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Sample records for diet restricted rats

  1. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-11-15

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD{sub 100} dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha} and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 {+-}14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 {+-} 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMP{alpha}2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}mol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 {+-} 1.9 {mu}mol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway.

  2. Effects of diet, energy restriction and diabetes on hexose transport in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H D; Schedl, H P

    1979-05-01

    1. Effects of dietary composition, energy restriction, and diabetes on hexose absorption were examined by feeding male rats isoenergetic, semi-synthetic diets of differing carbohydrate and protein content. Diets were carbohydrate, (g/kg): 890 sucrose; carbohydrate-protien, 500 sucrose, 390 casein; or protein, 890 casein. An additional group was fed on commercial rat chow ad lib. 2. Hexose (3-O-methyl-D-glucose) absorption was measured by luminal perfusion of the entire small intestine in situ. Absorption by the total small intestine, i.e. absorption per rat, and absorption per g dry weight of mucosa (specific absorption) were calculated. 3. When semi-synthetic diets were fed at 210 kJ/d to normal animals absorption depended on composition of diets: carbohydrate enhanced or protein suppressed hexose absorption. Dietary carbohydrate as glucose, dextrimaltose or starch gave the same hexose absorption response as sucrose. 4. When diets of normal rats were restricted to 118 kJ/d, specific absorption was independent of dietary composition and was increased for all dietary groups to the level of the group fed on the carbohydrate diet at 210 kJ/d. 5. When diabetic rats were given 210 kJ/d, hexose specific absorption was the same for all diabetic groups independent of dietary composition and was equal to that of controls given carbohydrate, but greater than that of protein-fed controls. 6. Thus, when two of the three stimuli (i.e. carbohydrate diet plus energy restriction or diabetes) were combined, the effect was not additive, and the response of hexose specific absorption to diabetes and energy restriction was the same: absorption was independent of dietary composition and was stimulated relative to controls fed on diets containing protein. 7. The pattern of response of total small intestinal hexose absorption to the stimuli of dietary composition, energy restriction and diabetes was similar to that of specific absorption. 8. Compared with groups given semi

  3. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  4. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  5. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27649241

  6. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Rivas, Donato A; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J; McClung, James P; Fielding, Roger A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g(-1) lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR-specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content-may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27649241

  7. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Rivas, Donato A; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J; McClung, James P; Fielding, Roger A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g(-1) lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR-specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content-may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  8. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  9. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. PMID:23890357

  10. Combining restricted diet with forced or voluntary exercises improves hippocampal BDNF and cognitive function in rats.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alzubi, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (RDt) and exercise (Ex) enhances cognitive function due, at least in part, levels of neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This study examined changes in BDNF levels and data acquisition and retention following every-other-day RDt alone, and combined with either voluntary wheel (VxRDt) or forced swimming Exs (FxRDt) in rats. Hippocampal BDNF was measured using ELISA while learning and memory formation were assessed with the radial arm water maze (RAWM) paradigm. After 6 weeks, VxRDt and FxRDt enhanced BDNF levels, and short- and long-term memories (p < 0.05). The magnitude of the increase in BDNF was significantly higher in VxRDt group than in other groups (p < 0.05). However, no differences were found in learning and memory formation between the Ex regiments (VxRDt versus FxRDt). Additionally, RDt alone neither modulated BDNF level nor enhanced learning and memory formation (p > 0.05). These results suggest more important role of Ex, as opposed to RDt, in enhancing learning and memory formation. In addition, VxRDt appears to be more potent in enhancing brain BDNF levels than FxRDt, when combined with RDt in rats. PMID:26000806

  11. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet.

  12. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  13. Food restriction and refeeding induces changes in lipid pathways and fat deposition in the adipose and hepatic tissues in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Maria, Adriana Simone Lopes Santa; de Aquino, Antônio Eduardo; Oishi, Jorge Camargo; Rossi, Elizeu Antônio; Garcia de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Cláudia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of successive cycles of a moderately restrictive diet and refeeding with a high-fat diet on the metabolism of the adipose and hepatic tissues of obese rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: a chow diet; a high-fat diet; a moderate caloric restriction; or a moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding. Some animals in each group were given [1-(14)C]triolein intragastrically, while others received an intraperitoneal injection of 3 mCi (3)H(2)O. All animals were killed by decapitation. The retroperitoneal, visceral epididymal and omental white adipose tissues, brown adipose tissue, liver and blood were immediately removed. The lipid uptake from the diet, in vivo rate of lipogenesis, percentage of fat, lipid profile and leptin concentration were analysed. The high-fat diet promoted an increase in fatty liver (P ≤ 0.05), adiposity mass (P ≤ 0.05) and the plasma concentration of leptin (P ≤ 0.05) and a decreased lipid uptake in white adipose tissue depots (P ≤ 0.05) in relation to the chow diet. The moderate caloric restriction did not reverse the changes promoted by the high-fat diet but induced a small decrease in adiposity, which was reversed after refeeding, and the animals maintained a dyslipidaemic profile and high fat deposition in the liver. We can conclude that the high-fat diet and subsequent moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding increased the risks of developing visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which suggests that this type of experimental protocol can be used to study mechanisms related to the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Nutritional recovery with a soybean diet after weaning reduces lipogenesis but induces inflammation in the liver in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation. PMID:25892856

  15. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation. PMID:25892856

  16. Nutritional recovery with a soybean diet after weaning reduces lipogenesis but induces inflammation in the liver in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation.

  17. Moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats programs their offspring for a better response to HF diet feeding in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Palou, Mariona; Torrens, Juana María; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats on the expression of key genes involved in energy balance of their adult offspring (CR) and their adaptations under high-fat (HF) diet. Dams were fed with either ad libitum normal-fat (NF) diet or a 30% caloric restricted diet throughout lactation. After weaning, the offspring were fed with NF diet until the age of 15 weeks and then with an NF or a HF diet until the age of 28 weeks, when they were sacrificed. Body weight and food intake were followed. Blood parameters and the expression of selected genes in hypothalamus and white adipose tissue (WAT) were analysed. CR ate fewer calories and showed lower body weight gain under HF diet than their controls. CR males were also resistant to the increase of insulin and leptin occurring in their controls under HF diet, and HF diet exposed CR females showed lower circulating fasting triglyceride levels than controls. In the hypothalamus, CR males had higher ObRb mRNA levels than controls, and CR females displayed greater InsR mRNA levels than controls and decreased neuropeptide Y mRNA levels when exposed to HF diet. CR males maintained WAT capacity of fat uptake and storage and of fatty-acid oxidation under HF diet, whereas these capacities were impaired in controls; female CR showed higher WAT ObRb mRNA levels than controls. These results suggest that 30% caloric restriction in lactating dams ameliorates diet-induced obesity in their offspring by enhancing their sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling, but in a gender-dependent manner.

  18. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  19. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K. N.; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  20. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-05-20

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity.

  1. Intrauterine growth restriction combined with a maternal high-fat diet increases hepatic cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Zalla, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Jeanette R; Yu, Baifeng; Yu, Xing; Chan, Gary; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) increase the risk of hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Many pregnant women eat a HFD, thus exposing the fetus to a HFD in utero. The cumulative effect of in utero exposure to IUGR and a HFD on offspring cholesterol levels remains unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanism through which IUGR and maternal HFD consumption increase cholesterol. We hypothesize that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD would increase offspring serum and hepatic cholesterol accumulation via alteration in levels of key proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. To test our hypothesis we used a rat model of surgically induced IUGR and fed the dams a regular diet or a HFD HFD-fed dams consumed the same kilocalories as regular diet-fed dams, with no difference between surgical intervention groups. In the offspring, IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increased hepatic cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein levels, and Ldlr activity in female rat offspring at birth and both sexes at postnatal day 14 relative to non-IUGR offspring both from regular diet- and HFD-fed dams. These findings suggest that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increases hepatic cholesterol accumulation via increased LDL cholesterol uptake into the liver with resulting persistent increases in hepatic cholesterol accumulation.

