% by volume < A 80% by volume, 10% by volume B < 50% by volume, and 10% by volume C < 50% by volume.

  20. Diesel Emissions Quantifier (DEQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    .The Diesel Emissions Quantifier (Quantifier) is an interactive tool to estimate emission reductions and cost effectiveness. Publications EPA-420-F-13-008a (420f13008a), EPA-420-B-10-035 (420b10023), EPA-420-B-10-034 (420b10034)

  1. PCR+ In Diesel Fuels and Emissions Research

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, H.T.

    2002-04-15

    In past work for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), PCR+ was developed as an alternative methodology for building statistical models. PCR+ is an extension of Principal Components Regression (PCR), in which the eigenvectors resulting from Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used as predictor variables in regression analysis. The work was motivated by the observation that most heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine research was conducted with test fuels that had been ''concocted'' in the laboratory to vary selected fuel properties in isolation from each other. This approach departs markedly from the real world, where the reformulation of diesel fuels for almost any purpose leads to changes in a number of interrelated properties. In this work, we present new information regarding the problems encountered in the conventional approach to model-building and how the PCR+ method can be used to improve research on the relationship between fuel characteristics and engine emissions. We also discuss how PCR+ can be applied to a variety of other research problems related to diesel fuels.

  2. Diesel plant retrofitting options to enhance decentralized electricity supply in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E I; Barley, C D; Drouilhet, S

    1997-09-01

    Over the last 20 years, the government of Indonesia has undertaken an extensive program to provide electricity to the population of that country. The electrification of rural areas has been partially achieved through the use of isolated diesel systems, which account for about 20% of the country`s generated electricity. Due to many factors related to inefficient power production with diesels, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with PLN, the Indonesian national utility, Community Power Corporation, and Idaho Power Company, analyzed options for retrofitting existing diesel power systems. This study considered the use of different combinations of advanced diesel control, the addition of wind generators, photovoltaics and batteries to reduce the systems of overall cost and fuel consumption. This analysis resulted in a general methodology for retrofitting diesel power systems. This paper discusses five different retrofitting options to improve the performance of diesel power systems. The systems considered in the Indonesian analysis are cited as examples for the options discussed.

  3. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  4. Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    David Kittelson; Jason Johnson; Winthrop Watts; Qiang Wei; Marcus Drayton; Dwane Paulsen; Nicolas Bukowiecki

    2000-06-19

    The University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research along with a research team including Caterpillar, Cummins, Carnegie Mellon University, West Virginia University (WVU), Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, and Tampere University in Finland have performed measurements of Diesel exhaust particle size distributions under real-world dilution conditions. A mobile aerosol emission laboratory (MEL) equipped to measure particle size distributions, number concentrations, surface area concentrations, particle bound PAHs, as well as CO 2 and NO x concentrations in real time was built and will be described. The MEL was used to follow two different Cummins powered tractors, one with an older engine (L10) and one with a state-of-the-art engine (ISM), on rural highways and measure particles in their exhaust plumes. This paper will describe the goals and objectives of the study and will describe representative particle size distributions observed in roadway experiments with the truck powered by the ISM engine.

  5. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L. ); Lewis, B.A. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which twenty-one surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Diesel developments for rail traction

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1995-03-01

    The latest developments in diesel rail traction systems are playing an important role in providing economical passenger transportation, especially in Europe. A new generation of diesel-hydraulic and diesel-electric traction systems - featuring reduced weight and using electronic control systems for easier operation, lower engine emissions and reduced fuel consumption - are being introduced into public and private railway networks worldwide. This paper reviews the specifications of diesel based locomotives and trains being currently supplied in Germany, China, Netherlands, Switzerland, and USA. 6 figs.

  7. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-02-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, at high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.

  8. Applied Physics Modules Selected for Automotive and Diesel Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Gene

    Designed for individualized use in an applied physics course in postsecondary vocational-technical education, this series of ten learning modules is equivalent to the content of a five-credit hour class in automotive technology or diesel technology. Almost all the modules contain technological application in the form of laboratory experiments or…

  9. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  10. An experimental approach to investigate the transport of ammonia as a fuel contaminant in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ryan M.; Cho, Hyun-Seok; Park, Sehkyu; Van Zee, J. W.

    2015-02-01

    Data are presented for the transport of NH3 from the anode to the cathode for various inlet conditions in a N2/N2 laboratory-scale fuel cell at open circuit voltage (OCV). The data were obtained with a material balance technique, which uses an ion selective electrode (ISE) to determine the concentration of ammonium ions. The results show that ammonia did not move across the membrane when the feed to both electrodes was dry. However, with humidified feeds on either side, the ammonia was transported from the anode to the cathode. The data include changes in the relative humidity of the anode inlet and the flowrate on the cathode. The data support a diffusion-solubility mechanism in a N2/N2 system at OCV.

  11. Diesel Fundamentals. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; And Others

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains 4 sections and 19 units. Section A--Orientation includes the following units: introduction to diesel mechanics and shop safety; basic shop tools; test equipment and service tools; fasteners; bearings; and seals. Section B--Engine Principles and…

  12. 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-22

    Research programs in the US, Brazil, South Africa and the Philippines on efforts to find a vegetable oil substitute for diesel fuel are reported. A narrowing price gap with diesel fuel and a favourable energy balance improve the prospects for such fuels. Much of the current work is centered on blends, rather than the use of the pure oil.

  13. Reformulated diesel fuel and method

    DOEpatents

    McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

    2006-08-22

    A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

  14. U.S. Navy High-Speed Diesel Engine Performance Evaluation: Cummins NH-220G and Detroit Diesel 6V-53N

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    DTNSRDC-PASD-CR-14-84, 1988. 4. Montemayor , A.F., et al., “Section 6 High-Speed Diesel Engine Test Plan,” U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research...Laboratory, San Antonio, TX, 29 March 1985. 5. Montemayor , A.F., Naegli, D.W., Dodge, L.G., Owens, E.C., and Bowden, J.N., “Fuel Property Effects on Diesel

  15. Evaluation of the emissions from low-sulfur and biodiesel fuel used in a heavy-duty diesel truck during on-road operation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October of 2004, EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory investigated the emissions from diesel powered tractor-trailer operating along a highway at near-zero grade. In place of a dynamometer and standard dilution tunnel, the Diesel Emissions Aerosol Laboratory (DEA...

  16. Modeling pollution formation in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.

    1997-12-31

    Modeling combustion under conditions that prevail in Diesel engine presents a great challenge. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has invested Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds to accelerate progress in this area. Research has been concerned with building a chemical mechanism to interface with a high fidelity fluid code to describe aspects of Diesel combustion. The complexity of these models requires implementation on massively parallel machines. The author will describe his efforts concerned with building such a complex mechanism. He begins with C and CO{sub 2} chemistry and adds sequentially higher hydrocarbon chemistry, aromatic production chemistry, soot chemistry, and chemistry describing NO{sub x} production. The metrics against which this chemistry is evaluated are flame velocities, induction times, ignition delay times, flammability limits, flame structure measurements, and light scattering. He assembles a set of elementary reactions, kinetic rate coefficients, and thermochemistry. He modifies existing Sandia codes to be able to investigate the behavior of the mechanism in well-stirred reactors, plug flow reactors, and one-dimensional flames. The modified combustion code with a chemical mechanism at the appropriate level of complexity is then interfaced with the high fidelity fluids code. The fluids code is distinguished by its ability to solve the requisite partial differential equations with adaptively refined grids necessary to describe the strong variation in spatial scales in combustion.

  17. Geoelectrical Evidence of Microbial Degradation of Diesel Contaminated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkema, D. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.; Sauck, W. A.

    2003-12-01

    The alteration of physical properties by microbial activity in petroleum contaminated sediments was investigated using geophysical techniques in laboratory column experiments. Microbial population growth was determined by the Most Probable Number technique (MPN), community dynamics were determined by the rDNA intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), microbial mineralization of diesel fuel was assessed using dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), enhanced mineral dissolution was determined by dissolved calcium, and the vertical geoelectrical profile was measured using DC resistivity (converted to conductivity). The columns simulated a saturation profile and contained sanitized, uniform sand with the following experimental treatments: diesel + microbes, diesel, microbes, and no treatment. After 16 months, two important conclusions were drawn. First, the relative increase in magnitude of the parameters measured was highest in the diesel + microbe column (showing at least 110% increase), lower in the diesel column and lowest (actually showing a decrease) in the column with no treatment. Further, the diesel + microbe column showed the greatest increase in oil degrading microbial populations (135%) compared to the column with no treatment, which showed no changes. Secondly, the depth at which the conductivity reached the maximum occurred within and slightly above the diesel layer (which represents a depth that was originally water wet). It was further observed that the relative change in bulk conductivity below the saturated zone is of a lower magnitude than above (<10%). These results suggest the diesel layer, and the zone slightly above, were the most biologically active. Additionally, the diesel + microbe column showed RISA fragments attributed to microbial succession typically observed in organic contaminant plumes. A simple Archie's Law analysis was used to estimate the pore water conductivities necessary to reproduce the bulk conductivity measured. This analysis shows that

  18. Some physiochemical tests of sunflower oil and no. 2 diesel oil as fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ramdeen, P.; Backer, L.F.; Kaufman, K.R.; Kucera, H.L.; Moilanen, C.W.

    1982-05-01

    The suitability of sunflower oil as a fuel for diesel engines was evaluated by determining the physiochemical properties of sunflower oil, No. 2 diesel and blends of both. This evaluation was accomplished by determining the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity, cetane rating, heat of combustion, kinematic viscosity, pour point, cloud point, and water content of these fuels using methods specified by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) for diesel fuels. These tests for petroleum products are designed to standardize results so comparisons can be made from one laboratory to another.

  19. Testing Ceramics for Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Adaptation of diesel engine allows prestressed ceramic materials evaluated under realistic pressure, temperature, and stress without introducing extraneous stress. Ceramic specimen part of prechamber of research engine. Specimen held in place by clamp, introduces required axial compressive stress. Specimen -- cylindrical shell -- surrounded by chamber vented or pressurized to introduce requisite radial stress in ceramic. Pressure chamber also serves as safety shield in case speimen disintegrates. Materials under consideration as cylinder liners for diesel engines.

  20. The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines, and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-16

    Dr. Pete Schihl The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines , and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards TARDEC Propulsion Laboratory Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The U.S. Army, Diesel Engines , and Heavy-Duty Emission Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...transmission, engine (fuel), ducting requirements — Ex. Bradley FIV: PD=3 2. High Power Density Engines (Future Combat System ~ 20 ton vehicle

  1. Industrial fermentation of renewable diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Patrick J; Gardner, Timothy S

    2011-06-01

    In commodity chemicals, cost drives everything. A working class family of four drives up to the gas pumps and faces a choice of a renewable diesel or petroleum diesel. Renewable diesel costs $0.50 more per gallon. Which fuel do they pick? Petroleum diesel will be the winner every time, unless the renewable fuel can achieve cost and performance parity with petrol. Nascent producers of advanced biofuels, including Amyris, LS9, Neste and Solazyme, aim to deliver renewable diesel fuels that not only meet the cost challenge, but also exceed the storage, transport, engine performance and emissions properties of petroleum diesel.

  2. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  3. Effect of heterogeneous catalyst during combustion of diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefeen, Quamrul

    1999-11-01

    With the increase in number of vehicles using diesel engines, the contributions to environmental pollution made by diesel engines is also on the rise. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, hydrocarbons, and particulates are currently regulated as harmful emissions from diesel engines. Recent technologies to control harmful engine emissions have been almost exclusively directed towards gasoline engines. It is generally held that fuel quality will have to play an important role with all IC engines to meet future stringent regulations. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of heterogeneous catalyst on combustion. Micron sized solid catalyst, suspended in a specific organic peroxide, has been found to promote better combustion by modifying kinetics and changing the thermodynamics of the reactions. The catalyst reduces emissions without dramatically changing the properties of the fuel. The characteristic parameters of a baseline fuel, and the same fuel with the additive, were analyzed. The dosage of additive used was found to be compatible with commercial diesel. Diesel vehicles were driven unloaded at normal road conditions during the experiments. Exhaust emissions were measured when the trucks were at static conditions and the engine running on idle and at 2000 rpm. The gaseous components in the exhaust, O2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and CxH y were monitored. Particulates were trapped on a pre-weighed glass filter. Some of the filters were sent to an independent laboratory for microscopic and elemental analysis of the collected debris. Zinc oxide/peroxide suspended in tert-butyl hydro peroxide were used as the heterogeneous fuel catalyst. This combination increased the cetane rating of a commercial diesel fuel from 45 to a level of 70 depending on treatment ratio. A treatment ratio of one ounce additive per 5 gallons of diesel increased cetane number by an average of 5 points. Road mileage with the additive increased by an average

  4. OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE IN DIESEL BUS MECHANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale:

    Diesel exposure has been associated with adverse health effects, including susceptibility to asthma, allergy and cancer. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cancer incidence among workers exposed to diesel. This is likely due to oxid...

  5. Nanocatalysts for Diesel Engine Emissions Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broad temperature operating windows to treat diesel engine emissions, thus enabling diesel engine equipment and vehicles to meet regulatory requirements.

  6. Diesel Exhaust in New England | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Pollution from diesel engines is a widespread problem across New England and it significantly contributes to air pollution, especially in urban areas. Diesel exhaust is made up of small particles, known as fine particulate matter.

  7. Advanced automotive diesel assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

  8. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  9. Diesel Powered School Buses: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Because diesel engines are more economical and longer-lasting than gasoline engines, school districts are rapidly increasing their use of diesel buses. Dependence on diesel power, however, entails vulnerability to cost increases due to the unreliability of crude oil supplies and contributes to air pollution. (MCG)

  10. Heavy-Duty Diesel Fuel Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's heavy-duty diesel fuel analysis program sought to quantify the hydrocarbon, NOx, and PM emission effects of diesel fuel parameters (such as cetane number, aromatics content, and fuel density) on various nonroad and highway heavy-duty diesel engines.

  11. Supercritical fluid mixing in Diesel Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Luis; Ma, Peter; Kurman, Matthew; Tess, Michael; Ihme, Matthias; Kweon, Chol-Bum

    2014-11-01

    A numerical framework for simulating supercritical fluids mixing with large density ratios is presented in the context of diesel sprays. Accurate modeling of real fluid effects on the fuel air mixture formation process is critical in characterizing engine combustion. Recent work (Dahms, 2013) has suggested that liquid fuel enters the chamber in a transcritical state and rapidly evolves to supercritical regime where the interface transitions from a distinct liquid/gas interface into a continuous turbulent mixing layer. In this work, the Peng Robinson EoS is invoked as the real fluid model due to an acceptable compromise between accuracy and computational tractability. Measurements at supercritical conditions are reported from the Constant Pressure Flow (CPF) chamber facility at the Army Research Laboratory. Mie and Schlieren optical spray diagnostics are utilized to provide time resolved liquid and vapor penetration length measurement. The quantitative comparison presented is discussed. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU).

  12. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  13. Validation of the dynamic direct exposure method for toxicity testing of diesel exhaust in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joeng, Lucky; Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5  μ m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5 mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30-60 mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions.

  14. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  15. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D; Bergey, M

    1997-09-01

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  16. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Bergey, M.

    1997-12-31

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  17. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  18. Clean Diesel Component Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect

    2005-06-30

    The research conducted in this program significantly increased the knowledge and understanding in the fields of plasma physics and chemistry in diesel exhaust, the performance and characteristics of multifunctional catalysts in diesel exhaust, and the complexities of controlling a combination of such systems to remove NOx. Initially this program was designed to use an in-line plasma system (know as a plasma assisted catalyst system or PAC) to convert NO {yields} NO{sub 2}, a more catalytically active form of nitrogen oxides, and to crack hydrocarbons (diesel fuel in particular) into active species. The NO{sub 2} and the cracked hydrocarbons were then flowed over an in-line ceramic NOx catalyst that removed NO{sub 2} from the diesel exhaust. Even though the PAC system performed well technically and was able to remove over 95% of NOx from diesel exhaust the plasma component proved not to be practical or commercially feasible. The lack of practical and commercial viability was due to high unit costs and lack of robustness. The plasma system and its function was replaced in the NOx removal process by a cracking reforming catalyst that converted diesel fuel to a highly active reductant for NOx over a downstream ceramic NOx catalyst. This system was designated the ceramic catalyst system (CCS). It was also determined that NO conversion to NO{sub 2} was not required to achieve high levels of NOx reduction over ceramic NOx catalyst if that catalyst was properly formulated and the cracking reforming produced a reductant optimized for that NOx catalyst formulation. This system has demonstrated 92% NOx reduction in a diesel exhaust slipstream and 65% NOx reduction from the full exhaust of a 165 hp diesel engine using the FTP cycle. Although this system needs additional development to be commercial, it is simple, cost effective (does not use precious metals), sulfur tolerant, operates at high space velocities, does not require a second fluid be supplied as a reductant, has low

  19. Alternatives to Diesel Fuel in California - Fuel Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Possible Replacements Due to the TAC Diesel Particulate Decision

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher L. Saraicks; Donald M. Rote; Frank Stodolsky; James J. Eberhardt

    2000-05-01

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression ignition by spark ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, ressionignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOx emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM10 reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated.

  20. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    PubMed

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  1. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine Under Conventional Diesel, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Regimes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    For Official Use Only UNCLASSIFIED Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine Under Conventional Diesel...Now affiliated with U.S. Army TARDEC ** University of Wisconsin-Madison Sandia National Laboratory Advanced Engine Combustion Meeting February...Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine Under Conventional Diesel, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, and Reactivity

  3. Physical properties of bio-diesel & Implications for use of bio-diesel in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; McFarlane, Joanna; Daw, C Stuart; Ra, Youngchul; Griffin, Jelani K

    2008-01-01

    In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both regular diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study. Future studies of diesel combustion sensitivity to both physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are suggested.

  4. Effects of fuel variables on diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, T.M.; Somers, J.H.; Hellman, K.H.

    1982-08-01

    Recent data obtained by EPA on identification and quantification of different emissions (i.e., characterization) from a variety of diesel engines is summarized. Extensive work has been done comparing emissions from some light duty diesel and gasoline passenger cars. The work on the diesel vehicles was expanded to include tests with five different diesel fuels to determine how fuel composition affects emissions. This work showed that use of a poorer quality fuel frequently made emissions worse. The investigation of fuel composition continued with a project in which specific fuel parameters were systematically varied to determine their effect on emissions. EPA is presently testing a variety of fuels derived from coal and oil shale to determine their effects on emissions. EPA has also tested a heavy duty Volvo diesel bus engine designed to run on methanol and diesel fuel, each injected through its own injection system. The use of the dual fuel resulted in a reduction in particlates and NO/sub x/ but an increase in HC and CO compared to a baseline Volvo diesel engine running on pure diesel fuel. Finally, some Ames bioassay tests have been performed on samples from the diesel passenger cars operated on various fuels and blends. An increase in Ames test response (mutagenicity) was seen when the higher aromatic blend was used and also when a commercial cetane improver was used. Samples from the Volvo diesel bus engine fueled with methanol and diesel fuel showed that use of a catalyst increased the Ames response.

  5. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  6. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  7. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  8. Diesel fundamentals: Principles and service

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, F.J.; Dales, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Tools and fasteners; Engine performance factors; Camshafts and camshaft drives; Cylinder heads and valves; Cylinder head and valve service; Diesel fuel injection; Cummins PT fuel injection system; Caterpillar fuel injection systems; Electrical principles; AC charging systems; and Cranking systems.