  2. Calorie Restriction with a High-Fat Diet Effectively Attenuated Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress-Related Markers in Obese Tissues of the High Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seungae; Park, Na-Young; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Lim, Yunsook

    2012-01-01

    Obesity characterized by increased mass of adipose tissue leads to systemic inflammation. Calorie restriction (CR) improves parameters associated with immune response and antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that CR with a high fat diet (HFCR) regulates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress damage in a high fat diet induced obesity (HF group). We investigated effect of HFCR on inflammation and oxidative stress-related markers in liver and adipose tissues as well as adipokines in plasma. HFCR lowered liver triglyceride levels, total cholesterol levels, and the plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio to normal levels and improved glucose tolerance. HFCR also improved fatty liver and normalized adipocyte size and morphology. HFCR reduced lipid peroxidation and decreased the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthetase, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-E2-related factor, and heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. Moreover, HFCR suppressed the expression levels of C- reactive protein and manganese superoxide dismutase in the adipose tissue in the HF group. These results suggest that HFCR may have beneficial effects on inflammation and oxidative stress as well as lipid profiles in the HF diet induced obesity. Moreover, HFCR may be a good way to increase compliance in obese patients and to prevent obesity induced complications without changes in dietary pattern. PMID:22778500

  3. Nutritional deficiencies in children on restricted diets.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Midge; Danner, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Pediatric nutritional deficiencies are associated not only with poverty and developing countries, but also in children in the developed world who adhere to restricted diets. At times, these diets are medically necessary, such as the gluten-free diet for management of celiac disease or exclusion diets in children with food allergies. At other times, the diets are self-selected by children with behavioral disorders, or parent-selected because of nutrition misinformation, cultural preferences, alternative nutrition therapies, or misconceptions regarding food tolerance. Health care providers must be vigilant in monitoring both growth and feeding patterns to identify inappropriate dietary changes that may result in nutritional deficiencies.

  4. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  5. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:27142740

  6. Content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver of rats fed restricted diets supplemented with vitamins B2, B6 and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Bertrandt, Jerzy; Klos, Anna; Debski, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate an influence of nutritional deficiency and dietary addition of vit. B(2), B(6) and folic acid on PUFAs content in rats' serum and liver. Limitation of consumption full value diet to 50% of its previously determined daily consumption, enriched with m/a vitamins, significant decreased of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids as well as distinctly increased arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids content in serum in 30th day. In 60th day lower content of AA and DHA fatty acids was found. Nutrition with such diet, lasting 90 days caused decrease of LA content and increase of AA. Diet limitation to its 30% of daily consumption decreased of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in the 30th day, while AA and DHA content was increased in the 60th day. Distinct decrease of AA content and increase of EPA content were found in the 90th day of experiment. Use of diets, with limited consumption to 50% caused increase of LA and ALA acids content while AA and DHA acids content were significantly decreased in the liver, in 90th day. Limited consumption supplemented diet to 30% caused in liver significant decrease of LA and increase of EPA acids content.

  7. Long-term, calorie-restricted intake of a high-fat diet in rats reduces impulse control and ventral striatal D2 receptor signalling - two markers of addiction vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy K; Sussman, Jacob L; Kaur, Sukhbir; D'souza, Anna M; Kieffer, Timothy J; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2015-12-01

    High impulsivity, mediated through ventral striatal dopamine signalling, represents an established risk factor for substance abuse, and may likewise confer vulnerability to pathological overeating. Mechanistically, the assumption is that trait impulsivity facilitates the initiation of maladaptive eating styles or choices. However, whether consumption of appetitive macronutrients themselves causes deficits in impulse control and striatal signalling, thereby contributing to cognitive changes permissive of overeating behaviour, has yet to be considered. We examined the effects of chronic maintenance on restricted equicaloric, but high-fat or high-sugar, diets (48 kcal/day; 60 kcal% fat or sucrose) on rats' performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task, indexing impulsivity and attention. Markers of dopamine signalling in the dorsal and ventral striatum, and plasma insulin and leptin levels, were also assessed. Rats maintained on the high-fat diet (HFD) were more impulsive, whereas the high-sugar diet (HSD) did not alter task performance. Importantly, body weight and hormone levels were similar between groups when behavioural changes were observed. Maintenance on HFD, but not on HSD, reduced the levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2 R), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphophorylated CREB (Ser133) proteins in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum. D2 R expression in the ventral striatum also negatively correlated with impulsive responding, independently of diet. These data indicate that chronic exposure to even limited amounts of high-fat foods may weaken impulse control and alter neural signalling in a manner associated with vulnerability to addictions - findings that have serious implications for the propagation of uncontrolled eating behaviour in obesity and binge-eating disorder.

  8. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  9. Effect of high fat, fiber and caloric restriction on rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D.; Van Sant, J.; Butler, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female rats given 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were placed on diets of control fat (CF-4.5%) or high fat (HF-20%) with either control fiber (6%) or high fiber (FB-12%). A 60% reduction in the CF diet was used to study the effects of caloric restriction on tumorigenesis. Results showed that HF diets had a shorter latency period than CF rats. The respective average number of tumors per rat and tumor volume were 7.3 +/- 1.3 and 23694 mm/sup 2/ for rats on a HF diet and 5.1+/-1.1 and 9144 mm/sup 3/ for CF rats. Addition of high fiber to the diets reduced the tumor incidence from 95% to 70% in the CF group but did not reduce the incidence in HF group. Although tumor number was reduced to 3.7+/-1.5 in CF+FB rats, the tumor volumes were not reduced (8950 mm/sup 3/). Rats fed HF+FB did not have fewer tumors (7.0+/-1.1), but did show a 53% reduction in tumor load. The estrogen dependent enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was not affected by dietary levels of fat, which suggests that the promotional effects of fat may not be through estrogen stimulation. None of the caloric restricted rats had tumors 12 weeks post-DMBA. These restricted rats all had significantly elevated levels of serum corticosterone.

  10. Regional metabolic alterations in the hypothalamus of restricted rats

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly, J.L.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Alterations of intermediary and neurotransmitter metabolism in the hypothalamus of rats on restricted intakes have been documented. The rates of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were measured in hypothalamic sites of restricted or ad libitum fed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230 g) receiving a semi-purified diet received either ad lib (AL), 3/7 of ad lib as a single meal at 1700 h (R), 3/7 of ad lib by intubation as three equally spaced meals (TF) or ad lib for 3 d followed by 4 d of starvation (S). Rats were sacrificed at 0800 h and the brains quickly removed. FAO: Two 1.0 mm slices were dissected from the hypothalamus and areas corresponding to the VMN, PVN, and DMN removed with a 20 gauge punch. An 18 gauge punch was used to remove MFB/LHA. Bilateral punches were incubated at 37 C for 2 h in Krebs-bicarb. media containing (1-/sup 14/C) palmitate (0.1 ..mu..Ci)/..mu..mole). GAD: The VMN and MFB-LHA were dissected as above. GAD activity was measured in homogenates using L-(/sup 14/C) glutamate (1 /sup +/Ci/..mu..mole) as described by Tappaz et al. (1976). Restriction significantly reduced FAO rates in the MFB/LHA. FAO rate in the VMN was not altered when restriction occurred as a single meal per day (R) but was reduced with restriction as three small meals per day (TF) or a 4 d starvation (S). No differences were noted in PVN or DMN FAO rates. GAD activity did not differ with restriction except in response to starvation in the VMN.

  11. Cold acclimation in food-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Puerta, M L; Abelenda, M

    1987-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and composition of rats exposed at 6 degrees C either with food ad libitum or food-restricted were compared with those of rats in the thermoneutral zone, with food ad libitum. Cold acclimation with food ad libitum increases food intake and prevents body weight gains. IBAT (interscapular BAT) increases its mass and changes its composition after 3 weeks of cold exposure. Cold acclimation with food restriction produces a progressive decrease in body weight. IBAT mass increases after 3 weeks but changes in composition occur sooner. It is concluded that the overfeeding that accompanies cold acclimation is not necessary for non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT.

  12. Physically active rats lose more weight during calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Smyers, Mark E; Bachir, Kailey Z; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Novak, Colleen M

    2015-02-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity.