  9. Diesel Technology: Steering and Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on steering and suspension are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Eleven units of instruction cover the following topics: chassis, tires, and wheels; steering; and suspension. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing…

  10. Diesel Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a diesel mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  11. Transformation of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles from a Diesel Fuel Additive during Combustion in a Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Dale, James G; Cox, Steven S; Vance, Marina E; Marr, Linsey C; Hochella, Michael F

    2017-02-21

    Nanoscale cerium oxide is used as a diesel fuel additive to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, but its fate in the environment has not been established. Cerium oxide released as a result of the combustion of diesel fuel containing the additive Envirox, which utilizes suspended nanoscale cerium oxide to reduce particulate matter emissions and increase fuel economy, was captured from the exhaust stream of a diesel engine and was characterized using a combination of bulk analytical techniques and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The combustion process induced significant changes in the size and morphology of the particles; ∼15 nm aggregates consisting of 5-7 nm faceted crystals in the fuel additive became 50-300 nm, near-spherical, single crystals in the exhaust. Electron diffraction identified the original cerium oxide particles as cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2, standard FCC structure) with no detectable quantities of Ce(III), whereas in the exhaust the ceria particles had additional electron diffraction reflections indicative of a CeO2 superstructure containing ordered oxygen vacancies. The surfactant coating present on the cerium oxide particles in the additive was lost during combustion, but in roughly 30% of the observed particles in the exhaust, a new surface coating formed, approximately 2-5 nm thick. The results of this study suggest that pristine, laboratory-produced, nanoscale cerium oxide is not a good substitute for the cerium oxide released from fuel-borne catalyst applications and that future toxicity experiments and modeling will require the use/consideration of more realistic materials.

  12. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z H; Sultana, M; Al-Mamun, M R; Hasan, M R

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330-490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  13. Nitrosamine analysis of diesel crankcase emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fine, D.H.; Goff, U.

    1980-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to qualify and employ artifact-free methods in the testing of crankcase emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines for volatile N-nitrosamines. As the authors worked toward the achievement of the main objective of this work, they also attempted to establish the sources of the crankcase emission nitrosamines. They examined the lubricating oils and the diesel fuels. As the authors gathered more information, new objectives were set. As a second objective, a survey of nitrosamine levels in unused and used oils was set. As a third objective a relationship between the nitrosability of the oils and the engine crankcase nitrosamine levels was sought so that nitrosamine levels could be predicted based on nitrosamine formations from the unused oils in tests conducted in the laboratory.

  14. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, M.; Al-Mamun, M. R.; Hasan, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  15. 30 CFR 75.1906 - Transport of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transport of diesel fuel. 75.1906 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1906 Transport of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel fuel shall be transported only by diesel fuel transportation units or in...

  16. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...

  17. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  18. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  19. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  20. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  1. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  2. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1901 - Diesel fuel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel fuel requirements. 75.1901 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1901 Diesel fuel requirements. (a) Diesel-powered equipment shall be used underground only with a diesel fuel having a...

  4. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John

    2001-08-05

    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  5. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  6. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such fuel is dispensed into motor vehicles or nonroad equipment, locomotives, marine diesel engines or...) Undyed Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. For use in all diesel vehicles and engines.” From June 1, 2006... (maximum) Dyed Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. For use in all nonroad diesel engines. Not for use in...

  7. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  8. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  9. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such fuel is dispensed into motor vehicles or nonroad equipment, locomotives, marine diesel engines or...) Undyed Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. For use in all diesel vehicles and engines.” From June 1, 2006... (maximum) Dyed Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. For use in all nonroad diesel engines. Not for use in...

  10. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such fuel is dispensed into motor vehicles or nonroad equipment, locomotives, marine diesel engines or...) Undyed Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. For use in all diesel vehicles and engines.” From June 1, 2006... (maximum) Dyed Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. For use in all nonroad diesel engines. Not for use in...

  11. Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats into paraffinic cetane enhancers for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Feng, Y.; Hogan, E.

    1995-11-01

    The two principal methods of producing biodiesel fuels are (a) transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a monohydric alcohol, and (b) direct hydrotreating of tree oils, vegetable oils and animal fats. The patented hydrotreating technology is based on the catalytic processing of biomass oils and fats with hydrogen, under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The typical mix of hydrotreated products is as follows: 5-15% light distillate (naphta), 40-60% middle distillate (cetane), 5-15% heavy distillate and 5-10% burner gas. The naptha fraction may be used as a gasoline supplement. The middle distillate is designed for use as a cetane booster for diesel fuels. Both heavy distillate and light hydrocarbon gases are usable as power boiler fuels. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This new diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel, for direct use in diesel engines without any modifications. The basic hydrotreatment technology has been evaluated further in the laboratory on degummed soya oil, yellow grease and animal tallow. The preliminary findings suggest that the technology can provide efficient conversion of these materials into cetane enhancers for diesel fuels.

  12. Sulfur driven nucleation mode formation in diesel exhaust under transient driving conditions.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Panu; Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-02-18

    Sulfur driven diesel exhaust nucleation particle formation processes were studied in an aerosol laboratory, on engine dynamometers, and on the road. All test engines were equipped with a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a partial diesel particulate filter (pDPF). At steady operating conditions, the formation of semivolatile nucleation particles directly depended on SO2 conversion in the catalyst. The nucleation particle emission was most significant after a rapid increase in engine load and exhaust gas temperature. Results indicate that the nucleation particle formation at transient driving conditions does not require compounds such as hydrocarbons or sulfated hydrocarbons, however, it cannot be explained only by the nucleation of sulfuric acid. A real-world exhaust study with a heavy duty diesel truck showed that the nucleation particle formation occurs even with ultralow sulfur diesel fuel, even at downhill driving conditions, and that nucleation particles can contribute 60% of total particle number emissions. In general, due to sulfur storage and release within the exhaust aftertreatment systems and transients in driving, emissions of nucleation particles can even be the dominant part of modern diesel vehicle exhaust particulate number emissions.

  13. Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine fuel oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing fuel oil system and using a natural-gas-fueled precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid fuel for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the fuel.

  14. Careers for the 70's in Diesel Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Increased employment outlook for diesel mechanics is probably due to the fact that most industries using diesel engines in large numbers are expected to expand their activities. The training and workday of one diesel mechanic is described. (MS)

  15. Speed governor for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyshevich, Y.K.; Miselev, M.A.; Svistunov, N.N.

    1985-01-01

    A speed governor was developed for the 12ChSN 18/20 ship diesel engine to reduce emission of fumes and eliminate transient overloads, with pneumatic correction of the fuel injection rate according to the supercharge pressure. The device includes an electric corrector, and a hydraulic amplifier with slide valve. It is found that the regulator improves the performance, including torque and combustion characteristics and reduces the emission level to 15% within 2 s and decreases only to a 65% level. It was also tested on a Kometa hydrofoil ship with regulation of the diesel start over an 80 to 90 s acceleration period independently of the crank turning time, and maintained overloads and fume emission within prescribed limits.

  16. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  17. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  19. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  20. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  1. What is new in diesel.

    PubMed

    Bunn, William B; Valberg, P A; Slavin, T J; Lapin, C A

    2002-10-01

    We review information from the past 5 years on changes in diesel exhaust (DE) emissions and developments in the study of DE toxicity. New DE technologies have changed the composition of DE considerably, reducing emissions of many of the components of health concern. The increasing similarity of modern diesel and compressed natural-gas engine emissions needs to be reflected in any regulatory analysis. Even for historical DE emissions, considerable study of DE exposure in animals or humans has not produced data useful for risk assessment. DE inhalation exposure in most species (hamsters, guinea pigs, mice) does not produce lung tumors. Inhalation studies of DE in rats found lung tumors only with lung overload, and tumors also occurred when inert dusts were inhaled at overload concentrations. The animal data are reassuring and show that DE is not a concern at ambient exposure levels. Re-analyses of occupational epidemiology have been shown to have serious shortcomings that do not allow the derivation of a quantitative cancer risk. Studies of railroad workers found no dose response; rather cancer risk appeared to decrease for individuals with greater DE exposure. Studies of truck drivers also suffer from serious flaws because of misconceptions about the year that diesel was introduced, lack of an adequate latency period, and the realization that drivers exhibited increased lung cancer risk even prior to the diesel era. Recent industrial hygiene studies of drivers show that DE was not likely to be a primary source of particles or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Further, there is no dose response across occupations. In fact, the occupation (underground miners) with the highest exposure to DE does not exhibit increased cancer risks. This new information seriously weakens earlier risk characterizations of DE by various regulatory groups. New research and better exposure measurements are needed before a reliable risk assessment of DE can be produced.

  2. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  3. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  4. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  5. GEC Alsthom diesel applications in Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-07-01

    Recent achievements in the Far East for GEC Alsthom Diesels follow a drive to extend its market presence in these fast-growing markets. Ruston has supplied Samsung Engineering Co. with three medium-speed 16RK270 diesel engines for base-load generating sets. Paxman has won a contract to re-engine four locomotives for Sri Lankan Government Railways, as well as supplying six of its latest VPI85 high-speed diesels for new Taiwanese fast petrol vessels. This paper describes briefly the specifications of these diesels.

  6. Diesel engine combustion of sunflower oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zubik, J.; Sorenson, S.C.; Goering, C.E.

    1984-09-01

    The performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions of diesel fuel, a blend of 25% sunflower oil in diesel fuel, and sunflower oil methyl ester have been compared. All fuels performed satisfactorily in a direct injection diesel engine, with the fuels derived from sunflower oil giving somewhat higher cylinder pressures and rates of pressure rise due to a higher percentage of 'premixed' burning than the diesel fuel. General performance and emissions characteristics of the two fuels were comparable, with the oil based fuels giving lower smoke readings. 15 references.

  7. EVALUATION OF SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY: RESULTS OF BENCH SCALE EXPERIMENTS ON PETROLEUM FUELS CONTAMINATED SOILS - EPA/600/S2-91/023

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through its Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Release Control Branch has undertaken research and development efforts to address the problem of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs). Under this effort, EPA is currently eva...

  8. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  9. Testing of a Catalytic Partial Oxidation Diesel Reformer with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman Frost; Bob Carrington; Rodger McKain; Dennis Witmer

    2005-03-01

    Rural Alaska currently uses diesel generator sets to produce much of its power. The high energy content of diesel (i.e. ~140,000 BTU per gallon) makes it the fuel of choice because this reduces the volume of fuel that must be transported, stored, and consumed in generating the power. There is an existing investment in infrastructure for the distribution and use of diesel fuel. Problems do exist, however, in that diesel generators are not very efficient in their use of diesel, maintenance levels can be rather high as systems age, and the environmental issues related to present diesel generators are of concern. The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory at the University of Alaska -- Fairbanks is sponsoring a project to address the issues mentioned above. The project takes two successful systems, a diesel reformer and a tubular solid oxide fuel cell unit, and jointly tests those systems with the objective of producing a for-purpose diesel fueled solid oxide fuel cell system that can be deployed in rural Alaska. The reformer will convert the diesel to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used as a fuel by the fuel cell. The high temperature nature of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is capable of using this mixture to generate electricity and provide usable heat with higher efficiency and lower emissions. The high temperature nature of the SOFC is more compatible with the arctic climate than are low temperature technologies such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cells. This paper will look at the interaction of a SOFC system that is designed to internally reform methane and a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer. The diesel reformer produces a reformate that is approximately 140 BTU per scf (after removal of much of the reformate water) as compared to a methane based reformate that is over twice that value in BTU content. The project also considers the effect of altitude since the test location will be at 4800 feet with the

  10. NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    NANOMETER DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ARE NEUROTOXIC TO DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS THROUGH MICROGLIAL ACTIVATION. M.L. Block1,2, X. Wu1, P. Zhong1, G. Li1, T. Wang1, J.S. Hong1 & B.Veronesi.2
    1The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, RTP, NC and 2 National Health and Envi...

  11. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. On-line measurements of diesel nanoparticle composition and volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hiromu; Tobias, Herbert J.; Park, Kihong; Zarling, Darrick; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Kittelson, David B.; McMurry, Peter H.; Ziemann, Paul J.

    A thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer (TDPBMS) and tandem differential mobility analyzers (TDMA) were used for on-line measurements of the chemical composition and volatility of nanoparticles and larger particles emitted from a modern, heavy-duty diesel engine operated at light and medium loads under laboratory conditions. Temperature-dependent TDPBMS mass spectra and mass spectra obtained using spectrally distinctive oil and synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuel were analyzed using mass spectral matching methods to obtain quantitative information on the contributions of fuel, oil, oxidation products, and sulfuric acid to particle composition. TDMA measurements of volatility yielded information on nanoparticle vapor pressures and therefore on the composition of organic components. The results indicate that, for these operating conditions, the volatile component of both diesel nanoparticles and larger particles is comprised of at least 95% unburned lubricating oil. TDMA volatility measurements also detected residual species a few nanometers in diameter, which may be non-volatile cores (soot, metal oxide) or low-volatility organic compounds. These on-line analyses provide new insights into the mechanisms of diesel nanoparticle formation.

  13. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  14. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  15. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  16. Conventional engine technology. Volume 2: Status of diesel engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The engines of diesel cars marketed in the United States were examined. Prominent design features, performance characteristics, fuel economy and emissions data were compared. Specific problems, in particular those of NO and smoke emissions, the effects of increasing dieselization on diesel fuel price and availability, current R&D work and advanced diesel concepts are discussed. Diesel cars currently have a fuel economy advantage over gasoline engine powered cars. Diesel drawbacks (noise and odor) were reduced to a less objectionable level. An equivalent gasoline engine driveability was obtained with turbocharging. Diesel manufacturers see a growth in the diesel market for the next ten years. Uncertainties regarding future emission regulation may inhibit future diesel production investments. With spark ignition engine technology advancing in the direction of high compression ratios, the fuel economy advantages of the diesel car is expected to diminish. To return its fuel economy lead, the diesel's potential for future improvement must be used.

  17. Online analysis of sulfur in diesel line by a monochromatic wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Careta, Eduardo; López-Ramírez, Juan Antonio; Reynoso-Whitaker, Gilberto; Sánchez-Mondragon, Javier; Torres-Cisneros, Miguel

    2009-09-01

    This paper proposes the application of a monochromatic wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (MWDXRF) technique developed in the X-ray Optical Systems laboratory Inc. The technique measures low-level sulfur (uls) in fuel. Data for ultra low sulfur in diesel were collected and analyzed using the combination of the mentioned technique and the usage of engineering tools as a fastloop array and a measurement technique. This provides a qualitative method for Diesel sulfur analysis of the Refinery Ing. Antonio M Amor (RIAMA) in Salamanca, Guanajuato. The pooled limit of quantification (PLOQ) for ultra-low-sulfur diesel was found to be less than 1.5 ppm in this study. The reproducibility of 15-ppm sulfur diesel fuel was determined to be better than 3 ppm (95 % confident level). This work shows the performance of the production of Diesel with less than 15-ppm in sulfur lines in the Hydrodesulfurizer Unit of Diesel (HDD) of the refinery. Results and conclusions discusses the better and cheaper method for the production of ultra low sulfur Diesel in the refinery.

  18. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-10-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM{sub 2.5}). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles.

  19. Bioremediation of diesel contamination at an underground storage tank site: a spatial analysis of the microbial community.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Albertarelli, Nicola; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Khoei, Nazaninalsadat Seyed; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports on a real case of contamination due to the chronic leakage of diesel fuel from an underground tank at a dismissed service station. Speciation of the microbial community according to both lateral and vertical gradients from the origin of the contaminant release was analyzed by means of the PCR-DGGE technique. Moreover, the effects of a landfarming treatment on both the microbial community structure and the abatement of contamination were analyzed. The concentration of total petrol hydrocarbons (TPHs) decreased along the horizontal gradient (from 7042.2 ± 521.9 to 112.2 ± 24.3 mg kg(-1)), while increased downwards from the position of the tank (from 502.6 ± 43.7 to 4972.5 ± 275.3 mg kg(-1)). PCR-DGGE analyses and further statistical treatment of the data indicated a correlation between structure of the bacterial communities and amount of diesel fuel contamination. On the other hand, level of contamination, soil texture and depth were shown to affect the fungal community. Chloroflexi and Ascomycota were the most abundant microbes ascertained through culture-independent procedures. Landfarming promoted 91.6 % reduction of TPHs in 75 days. Furthermore, PCR-DGGE analyses evidenced that both bacterial and fungal communities of the treated soil were restored to the pristine conditions of uncontaminated topsoil. The present study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal communities were affected differently by soil factors such as level of hydrocarbon contamination as well as soil depth and texture. This report shows that a well-planned landfarming treatment can drive the restoration of the soil in terms of both abatement of the contaminants and resilience of the microbial community structure.

  20. Strength and fatigue of NT551 silicon nitride and NT551 diesel exhaust valves

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.J.; Werezczak, A.A.; Kirkland, T.P.; Breder, K.

    2000-02-01

    The content of this report is excerpted from Mark Andrew's Ph.D. Thesis (Andrews, 1999), which was funded by a DOE/OTT High Temperature Materials Laboratory Graduate Fellowship. It involves the characterization of NT551 and valves fabricated with it. The motivations behind using silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) as an exhaust valve for a diesel engine are presented in this section. There are several economic factors that have encouraged the design and implementation of ceramic components for internal combustion (IC) engines. The reasons for selecting the diesel engine valve for this are also presented.

  1. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  2. Diesel Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives for an intermediate diesel mechanics course (two semesters, 3 hours daily) designed for high school students who upon completion would be ready for an on-the-job training experience in diesel service and repair. Through…

  3. Diesel Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 12 terminal objectives for a basic diesel mechanics course. The course is designed as a two-semester (2 hour daily) course for 10th graders interested in being diesel service and repair mechanics; it would serve as the first year of a 3-year…

  4. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  5. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel: A Critical Comparison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several types of fuels can be obtained from lipid feedstocks. These include biodiesel and what is termed renewable diesel. While biodiesel retains the ester moiety occurring in triacylglycerols in converted form as mono-alkyl esters, the composition of renewable diesel, hydrocarbons, emulates that ...

  6. Comparative Naval Architecture Analysis of Diesel Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    mission, cost, or other factors affect the architecture? This study examines and compares the naval architecture of selected diesel submarines from...79 A ppendix E : Subm arine Shape Factors ................................................................................... 90 5 List of...country. Do factors such as mission, cost, or tradition 10 affect submarine naval architecture? An in depth comparison is performed of six diesel

  7. Diesel Mechanics: Meeting Tomorrow's Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Erich J.

    1978-01-01

    As the use of diesel engines in motor vehicles and heavy equipment increases, the need for skilled diesel mechanics will increase. The author describes education and training needs in schools and industry, gives guidelines for trade and technical curricula, and outlines the kinds of training materials to be developed. (MF)

  8. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  9. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-05-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.