  13. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-01

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR. PMID:16045945

  14. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  15. Dietary fat type and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, M C; Jones, P J

    1998-08-01

    To investigate whether dietary fat source and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin levels and its association of leptin with insulin action, rats were fed diets containing either fish, safflower oil, or beef tallow (20% wt/wt) for 10 weeks. Groups of rats consumed each diet ad libitum or at 85% or 70% of ad libitum energy intake in a design that held fat intake constant. Graded levels of energy restriction caused body weight to decrease (P < 0.001) differently according to the dietary fat provided. Plasma leptin concentrations were 60% higher (P < 0.05) in the groups fed fish oil and safflower oil ad libitum compared with those in the beef tallow group, despite smaller perirenal fat mass and fat cell size in the fish oil-fed animals. Energy restriction resulted in a 62% decrease (P < 0.05) in leptin levels in fish oil- and safflower oil-fed rats, whereas no changes were observed in beef tallow-fed animals. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the fish oil group fed ad libitum compared with those in the two other diet groups. These data demonstrate a hyperleptinemic effect in animals consuming diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid, which can be normalized to the level of saturated fat consumption by mild energy restriction. Thus, dietary fatty acid composition, independent of adipose tissue mass, is an important determinant of circulating leptin level in diet-induced obesity.

  16. Calorie restriction aggravated cortical and trabecular bone architecture in ovariectomy-induced estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyejin; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Han Sung; Choue, Ryowon

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that calorie restriction (CR) and estrogen deficiency (ovariectomy [OVX]) would aggravate bone biomarkers and structural parameters in rats. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to sham-operated groups and fed either an ad libitum diet (SHAM-AL) or a CR diet (SHAM-CR); ovariectomy-operated groups were fed an ad libitum diet (OVX-AL) or a CR diet (OVX-CR). For 8 weeks, the OVX-AL and SHAM-AL groups were fed the same diet, whereas CR groups were fed a diet containing 50% fewer calories. Bone-related biomarkers and structural parameters (OC; deoxypyridinoline [DPD]; N-terminal telopeptide, NTx; architecture and mineralization; and microcomputed tomography images) were analyzed at the end of the experiment. The serum OC levels of calorie-restricted groups (SHAM-CR and OVX-CR) were significantly lower than those of the AL groups (SHAM-AL and OVX-AL) (P < .05). Urinary DPD levels of calorie-restricted and ovariectomized groups were higher than those of their counterparts (P < .05), whereas urinary NTx levels of calorie-restricted groups were higher than those of AL groups (P < .05). In regard to trabecular bone, the calorie-restricted and ovariectomized groups had lower values of bone volume to total volume, trabecular number, and bone mineral density, but higher values of trabecular separation than those of their counterparts (P < .05). Regarding cortical bone, the calorie-restricted groups had reduced values of bone volume, mean polar moment of inertia, and cortical thickness compared to the AL groups (P < .05). In conclusion, severe CR with or without OVX during the growth period in rats is equally detrimental to bone; CR has detrimental effects on trabecular and cortical bone; and estrogen deficiency only had an effect on trabecular bone.

  17. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  18. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed.

  19. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed. PMID:1445392

  20. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  1. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. PMID:26110252

  2. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-11

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  3. Dietary Salt Restriction Improves Cardiac and Adipose Tissue Pathology Independently of Obesity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Takuya; Murase, Tamayo; Takatsu, Miwa; Nagasawa, Kai; Matsuura, Natsumi; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) enhances salt sensitivity of blood pressure and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effects of dietary salt restriction on cardiac pathology associated with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. Methods and Results We investigated whether dietary salt restriction might ameliorate cardiac injury in DahlS.Z‐Leprfa/Leprfa (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt‐sensitive and Zucker rats and represent a model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats were fed a normal‐salt (0.36% NaCl in chow) or low‐salt (0.0466% NaCl in chow) diet from 9 weeks of age and were compared with similarly treated homozygous lean littermates (DahlS.Z‐Lepr+/Lepr+, or DS/lean rats). DS/obese rats fed the normal‐salt diet progressively developed hypertension and showed left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction at 15 weeks. Dietary salt restriction attenuated all of these changes in DS/obese rats. The levels of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and the expression of cardiac renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system genes were increased in DS/obese rats fed the normal‐salt diet, and dietary salt restriction downregulated these parameters in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats. In addition, dietary salt restriction attenuated the increase in visceral adipose tissue inflammation and the decrease in insulin signaling apparent in DS/obese rats without reducing body weight or visceral adipocyte size. Dietary salt restriction did not alter fasting serum glucose levels but it markedly decreased the fasting serum insulin concentration in DS/obese rats. Conclusions Dietary salt restriction not only prevents hypertension and cardiac injury but also ameliorates insulin resistance, without reducing obesity, in this model of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25468654

  4. Gestational protein restriction alters cell proliferation in rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; de Sousa Righi, Eloá Fernanda; Catisti, Rosana

    2016-04-01

    We recently showed that gestational protein restriction (GPR) alters the structure of the rat placenta on day 19 of gestation (dG). The aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal immunolocalization of proliferating cell antigen Ki67 in normal and GPR placental development. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal (NP, 17 % casein) or low-protein diet (LP, 6 % casein). Placentas and fetus were collected and weighed at 15, 17, 19 and 21 dG. Morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were performed. Immunoperoxidase was used to identify nuclear antigen Ki67 in placental sections. We observed a significant reduction in the number of trophoblast giant cells and glycogen cells in the LP group. Placental weight was significantly reduced only at 17 dG in the LP group, in parallel to a decrease in glycogen cells. From 15 to 21 dG, the thickness of the junctional zone (JZ) decreased in NP and LP animals, while that of the labyrinth zone (LZ) increased in parallel to a reduction in the number of proliferating cells in this LZ zone. GPR significantly inhibits cell proliferation in the JZ, especially at 15 and 17 dG. The ultrastructural appearance of the cytoplasm of giant and cytotrophoblastic cells indicates degeneration from 15 to 21 dG and this effect is enhanced in LP animals suggesting early aging. Offspring of NP dams were significantly heavier than offspring of LP dams at 21 dG. GPR causes modifications in specific regions of the placenta, cell proliferation inhibition and fetal growth restriction. PMID:26779652

  5. Gestational protein restriction alters cell proliferation in rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; de Sousa Righi, Eloá Fernanda; Catisti, Rosana

    2016-04-01

    We recently showed that gestational protein restriction (GPR) alters the structure of the rat placenta on day 19 of gestation (dG). The aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal immunolocalization of proliferating cell antigen Ki67 in normal and GPR placental development. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal (NP, 17 % casein) or low-protein diet (LP, 6 % casein). Placentas and fetus were collected and weighed at 15, 17, 19 and 21 dG. Morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were performed. Immunoperoxidase was used to identify nuclear antigen Ki67 in placental sections. We observed a significant reduction in the number of trophoblast giant cells and glycogen cells in the LP group. Placental weight was significantly reduced only at 17 dG in the LP group, in parallel to a decrease in glycogen cells. From 15 to 21 dG, the thickness of the junctional zone (JZ) decreased in NP and LP animals, while that of the labyrinth zone (LZ) increased in parallel to a reduction in the number of proliferating cells in this LZ zone. GPR significantly inhibits cell proliferation in the JZ, especially at 15 and 17 dG. The ultrastructural appearance of the cytoplasm of giant and cytotrophoblastic cells indicates degeneration from 15 to 21 dG and this effect is enhanced in LP animals suggesting early aging. Offspring of NP dams were significantly heavier than offspring of LP dams at 21 dG. GPR causes modifications in specific regions of the placenta, cell proliferation inhibition and fetal growth restriction.

  6. [Diet and water-salt balance in rats].

    PubMed

    Marina, A S; Kutina, A V; Natochin, Iu V

    2012-03-01

    We compared parameters of water-salt balance in Wistar female rats fed normal chows during more than 2 weeks. Potassium content was 1.4-fold higher in diet I than in diet II, and sodium end water content was 3.3- and 7.5-fold higher in diet II than in diet I. Blood osmolality and concentration of Na+, K+, Mg2+ were equal in rats fed different chow. In water-loaded rats (5 ml of water/100 bw per os) fed different chow, urine flow rate did not differ, but solute-free water excretion was higher by 40.2% in the rats fed diet II vs. diet I. The sort of diet did not affect the renal sodium excretion during oral administration of 5 ml 0.9% NaCl per 100 g bw to rats. After vasopressin injection solute-free water reabsorption was 1.5-fold higher in rats fed diet II. Natriuretic and hydruretic effect of exenatide, glucagon-like peptide 1 mimetic, was weaker in rats fed diet I. The data obtained indicate that organism can effectively maintain blood parameters. The modulation of hormone regulatory effects on water and sodium balance was found to depend on the state of organism under diet consumed continuously.