  10. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Emergency Diesel Generators - Interim Report for FY 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham; Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-12-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring capabilities for active components in existing nuclear power plants. Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute are working jointly to implement a pilot project to apply these capabilities to emergency diesel generators and generator step-up transformers. The Electric Power Research Institute Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for emergency diesel generators, and Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy Progress) for generator step-up transformers. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for emergency diesel generators. Emergency diesel generators provide backup power to the nuclear power plant, allowing operation of essential equipment such as pumps in the emergency core coolant system during catastrophic events, including loss of offsite power. Technical experts from Braidwood are assisting Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Power Research Institute in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Software Suite and tested using data from Braidwood. Parallel research on generator step-up transformers was summarized in an interim report during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  11. Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel Reformulation with Vector-based Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2003-01-23

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the refining cost, investment, and operating impacts of specifications for reformulated diesel fuel (RFD) produced in refineries of the U.S. Midwest in summer of year 2010. The study evaluates different diesel fuel reformulation investment pathways. The study also determines whether there are refinery economic benefits for producing an emissions reduction RFD (with flexibility for individual property values) compared to a vehicle performance RFD (with inflexible recipe values for individual properties). Results show that refining costs are lower with early notice of requirements for RFD. While advanced desulfurization technologies (with low hydrogen consumption and little effect on cetane quality and aromatics content) reduce the cost of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, these technologies contribute to the increased costs of a delayed notice investment pathway compared to an early notice investment pathway for diesel fuel reformulation. With challenging RFD specifications, there is little refining benefit from producing emissions reduction RFD compared to vehicle performance RFD. As specifications become tighter, processing becomes more difficult, blendstock choices become more limited, and refinery benefits vanish for emissions reduction relative to vehicle performance specifications. Conversely, the emissions reduction specifications show increasing refinery benefits over vehicle performance specifications as specifications are relaxed, and alternative processing routes and blendstocks become available. In sensitivity cases, the refinery model is also used to examine the impact of RFD specifications on the economics of using Canadian synthetic crude oil. There is a sizeable increase in synthetic crude demand as ultra low sulfur diesel fuel displaces low sulfur diesel fuel, but this demand increase would be reversed by requirements for diesel fuel reformulation.

  12. Influence of Biofuel Additions on the Ignition Delay of Single Diesel Fuel Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeika, A. K.; Golovko, V. V.; Zolotko, A. N.; Raslavičius, L.; Lubarskii, V. M.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of single drops of two- and three-component mineral diesel fuel blends with ethanol and rapeseed oil methyl ester in a heated atmosphere has been investigated. With the use of the known quasi-stationary approach, the influence of the thermal properties of fuel blend components and their composition on the ignition delay time of the drop has been investigated. It has been established that under inert heating conditions of the drop, additions of low-boiling ethanol to diesel fuel should shorten the duration of the preignition period, and additions of rapeseed oil methyl ester should, on the contrary, prolong it. Analysis of the obtained data has made it possible to determine the optimal composition of the fuel blend for the most economical operation of the diesel. The prognostic estimates made are confirmed by laboratory experiments and bench tests of fuel blends.

  13. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...

  14. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...

  15. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1906 - Transport of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transport of diesel fuel. 75.1906 Section 75... diesel fuel. (a) Diesel fuel shall be transported only by diesel fuel transportation units or in safety... fuel storage facilities. (c) Safety cans that leak must be promptly removed from the mine. (d)...

  17. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel equipment underground, shall prepare and submit in writing to the District Manager, an inventory of diesel...

  18. 30 CFR 72.520 - Diesel equipment inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel equipment inventory. 72.520 Section 72... Mines § 72.520 Diesel equipment inventory. (a) The operator of each mine that utilizes diesel equipment underground, shall prepare and submit in writing to the District Manager, an inventory of diesel...

  19. Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels.

  20. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  1. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Mullins, David R; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Wu, Zili

    2012-06-01

    conditions were provided by our collaborators at John Deere Power Systems. Among various zeolites reported here, CuFe-SSZ-13 offers the best NO{sub x} conversion activity in 150-650 C range and is hydrothermally stable when tested under accelerated aging conditions. It is important to note that Cu-SSZ-13 is now a commercial catalyst for NO{sub x} treatment on diesel passenger vehicles. Thus, our catalyst performs better than the commercial catalyst under fast SCR conditions. We initially focused on fast SCR tests to enable us to screen catalysts rapidly. Only the catalysts that exhibit high NO{sub x} conversion at low temperatures are selected for screening under varying NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio. The detailed tests of CuFe-SSZ-13 show that CuFe-SSZ-13 is more effective than commercial Cu-SSZ-13 even at NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio of 0.1. The mechanistic studies, employing stop-flow diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS), suggest that high concentration of NO{sup +}, generated by heterobimetallic zeolites, is probably responsible for their superior low temperature NO{sub x} activity. The results described in this report clearly show that we have successfully completed the first step in a new emission treatment catalyst which is synthesis and laboratory testing employing simulated exhaust. The next step in the catalyst development is engine testing. Efforts are in progress to obtain follow-on funding to carry out scale-up and engine testing to facilitate commercialization of this technology.

  2. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  3. Diesel particulate emission control without engine modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Filowitz, M.S.; Vataru, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an ashless, fuel supplement which was found to typically reduce diesel particulate emissions by over 30% while significantly improving fuel economy and power output without any modifications to existing diesel engines or fuels. The treating cost is an order of magnitude less than the estimated cost of reducing aromatic content at the refinery to achieve particulate reductions. The particulate reduction is virtually all from the carbon (soot) fraction. The reduced soot formation translates into less abrasives and less soot-loading stress on the engine oil. Diesel tests conducted are also discussed.

  4. Performance of a Diesel, JP-8 Reformer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    oxidation of methane [5, 6], hydrogen peroxide decomposition, as well as liquid fuel reforming [7], preferential oxidation of CO and water gas shift... reformate gas that can be directly used by the fuel cells. To reduce logistics problem, the Army has one logistic fuel (Diesel or JP-8) policy. Diesel...and H2O:C ratios was studied with both JP-8 and diesel. The reformate gas was analyzed by a GC at various S:C and O:C ratios, inlet temperatures and

  5. Short-term performance of diesel oil and sunflower oil mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.; Marohl, M.; Kucera, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    A series of short tests were run on two different makes of diesel tractor. The fuel used in addition to the No. 2 diesel fuel were refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil and five blends of each of these fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine performance parameters measured include: engine power, volumetric fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, Bosch smoke number and fuel flow. (Refs. 3).

  6. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  7. Emission reduction potential of using ethanol-biodiesel-diesel fuel blend on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Hu; Li, Rulong

    Oxygenated diesel fuel blends have a potential to reduce the emission of particulate matter (PM) and to be an alternative to diesel fuel. This paper describes the emission characteristics of a three compounds oxygenated diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel), on a Cummins-4B diesel engine. BE-diesel is a new form of oxygenated diesel fuel blends consisted of ethanol, methyl soyate and petroleum diesel fuel. The blend ratio used in this study was 5:20:75 (ethanol: methyl soyate: diesel fuel) by volume. The results from the operation of diesel engine with BE-diesel showed a significant reduction in PM emissions and 2%-14% increase of NO x emissions. The change of CO emission was not conclusive and depended on operating conditions. Total hydrocarbon (THC) from BE-diesel was lower than that from diesel fuel under most tested conditions. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone in the exhaust were measured, and the results indicated that use of BE-diesel led to a slight increase of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone emissions. A small amount of ethanol was also detected in the exhaust from burning BE-diesel.

  8. Multimodel Control of Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirstoiu, Silviu; Popescu, Dumitru; Dimon, Catalin; Olteanu, Severus

    2017-01-01

    In this article it is proposed and designed a modern control configuration of the type multicontroler-multimodel (MM) that pilots the nonlinear combustion process of the Diesel engine, needed to adjust the pressure in the intake manifold and the airflow circulating through the compressor. The MM simulator developed by the authors allows the implementation of control systems represented by pairs (Mi, Ci) with the Mi candidate closest to the current operating point of the process and the paired controller Ri, for controlling the key parameters of the combustion process. The proposed configuration is built with robust controllers and thus it is able to ensure superior performance, tolerance to nonlinearities and parametric and structural perturbations in the system.

  9. 50000Hp coal slurry diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Crippa, E.R.

    1994-12-31

    The significance of this novel 2 cycle design is that it more efficiently produces 2 power strokes per cylinder per cycle compared to a single power stroke of the current large stationary 2 and 4 cycle diesel engines.

  10. Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

    2007-03-01

    The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

  11. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  12. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine.

  13. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  14. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirôllo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

  15. 40 CFR 80.554 - What compliance options are available to NRLM diesel fuel small refiners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship... volume of locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced. (2) The volume of NRLM diesel fuel that may...

  16. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Elsner, N. B.; Bass, J. C.; Ghamaty, S.; Krommenhoek, D.; Kushch, A.; Snowden, D.; Marchetti, S.

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  17. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  18. EXPLORING LOW EMISSION DIESEL ENGINE OILS WORKSHOP - A SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Joseph

    2000-08-20

    This paper discusses and summarizes some of the results of the title workshop. The workshop was held January 31-February 2, 2000 in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of the workshop was ''To craft a shared vision for Industry-Government (DOE) research and development collaboration in Diesel Engine Oils to minimize emissions while maintaining or enhancing engine performance''. The final report of the workshop (NREL/SR-570-28521) was issued in June 2000 by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393. There were some 95 participants at the workshop representing industry, government and academia, Figure 1. The format for the workshop is described in Figure 2. This format allowed for considerable discussion of the various issues prior to deliberations in breakout groups. This process resulted in recommendations to solve the issues related to the next generation of diesel engine oils. Keynote addresses by SAE President Rodica Baranescu (International Truck and Engine Corporation), James Eberhardt of DOE and Paul Machiele of EPA focused on diesel progress, workshop issues and regulatory fuel issues. A panel of experts further defined the issues of interest, presenting snapshots of the current status in their areas of expertise. A Q&A session was followed by a series of technical presentations discussing the various areas. Some two dozen presentations covered the technical issues, Figure 3. An open forum was held to allow any participant to present related studies or comment on any of the technical issues. The participants broke into work groups addressing the various areas found on Figure 2. A group leader was appointed and reported on their findings, recommendations, suggested participants for projects and on related items.

  19. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  20. Recent Developments in BMW's Diesel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Steinparzer, F

    2003-08-24

    The image of BMW is very strongly associated to high power, sports biased, luxury cars in the premium car segment, however, particularly in the United States and some parts of Asia, the combination of a car in this segment with a diesel engine was up until now almost unthinkable. I feel sure that many people in the USA are not even aware that BMW produces diesel-powered cars. In Europe there is a completely contrary situation which, driven by the relative high fuel price, and the noticeable difference between gasoline and diesel prices, there has been a continuous growth in the diesel market since the early eighties. During this time BMW has accumulated more then 20 years experience in developing and producing powerful diesel engines for sports and luxury cars. BMW started the production of its 1st generation diesel engine in 1983 with a 2,4 l, turbocharged IDI engine in the 5 series model range. With a specific power of 35 kW/l, this was the most powerful diesel engine on the market at this time. In 1991 BMW introduced the 2nd generation diesel engine, beginning with a 2,5 l inline six, followed in 1994 by a 1,7 l inline four. All engines of this 2nd BMW diesel engine family were turbocharged and utilized an indirect injection combustion system. With the availability of high-pressure injection systems such as the common rail system, BMW developed its 3rd diesel engine family which consists of four different engines. The first was the 4-cylinder for the 3 series car in the spring of 1998, followed by the 6-cylinder in the fall of 1998 and then in mid 1999 by the worlds first V8 passenger car diesel with direct injection. Beginning in the fall of 2001 with the 4-cylinder, BMW reworked this DI engine family fundamentally. Key elements are an improved core engine design, the use of the common rail system of the 2nd generation and a new engine control unit with even better performance. Step by step, these technological improvements were introduce d to production for

  1. Progress report Idaho on-road test with vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biodiesel is among many biofuels being considered in the US for alternative fueled vehicles. The use of this fuel can reduce US dependence on imported oil and help improve air quality by reducing gaseous and particulate emissions. Researchers at the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho have pioneered rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although UI has conducted many laboratory and tractor tests using raw rapeseed oil and rape methyl ester (RME), these fuels have not been proven viable for on-road applications. A biodiesel demonstration project has been launched to show the use of biodiesel in on-road vehicles. Two diesel powered pickups are being tested on 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel. One is a Dodge 3/4-ton pickup powered by a Cummins 5.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled engine. This engine is direct injected and is being run on 20 percent RME and 80 percent diesel. The other pickup is a Ford, powered by a Navistar 7.3 liter, naturally aspirated engine. This engine has a precombustion chamber and is being operated on 20 percent raw rapeseed oil and 80 percent diesel. The engines themselves are unmodified, but modifications have been made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. In order to give maximum vehicle range, fuel mixing is done on-board. Two tanks are provided, one for the diesel and one for the biodiesel. Electric fuel pumps supply fuel to a combining chamber for correct proportioning. The biodiesel fuel tanks are heated with a heat exchanger which utilizes engine coolant circulation.

  2. THE DIESEL ENGINE'S CHALLENGE IN THE NEW MILLENIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John W.

    2000-08-20

    Diesel engines are the dominant propulsion engine of choice for most of the commercial surface transportation applications in the world. Consider agricultural uses: Diesel engine power is used to prepare the soil, transport the bulk seed or seedlings, pump irrigation water, and spray fertilizers, mechanically harvest some crops and distribute the produce to market. Diesel engines power virtually all of the off-highway construction equipment. Deep water commercial freighters or containerships are almost all diesel engine powered. The passenger ships are primarily either diesel or a combination of diesel and gas turbine, referred to as CODAG or CODOG.

  3. Determination and distribution of diesel components in igneous rock surrounding underground diesel storage facilities in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Loren, A; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K; Abrahamsson, K

    2001-01-15

    In Sweden, a preliminary investigation of the contamination situation of igneous rock surrounding underground storage facilities of diesel showed that the situation was severe. The diesel was believed to have penetrated into the rock as far as 50 m from the walls of the vaults. Consequently, the risk for contamination of groundwater and recipients could not be neglected. To be able to assess the fate of diesel components in rock, both a suitable drilling method and a method for the determination of a wide range of diesel components were needed. The analytical method presented made it possible to quantify a number of hydrocarbons in rock samples collected with triple-tube core drilling. The samples were dissolved in hydrofluoric acid (HF) with hexane in Teflon centrifuge tubes. After digestion of the rock, extraction of the analytes with hexane was performed. Determination of the individual hydrocarbons present was done with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was used to study the environmental impact of the underground storage of diesel. The drilling method enabled sampling without contamination risks. Our data show that the major transport of diesel components in rock occurs through fracture systems and that diffusion of diesel through the rock is of minor importance. The results have drastically changed the view of the contamination situation of diesel in the vicinity of storage facilities in hard rock in Sweden.

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  7. Occupational monitoring of particulate diesel exhaust by NIOSH method 5040.

    PubMed

    Birch, M Eileen

    2002-06-01

    NMAM 5040 is a particulate carbon method based on a thermal-optical analysis technique. The method was evaluated and published as a method for monitoring occupational exposures to particulate diesel exhaust, but it is applicable to particulate carbon aerosols in general, and has been routinely used in both occupational and environmental settings. Both organic and elemental carbon are determined, but EC is a more selective measure of workplace diesel exposure. In previous studies, good agreement between TC results obtained by different methods has been achieved, but the OC-EC results for different methods have been quite variable. Although a reference material is not currently available to test the accuracy of different methods, previous studies indicate that purely thermal methods are subject to positive bias from organic materials that char. Charring and inadequate removal of refractory OC components during the nonoxidative mode (typically 550 degrees C in nitrogen) likely explain the positive bias of thermal methods, as well as the large variability across methods. These interferences may be negligible in some cases (e.g., samples from mines), but they present significant biases in others (e.g., urban air samples, samples containing wood or cigarette smokes). Good interlaboratory agreement was obtained in a round robin comparison between six laboratories that used NMAM 5040, which was not the case with purely thermal methods. Good agreement has also been seen in smaller-scale comparisons conducted for quality assurance purposes. Until a suitable reference material becomes available, such comparisons are recommended as part of a laboratory's QA procedures. At present, five commercial laboratories (4 in the United States and 1 in Canada) perform the 5040 analysis, and over 40 instruments are in use globally for environmental and occupational monitoring.

  8. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  9. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  10. Toward Developing a New Occupational Exposure Metric Approach for Characterization of Diesel Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Emanuele G.; Ku, Bon Ki; Miller, Arthur L.; Barone, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of diesel-powered equipment in mines makes the exposure to diesel aerosols a serious occupational issue. The exposure metric currently used in U.S. underground noncoal mines is based on the measurement of total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentration in the air. Recent toxicological evidence suggests that the measurement of mass concentration is not sufficient to correlate ultrafine aerosol exposure with health effects. This urges the evaluation of alternative measurements. In this study, the current exposure metric and two additional metrics, the surface area and the total number concentration, were evaluated by conducting simultaneous measurements of diesel ultrafine aerosols in a laboratory setting. The results showed that the surface area and total number concentration of the particles per unit of mass varied substantially with the engine operating condition. The specific surface area (SSA) and specific number concentration (SNC) normalized with TC varied two and five times, respectively. This implies that miners, whose exposure is measured only as TC, might be exposed to an unknown variable number concentration of diesel particles and commensurate particle surface area. Taken separately, mass, surface area, and number concentration did not completely characterize the aerosols. A comprehensive assessment of diesel aerosol exposure should include all of these elements, but the use of laboratory instruments in underground mines is generally impracticable. The article proposes a new approach to solve this problem. Using SSA and SNC calculated from field-type measurements, the evaluation of additional physical properties can be obtained by using the proposed approach. PMID:26361400

  11. Quantitative Determination of PAHs in Diesel Engine Exhausts by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurat-Lessard, Paul; Pointet, Karine; Renou-Gonnord, Marie-France

    1999-07-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical protocol for quantitation of PAHs in diesel exhaust particles, adapted for a single laboratory period, is proposed. Gravitational chromatography is first used to isolate aromatic compounds. Then quantitative determination of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) is performed by GC-MS, using deuterated PAHs as internal standards. Results obtained by students for recovery yields and for quantitation are reproducible.

  12. Emissions Removal Efficiency from Diesel Gensets Using Aftermarket PM Controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans and is classified as a human carcinogen. Additionally, diesel PM, particularly the strongly light absorbing fraction, black carbon (BC), is an important climate forcer. The adverse impacts ...

  13. DIESEL PARTICLE GENERATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND DIRECT ANIMAL EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation of diesel exhaust is associated with the development of asthma as well as other adverse health effects. Studies have also demonstrated that diesel exhaust induces pulmonary changes that worsen asthmatic responses to respiratory allergens. This paper describes the des...

  14. Black Carbon Diesel Initiative in the Russian Arctic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mobile and stationary diesel engines are among the largest sources of black carbon emissions in the Arctic. To address this challenge, EPA is leading the Black Carbon Diesel Initiative under the Arctic Black Carbon Initiative (ABCI).

  15. Clean Diesel National Grants Awarded 2008-2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Funding Assistance Program administers competitive grants for clean diesel projects. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  16. Clean Diesel National Grants Awarded 2012-2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Funding Assistance Program administers competitive grants for clean diesel projects. The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) appropriates funds for these projects. Publication numbers: EPA-420-B-13-025 and EPA-420-P-11-001.

  17. Dual fuel diesel engine operation using LPG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirica, I.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Cernat, Al; Nutu, N. C.

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine fuelling with LPG represents a good solution to reduce the pollutant emissions and to improve its energetic performances. The high autoignition endurance of LPG requires specialized fuelling methods. From all possible LPG fuelling methods the authors chose the diesel-gas method because of the following reasons: is easy to be implemented even at already in use engines; the engine does not need important modifications; the LPG-air mixture has a high homogeneity with favorable influences over the combustion efficiency and over the level of the pollutant emissions, especially on the nitrogen oxides emissions. This paper presents results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on operation of a LPG fuelled heavy duty diesel engine at two operating regimens, 40% and 55%. For 55% engine load is also presented the exhaust gas recirculation influence on the pollutant emission level. Was determined the influence of the diesel fuel with LPG substitution ratio on the combustion parameters (rate of heat released, combustion duration, maximum pressure, maximum pressure rise rate), on the energetic parameters (indicate mean effective pressure, effective efficiency, energetic specific fuel consumption) and on the pollutant emissions level. Therefore with increasing substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG are obtained the following results: the increase of the engine efficiency, the decrease of the specific energetic consumption, the increase of the maximum pressure and of the maximum pressure rise rate (considered as criteria to establish the optimum substitute ratio), the accentuated reduction of the nitrogen oxides emissions level.