  7. Rats rapidly reject diets deficient in essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Koehnle, Thomas J; Russell, Matthew C; Gietzen, Dorothy W

    2003-07-01

    Omnivores must obtain diets balanced with respect to amino acids to support growth and protein synthesis. The standard paradigm used to study behavioral responses to amino acid deficiency combines deficient diets with dietary novelty. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of amino acid deficiency on the first meal of rats without the confounding effects of novelty. We report on a series of five studies of feeding behavior in rats. Rats were fed low protein diets for 5-7 d and then exposed to diets with and without essential amino acids. Rats consistently demonstrated recognition of essential amino acid deficiency within the first meal by a significant reduction in first meal duration, rejecting the deficient diets after just 12-16 min exposure. This is the first report of a rapid effect of amino acid-deficient diets without the confounding effects of dietary novelty.

  8. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  9. Liquid diets reduce cell proliferation but not neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Patten, A R; Moller, D J; Graham, J; Gil-Mohapel, J; Christie, B R

    2013-12-19

    Neurogenesis continues to occur in restricted regions of the brain throughout adulthood and can be modulated by dietary factors. Liquid or "soft" diets are commonly used for the administration of drugs in experimental models of disease, making it critical to determine whether dietary composition itself can affect neurogenesis. In this study Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a liquid or a solid diet of identical composition from weaning until young adulthood. No differences in neuronal differentiation and survival of newly born cells were observed between rats that were fed a liquid diet and those that received a solid diet. However, a significant reduction in hippocampal cell proliferation was observed in the liquid diet-fed group, as assessed by the expression of two endogenous proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The method of feeding did not alter the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in these animals, as no changes in circulating levels of corticosterone (CORT) were detected between liquid and solid diet-fed groups. There was also a significant reduction in cellular proliferation in the hypothalamus of liquid diet-fed rats, a brain region known to be involved in feeding-related behaviors. These findings indicate that liquid diets themselves can directly impact rates of cellular proliferation, but this does not seem to impact levels of overall neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  10. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  11. Effect of calorie restriction and refeeding on skin wound healing in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicole D; Li, Garrick D; Zhu, Min; Miller, Marshall; Levette, Andrew; Chachich, Mark E; Spangler, Edward L; Allard, Joanne S; Hyun, Dong-Hoon; Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a reliable anti-aging intervention that attenuates the onset of a number of age-related diseases, reduces oxidative damage, and maintains function during aging. In the current study, we assessed the effects of CR and other feeding regimens on wound healing in 7-month-old Fischer-344 rats from a larger cohort of rats that had been fed either ad libitum (AL) or 40% calorie restricted based on AL consumption. Rats were assigned to one of three diet groups that received three skin punch wounds along the dorsal interscapular region (12-mm diameter near the front limbs) of the back as follows: (1) CR (n = 8) were wounded and maintained on CR until they healed, (2) AL (n = 5) were wounded and maintained on AL until wound closure was completed, and (3) CR rats were refed (RF, n = 9) AL for 48 h prior to wounding and maintained on AL until they healed. We observed that young rats on CR healed more slowly while CR rats refed for 48 h prior to wounding healed as fast as AL fed rats, similar to a study reported in aged CR and RF mice (Reed et al. 1996). Our data suggest that CR subjects, regardless of age, fail to heal well and that provision of increased nutrition to CR subjects prior to wounding enhances the healing process.

  12. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-05-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.

  13. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  14. Serum leptin and insulin levels in lactating protein-restricted rats: implications for energy balance.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C L P; Macêdo, G M; Latorraca, M Q; Arantes, V C; Veloso, R V; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Nascimento, C M O; Gaíva, M H

    2007-01-01

    The present study analysed the effect of protein restriction on serum insulin and leptin levels and their relationship with energy balance during lactation. Four groups of rats received isocaloric diets containing 170 g protein/kg or 60 g protein/kg from pregnancy until the 14th day of lactation: control non-lactating, control lactating (both fed a control diet), low-protein non-lactating and low-protein lactating. Energy intake, body composition, energy balance, serum insulin and leptin concentrations and the relationship between these hormones and several factors related to obesity were analysed. Low-protein-intake lactating rats exhibited hypoinsulinaemia, hyperleptinaemia, hypophagia and decreased energy expenditure compared with control lactating rats. The protein level in the carcasses was lower in the low-protein lactating group than in the control lactating group, resulting in a higher fat content in the first group compared with the latter. Body fat correlated inversely with serum insulin and positively with serum leptin level. There was a significant negative correlation between serum leptin and energy intake, and a positive relationship between energy intake and serum insulin level in lactating rats and in the combined data from both groups. Energy expenditure was correlated positively with serum insulin and negatively with serum leptin in lactating rats and when data from control non-lactating and lactating rats were pooled. Lactating rats submitted to protein restriction, compared with lactating control rats, showed that maternal reserves were preserved owing to less severe negative energy balance. This metabolic adaptation was obtained, at least in part, by hypoinsulinaemia that resulted in increased insulin sensitivity favouring enhanced fat deposition, hyperleptinaemia and hypophagia. PMID:17217557

  15. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  16. Effect of protein supplemented cassava diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, V G; Leelamma, S

    1996-04-01

    The effect of feeding rats with cassava diet (tapioca) has been investigated with respect to the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and levels of TBARS. By varying the levels of protein in the diet and cyanide content of cassava, the possible role of a high protein diet in the prevention of oxidant stress has been shown. Rhodanese which detoxifes cyanide is also found to be inhibited in rats fed low protein diet while the inhibition was only marginal in the high protein fed groups. PMID:8754627

  17. Protein Restriction during Pregnancy Induces Hypertension in Adult Female Rat Offspring—Influence of Estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Sathishkumar, K; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that gestational dietary protein restriction in rats causes gender-related differences in development of offspring's blood pressure (BP) that is more pronounced in the males than females. Since such effects may depend on sex hormones, we investigated the role of estradiol in the development of hypertension in female offspring of protein restricted dams. Female offspring of pregnant rats fed normal (20%) or protein restricted (6%) casein diets throughout pregnancy were kept either, intact, ovariectomized or ovariectomized with estradiol supplementation. BP, estradiol and testosterone levels and vascular estrogen receptor (ER) were examined. BP was significantly higher and plasma estradiol levels were significantly lower by 34% in intact protein restricted female offspring compared to corresponding controls. Further decrease in estradiol levels by ovariectomy exacerbated hypertension in the protein restricted females with an earlier onset and more prominent elevation in BP compared to controls. Estradiol supplementation in ovariectomized protein restricted females significantly reversed ovariectomy-induced hypertension but did not normalize BP to control levels. The hypertensive protein restricted females have reduced vascular ERα expression that was unaffected by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement. In addition, the testosterone levels were significantly higher by 2.4-, 3.4-, and 2.8-fold in intact, ovariectomized and estradiol replaced protein restricted females compared to corresponding controls. Our data show that: 1) hypertension in protein restricted adult female offspring is associated with reduced plasma estradiol levels, 2) estradiol protects and limits the severity of hypertension in protein restricted females and contribute for sexual dimorphism, and 3) Estradiol replacement fails to completely reverse hypertension, which may be related to limited availability of vascular ERα receptors and/or increased circulating testosterone

  18. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  19. Protective role of curcumin against nicotine-induced genotoxicity on rat liver under restricted dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyaya, Gargi; Sinha, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Braja Dulal; Chakraborty, Anindita