  18. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr,. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  19. A critical assessment of studies on the carcinogenic potential of diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Bunn, William B; Chase, Gerald R; Valberg, Peter A; Slavin, Thomas J; Lapin, Charles A; Hart, Georgia A

    2006-10-01

    After decades of research involving numerous epidemiologic studies and extensive investigations in laboratory animals, a causal relationship between diesel exhaust (DE) exposure and lung cancer has not been conclusively demonstrated. Epidemiologic studies of the transportation industry (trucking, busing, and railroad) show a small elevation in lung cancer incidence (relative risks [RRs] generally below 1.5), but a dose response for DE is lacking. The studies are also limited by a lack of quantitative concurrent exposure data and inadequate or lack of controls for potential confounders, particularly tobacco smoking. Furthermore, prior to dieselization, similar elevations in lung cancer incidence have been reported for truck drivers, and in-cab diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposures of truck drivers were comparable to ambient highway exposures. Taken together, these findings suggest that an unidentified occupational agent or lifestyle factor might be responsible for the low elevations in lung cancer reported in the transportation studies. In contrast, underground miners, many of whom experience the highest occupational DPM exposures, generally do not show elevations in lung cancer. Laboratory studies must be interpreted with caution with respect to predicting the carcinogenic potential of DE in humans. Tumors observed in rats following lifetime chronic inhalation of very high levels of DPM may be attributed to species-specific overload mechanisms that lack relevance to humans. Increased tumor incidence was not observed in other species (hamsters or mice) exposed to DPM at very high levels or in rats exposed at lower levels (

  20. Development and validation of spray models for investigating diesel engine combustion and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sibendu

    Diesel engines intrinsically generate NOx and particulate matter which need to be reduced significantly in order to comply with the increasingly stringent regulations worldwide. This motivates the diesel engine manufacturers to gain fundamental understanding of the spray and combustion processes so as to optimize these processes and reduce engine emissions. Strategies being investigated to reduce engine's raw emissions include advancements in fuel injection systems, efficient nozzle orifice design, injection and combustion control strategies, exhaust gas recirculation, use of alternative fuels such as biodiesel etc. This thesis explores several of these approaches (such as nozzle orifice design, injection control strategy, and biodiesel use) by performing computer modeling of diesel engine processes. Fuel atomization characteristics are known to have a significant effect on the combustion and emission processes in diesel engines. Primary fuel atomization is induced by aerodynamics in the near nozzle region as well as cavitation and turbulence from the injector nozzle. The breakup models that are currently used in diesel engine simulations generally consider aerodynamically induced breakup using the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability model, but do not account for inner nozzle flow effects. An improved primary breakup (KH-ACT) model incorporating cavitation and turbulence effects along with aerodynamically induced breakup is developed and incorporated in the computational fluid dynamics code CONVERGE. The spray simulations using KH-ACT model are "quasi-dynamically" coupled with inner nozzle flow (using FLUENT) computations. This presents a novel tool to capture the influence of inner nozzle flow effects such as cavitation and turbulence on spray, combustion, and emission processes. Extensive validation is performed against the non-evaporating spray data from Argonne National Laboratory. Performance of the KH and KH-ACT models is compared against the evaporating and

  1. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  2. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  3. Diesel driven low capacity heat pump for heating and hot water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefler, P.

    1982-08-01

    Heat pumps that reduce primary energy consumption for heating needs when they are driven by an internal combustion motor were studied. The heat produced as well from the heat pump as from the combustion in the diesel motor was used for home heating and hot water preparation. The objective was a 25kW capacity for a one familiy house. Material used should be standard, so a special design diesel motor or heat pump was not considered. An air/water cooled type diesel motor was coupled to a 12kW capacity heat pump for an outdoor temperature of 3 C using R12 freon as refrigerant. Description of all elements is given. Tests were in the laboratory and in a one family house. The expected efficiency factor of 1.34 could not be confirmed and an average annual value of only 1.05 is assumed. The diesel driven heat pump can not produce the energy savings hoped for.

  4. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  5. Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

    2015-02-01

    High concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere during exhaust cools and dilutes have hazardous health effects and impair visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulphur content (FSC), under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested; based on the measured gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrierless heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between GSA and semi-volatile organic vapour (for example adipic acid) combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur by the same organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) ×1012cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had opposite trend on the NUP formation, and maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, NUP formation was ceased if the GSA concentration was less than 1010cm-3 which suggests, based on the measurements, the usage of biofuel to prevent volatile particles in diesel exhaust.

  6. The effect of ethanol blended diesel fuels on emissions from a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Shuai, Shi-Jin; Wang, Jian-Xin; He, Hong

    The addition of ethanol to diesel fuel simultaneously decreases cetane number, high heating value, aromatics fractions and kinematic viscosity of ethanol blended diesel fuels and changes distillation temperatures. An additive used to keep the blends homogenous and stable, and an ignition improver, which can enhance cetane number of the blends, have favorable effects on the physicochemical properties related to ignition and combustion of the blends with 10% and 30% ethanol by volume. The emission characteristics of five fuels were conducted on a diesel engine. At high loads, the blends reduce smoke significantly with a small penalty on CO, acetaldehyde and unburned ethanol emissions compared to diesel fuel. NO x and CO 2 emissions of the blends are decreased somewhat. At low loads, the blends have slight effects on smoke reduction due to overall leaner mixture. With the aid of additive and ignition improver, CO, unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions of the blends can be decreased moderately, even total hydrocarbon emissions are less than those of diesel fuel. The results indicate the potential of diesel reformation for clean combustion in diesel engines.

  7. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  8. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil.

  9. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  11. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  12. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  13. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  15. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  16. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  17. 46 CFR 169.615 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel fuel systems. 169.615 Section 169.615 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.615 Diesel fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each diesel fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-75 of this chapter. (b) Each vessel of...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 3201.13 Section 3201.13... Designated Items § 3201.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to...

  19. 46 CFR 169.615 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel fuel systems. 169.615 Section 169.615 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.615 Diesel fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each diesel fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-75 of this chapter. (b) Each vessel of...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated... spillage of fuel and that activates an alarm system. (b) All piping, valves and fittings must be—...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 3201.13 Section 3201.13... Designated Items § 3201.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to...

  2. 46 CFR 169.615 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel fuel systems. 169.615 Section 169.615 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.615 Diesel fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each diesel fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-75 of this chapter. (b) Each vessel of...

  3. 7 CFR 2902.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diesel fuel additives. 2902.13 Section 2902.13... Items § 2902.13 Diesel fuel additives. (a) Definition. (1) Any substance, other than one composed solely of carbon and/or hydrogen, that is intentionally added to diesel fuel (including any added to a...

  4. 46 CFR 169.615 - Diesel fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel fuel systems. 169.615 Section 169.615 Shipping... Machinery and Electrical Fuel Systems § 169.615 Diesel fuel systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) each diesel fuel system must meet the requirements of § 56.50-75 of this chapter. (b) Each vessel of...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....1905 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel-powered equipment in underground coal mines may be refueled only from safety...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1905 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel-powered equipment in underground coal mines may be refueled only from safety...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....1905 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel-powered equipment in underground coal mines may be refueled only from safety...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1905 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel-powered equipment in underground coal mines may be refueled only from safety...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1905 - Dispensing of diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....1905 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1905 Dispensing of diesel fuel. (a) Diesel-powered equipment in underground coal mines may be refueled only from safety...

  10. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the sulfur standard of 40 CFR 80.29(a)(1), the dye provisions of 40 CFR 80.29(a)(3) and (b) and the motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements... highway diesel fuel and red dye requirements applicable to non-highway diesel fuel only if it is used...

  11. Potential of Sagittaria trifolia for Phytoremediation of Diesel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinying; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Gu, Lingfeng; Hou, Yunyun; He, Chiquan; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential and responses of Sagittaria trifolia to diesel were investigated. In order to elucidate the biochemical and physiological responses of S. trifolia to diesel, the chlorophyll content, root vitality, soluble protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity (peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were determined in the plant tissues after 50 d of diesel treatment. The results showed the presence of S. trifolia significantly improved the removal ratios of diesel, from 21∼36% in the control soils to 54∼85% in the planted soils. The chlorophyll content, root vitality and soluble protein content all increased at low diesel concentration, then decreased at high diesel concentration. The activities of CAT and POD exhibited peak values at 5 g·kg(-1) diesel treatment and declined at higher diesel concentrations. However, the activity of SOD kept stable at lower diesel concentration (1 and 5 g·kg(-1)), and also declined at higher diesel concentration. Collectively, S. trifolia had the ability to tolerate certain amount of diesel, but when the concentration was up to 10 g·kg(-1), the growth of S. trifolia would be restrained. The results also showed that variation of antioxidant enzyme activity was an important response in plants to diesel pollution.

  12. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  13. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  14. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated...

  15. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated...

  16. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  17. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.33 Motor vehicle diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel...

  18. Review of light-duty diesel and heavy-duty diesel gasoline inspection programs.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Michael; Lindner, Jim

    2005-12-01

    Emissions from diesel vehicles and gas-powered heavy-duty vehicles are becoming a new focus of many inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is increasingly becoming more recognized as an important health concern, while at the same time, the public awareness of diesel PM emissions because of their visibility have combined to increase the focus on diesel emissions in the United States. This has resulted in an increased interest by some states in including heavy-duty vehicle testing in their I/M program. This paper provides an overview of existing I/M programs focused on testing light-duty diesel vehicles, heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and heavy-duty gasoline vehicles (HDGVs). Information on 39 I/M programs in 27 different states in the United States plus 9 international inspection programs is included. Information on the status of diesel emissions technology and current test procedures is also presented. The goal is to provide useful information for air quality managers as they work to decide whether such I/M programs would be worth pursuing in their respective areas and in evaluating the emissions measurement technology to be used in the program. Testing of HDGVs is generally limited to idle testing, because dynamometer testing of these vehicles is not practical, and most were not certified on a chassis basis. Testing of diesel vehicles has mostly been limited to SAE J1667 "snap-idle" opacity testing. Cost-effective technology for measuring diesel emissions currently does not exist, and, therefore, opacity-type measurements, although not effective at reducing the pollutants of most significant health concern, will continue to be used.

  19. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  20. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  1. Restoring diesel engine camshafts by laser treatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashkevich, B. M.; Zinov'ev, G. S.; Voronin, I. N.

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of parts of the gas-distributing mechanism and drives of fuel pumps determines to a great degree the operating conditions of cylinder-piston parts and the economic characteristics of diesel engines. Intense wear of the camshaft pair disturbs the distribution phases and the lead angle of fuel supply to the diesel cylinders and increases the rigidity of the operation of the connecting rod-piston group. This causes incomplete combustion of fuel and fuming, a rise in the temperature of exhaust gases, sticking of the rings in the piston grooves and their premature failure, wear cracks, and chips and failure of the parts of the cylinder-piston unit, decreasing the efficiency of the diesel. Laser surface treatment is used to restore cams. It makes it possible to increase substantially the wear resistance of cams and restore their worn surfaces. This paper concerns the characteristics of the cams after such a treatment.

  2. Diesel injector carbonization by three alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Patel, V.C.; McClendon, R.W.

    1996-05-01

    Three alternative diesel fuels were screened by analysis of fuel injector tip deposits. The test engines were operated on the Peterson (torque) test cycle; the average carbon deposit volume on an injector tip was measured by a computer vision method. Relative coke deposit quantity was obtained by area analysis of injector tip images. Repetitive image areas varied less than 1%. Coke deposit areas for repetitive fuel tests also varied less than 1%. Injector coking tendencies of tested fuels decreased in the following order: peanut oil, no. 2 diesel, tricaprylin, and tributyrin/no. 2 diesel blend. The observed dependence of the relative coke quantity on fuel type was consistent with the results from a photographic technique used previously for fuel screening. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  4. Consider the DME alternative for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, T.H.; Meurer, P.C.

    1996-07-01

    Engine tests demonstrate that dimethyl ether (DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) can provide an alternative approach toward efficient, ultra-clean and quiet compression ignition (CI) engines. From a combustion point of view, DME is an attractive alternative fuel for CI engines, primarily for commercial applications in urban areas, where ultra-low emissions will be required in the future. DME can resolve the classical diesel emission problem of smoke emissions, which are completely eliminated. With a properly developed DME injection and combustion system, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced to 40% of Euro II or U.S. 1998 limits, and can meet the future ULEV standards of California. Simultaneously, the combustion noise is reduced by as much as 15 dB(A) below diesel levels. In addition, the classical diesel advantages such as high thermal efficiency, compression ignition, engine robustness, etc., are retained.

  5. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  6. First Wartsila 200 diesel generator set shipped

    SciTech Connect

    Wadman, B.

    1995-09-01

    In early June, Wartsila SACM Diesel shipped its first Wartsila 200 diesel generator set from Mulhouse, France. This 12-cylinder generator set, rated 1870 kW at 1500 r/min, is being installed in India for base-load power generation service on a floating crane. The Cummins Wartsila Engine Company will have the responsibility to continue the development and production of the 200 series engine and a new 170 mm bore series that will be launched in 1996. Marine applications include diesel-electric propulsion, because of high specific output, relatively low cost and compact size of the gen-sets. Other applications include main propulsion for fishing boats, fast ferries and various coastal and inland waterways commercial vessels such as tugs and push boats. 2 figs.

  7. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  8. Generation and characterization of radiolabeled diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, J S; Sun, J D; Lopez, J A; Wolf, I; Wolff, R K; McClellan, R O

    1984-07-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks associated with increased use of diesel engines, information is needed on the biological fate of inhaled diesel exhaust components. Appropriately radiolabeled exhaust produced by burning radiolabeled fuel could be used to gain this information. The purpose of this study was to characterize different radiolabeled diesel exhausts with respect to their potential use in studies of the biological fate of exhaust carbon particles and particle-associated organic compounds (particle extracts). A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to burn diesel fuel containing trace amounts of 14C-labeled hexadecane, dotriacontane, benzene, phenanthrene or benzo(a)pyrene. Greater than 98% of the 14C in all additives was converted to volatile materials upon combustion. The remainder was distributed in varying amounts between the carbon particles and particle extracts. Aromatic additives labeled carbon particles more efficiently than aliphatic additives. Column chromatography of the particle extracts showed that, in most cases, the majority of the radioactivity eluted in fractions identical to the specific fuel additive employed, suggesting that a large amount of the particle-associated organic compounds consisted of uncombusted fuel constituents. Applying an electrical load to the engine-electrical generator increased carbon particle radioactivity, but had variable effects on the amount of radioactivity in the particle extracts. 67Ga-tetramethylheptanedione was also studied as a fuel additive to label carbon particles. 67Ga was incorporated into the exhaust particles and lung deposition of particles in rats was found to be approximately 10%. However, the 67Ga-radiolabel was found to separate from the particles in vivo, making it an unsuitable radiolabel for studying the long-term lung retention of diesel exhaust carbonaceous particles.

  9. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (3) The location of the diesel fuel or distillate at the time of the transfer. (4) The date of the... space is constrained, substantially similar language may be used following approval from EPA): (i....”; (2) “This diesel fuel is for export use only.”; (3) “This diesel fuel is for research,...

  10. 40 CFR 80.590 - What are the product transfer document requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, heating oil, ECA marine fuel, and other..., and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 80.590 What are... oil, ECA marine fuel, and other distillates? (a) This paragraph (a) applies on each occasion that...

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  12. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  13. Diesel exhaust-gas purification system

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, B.J.

    1982-07-01

    The design of a diesel exhaust gas purification system is presented. It will provide 2000 scfm of dry, anerobic gas (essentially nitrogen) for use in air drilling operations where drill pipe corrosion is a problem, such as geothermal applications. The system is operable in the field and may be transported via highways. It will operate at ambient temperatures up to 110/sup 0/F and requires no water - diesel fuel is used to combust excess oxygen and to generate electricity for the system. Gas production costs, including capital amortization, operations, fuel and maintenance (for reasonable utilization) are about $1.50/1000 scf.

  14. Used sunflower oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cigizoglu, K.B.; Oezaktas, T.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1997-07-01

    Used sunflower oil was blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The fuel blend was tested in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. The fuel blend and the diesel fuel were rated according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use the fuel blend has characteristics similar to those of the baseline diesel fuel and that it displayed less smoke emission than the diesel fuel.

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust particulate matter and diesel fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Obuchi, A; Aoyama, H; Ohi, A; Ohuchi, H

    1984-11-16

    Clean-up procedures were developed for a method for determining the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel exhaust particulate matter and in diesel fuel oils using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). They were based mainly on the elimination of insoluble matter and aliphatic compounds that affect the performance of HPLC, from the dichloromethane extracts of particulate matter or from oils, with the aid of a disposable preparation column containing reversed-phase packings (Sep-Pak C18). Using these procedures, it is possible to detect 1 ng of benzo(a)pyrene in 30 mg of particulate matter with more than a 97% recovery or 0.5 ng in 50 microliters of oil with 91% recovery. Examples of analyses are given for particulate matter emitted from a diesel test engine and for diesel fuel oils, such as gas oil, residual oil and coal-liquefied oil.

  16. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine with Preheated Bio Diesel with Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Vajja, Sai; Murali, R. B. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper mainly reviews about the usage of preheated bio diesel added with 0.5% Etchant as an alternative fuel and evaluates its performance for various blends with different loads. Bio diesel is added with Etchant for rapid combustion as for the bio diesel, the cetane number is high that results in shorter delay of ignition and the mixture is preheated to raise its temperature to improve the combustion process. Analysis of the parameters required to define the combustion characteristics such as IP, BP, ηbth, ηm, ISFC, BSFC, IMEP, MFC, Exhaust Gas Temperature, Heat Release and heat balance is necessary as these values are significant to assess the performance of engine and its emissions of preheated bio diesel.

  18. Field endurance test of diesel engines fueled with sunflower oil/diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    German, T.J.; Kaufman, K.R.; Pratt, G.L.; Derry, J.

    1985-01-01

    Four John Deere and two J.I. Case tractors were fueled with 25% or 50% blends of alkali-refined, winterized sunflower oil and No. 2 diesel fuel while in farm service. All engines were turbocharged, direct injection diesel engines and each was operated for approximately 1000 hours. No power losses were detected during the test period. However, one engine experienced camshaft/valve train failure while in service. Engine deposits were measured according to the CRC Diesel Engine Rating system after the test period was completed. Statistical analysis revealed heavier deposits in most areas of the combustion chamber of the three engines fueled with the 50% sunflower oil/50% No. 2 diesel fuel blend. No detrimental engine deposits due to differences in engine size were observed. No injector coking problems or ring sticking problems were encountered. Bearing wear was normal.