    2008-07-01

    Nicotine, the well known addictive chemical of tobacco and active medication for several diseases, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Although it is absorbed through lungs with smoking and mainly metabolized in liver, its effect on liver injuries is not clear. This study was designed to evaluate the genotoxicity of nicotine and corresponding the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on liver of female populations particularly who used tobacco but deprived of healthy diet. The effects were investigated by measurement of total DNA concentration of liver tissues and Comet assay of liver tissue DNA damage of female rats maintained under normal and restricted protein diets. Total DNA contents in the liver tissues were observed to decrease more significantly (P<0.001) by nicotine in both dietary conditions. Significant (P<0.01) increase of total DNA content in normal dietary condition and more significant (P<0.001) increase of total DNA content in protein restricted condition of the liver tissues were observed due to curcumin supplementations. Highly significant (P<0.001) DNA damages (37% in normal diet and 56% in protein restricted diet) of the liver tissues were observed due to nicotine treatment. Curcumin reduced the nicotine-induced DNA damage percentage of the liver tissues more significantly (P<0.001) in protein restricted condition. Curcumin proved its potential to function against genotoxic effect by reducing the DNA damage activity of nicotine and minimized the percentage of DNA damage (50-60%) in protein restricted dietary condition. The degree of nicotine-induced genotoxicity therefore can be effectively compensated by the protective effect of curcumin in protein stress condition. PMID:18508046

  20. Adverse effects of sucrose-rich diets on uraemic rats.

    PubMed

    Laouari, D; Kleinknecht, C; Burtin, M; Hinglais, N; Lacour, B; Landais, P; Broyer, M

    1990-01-01

    The nature of carbohydrate may affect the tolerance and progression of uraemia. The effects of three diets differing only in their carbohydrate source: namely corn starch (C), glucose (G) or sucrose (S) were examined. Study 1 examined the effects of the three carbohydrate diets on unilaterally nephrectomised control rats and severely uraemic rats. The three carbohydrates produced similar nutritional effects in uninephrectomised rats, whereas sucrose rapidly induced anorexia, stunting and slightly accelerated renal damage in uraemia. Study 2 examined the long-term effects of the three carbohydrates in moderate uraemia under conditions of high and identical carbohydrate intakes. Hyperphagic Zucker uraemic rats (F rats) received a daily allotment of each diet plus pure carbohydrate. Lean uraemic rats (L rats) received the same dietary allotment without the carbohydrate supplement. The F rats fed sucrose showed greater morbidity and mortality but little renal deterioration. Their plasma triglycerides increased dramatically. The L rats fed sucrose had the greatest urinary protein, the least creatinine clearance and the most severe renal damage. Thus, sucrose-rich but not glucose-rich diets have two adverse effects in uraemia: a deterioration in nutritional status, perhaps related to abnormal fructose utilisation, and a long-term effect on the kidney, resulting in accelerated renal deterioration.

  1. Low-protein diets reduce PKAalpha expression in islets from pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Milanski, Marciane; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Ferreira, Fabiano; de Barros Reis, Marise Auxiliadora; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Collares-Buzato, Carla Beatriz; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effect of protein restriction on insulin secretion and the expression of protein kinase (PK)Aalpha and PKCalpha in islets from control and pregnant rats. Adult control nonpregnant (CN) and control pregnant (CP) rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%), whereas low-protein nonpregnant (LPN) and low-protein pregnant (LPP) rats were fed a low-protein diet (6%) for 15 d. In the presence of 2.8 and 8.3 mmol glucose/L, insulin secretion by islets of CP rats was higher than that by islets of CN rats. Compared with the CN groups, insulin secretion by islets of LPN rats was lower with 8.3 but not with 2.8 mmol glucose/L. The insulin secretion by islets of LPP rats was higher than by LPN rats at both glucose concentrations. IBMX (1 mmol/L), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, increased insulin secretion by islets from pregnant rats, and this effect was greater in islets of CP rats than in LPP rats. Forskolin (0.01-100 micromol/L), a stimulator of adenylyl cyclase, increased insulin secretion only in islets of CN and CP rats, with a higher 50% effective concentration in islets of CP rats compared with CN rats. The insulin secretion induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (a stimulator of PKC) was higher in islets of LPN and LPP rats than in the respective controls, especially at 8.3 mmol glucose/L. PKAalpha, but not PKCalpha, expression was lower in islets of rats fed low protein than in the controls, regardless of the physiological status of the rats. All endocrine cells of the islets, including beta-cells, expressed the PKAalpha isoform. The cytoplasmic distribution of this enzyme in beta-cells was not modified by pregnancy and/or protein restriction. In conclusion, our results indicate that the response of islets from rats fed low protein during pregnancy is similar to that of control rats, at least for physiologic glucose concentration. However, the decreased response to IBMX and forskolin indicates decreased production and/or sensitivity to cAMP; this

  2. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

  3. Developmental programming of cardiovascular disease following intrauterine growth restriction: findings utilising a rat model of maternal protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T; Black, M Jane

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of "programming". The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype.

  4. Glucose homeostasis in pregnant rats submitted to dietary protein restriction.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Maria Alice Rostom; Luciano, Eliete; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Machado de Oliveira, Camnila Aparecida; Boschero, Antonio Carlos

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, we examined the effects of feeding a low protein diet during pregnancy on glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in rats. Young (60 days), pregnant (P) or non-pregnant (NP) rats were fed during pregnancy or for 21 days (the NP) a normal (17%) or a low (6%) protein diet. Serum glucose and insulin levels and pancreas insulin content in the fed state; total area under serum glucose curve (AG) after a glucose load and serum glucose disappearance rate (Kitt) after insulin administration; as well as 86Rb outflow, 45Ca uptake and insulin secretion by isolated pancreatic islets in response to glucose were evaluated. Serum glucose was lower in 17%-P (12%) and 6%-P (27%) than in corresponding NP-rats. Serum insulin was higher in 17%-P (153%) and 6%-P (77%) compared to the corresponding NP-rats. Pancreatic insulin was higher in 6%-rats (55%) than in 17%-rats. No differences were found in AG among the groups whereas Kitt was lower in 6%-NP and higher in 6%-P than in the equivalent 17% rats. Increasing glucose concentration from 2.8 to 16.7 mmol/l, reduced 86Rb outflow from isolated islets from all groups. Increasing glucose concentration from 2.8 to 16.7 mmol/l elevated 45Ca uptake by 17%-NP (47%), 17%-P (40%) and 6%-P (214%) islets but not by 6%-NP ones. The increase in 45Ca uptake was followed by an increase in insulin release by the 17%-NP (2767%), 17%-P (2850%) and 6%-P (1200%) islets. In conclusion, 6%-P rats show impaired glucose induced insulin secretion related to reduced calcium uptake by pancreatic islets. However, the poor insulin secretion did not fully compensate the high peripheral sensitivity to the hormone, resulting in hypoglycemia. PMID:15686122

  5. Influence of dietary sodium restriction on angiotensin II receptors in rat adrenals.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, J G; Bird, I M; Briere, N; Martel, D; Ducharme, L

    1997-12-01

    We studied the distribution of angiotensin II (AII) receptors type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) and the effects of a low sodium intake on these two subtypes of receptors in male rat adrenals. Binding studies on adrenal slices, on cell membranes and on cell suspensions were performed using [125I]AII and specific analogs for AT1 (Losartan) and AT2 (PD 123319) receptors. The distribution of AT1 was also studied by immunofluorescence. Complementary approaches were necessary to reach our goal. Indeed, by autoradiography on adrenal slices, [125I]AII was shown to bind to the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and to the medulla (M). When coincubated with [125I]AII, PD 123319 displaced [125I]AII from the medulla and from the ZG, indicating the presence of AT2 receptors in both zones. Losartan partially displaced [125I]AII from the ZG, indicating the presence of AT1 receptors in that zone. Furthermore, the labeling intensity of the medulla (AT2 receptors) was much stronger in adrenal sections from rats kept on a low sodium regimen than from controls. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that AT1 receptors were located mainly in the ZG of control rats. After sodium restriction, AT1 receptors appeared to be uniformly distributed within an enlarged ZG; furthermore AT1 receptor-positive cells were found to a limited degree in the zona fasciculata and possibly in the zona reticularis, and a greater number of these positive cells appeared in these zones under sodium restriction. Cell suspensions from rats fed a low sodium diet showed a 2.7- and 2.1-fold increase in total AII receptors in adrenal ZG and ZFR + M cells when compared with controls. Based on Losartan displacement, we calculated that [125I]AII bound to AT1 and to AT2 receptors was increased in both ZG and ZFR + M cell preparations under sodium restriction. Results of binding studies on cell membranes were also indicative of an increasing effect of sodium restriction on AT1 and AT2 receptors binding capacity. Furthermore, Northern

  6. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability.

  7. Supplemented low-protein diets protect the rat kidney without causing undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Maniar, S; Beaufils, H; Laouari, D; Forget, D; Kleinknecht, C

    1992-12-01

    Low-protein diets supplemented with keto-analogues and essential amino acid (KA-EAA) mixtures or with EAA have been widely used to retard renal deterioration without affecting nutrition. These assumptions have recently been challenged in clinical studies and rest on little or no experimental data. The effects of EAA and KA-EAA supplementations have not been compared. We compared three groups of rats with subtotal nephrectomy that were fed (1) a 16% casein reference (R) diet, (2) a 6% casein plus EAA (A) diet, or (3) a 6% casein plus KA-EAA (K) diet with KA as amino acid salts. The three diets had the same energy and mineral contents, and they induced comparable growth. The two supplements had the same nitrogen content. The only difference found until month 3 was higher proteinuria and plasma urea levels in group R rats. Renal biopsies performed at month 3 showed more severe glomerular sclerosis and tubular changes in R rats than in A and K rats. From months 3 through 7, R rats developed higher plasma creatinine levels than did A and K rats (final median values: 167, 106, and 83 mumol/L; p < 0.04), had more proteinuria (232, 56, and 84 mg/day), and showed greater mortality rates. At the time the rats were killed, 2 R, 6 A, and 5 K rats had survived while receiving the diets. Examination of the remnant kidneys, regardless of time of death, showed that renal lesions were significantly worse in R than in A and K rats, with sclerosis affecting more than 50% of the glomeruli in 7 of 13 R, 4 of 14 A, and 4 of 15 K rats, and less than 25% glomeruli in 2 of 13 R, 10 of 14 A, and 10 of 15 K rats (A and K vs R: p < 0.03). In conclusion, restriction of nonessential amino acids compensated by EAA or by KA-EAA mixtures retards renal damage without affecting growth, but no real benefit of KA or EAA has been observed.

  8. Restricted feeding facilitates time-place learning in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Pereira, Pedro A; Mesquita, Rui M; Andrade, José P

    2002-08-21

    Many species can acquire time-of-day discrimination when tested in food reinforced place learning tasks. It is believed that this type of learning is dependent upon the ability of animals to consult their internal circadian pacemakers entrained by various environmental zeitgebers, such as light-dark cycles and scheduled restricted feeding. In the present study, we examined, (1) whether rats can acquire time-of-day discrimination in an aversively motivated water maze task wherein an escape platform is located in one position in the morning and in another position in the afternoon; (2) whether time-of-day cues provided by the light- and feeding-entrainable pacemakers may have divergent impacts upon the ability of rats to learn this task. Two groups of rats, both maintained on 12-h light:12-h dark cycle, were used; in one group, animals had free access to food, whereas in the other, they were subjected to a restricted feeding protocol (60% of food consumed by rats fed ad libitum, once daily). Despite the heightened difficulty of the task, food-restricted rats were apparently able to acquire associations between two different platform positions and two different times of day, as indicated by the fact that the percentage of discrimination errors in this group declined progressively, as a function of training, and stabilized at the level of 22+/-9%. In contrast, rats that were fed ad libitum, even after extensive training, failed to perform the task above level of chance. These data indicate that time-place learning is a universal, reward-nonspecific, cognitive phenomenon. They furthermore suggest that the ability of animals to integrate spatial and temporal information can be dependent on the access to timing stimuli provided by the feeding-entrainable circadian system.

  9. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of diet related perinatal folic acid restriction.

    PubMed

    Middaugh, L D; Grover, T A; Blackwell, L A; Zemp, J W

    1976-08-01

    Some effects of restricting dietary folic acid during the perinatal period on tissue folate and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) concentrations and on behavior were examined in 35-day-old DBA/2J mice. In one study dams were started on diets containing no folate (FO), 1.1 mg of folic acid/kg diet (F1.1) or 9.9 mg of folic acid/kg diet (F9.9) on the day of parturition. In a second study some mice were started on the FO or F9.9 diets 6-7 days prior to parturition and some remained on lab chow (LC). The dams and their pups remained on their assigned diets until offspring were killed for biochemical assays. The major findings of the 2 studies are: (1) that eliminating folic acid from diets of dams and developing pups from birth or 1 week prior to birth causes a reduction of folate in brain tissue; (2) that reduction in brain tissue is not as severe as that of liver; (3) that initiating the folate free diet 1 week prior to birth caused reductions in body, liver, and brain weights and in activity levels of surviving offspring; and (4) that offspring of dams started on either the FO or F9.9 diet one week prior to parturition are less viable and have lower levels of SAM in brain tissue than animals reared on the LC diets. PMID:996047

  10. The nature of the ingested protein has no effect on lean body mass during energy restriction in overweight rats.

    PubMed

    Adechian, Solange; Rémond, Didier; Gaudichon, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Mosoni, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    Severe energy restriction in obesity not only leads to fat mass loss but also to lean mass loss. The aim of this study was to compare the capacity of casein, a slowly digested protein, and milk soluble proteins (MSP; rapidly digested) to limit the loss of lean mass induced by energy restriction. Obesity was first induced in male Wistar rats by a 5-week feeding with a high-fat high-sucrose diet. The impact of energy restriction was then studied with high-protein (32%) diets containing either casein, MSP, or a 50/50 mixture of both proteins for 3 weeks (n = 10 per group). Food intake, body weight, nitrogen balance, creatinine, and 3-methyl-histidine excretion were measured during energy restriction. Then, tissue weights, plasma metabolic parameters (amino acids, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides), and in vivo liver and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle protein synthesis rates were measured in postabsorptive state at the end of the experimental period. Although significant differences relevant to protein metabolism were observed between groups (protein intake, plasma amino acid concentrations, fecal nitrogen excretion, muscle protein synthesis rates), week per week, there were no significant differences in nitrogen balance whatever the protein used. In conclusion, our results show that in young overweight energy restricted rats, using a high-protein diet, the nature of protein intake has no influence on body protein retention. PMID:20966913

  11. Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975

  12. Food restriction alters the diurnal distribution of sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Roky, R; Kapás, L; Taishi, T P; Fang, J; Krueger, J M

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of restricting food and water intake to the light period on sleep and brain temperature (Tbr). Sprague-Dawley male rats were anesthetized and provided with electrodes and thermistors for electroencephalographic (EEG) and Tbr recordings. Baseline recordings were performed after a 3-week recovery period. After baseline recordings, access to food and water was restricted (FWR) to the light period for 29 days. During FWR, the diurnal distribution of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and Tbr were reversed, while the distribution of non-REMS (NREMS) between the dark and light periods was attenuated. Daily food and water intake, body weight, and the diurnal distribution of EEG slow-wave activity within NREMS remained unchanged. In a separate study, sham-operated and pinealectomized rats were studied in a similar manner. The sleep responses of pinealectomized and sham-operated rats to FWR were similar. Further, FWR did not affect melatonin levels in the sham-operated rats, thereby suggesting that the pineal gland does not mediate the effects of FWR on sleep.

  13. Effect of Diet on Metabolism of Laboratory Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, P. C.; Riskowski, G. L.; McKee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    In previous studies when rats were fed a processed, semipurified, extruded rodent food bar (RFB) developed for space science research, we noted a difference in the appearance of gastrointestinal tissue (GI); therefore the following study evaluated GI characteristics and growth and metabolic rates of rats fed chow (C) or RFB. Two hundred and twenty-four rats (78 g mean body weight) were randomly assigned to 28 cages and provided C or RFB. Each cage was considered the experimental unit and a 95 percent level of significance, indicated by ANOVA, was used for inference. After each 30-, 60-, and 90-day period, eight cages were shifted from the C to RFB diet and housing density was reduced by two rats per cage. The two rats removed from each cage were sacrificed and used for GI evaluation. Metabolic rates of the rats in each cage were determined by indirect calorimetry. No differences in body weight were detected at 0, 30, 60 or 90 days between C and RFB. Heat production (kcal/hr/kg), CO2 production (L/hr/kg) and O2 consumption (L/hr/kg) were different by light:dark and age with no effect of diet. Respiratory quotient was different by age with no effect of light:dark or diet. Rats on the C diet ate less food and drank more water than those on RFB. C rats produced more fecal and waste materials than the RFB. GI lengths increased with age but were less in RFB than C. GI full and empty weights increased with age but weighed less in RFB than C. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) numbers increased with age with no effect of diet. No differences in ileum-associated GALT area were detected between C and RFB. Switching C to RFB decreased GI length, GI full and empty weights, with no changes in GALT number or area. We concluded RFB decreased GI mass without affecting metabolic rate or general body growth.