  19. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    ScienceCinema

    Musculus, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  20. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark

    2013-08-13

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  1. Influence of Alternative Exposure Estimates in the Diesel Exhaust Miners Study: Diesel Exhaust and Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Crump, Kenny S; Van Landingham, Cynthia; McClellan, Roger O

    2016-09-01

    The landmark Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) studied the relationship between diesel exhaust exposure (DEE) and lung cancer mortality of workers at eight nonmetal mines who were followed from beginning of dieselization of the mines (1947-1967) through December 31, 1997. The original analyses quantified DEE exposures using exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC) to represent DEE, and CO as a surrogate for REC. However, this use of CO data, and the CO data themselves, have numerous shortcomings. We developed new estimates of REC exposures using historical data on use of diesel equipment, diesel engine horsepower (HP), mine ventilation rates, and the documented reduction in particulate matter emissions per HP in diesel engines from 1975 through 1995. These new REC estimates were applied in a conditional logistic regression of the DEMS nested case-control data very similar to the one applied in the original DEMS analyses. None of the trend slopes calculated using the new REC estimates were statistically significant (p > 0.05). Moreover, these trend slopes were smaller by roughly factors of five without control for radon exposure and factors of 12 with control for radon exposure compared to those estimated in the original DEMS analyses. Also, the 95% confidence intervals for these trend slopes had only minimal overlap with those for the slopes in the original DEMS analyses. These results underscore the uncertainty in estimates of the potency of diesel exhaust in causing lung cancer based on analysis of the DEMS data due to uncertainty in estimates of exposures to diesel exhaust.

  2. Evaluating the efficacy of bioremediating a diesel-contaminated soil using ecotoxicological and bacterial community indices.

    PubMed

    Khudur, Leadin Salah; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Miranda, Ana F; Morrison, Paul D; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Diesel represents a common environmental contaminant as a result of operation, storage, and transportation accidents. The bioremediation of diesel in a contaminated soil is seen as an environmentally safe approach to treat contaminated land. The effectiveness of the remediation process is usually assessed by the degradation of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration, without considering ecotoxicological effects. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of two bioremediation strategies in terms of reduction in TPH concentration together with ecotoxicity indices and changes in the bacterial diversity assessed using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The biostimulation strategy resulted in a 90 % reduction in the TPH concentration versus 78 % reduction from the natural attenuation strategy over 12 weeks incubation in a laboratory mesocosm-containing diesel-contaminated soil. In contrast, the reduction in the ecotoxicity resulting from the natural attenuation treatment using the Microtox and earthworm toxicity assays was more than double the reduction resulting from the biostimulation treatment (45 and 20 % reduction, respectively). The biostimulated treatment involved the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus in order to stimulate the microorganisms by creating an optimal C:N:P molar ratio. An increased concentration of ammonium and phosphate was detected in the biostimulated soil compared with the naturally attenuated samples before and after the remediation process. Furthermore, through PCR-DGGE, significant changes in the bacterial community were observed as a consequence of adding the nutrients together with the diesel (biostimulation), resulting in the formation of distinctly different bacterial communities in the soil subjected to the two strategies used in this study. These findings indicate the suitability of both bioremediation approaches in treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, particularly biostimulation. Although

  3. Coal-fueled diesel technology development. Final report, March 3, 1988--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-31

    Since 1979, the US Department of Energy has been sponsoring Research and Development programs to use coal as a fuel for diesel engines. In 1984, under the partial sponsorship of the Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern Railroads, GE completed a 30-month study on the economic viability of a coal-fueled locomotive. In response to a GE proposal to continue researching the economic and technical feasibility of a coal-fueled diesel engine for locomotives, DOE awarded a contract to GE Corporate Research and Development for a three-year program that began in March 1985 and was completed in 1988. That program was divided into two parts: an Economic Assessment Study and a Technical Feasibility Study. The Economic Assessment Study evaluated the benefits to be derived from development of a coal-fueled diesel engine. Seven areas and their economic impact on the use of coal-fueled diesels were examined; impact on railroad infrastructure, expected maintenance cost, environmental considerations, impact of higher capital costs, railroad training and crew costs, beneficiated coal costs for viable economics, and future cost of money. The Technical Feasibility Study used laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to investigate the combustion of coal. The major accomplishments of this study were the development of injection hardware for coal water slurry (CWS) fuel, successful testing of CWS fuel in a full-size, single-cylinder, medium-speed diesel engine, evaluation of full-scale engine wear rates with metal and ceramic components, and the characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions. Full combustion of CWS fuel was accomplished at full and part load with reasonable manifold conditions.

  4. Emission rates of particulate matter and elemental and organic carbon from in-use diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sandip D; Cocker, David R; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-05-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) emission rates are reported for a number of heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs) and back-up generators (BUGs) operating under real-world conditions. Emission rates were determined using a unique mobile emissions laboratory (MEL) equipped with a total capture full-scale dilution tunnel connected directly to the diesel engine via a snorkel. This paper shows that PM, EC, and OC emission rates are strongly dependent on the mode of vehicle operation; highway, arterial, congested, and idling conditions were simulated by following the speed trace from the California Air Resources Board HHDDT cycle. Emission rates for BUGs are reported as a function of engine load at constant speed using the ISO 8178B Cycle D2. The EC, OC, and PM emission rates were determined to be highly variable for the HHDDTs. It was determined that the per mile emission rate of OC from a HHDDT in congested traffic is 8.1 times higher than that of an HHDDT in cruise or highway speed conditions and 1.9 times higher for EC. EC/OC ratios for BUGs (which generally operate at steady states) and HHDDTs show marked differences, indicating that the transient nature of engine operation dictates the EC/OC ratio. Overall, this research shows that the EC/OC ratio varies widely for diesel engines in trucks and BUGs and depends strongly on the operating cycle. The findings reported here have significant implications in the application of chemical mass balance modeling, diesel risk assessment, and control strategies such as the Diesel Risk Reduction Program.

  5. Diesel Fuel Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elton; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to fuel injection systems and components; (2) injection nozzles; (3) distributor type injection pumps; (4) unit injectors; (5) in-line injection pumps; and (6) pressure timed…

  6. Diesel Electrical Systems. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprinkle, Tom; Huston, Jane, Ed.

    This module is one of a series of teaching guides that cover diesel mechanics. The module contains eight instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to electrical systems; (2) electrical circuits; (3) electrical indicator circuits; (4) storage batteries; (5) starting systems and circuits; (6) ignition circuits; (7)…

  7. Diesel Mechanics. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for diesel mechanics. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  8. Diesel Mechanics. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Edward P.; And Others

    Intended to provide a model for organizing vocational instructional content, this curriculum guide consists of information pertinent to conducting a postsecondary level course in diesel mechanics. While the guide is primarily oriented towards the classroom, whether as a primary resource or as a supplement to other teaching materials, it may also…

  9. Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

  10. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  11. Diesel Equipment Department. Student Learning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    Eleven student learning guides are provided for the duty entitled "completing core curriculum" of the diesel equipment program. Each learning guide concerns one of the tasks that comprise the duty. Introductory materials for each guide include the purpose and performance and enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, these materials are…

  12. Reference handbook: Diesel engines and governors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-18

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand diesel engines and governors. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following tasks: Explain the two major differences between diesel and gasoline engines. Identify 12 major diesel engine components. Explain the function of pistons. Explain the functions of crankshafts and blowers. Define the following terms: Cylinder Block Crown End Skirt End Bosses Babbitt Compression Ignition Cycle Governor Speed Controller Fuel Injector. Describe how the crankshaft is related to the camshaft. Identify the purpose of a flywheel. Identify the four phases of the combustion cycle. Compare and contrast two-cycle and four-cycle engines. Explain the difference between a filter and a strainer. Scope: This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Diesel Engines and Governors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant.

  13. Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alt, Otto

    1924-01-01

    Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.

  14. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  15. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  16. Switch to Diesels Cuts Transportation Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Since the acquisition of diesel-powered school buses for the Half Hollow Hills (New York) School District, fuel efficiency has doubled. This has helped cover the costs of refurbishing older buses and establishing a more sophisticated shop operation and more efficient recordkeeping. (Author/MLF)

  17. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  18. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R. L.; Parkinson, W. J. ,; Inbody, M. A.; Tafoya, J. I.; Guidry, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is the source

  20. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  1. Eulerian CFD modeling and X-ray validation of non-evaporating diesel spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qingluan; Som, Sibendu; Quan, Shaoping; Pomraning, Eric; Senecal, P. K.

    2013-11-01

    This work implemented an Eulerian single-phase approach by Vallet et al. into CFD software (Convergent) for diesel spray simulations. This Eulerian approach considers liquid and gas phase as a complex mixture of a single flow with a highly variable density to describe the near nozzle dense sprays. The mean density is obtained form the Favre-averaged liquid mass fraction. Liquid mass fraction is transported with a model for the turbulent liquid diffusion flux into the gas. A mean gradient-based model is employed for the diffusion flux in this study. A non-evaporating diesel spray was measured using x-ray radiography at Argonne National Laboratory. The quantitative and time-resolved data of liquid penetration and mass distribution in the dense spray region are used to validate this approach. The different turbulence models are also used for the simulations. The comparison between the simulated results and experimental data and the turbulence model effect are discussed.

  2. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Toops, Todd J; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  3. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C.; Warner, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in shale oil and diesel particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.L.

    1988-04-01

    The authors participated in the interlaboratory studies conducted by the National Bureau of Standard/Department of Energy (NBS/DOE) Analytical Characterization Group in which shale oil and diesel particulates were analyzed for three ring to six ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Diesel particulates were extracted by Soxhlet or ultrasonic extraction. The PAH fraction was isolated with Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography and silica gel adsorption chromatography. The individual PAH was identified and quantitated with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The combination of gel filtration and adsorption chromatography was found to be effective in isolating PAH from various complex sample matrices for further instrumental analysis. The results compared favorably with methods used among the other participating laboratories.

  5. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  6. Real-world emissions of carbonyl compounds from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks and diesel Back-Up Generators (BUGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Aniket A.; Shah, Sandip D.; Zhu, Xiaona; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.

    Emissions of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein are of interest to the scientific and regulatory communities due to their suspected or likely impacts on human health. The present work investigates emissions of carbonyl compounds from nine Class 8 heavy-duty diesel (HDD) tractors and also from nine diesel-powered backup generators (BUGs); the former were chosen because of their ubiquity as an emission source, and the latter because of their proximity to centers of human activity. The HDD tractors were operated on the ARB 4-Mode heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) driving cycle, while the BUGs were operated on the ISO 8178 Type D2 5-mode steady-state cycle and sampled using a mobile emissions laboratory (UCR MEL) equipped with a full-scale dilution tunnel. Samples were analyzed using the SAE930142 (Auto/Oil) method for 11 aldehydes, from formaldehyde to hexanaldehyde, and 2 ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone). Although absolute carbonyl emissions varied widely by BUG, the relative contributions of the different carbonyls were similar (e.g., median: 56% for formaldehyde). A slight increasing trend with engine load was observed for relative formaldehyde contribution, but not for acetaldehyde contribution, for the BUGs. On-road per-mile carbonyl emission factors were a strong function of operating mode of the ARB HHDDT cycle, and found to decrease in the order Creep>Transient>Cruise. This order is qualitatively similar to emission factors for PAHs and n-alkanes determined for the same set of Class 8 diesel tractors in an earlier work. In general, relative carbonyl contributions for the HDD tractors were similar to those for BUGs (e.g., median: 54% for formaldehyde). These results indicate that while engine operating mode and application appear to exert a strong influence on the total absolute mass emission rate of the carbonyls measured, they do not appear to exert as strong an influence on the relative mass emission rates of

  7. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel vehicles and engines Its use may damage these vehicles and engines. For use in all other diesel vehicles and engines. (ii) 15 ppm sulfur diesel fuel. From June 1, 2006 through May 31, 2010. ULTRA-LOW... and engines. Recommended for use in all diesel vehicles and engines. (iii) 15 ppm sulfur diesel...

  8. Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-12-01

    This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure by combusting the

  9. Bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soils: evaluation of potential in situ techniques by study of bacterial degradation.

    PubMed

    Gallego, J L; Loredo, J; Llamas, J F; Vázquez, F; Sánchez, J

    2001-01-01

    The development of a simple laboratory methodology allows the implementation of in situ bioremediation of polluted soils with diesel fuel. In this investigation microbiological and chemical analyses and a suitable bioreactor design, were very useful for suggesting the best ways to improve biodegradation extents in a diesel-enriched soil. Biostimulation with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus produced the best results in a simple bioreactor, with biodegradation extents higher than 90% after 45 days. Also, the addition of activated sludge from a domestic wastewater plant increased the degradation rate to a great extent. In both cases, microbiological studies showed the presence of Acinetobacter sp. degrading most of the hydrocarbons. Simultaneously, a diesel fuel release (approximately 400,000 l) was studied. Samples taken in polluted soil and water revealed that bacteria from the genus Acinetobacter were predominant. In plate studies, Acinetobacter colonies produced a whitish substance with the characteristics of a biosurfactant. Remarkably, the presence of this product was evident at the field site, both in the riverbanks and in the physical recovery plant. The study of the similarities between laboratory results and the diesel spill site strongly suggested that natural conditions at the field site allowed the implementation of in situ bioremediation after physical removal of LNAPL (light nonaqueous-phase liquids).

  10. Preparation and emission characteristics of ethanol-diesel fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Run-Duo; He, Hong; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Chang-Bin; He, Bang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated. Results showed the absolute ethanol can dissolve in diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio and a small quantity of water(0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. An organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The emission characteristics of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends, with or without additives, were compared with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results indicated that the blend of ethanol with diesel fuel significantly reduced the concentrations of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) in exhaust gas. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with the additive of 2% of the total volume, the optimum mixing ratio was achieved, at which the bench diesel engine testing showed a significant decrease in exhaust gas. Bosch smoke number was reduced by 55%, HC emission by 70%, and CO emission by 45%, at 13 kW/1540 r/min. However, ethanol-diesel fuel blends produced a few ppm acetaldehydes and more ethanol in exhaust gas.

  11. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (p<0.05) in a BEAS-2B cell line. This study contributes novel data on real-world, nonroad engine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure

  12. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    PubMed

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  13. Projects to Improve Air Quality at Ports – 2013 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Funding Opportunity - Closed Announcement FY 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    OTAQ is soliciting proposals that achieve reductions in diesel emissions produced by diesel engines and diesel emissions exposure, from fleets operating at marine and inland water ports under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA).

  14. Projects to Improve Air Quality at Ports – 2014 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Funding Opportunity - Closed Announcement FY 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    OTAQ is soliciting proposals that achieve reductions in diesel emissions produced by diesel engines and diesel emissions exposure, from fleets operating at marine and inland water ports under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA).

  15. 40 CFR 80.616 - What are the enforcement exemptions for California diesel distributed within the State of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... wholesale purchaser-consumer of California diesel fuel is, with regard to such diesel fuel, exempt from...

  16. 40 CFR 80.616 - What are the enforcement exemptions for California diesel distributed within the State of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... wholesale purchaser-consumer of California diesel fuel is, with regard to such diesel fuel, exempt from...

  17. 40 CFR 80.616 - What are the enforcement exemptions for California diesel distributed within the State of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel... wholesale purchaser-consumer of California diesel fuel is, with regard to such diesel fuel, exempt from...

  18. Catalytic diesel particulate filters reduce the in vitro estrogenic activity of diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Daniela; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert V; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-04-01

    An in vitro reporter gene assay based on human breast cancer T47D cells (ER-CALUX) was applied to examine the ability of diesel exhaust to induce or inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression. Exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine was either treated by iron- or copper/iron-catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) or studied as unfiltered exhaust. Collected samples included particle-bound and semivolatile constituents of diesel exhaust. Our findings show that all of the samples contained compounds that were able to induce ER-mediated gene expression as well as compounds that suppressed the activity of the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Estrogenic activity prevailed over antiestrogenic activity. We found an overall ER-mediated activity of 1.63 +/- 0.31 ng E2 CALUX equivalents (E2-CEQs) per m(3) of unfiltered exhaust. In filtered exhaust, we measured 0.74 +/- 0.07 (iron-catalyzed DPF) and 0.55 +/- 0.09 ng E2-CEQ m(-3) (copper/iron-catalyzed DPF), corresponding to reductions in estrogenic activity of 55 and 66%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that both catalytic DPFs lowered the ER-mediated endocrine-disrupting potential of diesel exhaust.

  19. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  20. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    PubMed Central

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  1. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  2. Rise and fall of diesel cars; A consumer choice analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kurani, K.S.; Sperling, D. )

    1988-01-01

    The search for alternative transportation fuels must be undertaken with an understanding of the retail markets for vehicles and fuels. The authors of this paper examine the history of the diesel car, as the only important alternative to gasoline in the U.S. household vehicle market, with the specific intent of exploring the conditions under which individuals would purchase a nongasoline vehicle. Diesel car sales rose from less than 1 percent of new car sales in 1976 to 6 percent by 1981, and then collapsed to less than 1 percent by 1985. A survey of diesel car owners was conducted in California to determine why diesel car sales rose and fell so sharply. The rise of diesel car sales was fueled by expected fuel cost savings. However, it was found that consumers relied on per gallon fuel prices, not per mile fuel costs or fully allocated total costs as the indicator of whether diesel cars were economically superior.

  3. Development of microwave-heated diesel particulate filters

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D.; Haberkamp, W.C.

    1996-06-01

    Diesel engines are a prime mover of freight in the United States. Because of legislated reductions in diesel engine emissions, considerable research has been focused on the reduction of these emissions while maintaining the durability, reliability, and fuel economy of diesel engines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found that particulate exhaust from diesel powered vehicles represents a potential health hazard. As a result, regulations have been promulgated limiting the allowable amounts of particulate from those vehicles. The 0.1 g/bhp/hr (gram per brake horsepower per hour) particulate standard that applies to heavy-duty diesels became effective in 1994. Engine manufacturers have met those requirements with engine modifications and/or oxidation catalysts. EPA has established more stringent standards for diesel-powered urban buses because of health concerns in densely populated urban areas.

  4. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1863-07 - Chassis certification for diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OBD requirements where the diesel-specific OBD requirements would apply. (b) For OBD, diesel vehicles optionally certified under this section are subject to the OBD requirements of § 86.1806. (c) Diesel...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1863-07 - Chassis certification for diesel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OBD requirements where the diesel-specific OBD requirements would apply. (b) For OBD, diesel vehicles optionally certified under this section are subject to the OBD requirements of § 86.1806. (c) Diesel...

  7. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  8. Ethanol-diesel fuel blends -- a review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alan C; Zhang, Qin; Lyne, Peter W L

    2005-02-01

    Ethanol is an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank modifications. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol-diesel blends.

  9. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  10. Rapeseed and safflower oils as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Haines, H.; Chase, C.

    1993-12-31

    During the past decade the US has become increasingly dependent upon imported oil to meet our energy demands. Nearly 50 percent of our US consumption of petroleum is imported. Research has shown that agricultural crops can be used to reduce this dependence. Vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has been under study at the Univ. of Idaho since 1979. Since then the Idaho research team has pioneered the use of rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Idaho`s interdisciplinary team includes plant breeding, plant modification, process development and scale-up, engine testing, and economics. Researchers in Montana have studied safflower oil as a potential diesel fuel replacement since 1983. This project, aimed for use of safflower oil in railroad engines, involves genetics, agronomics, economics and contract engine testing.

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory considers the use of biodiesel.

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, M. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new EPA-approved alternative fuel, called biodiesel, may soon be used at Los Alamos National Laboratory in everything from diesel trucks to laboratory equipment. Biodiesel transforms vegetable oils into a renewable, cleaner energy source that can be used in any machinery that uses diesel fuel. For the past couple years, the Laboratory has been exploring the possibility of switching over to soybean-based biodiesel. This change could lead to many health and environmental benefits, as well as help reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil. Biodiesel is a clean, renewable diesel fuel substitute made from soybean and other vegetable oil crops, as well as from recycled cooking oils. A chemical process breaks down the vegetable oil into a usable form. Vegetable oil has a chain of about 18 carbons and ordinary diesel has about 12 or 13 carbons. The process breaks the carbon chains of the vegetable oil and separates out the glycerin (a fatty substance used in creams and soaps). The co-product of glycerin can be used by pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies, as well as many other markets. Once the chains are shortened and the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining liquid is similar to petroleum diesel fuel. It can be burned in pure form or in a blend of any proportion with petroleum diesel. To be considered an alternative fuel source by the EPA, the blend must be at least 20 percent biodiesel (B20). According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), biodiesel is America's fastest growing alternative fuel.

  12. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  13. Short-term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-09-01

    The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel-polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T-RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T-RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area.

  14. 40 CFR 80.602 - What records must be kept by entities in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel additive production, importation, and...; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 80.602 What records must be kept by entities in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and...

  15. Microbiological and Corrosivity Characterizations of Biodiesels and Advanced Diesel Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    nature and extent of microbial contamination and the potential for microbiologically influenced corrosion in biodiesel (B100), ultra-low sulfur diesel...ULSD) and mixtures of the two (B5 and B20). In experiments with additions of distilled water, B100 has the highest propensity for biofouling while...the highest corrosion rates were measured in ultra-low-sulfur diesel. 15. SUBJECT TERMS corrosion, diesel, biodiesel, biofouling, MIC 16. SECURITY

  16. Diesel injector additives for a clean exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Herbstman, S.; Virk, K.S.

    1988-08-01

    Increased public awareness of clean air is causing closer examination of potential health problems associated with diesel exhaust particulates. Recently, the EPA published standards mandating a sixfold reduction in diesel exhaust particulates for heavy duty engines from 0.60 gm/bhp-hr in 1988-1990 to 0.10 gm/bhp-hr in 1994. NOx exhaust concentrations were also reduced. For some time now, we have been interested in ways to reduce black smoke from diesel engines since it is one of the prime contributors to exhaust particulates. One of its causes is dirty or clogged fuel injectors due to deposit buildup. During operation with dirty injectors, the spray pattern of fuel into the combustion chamber is distorted, usually resulting in a fuel-rich environment. Incomplete burning of the rich fuel mixture results in an excess of carbonaceous material which is discharged in the exhaust as black smoke. We are engaged in evaluating additives with detergency and antioxidant properties to reduce deposit buildup in the injectors. Long chain alkylamines, and other types of surfactant molecules have been reported as active in preventing deposit buildup. However, little practical information was available concerning structure-activity relationships for use in developing a commercially acceptable additive package. We decided to investigate additives which are active either as gasoline carburetor detergents or as lubricant dispersants; both categories appear to have the necessary surfactant behavior and oil solubility to satisfy our needs for a diesel injector keep clean agent. Our approach to the problem was to develop an additive package for future use in Texaco fuels to reduce black smoke.

  17. Diesel Injector Fouling Bench Test Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    was installed. 3. A diverter valve was installed on the injector effluent line. In order to differentiate fuel quality, the fuel injector pump...additive concentrates on the removal of indirect (pintle, chip, ana poppet nozzle) injector deposits, Olsen, et al. (11) developed a modification of the...fuel were investigated in a 1982 General Motors 4.3-L V-6 diesel car with CAV poppet -type injectors.(.3) Frequent severe fuel filter plugging was

  18. Diesel power leads Yemen electrification plan

    SciTech Connect

    Patarino, C.

    1980-10-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic ended a period of political isolation and is now pushing for social and economic development. A seven-year program announced in 1978 aims to establish and extend rural and urban electrification. A key element in this plan is the construction pf a series of diesel power stations to provide base load until larger steam plants are available in the mid-1980s.

  19. The Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, J. L.; Werner, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  20. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  1. Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  2. Coal-fueled diesel locomotive test

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Confer, G.L.; Basic, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The biggest challenges to the development of a commercially-acceptable coal-fueled diesel-electric locomotive are integrating all systems into a working unit that can be operated in railroad service. This involves mainly the following three systems: (1) the multi-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine, (2) the locomotive and engine controls, and (3) the CWS fuel supply system. Consequently, a workable 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine was considered necessary at this stage to evolve the required locomotive support systems, in addition to gaining valuable multi-cylinder engine operating experience. The CWS fuel used during this project was obtained from Otisca, Inc. (Syracuse, NY). It was prepared from micronized and deashed Kentucky Blue Gem coal to 49.0% coal loading by weight, with less than 1% ash and 5 micron mean diameter particle size. Its higher heating value was analyzed at approximately 34630 kJ/k. Anti-agglomerating additive Triton X-114 was added to the CWS at GE Transportation Systems at 2% of coal weight. The nature of the Otisca CWS fuel makes it inherently more difficult to store, pump, and inject than diesel fuel, since concepts which govern Newtonian or normally viscous liquids do not apply entirely to CWS. Otisca CWS tends to be unstable and to settle in tanks and lines after a period of time, making it necessary to provide a means of agitation during storage. To avoid long term settling problems and to minimize losses, piping velocities were designed to be in the 60-90 m/min range.

  3. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  4. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Nixdorf, Richard D.; Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  5. Diesel catalysts for Europe beyond 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Catalytic converters on European diesel cars must operate under conditions ranging from very low temperature during city driving to high temperature during Autobahn driving. This article describes development of new catalyst technology for European applications. This requires simultaneous achievement of properties that have long been considered incompatible. Increased concern about global warming due to CO{sub 2} emissions, and demands for improved fuel economy, make the high thermal efficiency of diesel engines of growing interest on the European car scene. Some major disadvantages such as low specific power output (kW/L displacement), noise, smell, smoke, and NOx emissions are traditionally associated with the diesel engine. Clearly justified in the past, some of these objections have largely lost their validity due to recent development of advanced combustion systems. Better control of fuel injection (precision, accuracy, and repeatability), robust design of combustion chamber geometry, and optimized intake-channel design for improved air motion (swirl) serve as examples of innovative engine-design improvements, with which injection timing, EGR, and turbocharger control strategies have been engineered to yield impressive improvements in terms of performance, fuel economy, and engine-out emissions.

  6. Applications of the diesel coal combined cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, T.P.; Shelor, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    The proprietary process known as the Diesel Coal Combined Cycle (DCCC) is examined for its application to new cogeneration plants and independent power production facilities as well as repowering of existing plants. High-cycle thermal efficiency with a heat rate in the range of 9,000 Btu/kWh (HHV) can be achieved by combining prime-mover diesel engine generators that have inherently high efficiency with boilers, specially designed burners, and a conventional Rankine steam cycle. Plants using the DCCC process can cleanly and efficiently use a variety of fuels including natural gas, which is prevalent in combustion turbine combined-cycle designs. The DCCC offers a power plant design that can use lower-cost fuels such as high-sulfur residual oil and coal. The diesel engine prime mover provides a high cycle efficiency over a wider load range than does a combustion turbine to meet today`s increasing needs for operational flexibility and dispatchability of the steam and power outputs. These needs can be fulfilled with a DCCC power plant at a lower capital cost ($1,000 to $1,200/kW) than conventional steam power plants and other clean coal technologies. DCCC plants are practical from the smallest industrial plants to those with over 200 MW of capacity. These plants will provide more wide-range efficiency and flexibility than combustion turbine combined cycles and operate at lower expense overall because of the fuel cost savings.

  7. Biofiltration of gasoline and diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Halecky, Martin; Rousova, Jana; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii; Seames, Wayne; Jones, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The ability of a biofilm to switch between the mixtures of mostly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated to assess biofiltration efficiency and potential substrate interactions. A switch from gasoline, which consisted of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, to a mixture of volatile diesel n-alkanes resulted in a significant increase in biofiltration efficiency, despite the lack of readily biodegradable aromatic hydrocarbons in the diesel mixture. This improved biofilter performance was shown to be the result of the presence of larger size (C₉-C(12)) linear alkanes in diesel, which turned out to be more degradable than their shorter-chain (C₆-C₈) homologues in gasoline. The evidence obtained from both biofiltration-based and independent microbiological tests indicated that the rate was limited by biochemical reactions, with the inhibition of shorter chain alkane biodegradation by their larger size homologues as corroborated by a significant substrate specialization along the biofilter bed. These observations were explained by the lack of specific enzymes designed for the oxidation of short-chain alkanes as opposed to their longer carbon chain homologues.

  8. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. Brad

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying thick thermal barrier coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective Caterpillar's program to date has been to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impeded the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  10. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective of Caterpillar's subcontract with ORNL is to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  11. Status of Wind-Diesel Applications in Arctic Climates: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Corbus, D.

    2007-12-01

    The rising cost of diesel fuel and the environmental regulation for its transportation, use, and storage, combined with the clear impacts of increased arctic temperatures, is driving remote communities to examine alternative methods of providing power. Over the past few years, wind energy has been increasingly used to reduce diesel fuel consumption, providing economic, environmental, and security benefits to the energy supply of communities from Alaska to Antarctica. This summary paper describes the current state of wind-diesel systems, reviews the operation of wind-diesel plants in cold climates, discusses current research activities pertaining to these systems, and addresses their technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems in Alaska will be reviewed. Specific focus will also be given to the control of power systems with large amounts of wind generation and the complexities of replacing diesel engine waste heat with excess wind energy, a key factor in assessing power plants for retrofit. A brief overview of steps for assessing the viability of retrofitting diesel power systems with wind technologies will also be provided. Because of the large number of isolated diesel minigrids, the market for adding wind to these systems is substantial, specifically in arctic climates and on islands that rely on diesel-only power generation.

  12. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  13. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  14. Current and future developments in diesel powered hovercraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. C.; Stevens, M. J.; Buttigieg, J. A.

    After evaluating the development status of the application of diesel power to air-cushion vehicles (ACVs) and surface-effect ships (SESs), attention is given to the AP1-88 ACV, which is both the first and largest operational diesel-powered amphibious craft of this type. An account is given of the ACV and SES features that are dictated by the need to accommodate diesel power sources; the major advantages and disadvantages of diesel (vs gas turbine) engines are discussed. Although cost reductions are achievable against gas turbine powerplant use, lower payload fractions and slightly lower performance capabilities appear to be inescapable.

  15. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  16. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June...

  17. Diesel exposure suppresses natural killer cell function and resolution of eosinophil inflammation: a randmonized controlled trial of exposure in allergic rhinitics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to exacerbate allergic inflammation, including virus induced eosinophil activation in laboratory animals. We have previously shown that in human volunteers with allergic rhinitis a short-term exposure to DE prior to infection with the live...

  18. Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Energy Management System for High Efficiency, Off Highway, 240 Ton Class, Diesel Electric Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Tim; Slezak, Lee; Johnson, Chris; Young, Henry; Funcannon, Dan

    2008-12-31

    The objective of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of off-highway vehicles, specifically large tonnage mine haul trucks. A hybrid energy storage and management system will be added to a conventional diesel-electric truck that will allow capture of braking energy normally dissipated in grid resistors as heat. The captured energy will be used during acceleration and motoring, reducing the diesel engine load, thus conserving fuel. The project will work towards a system validation of the hybrid system by first selecting an energy storage subsystem and energy management subsystem. Laboratory testing at a subscale level will evaluate these selections and then a full-scale laboratory test will be performed. After the subsystems have been proven at the full-scale lab, equipment will be mounted on a mine haul truck and integrated with the vehicle systems. The integrated hybrid components will be exercised to show functionality, capability, and fuel economy impacts in a mine setting.

  19. Health effects of subchronic exposure to diesel-water-methanol emulsion emission.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; Blair, L F; Burling, K; Daly, I; Gigliotti, A P; Gudi, R; Mercieca, M D; McDonald, J D; O'Callaghan, J P; Seilkop, S K; Ronskoh, N L; Wagner, V O; Kraska, R C

    2006-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter (PM) require urban non-attainment areas to implement pollution-reduction strategies for anthropogenic source emissions. The type of fuel shown to decrease combustion emissions components versus traditional diesel fuel, is the diesel emulsion. The Lubrizol Corporation, in conjunction with Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and several subcontracting laboratories, recently conducted a health assessment of the combustion emissions of PuriNOx diesel fuel emulsion (diesel-water-methanol) in rodents. Combustion emissions from either of two, 2002 model Cummins 5.9L ISB engines, were diluted with charcoal-filtered air to exposure concentrations of 125, 250 and 500 microg total PM/m3. The engines were operated on a continuous, repeating, heavy-duty certification cycle (U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Chapter I) using Rotella-T 15W-40 engine oil. Nitrogen oxide (NO) and PM were reduced when engines were operated on PuriNOx versus California Air Resources Board diesel fuel under these conditions. Male and female F344 rats were housed in Hazleton H2000 exposure chambers and exposed to exhaust atmospheres 6 h/day, five days/week for the first 11 weeks and seven days/week thereafter. Exposures ranged from 61 to 73 days depending on the treatment group. Indicators of general toxicity (body weight, organ weight, clinical pathology and histopathology), neurotoxicity (glial fibrillary acidic protein assay), genotoxicity (Ames assay, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange), and reproduction and development were measured. Overall, effects observed were mild. Emulsion combustion emissions were not associated with neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, or in vivo genotoxicity. Small decreases in serum cholesterol in the 500-microg/m3 exposure group were observed. PM accumulation within alveolar macrophages was evident in all exposure groups

  20. Health effects of subchronic exposure to diesel-water emulsion emission.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; Blair, L F; Burling, K; Daly, I; Gigliotti, A P; Gudi, R; Mercieca, M D; McDonald, J D; Naas, D J; O'callaghan, J P; Seilkop, S K; Ronsko, N L; Wagner, V O; Kraska, R C

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter are requiring urban nonattainment areas to implement pollution-reduction strategies for anthropogenic source emissions. A type of fuel shown to decrease combustion emissions components versus traditional diesel fuels is the diesel-water emulsion. The Lubrizol Corporation in conjunction with Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and several subcontracting laboratories recently conducted a rodent health assessment of inhaled combustion emissions of PuriNO(x) diesel fuel emulsion. Combustion emissions from either of two 2001 model Cummins 5.9-L ISB engines were diluted with charcoal-filtered air to exposure concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 microg total particulate matter/m(3). The engines were operated on a continuously repeating, heavy-duty certification cycle (U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Chapter I) using Rotella-T 15W-40 engine oil. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter were reduced when engines were operated on PuriNO(x) versus California Air Resources Board diesel fuel under these conditions. Male and female F344 rats were housed in Hazleton H2000 exposure chambers and exposed to exhaust atmospheres 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for the first 11 wk and 7 days/wk threafter. Exposures ranged from 58 to 70 days, depending on the treatment group. Indicators of general toxicity (body weight, organ weight, clinical pathology, and histopathology), neurotoxicity (glial fibrillary acidic protein assay), genotoxicity (Ames assay, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange), and reproduction and development were measured. Overall, effects observed were mild. Emulsion combustion emissions were not associated with neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, or in vivo genotoxicity. Small decreases in serum cholesterol and small increases in platelet values in some groups of exposed animals were observed. Particulate matter accumulation within

  1. A Review of Advanced Vehicular Diesel Research and Development Programs Which Have Potential Application to Stationary Diesel Power Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    diesel engine technology development programs. Domestically, Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have active light duty diesel engine and diesel...Reference 7). Teledyne Continental Motors conducted an extensive study of the VCR piston during 1976 (Reference 8). Teledyne Continental concluded that the...Teledyne Continental Motors study was essentially a paper study and mathematical predictive model, Teledyne concluded that the VCR concept coupled with a

  2. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D. D.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

  4. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  5. Evaluation of the efficiency of extraction of PAHs from diesel particulate matter with pressurized solvents.

    PubMed

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Iamiceli, Anna Laura

    2003-02-01

    Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) was evaluated for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-derivatives from diesel particulate matter. Extraction conditions were set up by performing several tests in which temperature, solvent strength, pressure, and static time were gradually increased. The results obtained on a laboratory test material made of a "lean" (low content of soluble fraction) Diesel particulate matter indicate that very severe conditions were needed in order to obtain better recoveries of the higher molecular weight molecules. Moreover, extraction efficiency seems to be influenced by the amount of soluble matter in the particulate, so that a "lean" particulate appears more difficult to extract. Recoveries of the deuterated standards of certain PAHs (i.e. indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene) were incomplete even with the toughest conditions tested. Experiments carried out on a certified material (SRM 1650 from NIST) also indicate that PFE can perform a better extraction of some of the PAHs than the method used for certification, but still incomplete. Comparison of results obtained on the SRM with different extraction techniques suggests that the composition of the extract varies considerably with the extraction technique and conditions. It is relevant to notice that recent Diesel engines produce leaner particulate: for future materials more drastic extraction conditions will be required.

  6. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  7. Diesel engine evaluation of a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejeuski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    A nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion was formulated, characterized and evaluated as a fuel in a direct injection, turbocharged, intercooled, 4 cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200 hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Differences in engine operation between a baseline Phillips 2D reference fuel and the experimental fuel were observed. The major problem experienced while operating with the microemulsion was an incomplete combustion process at low-load engine operation. Significant lubricating oil dilution was observed initially, followed by an abnormal increase in the viscosity of the lubricative oil. Heavier carbon residue on the piston lands, in the piston ring grooves and in the intake ports were noted. In addition, premature injection-nozzle deterioration (sticking of the needle) was experienced. At present, the sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion studied cannot be recommended for long-term use in a direct-injection diesel engine, but further modifications in formulation may produce acceptable sunflower oil microemulsions as alternative diesel fuels. 15 references.

  8. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  9. Ship diesel emission aerosols: A comprehensive study on the chemical composition, the physical properties and the molecular biological and toxicological effects on human lung cells of aerosols from a ship diesel engine operated with heavy or light diesel fuel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Dietmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Paur, H.; Dilger, M.; Mülhopt, S.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Hirvonen, M.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Berube, K.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Arteaga Salas, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Reda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Gröger, T.; Weiss, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties, transformation processes and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. This is performed by thorough comprehensive chemical and physical characterization of combustion aerosols (including application of advantageous on-line methods) and studying of biological effects on human lung cell-cultures. A new ALI air-liquid-interface (ALI) exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for the HICE-measurements. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized (e.g. proteomics). By using stable isotope labeling technologies (13C-Glucose/metabolomics; 2H-Lysine/SILAC-proteomics), high sensitivity and accuracy for detection of molecular-biological effects is achievable even at sub-toxic effect dose levels. Aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine (heavy/light fuel oil) have been investigated. The effect of wood combustion and ship diesel PM e.g. on the protein expression of ALI-exposed A549 cells was compared. Filtered aerosol is used as gas-reference for the isotope labeling based method (SILAC). Therefore the effects of wood combustion- and shipping diesel-PM can be directly compared. Ship diesel aerosol causes a broader distribution in the observed fold changes (log2), i.e. more proteins are significantly up-/down-regulated in case of shipping diesel PM-exposure. This corresponds to a stronger biological reaction if compared to wood combustion-PM exposure. The chemical analysis results on wood combustion- and ship diesel-PM depict more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)/oxidized-PAH but less of some transition metals (V, Fe) in the wood combustion case. Interestingly, alkylated PAH are considerably more abundant in shipping PM, suggesting that PAH/Oxy-PAH may be less relevant for

  10. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  11. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30% of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58% of all diesel BC in Russia.