  14. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed.

  15. Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses to mild caloric restriction in the Brown Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cenk; Gordon, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known about the regulation of CR-induced hypothermia as a function of the circadian cycle. We assessed how mild CR that resulted in a 10% reduction in body weight affected the 24 h patterns of Tc as well as heart rate (HR) and motor activity (MA) of the Brown Norway rat. Telemetered rats were allowed to feed for 20 weeks ad libitum (AL) or given a CR diet. Tc, HR, and MA of CR rats exhibited nocturnal reductions and diurnal elevations, opposite to that of AL rats. The effects of CR appeared to peak at ∼4 weeks. Metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured overnight after 18 weeks of CR. MR and RER were elevated markedly at the time of feeding in CR rats and then declined during the night. We found that the pattern of Tc was altered with CR, characterized by elimination of high nocturnal Tc's typically observed in AL animals. In terms of mechanisms to prolong life span in CR animals, we suggest that the shift in the pattern of Tc during CR (i.e., elimination of high Tc's) may be as critical as the overall mean reduction in Tc. Future studies should address how the time of feeding may affect the thermoregulatory response in calorically restricted rats. PMID:24303105

  16. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  17. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol on atherogenic diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chun; Liu, Jian-Li; Du, Ai-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic or high fat diets were known to induce cardiovascular diseases, and several active compounds were tested to protect/prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the cardio protective effect of resveratrol against atherogenic diet fed rats. Male Wistar rats were administered atherogenic diet for 30 days and further continued for 15 days with or with resveratrol in the diet. The serum lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, lipid metabolic proteins and cardiac tissue markers were examined. The histopathology of myocardium and aorta were also examined. The abnormal serum lipid profile found in atherogenic rats was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Similarly, the enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase), non-enzymatic (reduced-glutathione, Vitamin C, E) antioxidants were improved by the resveratrol fed against atherogenic diet. Interestingly, resveratrol activated the lipid metabolic proteins (SIRT1, eNOS and AMPKa), suggesting its protective effect on lipid metabolism. Further analysis on tissue damage revealed that resveratrol had significantly protected the tissue damage and maintains the morphology of cardiac tissue. Altogether, our results suggest that resveratrol played a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular system against the high fat diet. Emphasising the anti-atherogenic property of resveratrol, we propose resveratrol as a potential compound to be consumed for the healthy life-style.

  18. Effects of protein deficiency and food restriction on lung ascorbic acid and glutathione in rats exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Dubick, M.A.; Heng, H.; Rucker, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    Weanling (52 +/- 4 g) or adult (259 +/- 16 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum casein-based diets containing 4 or 16% protein. A third group (food restricted) was fed daily the 16% protein diet, but at the food intake level of the 4% protein group. After 3 wk (weanling) or 5 wk (adults), half of the rats in each group were continuously exposed to 0.64 ppm ozone for 7 d. Ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione levels were then measured. In the heart and liver from weanling rats, ascorbic acid concentrations were lower in the protein-deficient group than in either control group. In the liver from weanling rats glutathione concentrations were also reduced in response to protein deficiency. Exposure to ozone produced no additional response. For adult rats the response for liver glutathione was similar to that of the weanlings. The liver ascorbate concentration, however, was consistently lower in adult rats compared to weanlings exposed to ozone. In lungs from adult rats, the ascorbic acid concentration was lower in the protein-deficient group than in either control group. On a whole-organ basis, both ascorbic acid and glutathione were usually higher in lungs from rats exposed to ozone than from those exposed to air. Interestingly, protein deficiency did not appear to compromise the lung's ability to maintain, in relative terms, the ascorbic acid or glutathione concentration in response to ozone.

  19. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  20. Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Howard D; Lawler, Dennis F; Kealy, Richard D

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (Cp), plasma ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and total peroxyl-radical trapping activity (TRAP), and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Data in this report are for the 6-y period of the experiment when the dogs were between 5 and 10 y of age. Diet restriction reduced RT, VE, Cu, and Cp. Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx. Female dogs had lower RP, VA, Cu, and Cp than male dogs. Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx. Treatment effects on serum RT and Cu suggest that these variables are not as regulated homeostatically by hepatic storage as in most other species. Although the antioxidant profiles did not elucidate how diet restriction contributes to longevity, they have the potential to enhance our understanding of canine clinical nutrition and to have practical applications in formulating canine diets. PMID:16772447

  1. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces diet-induced obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing obesity may alleviate many medical complications including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has been suggested that obesity is contributed by the disruption of the circadian rhythms in addition to increased caloric intake. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day ma...

  2. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders.

  3. Metyrapone Alleviates Deleterious Effects of Maternal Food Restriction on Lung Development and Growth of Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Paek, David S.; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

  4. Elimination of PBBs in rats. Effect of mineral oil and/or feed restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Bursian, S.J.; Underwood, M.S.; Wiggers, P.A.; Biondo, N.; Su, I.; Braselton, W.E.; Render, J.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Rats were fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) at 0.1 to 100.0 ppm for 14 d and then treated to hasten the removal of PBBs with 0, 5, or 10% mineral oil (MO) and/or 0, 15, 30, or 45% feed restriction (FR) for 21 d. PBB body burdens were determined at d 14 and expressed on a log-log basis by Y = 0.91x + 2.179 (r2 = 0.974), where x = log of PBB concentration in diet (ppm) and Y = log of PBB body burden (micrograms). After 21 d withdrawal, body burdens were expressed by the equation Y = 0.787x + 2.218 (r2 = 0.95). The most effective withdrawal treatment was 10% MO + 45% FR producing a reduction of body burdens inversely related to prior body burdens (69% at 0.1 ppm to 23% at 100 ppm). Body weights and fat content were significantly (p less than or equal to .05) reduced by feed restriction, with fat content only 39% of controls at 21 d off. Mortality averaged 0, 13.6, and 35.8% for rats fed 0, 5, or 10% MO, and 25, 15, 8.6, and 3.7% for rats feed restricted at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, respectively. Histopathology of the dead and moribund rats indicated that the clinical signs were not characteristic of PBB toxicity. In a second experiment, safflower oil at 3.5% or excess vitamins prevented the mortality and clinical signs associated with MO during withdrawal from 100 ppm PBBs. Based on these data and those in the literature, PBBs interfere with vitamin utilization.

  5. Impact of some commonly used Egyptian diets on plasma lipids profiles of rats.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, O M; al-Okbi, S Y; Abbas, A E

    1993-09-01

    Seven types of diets commonly consumed in Egypt were studied in hyperlipemic rats. Each of the seven diets were fed to a group of hyperlipemic rats. The diets contain white beans and whole wheat bread (Diet 1); cabbage and peas (2); spinach and carrots (3); whole wheat bread and bean sprouts (4); whole wheat bread, white beans and peas (5); white beans and carrots (6) and the last diet contains peas and carrots (7). The experiment continued for 5 weeks, at the end of which different plasma lipids and biological parameters were compared to hyperlipemic rats fed the control diet for 5 weeks. Results showed that plasma total cholesterol of rats of all groups showed significant decrease, except in rats fed diet 6 in which no significant change was noticed. Plasma total lipids of rats fed diet 5 decreased significantly. Plasma phospholipids of rats fed diets 3 and 7 increased significantly. Rats fed diet 3 showed decreased levels of plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Body weight gain of rats fed diets 1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly. Total food intake was noticed to decrease on feeding diets 1 and 6. Significant decrease was produced in food efficiency ratio of rats fed diets 1, 5 and 6. Feeding any type of the previous seven diets produced significant increase of feces weight.