  12. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19

    While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces

  13. Dynamics of carbon, nitrogen and hydrocarbons in diesel-contaminated soil amended with biosolids and maize.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Espinoza, Y; Dendooven, L

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of soil with hydrocarbons occurs frequently when petroleum ducts are damaged. Restoration of those contaminated soils might be achieved by applying readily available organic material. An uncontaminated clayey soil sampled in the vicinity of a duct carrying diesel which ruptured recently, was contaminated in the laboratory and amended with or without maize or biosolids while production of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), dynamics of ammonia (NH(4)(+)), nitrates (NO(3)(-)), and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were monitored. The fastest mineralization of diesel, as witnessed by production of CO(2), was found when biosolids were added, but the amount mineralized after 100 days, approximately 88%, was similar in all treatments. Approximately 5 mg of the 48 mg TPH kg(-1) found in the sterilized soil at the beginning of the experiment could not be accounted for after 100 days. The concentration of TPH in the unsterilized soil decreased rapidly in all treatments, but the rate of decrease was different between the treatments. The fastest decrease was found in the soil amended with biosolids and approximately 30 mg TPH kg(-1) or 60% could not be accounted for within 7 days. The decrease in concentration of TPH at the onset of the incubation was similar in the other treatments. After 100 days, the concentration of TPH was similar in all soils and appear to stabilize at 19 mg TPH kg(-1) soil. It was concluded that biosolids accelerated the decomposition of diesel and TPH due to its large nutrient content, but after 100 days the amount of diesel mineralized and the residual concentration of TPH was not affected by the treatment applied.

  14. Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

  15. Toxicological characterization of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and a closed soot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooter, Ingeborg M.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Jedynska, Aleksandra D.; Tromp, Peter C.; Houtzager, Marc M. G.; Verbeek, Ruud P.; Kadijk, Gerrit; Mulderij, Mariska; Krul, Cyrille A. M.

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the toxicity (oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity) in extracts of combustion aerosols. A typical Euro III heavy truck engine was tested over the European Transient Cycle with three different fuels: conventional diesel EN590, biodiesel EN14214 as B100 and blends with conventional diesel (B5, B10, and B20) and pure plant oil DIN51605 (PPO). In addition application of a (wall flow) diesel particulate filter (DPF) with conventional diesel EN590 was tested. The use of B100 or PPO as a fuel or the DPF reduced particulate matter (PM) mass and numbers over 80%. Similarly, significant reduction in the emission of chemical constituents (EC 90%, (oxy)-PAH 70%) were achieved. No significant changes in nitro-PAH were observed. The use of B100 or PPO led to a NOx increase of about 30%, and no increase for DPF application. The effects of B100, PPO and the DPF on the biological test results vary strongly from positive to negative depending on the biological end point. The oxidative potential, measured via the DTT assay, of the B100 and PPO or DPF emissions is reduced by 95%. The cytotoxicity is increased for B100 by 200%. The measured mutagenicity, using the Ames assay test with TA98 and YG1024 strains of Salmonella typhimurium indicate a dose response for the nitroarene sensitive YG1024 strain for B100 and PPO (fold induction: 1.6). In summary B100 and PPO have good potential for the use as a second generation biofuel resulting in lower PM mass, similar to application of a DPF, but caution should be made due to potential increased toxicity. Besides regulation via mass, the biological reactivity of exhaust emissions of new (bio)fuels and application of new technologies, needs attention. The different responses of different biological tests as well as differences in results between test laboratories underline the need for harmonization of test methods and international cooperation.

  16. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from light-duty diesel vehicles exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abrantes, Rui; de Assunção, João V.; Pesquero, Célia R.

    Standardised tests were performed on four light-duty diesel vehicles running in a chassis dynamometer at a vehicular emission laboratory, using the FTP-75 test cycle procedure. The aim was to characterise emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), substances that create health hazards and are, as yet, unregulated. The pollutants were analysed in both solid and gaseous phases using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total PAH values ranged from 1.133 to 5.801 mg km -1. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were detected in all tests. In addition, PAH emission was observed to be inversely related to emission of CO 2.

  17. Application of artificial neural network for prediction of marine diesel engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Noor, C. W.; Mamat, R.; Najafi, G.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Fadhil, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with an artificial neural network (ANN) modelling of a marine diesel engine to predict the brake power, output torque, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency. The input data for network training was gathered from engine laboratory testing running at various engine speed. The prediction model was developed based on standard back-propagation Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. The performance of the model was validated by comparing the prediction data sets with the measured experiment data. Results showed that the ANN model provided good agreement with the experimental data with high accuracy.

  18. Abrasive wear by coal-fueled diesel engine and related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, L.K.

    1992-09-01

    The development of commercially viable diesel engines that operate directly on pulverized coal-fuels will require solution to the problem of severe abrasive wear. The purpose of the work described in this report was to investigate the nature of the abrasive wear problem. Analytical studies were carried out to determine the characteristics of the coal-fuel and associated combustion particles responsible for abrasion. Laboratory pinon-disk wear tests were conducted on oil-particle mixtures to determine the relationship between wear rate and a number of different particle characteristics, contact parameters, specimen materials properties, and other relevant variables.

  19. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  20. Diesel vs. gasoline emissions: Does PM from diesel or gasoline vehicles dominate in the US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertler, Alan W.

    In the US, the majority of the on-road fleet and vehicle miles travelled are attributed to light-duty vehicles, which are fuelled almost entirely by gasoline. However, due to their significantly higher PM emission rates, emissions inventories have tended to attribute the majority of the mobile source PM to contributions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles and strategies to reduce mobile source PM have focused on the contribution from this source. A limited number of source attribution studies have implied that PM emission inventories over-estimate the diesel contribution and emissions from gasoline vehicles may be greater than previously believed. Other receptor-modelling studies have found diesel vehicles to be the dominant source of motor vehicle PM. The former conclusion is supported by recent on-road PM emission rate results obtained in a highway tunnel and a series of crossroad experiments. This paper describes the often-conflicting results obtained from receptor modelling studies and emission inventories and uses on-road emission factor results to estimate the relative contributions from the diesel and gasoline sectors of the fleet.

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  2. Emission reduction from diesel engine using fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Yao, C D

    2009-07-15

    This study is aimed to investigate the combined application of fumigation methanol and a diesel oxidation catalyst for reducing emissions of an in-use diesel engine. Experiments were performed on a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine operating at a constant speed of 1800 rev/min for five engine loads. The experimental results show that at low engine loads, the brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in fumigation methanol; but at high loads, it slightly increases with increase in fumigation methanol. The fumigation method results in a significant increase in hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emissions, but decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), smoke opacity and the particulate mass concentration. For the submicron particles, the total number of particles decreases. In all cases, there is little change in geometrical mean diameter of the particles. After catalytic conversion, the HC, CO, NO(2), particulate mass and particulate number concentrations were significantly reduced at medium to high engine loads; while the geometrical mean diameter of the particles becomes larger. Thus, the combined use of fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst leads to a reduction of HC, CO, NO(x), particulate mass and particulate number concentrations at medium to high engine loads.

  3. Potential of diesel engine, diesel engine design concepts, control strategy and implementation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trella, T.; Shen, T.

    1980-03-01

    Diesel engine design concepts and control system strategies are surveyed with application to passenger cars and light trucks. The objective of the study is to indicate the fuel economy potential of the technologies investigated. The engine design parameters discussed are related to the engine configuration, combustion process, valving, friction, compression ratio, and heat transfer. Various engine control strategies and control implementation are considered.

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT X, USE OF MEASURING TOOLS IN DIESEL MAINTENANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRECISION MEASURING TOOLS USED IN DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE (1) LINEAR MEASURE, (2) MEASURING WITH RULES AND TAPES, (3) GETTING PRECISION WITH MICROMETERS, (4) DIAL INDICATORS, (5) TACHOMETERS, (6) TORQUE WRENCH, (7) THICKNESS (TECHER) GAGE, AND (8) VALVE…

  9. 11. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EXPANSION TO HOUSE STEAM UNITS, SHOWING ORIGINAL FUEL TANK (FAR LEFT) AND DIESEL COOLING TOWER (CENTER). March 15, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. CROSS-SPECIES DOSE EXTRAPOLATION FOR DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models for cross-species (rat to human) dose extrapolation of diesel emission were evaluated for purposes of establishing guidelines for human exposure to diesel emissions (DE) based on DE toxicological data obtained in rats. Ideally, a model for this extrapolation would provide...

  11. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  12. Electro-Optical Techniques for Diesel Engine Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    NOTES Available in DDC KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide I f necessary and identify by block number) electrooptics Raman spectroscopy mass...spectrometry lasers infrared spectroscopy combustion interferometry mass spectroscopy diagnostic equipment holography resonance absorption diesel engines...fringe techniques (laser anemometry and particle sizing), mass spectroscopy , and resonance absorption. A conventional Army TACOM diesel engine and a

  13. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures §...

  14. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures §...

  15. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  16. 65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING TOP HALF OF FAIRBANKS MORSE 36D81/8 TEN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE SERIAL #951230 AND EXHAUST SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. 64. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET STARBOARD LOOKING TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET - STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING BOTTOM HALF OF FAIRBANKS MORSE 36D81/8 TEN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE SERIAL #951230 AND GENERAL ELECTRIC 1,000KW GENERATOR KVA 1250, RPM 720, SERIAL #6920274. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. ); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. )

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  19. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... fuel. (a) Definitions. (1) Areas accessible by the Federal Aid Highway System are the geographical.... (b) Diesel fuel that is designated for use only in Alaska and is used only in Alaska, is exempt...

  20. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel fuel tanks. 58.50-10 Section 58.50-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-10 Diesel fuel tanks. (a) Construction. (1) Tanks... allowed in the construction of independent fuel tanks shall be as indicated in Table 58.50-10(a),...

  1. 46 CFR 58.50-10 - Diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel fuel tanks. 58.50-10 Section 58.50-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-10 Diesel fuel tanks. (a) Construction. (1) Tanks... allowed in the construction of independent fuel tanks shall be as indicated in Table 58.50-10(a),...

  2. Research Approach for Aging and Evaluating Diesel Exhaust catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, Scott

    2000-08-20

    To determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emissions control devices that could lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks and buses in the 2002-2004 model years. West Virginia University is evaluating: - Diesel Oxidation Catalysts - Lean NOX Catalysts

  3. Biodiesel: The clean, green fuel for diesel engines (fact sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    2000-04-11

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean-burning biodiesel fuels. As its name implies, biodiesel is like diesel fuel except that it's organically produced. It's also safe for the environment, biodegradable, and produces significantly less air pollution than diesel fuel.

  4. Impacts of Increased Diesel Penetration in the Transportation Sector, The

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Requested by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Analyzes the impacts on petroleum prices, demand, and refinery operations of a projected increase in demand for diesel fuel stemming from greater penetration of diesel-fueled engines in the light-duty vehicle fleet of the U.S. transportation sector.

  5. Maximizing the stability of pyrolysis oil/diesel fuel emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emulsions consisting of biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in diesel fuel were produced and analyzed for stability over time. An ultrasonic probe was used to generate microscopic droplets of bio-oil suspended in diesel fuel, and this emulsion was stabilized using surfactant chemicals. The most...

  6. Diesel and Truck Certification Needs Assessment: Two Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William A.

    Recommendations for the improvement of the diesel engine and truck components of the Hawaii state certification examination for automobile and truck mechanics were solicited from 14 major private businesses repairing heavy tractor rigs and/or diesel engines on Oahu and a statewide sample of 21 trucking firms and other companies making extensive…

  7. Diesel Technology: Engines. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    This diesel technology series offers secondary and postsecondary students an opportunity for learning required skills in the diesel industry. It aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in…

  8. Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: Q&A

    Cancer.gov

    The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study was designed to evaluate the risk of death associated with diesel exhaust exposure, particularly as it may relate to lung cancer. The researchers observed increased risk for lung cancer death with increasing levels of ex

  9. Exposure to diesel exhaust linked to lung cancer in miners

    Cancer.gov

    In a study of non-metal miners in the United States, federal government scientists reported that heavy exposure to diesel exhaust increased risk of death from lung cancer. The research, all part of the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study, was designed to evalu

  10. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  11. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  12. Application of instantaneous angular acceleration to diesel engine fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yunpeng; Hu, Tianyou; Liu, Xin

    2005-12-01

    Diesel engine is a kind of important power generating machine, of which the running state monitoring and fault diagnosis attracts increasing attention. The theory and the method of diesel engine fault diagnosis based on angular acceleration measurement were studied, since angular acceleration contains a lot of information for diesel engine fault diagnosing and its power balance evaluating. USB data acquisition system was designed for the angular acceleration measurement, and it was composed with AVRAT09S8515 micro-processor and PDIUSBD12 USB interface IC. At the same time, the high speed micro-processor AVRAT09S8515 with unique function of automatically capturing the rising or falling edge of square wave was studied, and it was utilized in the diesel engine's crankshaft angular acceleration measuring system. The software and hardware of the whole system was designed, which supplied a whole solution to diesel engine fault diagnosis and power balance evaluation between each cylinder.

  13. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  14. The hard choice for alternative biofuels to diesel in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carioca, J O B; Hiluy Filho, J J; Leal, M R L V; Macambira, F S

    2009-01-01

    This paper selects biofuel scenarios to substitute diesel in Brazil based on oil reserves increase, diesel imports, CO(2) emissions, crops agronomic yields, byproducts marketing and social impacts. This hard task still considers that agricultural practices in developing countries have large social impacts. Brazil presents high consumption of diesel oil in transport; low agronomic yield of traditional vegetable oil crops, which demand large cultivation areas contrasting with microalgae and palm oils which present high productivity. Concerning technologies, thermal cracking and transesterification of vegetable oils present a difficult economic situation related to vegetable oils price, food competition and glycerin market; BTL technology, meaning thermal gasification of biomass to liquids, faces problems related to low density of biomaterials and low viscosity of synthetic biodiesel produced. Biorefinery algal integrated systems and co-solvent technology to introduce up to 8% of ethanol into diesel seem to be feasible routes to reduce diesel consumption.

  15. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  16. Sunflower oil methyl ester as diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Hasan, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methyl ester formation represents one approach to overcome the problems associated with the relatively high viscosity of sunflower oil when used as a diesel fuel replacement. Sunflower oil methyl ester is being prepared at the University of North Dakota Engieering Experiment Station. Physical and chemical properties of this material at varying levels of refinement and purity will be used to define fuel properties. Engine testing is being carried out to determine if the fouling characteristics of methyl ester are significantly less than those of sunflower oil. 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Holmer, H.E.

    1981-06-16

    A fuel injection system is disclosed for direct injection diesel engines with a depression in the tops of the pistons. A first injection pump has a regulator and accompanying first injector for each cylinder , the injectors being disposed to spray the fuel in a zone around the center axis of the respective piston depression. A second injection pump has a regulator and accompanying second injector for each cylinder, the second injectors being disposed to inject fuel obliquely from the side into the respective piston depression in a direction counter to the rotation of the intake air before the fuel from the first injectors is injected.

  18. Performance of a Diesel, JP-8 Reformer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-27

    reforming practical fuels to generate a hydrogen rich reformate gas that can be directly used by the fuel cells. To reduce logistics problem, the Army has...decomposition, as well as liquid fuel reforming [7], preferential oxidation of CO and water gas shift reactors in fuel processors [8]. 3. FUEL REFORMER ...and H2O:C ratios was studied with both JP-8 and diesel. The reformate gas was analyzed by a GC at various S:C and O:C ratios, inlet temperatures

  19. Demonstrating Ultra-Low Diesel Vehicle Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.

    2000-08-20

    Evaluate performance of near-term exhaust emissions control technologies on a modern diesel vehicle over transient drive cycles; Phase 1: Independent (separate) evaluations of engine-out, OEM catalysts, CDPF, and NOx adsorber (Completed March 2000); Phase 2: Combine NOx adsorber and CDPF to evaluate/demonstrate simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM (Underway--interim results available); Establish potential for these technologies to help CIDI engines meet emission reduction targets; and Investigate short-term effects of fuel sulfur on emissions performance

  20. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  1. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  2. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  3. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  4. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  5. 40 CFR 80.512 - May an importer treat diesel fuel as blendstock?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel under §§ 80.593, 80.601, and 80.604. (4) If previously designated motor vehicle diesel fuel having... redesignate all the diesel fuel as 500 ppm sulfur motor vehicle diesel fuel for purposes of the...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1912 - Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... underground diesel fuel storage facilities. 75.1912 Section 75.1912 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1912 Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage... permanent underground diesel fuel storage facility. (1) Alternate types of fire suppression systems shall...

  7. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine dynamometer test run. 86... Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.341-79 Diesel engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only....

  8. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine dynamometer test run. 86... Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.341-79 Diesel engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only....

  9. 30 CFR 75.1914 - Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engines in diesel-powered equipment approved under part 36 and heavy-duty nonpermissible diesel-powered... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment. 75... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment §...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1914 - Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... person qualified under § 75.1915. (c) The water scrubber system on diesel-powered equipment shall be... engines in diesel-powered equipment approved under part 36 and heavy-duty nonpermissible diesel-powered... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment....

  11. 30 CFR 75.1914 - Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... person qualified under § 75.1915. (c) The water scrubber system on diesel-powered equipment shall be... engines in diesel-powered equipment approved under part 36 and heavy-duty nonpermissible diesel-powered... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment....

  12. 30 CFR 75.1914 - Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... person qualified under § 75.1915. (c) The water scrubber system on diesel-powered equipment shall be... engines in diesel-powered equipment approved under part 36 and heavy-duty nonpermissible diesel-powered... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of diesel-powered equipment....

  13. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  14. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor...

  15. Speed control of automotive diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outbib, Rachid; Graton, Guillaume; Dovifaaz, Xavier; Younes, Rafic

    2014-04-01

    This paper deals with Diesel engine control. More precisely, a model-based approach is considered to stabilise engine speed around a defined value. The model taken into account is nonlinear and contains explicitly the expression of fuel conversion efficiency. In general in the literature, this experimentally obtained quantity is modelled with either a polynomial or an exponential form (see for instance Younes, R. (1993). Elaboration d'un modèle de connaissance du moteur diesel avec turbocompresseur à géométrie variable en vue de l'optimisation de ses émissions. Ecole Centrale de Lyon; Omran, R., Younes, R., Champoussin, J., & Outbib, R. (2011). New indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) model for predicting crankshaft movement. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 3376-3382). This paper focuses on engine speed feedback stabilisation when fuel conversion efficiency is modelled with an exponential form, which is more suitable for automative applications. Simulation results are proposed to highlight the closed-loop control performances.

  16. Cavitation modeling and diesel engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandekar, Gautam; Pardue, Sally

    2003-10-01

    A common occurrence of cavitation damage is the waterside pitting of a wet sleeve liner in a diesel engine. The automotive industry utilizes an ultrasonic test of 20 kHz according to ASTM standards to quantify the effectiveness of engine coolant additives to prevent damage. However, recent tests indicate a mismatch between the ultrasonic test results and actual engine test runs. The focus of this study is to generate numerical models of bubble dynamics using already published literature. In most of the published papers higher-range frequencies (ultrasonic >15 kHz) are used. It is useful to explore the results of lower excitation frequencies as the vibrating frequencies of a diesel engine liner are between 500-9000 Hz. A Rayleigh-Plesset equation, nonlinear in nature, is used to plot the relation between bubble radius and time. Plots of the numerical solution from MATLAB are compared with plots published in the literature. Results from when the frequency of excitation is changed to the liner wall frequency and the fluid properties are changed to approximate engine conditions will be presented. Future work will examine the energy released by the bubble collapse and its correlation with erosion measured as mass change in a standard test button.

  17. Mercaptans emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela

    Biodiesel and ethanol are fuels in clear growth and evidence, basically due to its relation with the greenhouse effect reduction. There are several works regarding regulated pollutants emissions, but there is a lack of reports in non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2006) the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported and in 2007 another paper was published in 2008 focusing carbonyls emissions (Corrêa and Arbilla, 2008). In this work four mercaptans (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl mercaptans) were evaluated for a heavy-duty diesel engine, fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were carried using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, during a real use across the city. The exhaust gases were diluted near 20 times and the mercaptans were sampled with glass fiber filters impregnated with mercuric acetate. The chemical analyses were performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The results indicated that the mercaptans emissions exhibit a reduction with the increase of biodiesel content, but this reduction is lower as the mercaptan molar mass increases. For B20 results the emission reduction was 18.4% for methyl mercaptan, 18.1% for ethyl mercaptan, 16.3% for n-propyl mercaptan, and 9.6% for n-butyl mercaptan.

  18. Dimensionless Parameter Scaling of Diesel Engine Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Filipi, Zoran

    1996-11-01

    Combustion in a modern heavy-duty Diesel engine with direct radial fuel injection typically takes place in a short nearly-cylindrical volume at a rate determined by turbulent mixing. Simple dimensionless-parameter scaling laws for turbulent gas-phase mixing and heat transfer have been shown to be effective for a variety of (oxidizer) flow and (fuel) injection conditions within a cylindrical geometry (Edwards et al., AIChE J., Vol. 31, 516 [1985].) (Breidenthal et al., JFM, Vol. 219, 531 [1990].) (Dowling et al., AIAA J. Thermophys. & HT, Vol. 4, 504 [1990].). These studies were driven by chemical laser applications emphasizing long cylinders and sidewall injection. The current investigation seeks to determine the applicability of dimensionless parameter scaling to the instantaneous in-cylinder fuel burning rate in a multi-cylinder Diesel engine typical of Class VIII trucks. Comparisons are made between scaled and unscaled fuel burning rate, as inferred from time-resolved in-cylinder pressure measurements, across the test engine's normal operating range. This research is supported by the US Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center.

  19. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L.; Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J.

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  20. Advanced Automotive Diesel Assessment Program, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this analytical study were: to select one advanced automotive diesel engine (AAD) concept which would increase the tank mileage of a 3,000 pound passenger car from the present 35 mpg to at least 52 mpg; to identify long term component research and development work required to bring the selected concept to fruition; and to prepare a development strategy that will bring the selected concept to a prototype testing phase. Cummins Engine Company has completed this study. The selected concept is a 4 stroke cycle, direct injection, spark assisted, advanced adiabatic diesel engine with positive displacement compounding plus expander and part load air preheating. The engine does not use a liquid coolant nor liquid lubricants. It is a 4 cylinder, in-line, 77 mm bore x 77 mm stroke, 1.434 liters displacement engine weighing 300 lb, and rated at 70 BHP at 3000 rpm. Installation dimensions are 621 mm length x 589 mm width x 479 mm height (24.4 inch x 22 inch x 18.9 inch).

  1. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  2. Short‐term changes in the composition of active marine bacterial assemblages in response to diesel oil pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P.; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina

    2010-01-01

    Summary The changes caused by diesel oil pollution in the metabolically active bacterioplankton from an oligotrophic coastal location were analysed in laboratory microcosms (44 l) using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) as molecular marker. The aim was to simulate typical hydrocarbon pollution events in a coastal area exploited for seasonal touristic activities. The experiment consisted in addition of low amounts of diesel oil without nutrients to seawater collected at different times (winter and summer). Bacterial diversity was analysed by terminal‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (T‐RFLP) profiling of 16S rRNAs after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR), and by generation of 16S rRNA clone libraries in control and diesel‐polluted microcosms. Diesel addition caused a twofold increase in prokaryotic numbers in comparison with controls at the end of the experiment, both in winter and summer microcosms. Bacterioplankton composition, determined by 16S rRNA T‐RFLP data, changed rapidly (within 17 h) in response to treatment. The resulting communities were different in microcosms with water collected in summer and winter. A reduction in diversity (Shannon index, calculated on the basis of T‐RFLP data) was observed only in summer microcosms. This was due to the rapid increase of phylotypes affiliated to the Oceanospirillaceae, not observed in winter microcosms. After diesel treatment there was a reduction in the number of phylotypes related to SAR11, SAR86 and picocyanobacteria, while phylotypes of the Roseobacter clade, and the OMG group seemed to be favoured. Our results show that diesel pollution alone caused profound effects on the bacterioplankton of oligotrophic seawater, and explained many of the differences in diversity reported previously in pristine and polluted sites in this coastal area. PMID:21255357

  3. Effect ofHydrogen Use on Diesel Engine Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceraat, A.; Pana, C.; Negurescu, N.; Nutu, C.; Mirica, I.; Fuiorescu, D.

    2016-11-01

    Necessity of pollutant emissions decreasing, a great interest aspect discussed at 2015 Paris Climate Conference, highlights the necessity of alternative fuels use at diesel engines. Hydrogen is considered a future fuel for the automotive industry due to its properties which define it as the cleanest fuel and due to the production unlimited sources. The use of hydrogen as fuel for diesel engines has a higher degree of complexity because of some hydrogen particularities which lead to specific issues of the hydrogen use at diesel engine: tendency of uncontrolled ignition with inlet backfire, in-cylinder combustion with higher heat release rates and with high NOx level, storage difficulties. Because hydrogen storing on vehicle board implies important difficulties in terms of safety and automotive range, the partial substitution of diesel fuel by hydrogen injected into the inlet manifold represents the most efficient method. The paper presents the results of the experimental researches carried on a truck diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel and hydrogen, in-cylinder phenomena's study showing the influence of some parameters on combustion, engine performance and pollutant emissions. The paper novelty is defined by the hydrogen fuelling method applied to diesel engine and the efficient control of the engine running.

  4. Minimum Favorable Conditions for Hydrogen-Diesel Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Jacob Dylan

    A test apparatus was designed and fabricated that allowed very small amounts of diesel fuel to be injected into a hydrogen-air mixture. This apparatus was designed to be able to operate near the limits of diesel fuel injectors. The purpose of this apparatus is to find out if the injectors in diesel engines are capable of igniting a hydrogen-air mixture when operated at their limits and to explore past their limits for further advancement in the field of dual-fuel hydrogen-diesel combustion. The minimum flow rate of diesel fuel the apparatus could produce was 120.46 (cm3)/min and the fastest response time that could be achieved was 1 ms. Both of these parameters at least met the limits of the current diesel injection setups. The smallest mass of diesel fuel that could be injected was 15.7 mg. This mass produced combustion in the hydrogen-air mixture for all hydrogen concentrations and temperatures tested.

  5. West Virginia Diesel Study, CRADA MC96-034, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gautam

    1998-08-05

    The global objective of the recently completed Phase 1 of the West Virginia Diesel Study, at West Virginia University, was to evaluate mass emission rates of exhaust emissions from diesel powered equipment specified by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission. The experimental data generated in this study has been utilized by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission to promulgate initial rules, requirements and standards governing the operation of diesel equipment in underground coal mines.

  6. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoliang Ma; Michael Sprague; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2002-10-01

    In order to reduce the sulfur level in liquid hydrocarbon fuels for environmental protection and fuel cell applications, deep desulfurization of a model diesel fuel and a real diesel fuel was conducted by our SARS (selective adsorption for removing sulfur) process using the adsorbent A-2. Effect of temperature on the desulfurization process was examined. Adsorption desulfurization at ambient temperature, 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over A-2 is efficient to remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the model diesel fuel, but difficult to remove 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Adsorption desulfurization at 150 C over A-2 can efficiently remove DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT in the model diesel fuel. The sulfur content in the model diesel fuel can be reduced to less than 1 ppmw at 150 C without using hydrogen gas. The adsorption capacity corresponding to the break-through point is 6.9 milligram of sulfur per gram of A-2 (mg-S/g-A-2), and the saturate capacity is 13.7 mg-S/g-A-2. Adsorption desulfurization of a commercial diesel fuel with a total sulfur level of 47 ppmw was also performed at ambient temperature and 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over the adsorbent A-2. The results show that only part of the sulfur compounds existing in the low sulfur diesel can be removed by adsorption over A-2 at such operating conditions, because (1) the all sulfur compounds in the low sulfur diesel are the refractory sulfur compounds that have one or two alkyl groups at the 4- and/or 6-positions of DBT, which inhibit the approach of the sulfur atom to the adsorption site; (2) some compounds coexisting in the commercial low sulfur diesel probably inhibit the interaction between the sulfur compounds and the adsorbent. Further work in determining the optimum operating conditions and screening better adsorbent is desired.

  7. HEALTH EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST: AN HEI PERSPECTIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Jane

    2000-08-20

    Diesel engines have many advantages, including good fuel economy, power, durability, lower emissions of some pollutants (such as carbon monoxide) and of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). However, there are a number of concerns that need to be addressed: (1) emissions of nitrogen oxides (which contribute to ozone formation) and of particulate matter (PM); (2) questions about cancer and other health effects from exposure to diesel PM; and (3) as efforts to decrease emissions progress, a need to understand whether the nature and toxicity of the PM emitted has changed. This paper focuses on (1) carcinogenicity data, (2) noncancer effects, and (3) diesel as part of the complex ambient mixture of PM.

  8. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  9. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  10. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa. PMID:21234367

  11. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  12. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  13. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.550 What is the definition of a...

  14. 40 CFR 80.592 - What records must be kept by entities in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements § 80.592 What records must be kept by entities...

  15. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  16. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle or nonroad diesel engine (including locomotive, or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided... engine (except for locomotive or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided for in paragraph (i) of... nonroad diesel engine (including locomotive, or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided for......

  17. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicle or nonroad diesel engine (including locomotive, or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided... engine (except for locomotive or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided for in paragraph (i) of... vehicle or nonroad diesel engine (excluding locomotive, or marine diesel engines). (4) From December......

  18. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicle or nonroad diesel engine (including locomotive, or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided... engine (except for locomotive or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided for in paragraph (i) of... vehicle or nonroad diesel engine (excluding locomotive, or marine diesel engines). (4) From December......

  19. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicle or nonroad diesel engine (including locomotive, or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided... engine (except for locomotive or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided for in paragraph (i) of... nonroad diesel engine (including locomotive, or marine diesel engines). (4) Except as provided for......

  20. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  1. Source apportionment of diesel and spark ignition exhaust aerosol using on-road data from the Minneapolis metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jason P.; Kittelson, David B.; Watts, Winthrop F.

    Air quality measurements were made on interstate highways in the Minneapolis metropolitan area. Gas and aerosol concentrations were measured on weekdays and weekends. By exploiting the difference in the relative volumes of heavy duty (HD) diesel and light duty (LD) spark ignition (SI) vehicles on weekdays and weekends, we were able to estimate apportioned fuel specific emissions. The on-road, apportioned, fuel specific particle number emissions factors, estimated from condensation particle counter (CPC) measurements were 1.34±0.2×10 16 particles kg -1 for diesels and 7.1±1.6×10 15 particles kg -1 for spark ignition vehicles. Estimates from the scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) measurements were 2.1±0.3×10 15 particles kg -1 for diesels and 3.9±0.6×10 14 particles kg -1 for SI vehicles. The difference between CPC and SMPS measurements is mainly due to different lower size detection limits of the instruments, ˜3 and ˜10 nm, respectively. On a weekly weighted basis and on weekdays, the majority of particle number was attributed to HD diesel traffic. Weekend production of particles can be primarily attributed to light duty SI automobiles. On a per vehicle basis, HD vehicles produced substantially greater numbers of particles. On a fuel specific basis, HD vehicles produce slightly higher concentrations of particles than light duty vehicles. The relative contribution of LD vehicles to particle number emissions increased as particle size decreased. The HD apportioned size distributions were similar to size distributions measured during other on-road and laboratory studies. The LD apportioned size distribution was bounded by laboratory and on-road size distributions. Our work is representative of summer, highway cruise conditions. It is likely that under cold start and high load operating conditions LD emissions will increase relative to HD emissions.

  2. Optimum cylinder cooling for advanced diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Rodman, S.; Skerget, L.; Delic, M.

    1998-07-01

    Continuous demand for higher specific engine output simultaneously introduces problems of higher mechanical and thermal stresses of the engine components. Uneven temperature distribution in the cylinder wall of a diesel engine, especially when air-cooled, is well known. Peak local temperatures, large circumferential and longitudinal temperature gradients provoke deformations that, in turn, affect the reliability of the engine. As the result of intensive numerical and experimental investigations, a horizontal, curved channel fed with engine lubrication oil was introduced in the upper part of the air-cooled cylinder. Optimization of the channel design, its position, and determination of suitable asymmetrical split oil flow have led to more favorable cylinder temperature distribution, similar to that obtained by advanced water-cooled engines. Analyses of the local laminar oil-flow phenomena and local heat transfer distribution is curved channels are discussed in the paper and can be successfully applied to advanced liquid-cooled engines.

  3. Optimum cylinder cooling for advanced diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Rodman, S.; Skerget, L.; Delic, M.

    1996-12-31

    Continuous demand for higher specific engine output simultaneously introduces problems of higher mechanical and thermal stresses of the engine components. Uneven temperature distribution in the cylinder wall of a Diesel engine, especially when air-cooled, is well known. Peak local temperatures, large circumferential and longitudinal temperature gradients provoke deformations that in turn affect the reliability of the engine. As the result of intensive numerical and experimental investigations a horizontal, curved channel fed with engine lubrication oil was introduced in the upper part of the air-cooled cylinder. Optimization of the channel design, its position, and determination of suitable asymmetrical split oil-flow have led to more favorable cylinder temperature distribution, similar to that obtained by advanced water-cooled engines. Analyses of the local laminar oil-flow phenomena and local heat transfer distribution in curved channels can be successfully and effectively applied to advanced liquid-cooled engines.

  4. Oxidation and Gum Formation in Diesel Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AD A157 41@ OX<IDATION AND GUM FORMATION IN DIESEL FUELS(U) SRI i/i INTERNATIONAL MENLO PARK CA CHEMISTRY LAB F R MAYO 0MAY 85 ARO-2i65 2-EG DRA29-84...A333 Ravenswood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAMIE AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT OATS U. S. Army Research Office May 3, 1985 Post Office...0e ’-’’ŕ %m. Ř P 0I 0 Da Ř a 0 0 C; C4 C4 𔃾 0 000 00 -e -0 It@ ~~~9 %a ca 04 0I 4%D ’ t. X0 .0 .~ .0.9 .9.A A .0 ... 0 A 00. Z f%4~ 8 0 ; 4 a N

  5. Vehicle testing of Cummins turbocompound diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brands, M. C.; Werner, J. R.; Hoehne, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two turbocompound diesel engines were installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption potential and performance characteristics. One turbocompound powered vehicle was evaluated at the Cummins Pilot Center where driveability, fuel consumption, torsional vibration, and noise were evaluated. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% benefit for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved driveability, improved gradeability, and marginally superior engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.

  6. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  7. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  8. Production of diesel fuel from light olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1986-03-01

    Mobile Research and Development Corporation has developed a catalytic process for converting light olefinic compounds to high quality gasoline and distillate. The process has been named Mobil Olefin to Gasoline and Distillate (MOGD) Process. Based on the Mobile zeolite catalyst ZSM-5, light olefins can be shape selectively oligomerized to higher molecular weight iso-olefins. In the gasoline boiling range, these olefins have a high octane number and for the diesel fuel range product a high cetane number and low pour point following hydrogenation. Through normally designed to process propylene or butylene, MOGD is applicable to a wide range of feed streams ranging from ethylene to 400/sup 0/F endpoint olefinic naphtha. The process has been tested using commercially-produced catalyst in refinery scale equipment.

  9. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  10. Diesel Exhaust Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Influenza ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mice were necropsied at day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection and lung tissue was assessed for virus titers by TCID50, lung injury and inflammation. Lung and lymph node DC populations (CD11c+, MHCII, CD45+, CD80+ and CD86+) were identified by flow cytometry. Prior exposure to DE significantly increased viral titers in the lung at 4 and 8 days post infection in association with increased neutrophil influx and lung injury. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including IP-10, MCP-1, GM-CSF, and IL-1β, and the antiviral cytokine IFN-β were also increased at days 1, 4 and 8 post infection compared to air/flu controls. The number of DCs in the lung was not affected with previous exposure to DE, however the lymph nodes had increased number of mature DCs at 1, 4, and 8 days post infection compared to the air/flu controls. We conclude that exposure to DE prior to an influenza infection increases pulmonary inflammation, viral titers, and stimulates more DCs to migrate to the lymph nodes and mature as a consequence of the DE-enhanced influenza infection. Numerous studies have shown that diesel exhaust (DE) decreases resistance to respiratory infection and can alter the maturation and migration of dendritic cells (DCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on susceptibilty to influenza infection in mice and to determine if this correlated with changes in the pulmonary DC populations. BALB/c mice were exposed to air or 0.5 mg/m3 DE from a diesel-power

  11. Diesel injector fouling bench test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinoha, Leon L.; Yost, Douglas M.; Lestz, Sidney J.

    1992-06-01

    Compared to conventional compression ignition (CI) engine operation with the fuel being delivered at approximately 149 C (300 F), adiabatic engine operation potentially may deliver the fuel at temperatures as high as 260 C (500 F). Hypergolic CI engine combustion systems now in theoretical design stages will deliver fuel at temperatures approaching 427 to 538 C (800 to 1000 F). The ability of a fuel to resist formation of deposits on internal injector system surfaces is a form of thermal oxidative stability for which test methodology will be required. The injector Fouling Bench Test (IFBT) methodology evaluated in this report will assist in defining fuel contribution to injector fouling and control of fuel thermal stability in procurement specifications. The major observations from this project are discussed. Forty-hour cyclic IFB tests employing both Bosch APE 113 and Detroit Diesel (DD) N70 injectors are viable procedures for evaluating fuel effects on injector fouling. Cyclic operation appears to be superior to steady-state operation for both type injectors. Eighty-hour cyclic tests are more discriminating than 40-hour cyclic tests using the Bosch APE 113 injectors. JFTOT tests of fuels provide directional information on thermal stability-related deposits and filter plugging but show limited good correlation with IFBT DD N70 ratings, and none with IFBT Bosch APE 113 injector ratings. Deposition on injector pintles was more realistically rated by optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) than conventional visual and bench rating methods. High-sulfur fuel readily caused sticking of Detroit Diesel injectors. Injector sticking is an important mode of injector fouling.

  12. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Long, Christopher M.; Bunn, William B.; Lapin, Charles A.; McClellan, Roger O.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in “New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)” from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the “traditional diesel exhaust” (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to'lung overload."The species specificity

  13. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Bunn, William B; Lapin, Charles A; McClellan, Roger O; Valberg, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in "New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)" from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to "lung overload." The species specificity of the

  14. Photochemical Reaction Altered Cardiac Toxicity of Diesel Exhaust Inhalation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have indicated an association between urban air pollution exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of inhaled diesel exhaust and compared with photochemically altered d...

  15. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  16. Bioassay-Directed Fractionation of Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels are being developed as alternatives to petroleum-derived products, but published research is contradictory regarding the mutagenic activity of such emissions relative to those from petroleum diesel. We performed bioassay-directed fractionation and analyzed the polycyclic...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.13 - Diesel fuel additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biodiesel, also referred to as B100, when used as an additive. Diesel fuel additive does not mean neat biodiesel when used as a fuel or blended biodiesel fuel (e.g., B20). (b) Minimum biobased content....

  18. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AFTER DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled environmental pollutants have a possible role in modulating the susceptibility of humans to respiratory infections. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and their effects on pulmonary infections is of great concern. Influenza infections cause ...

  19. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  20. NOx emissions from diesel passenger cars worsen with age

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-02-17

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting formore » the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. Finally, we suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.« less