  6. Changes in NPY and POMC, but not serotonin transporter, following a restricted feeding/repletion protocol in rats.

    PubMed

    Lauzurica, Nuria; García-García, Luis; Pinto, Sheila; Fuentes, José A; Delgado, Mercedes

    2010-02-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in controlling food intake and feeding behaviour and drugs targeting the 5-HT transporter (SERT) at the synaptic cleft have been used to treat feeding related disorders. To test the hypothesis that SERT might be one of the etiologic factors in the rebound hyperphagia that frequently follows the abandoning of calorie restriction diets, brain SERT content and gene expression were assessed in a restricted feeding/repletion (RFR) protocol in female rats. Animals were food-restricted (2 h access to food per day) for 7 consecutive days and then allowed constant free access to food (FAF). This intermittent fasting protocol resulted in rebound hyperphagia. Higher levels of plasma corticosterone during fasting in food-deprived rats were used as an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Neither brain SERT density nor expression was modified following the RFR protocol. Nevertheless, with respect to other messengers involved in eating behaviour, in the presence of low plasma leptin levels, an increase in NPY expression and a parallel decrease in POMC expression were observed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of rats killed just before rebound hyperphagia. Food-restricted animals provide a tool for the further study of neurochemical alterations and for the development of new drugs to treat alterations that may occur in humans when dieting is abandoned.

  7. High-fat diet lowers the nutritional status indicators of pantothenic acid in weaning rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Erina; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ohtsubo, Masako; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Weaning rats were fed a 5% or 30% fat diet containing limited calcium pantothenate for 28 d. The plasma, liver and adrenal pantothenic acid levels in the rats fed on the 30% fat diet were significantly lower than with the 5% fat diet. The results suggest that the high-fat diet affected pantothenic acid metabolism. PMID:20699566

  8. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  9. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  10. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR. PMID:24676564

  11. Methionine restriction affects oxidative stress and glutathione-related redox pathways in the rat.

    PubMed

    Maddineni, Sreenivasa; Nichenametla, Sailendra; Sinha, Raghu; Wilson, Ronald P; Richie, John P

    2013-04-01

    Lifelong dietary methionine restriction (MR) is associated with increased longevity and decreased incidence of age-related disorders and diseases in rats and mice. A reduction in the levels of oxidative stress may be a contributing mechanistic factor for the beneficial effects of MR. To examine this, we determined the effects of an 80% dietary restriction of Met on different biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant pathways in blood, liver, kidney and brain in the rat. Male F-344 rats were fed control (0.86% methionine) or MR (0.17% methionine) diets for up to six months. Blood and tissues were analyzed for glutathione (GSH) concentrations, related enzyme activities and biomarkers of oxidative stress. MR was associated with reductions in oxidative stress biomarkers including plasma 8-hydoxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-isoprostane and erythrocyte protein-bound glutathione after one month with levels remaining low for at least six months (P < 0.05). Levels of free GSH in blood were increased after 1-6 months of MR feeding whereas liver GSH levels were reduced over this time (P < 0.05). In MR rats, GSH peroxidase activity was decreased in liver and increased in kidney compared with controls. No changes in the activities of GSH reductase in liver and kidney and superoxide dismutase in liver were observed as a result of MR feeding. Altogether, these findings indicate that oxidative stress is reduced by MR feeding in rats, but this effect cannot be explained by changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Sleep restriction acutely impairs glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pawan K; Foppen, Ewout; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Chronic sleep curtailment in humans has been related to impairment of glucose metabolism. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on glucose tolerance in rats. A group of rats was challenged by 4-h sleep deprivation in the early rest period, leading to prolonged (16 h) wakefulness. Another group of rats was allowed to sleep during the first 4 h of the light period and sleep deprived in the next 4 h. During treatment, food was withdrawn to avoid a postmeal rise in plasma glucose. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed immediately after the sleep deprivation period. Sleep deprivation at both times of the day similarly impaired glucose tolerance and reduced the early-phase insulin responses to a glucose challenge. Basal concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, and corticosterone remained unchanged after sleep deprivation. Throughout IVGTTs, plasma corticosterone concentrations were not different between the control and sleep-deprived group. Together, these results demonstrate that independent of time of day and sleep pressure, short sleep deprivation during the resting phase favors glucose intolerance in rats by attenuating the first-phase insulin response to a glucose load. In conclusion, this study highlights the acute adverse effects of only a short sleep restriction on glucose homeostasis. PMID:27354542

  13. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  14. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent.

  15. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jessica L; McCay, Timothy S; Garneau, Danielle E

    2012-09-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards.

  16. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  17. Severe dietary lysine restriction affects growth and body composition and hepatic gene expression for nitrogen metabolism in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Lee, K S; Kwon, D-H; Bong, J J; Jeong, J Y; Nam, Y S; Lee, M S; Liu, X; Baik, M

    2014-02-01

    Dietary lysine restriction may differentially affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism, depending on the degree of lysine restriction. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism with two different degree of lysine restriction. Isocaloric amino acid-defined diets containing 1.4% lysine (adequate), 0.70% lysine (50% moderate lysine restriction) and 0.35% lysine (75% severe lysine restriction) were fed from the age of 52 to 77 days for 25 days in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The 75% severe lysine restriction increased (p < 0.05) food intake, but retarded (p < 0.05) growth, increased (p < 0.05) liver and muscle lipid contents and abdominal fat accumulation, increased (p < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen levels and mRNA levels of the serine-synthesizing 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene, but decreased (p < 0.05) urea cycle arginase gene mRNA levels. In contrast, the 50% lysine restriction did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism. Our results demonstrate that severe 75% lysine restriction has detrimental effects on body growth and deregulate lipid and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23441935

  18. Refeeding after acute food restriction: differential reduction in preference for ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors in selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Dess, Nancy K; Chapman, Clinton D; Cousins, Laura A; Monroe, Derek C; Nguyen, Phuong

    2013-01-17

    Rats' voluntary ethanol intake varies with dispositional factors and energy status. The joint influences of these were of interest here. We previously reported that rats selectively bred for high voluntary saccharin intake (HiS) consume more ethanol and express more robust conditioning of preference for flavors paired with voluntarily consumed ethanol than do low-saccharin consuming counterparts (LoS). Three new experiments examined the effect of refeeding after an episode of food restriction on ethanol intake and on preference for ethanol-paired flavors in HiS and LoS rats. A 48-h episode of food restriction with wheel running reduced intake of and preference for 4% ethanol (Exp. 1a) and preference for an ethanol-paired flavor (Exp. 1b) during refeeding. Food restriction alone was sufficient to reduce the flavor preference (Exp. 2). Adding fat to the refeeding diet or extending the food restriction period exacerbated the effect (Exp. 3), yielding a frank aversion to ethanol-paired flavors in LoS rats. These studies indicate that rebound from negative energy balance shifts responses to ethanol-associated cues from preference toward aversion. Analyses of bodyweight changes and caloric intake during refeeding support this conclusion and further suggest that lower metabolic efficiency may be a marker for enhanced preference mutability.

  19. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Luchtman, Dirk W; Chee, Melissa J S; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L; Baracos, Vickie E; Colmers, William F

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks' refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint.

  20. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Luchtman, Dirk W.; Chee, Melissa J. S.; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Colmers, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks’ refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint. PMID:26444289

  1. Dietary restriction does not adversely affect bone geometry and mechanics in rapidly growing male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer; Lamothe, Jeremy M; Zernicke, Ronald F; Auer, Roland N; Reimer, Raylene A

    2005-02-01

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary restriction on tibial and vertebral mechanical and geometrical properties in 2-mo-old male Wistar rats. Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to the ad libitum (n=8) or the 35% diet-restricted (DR) feeding group (n=9) for 5 mo. Tibiae and L6 vertebrae were dissected out for microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning and subsequently fractured in biomechanical testing to determine geometrical and mechanical properties. The DR group had significantly lower mean tibial length, mass, area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia, as well as vertebral energy to maximal load. After adjustment for body mass, however, DR tibial mean maximal load and stiffness, and DR vertebral area, height, volume, and maximal load were significantly greater, relative to ad libitum means. No significant differences were found between the DR and ad libitum mineral ash fractions. Because the material properties of the tibiae between the two groups were not significantly different, presumably the material integrity of the bones was not adversely affected as a consequence of DR. The similar material characteristics were consistent with mineral ash fractions that were not different between the two groups. Vertebral maximal load and stiffness were not significant between the DR and ad libitum animals. Importantly, we show that a level of dietary restriction (35%) that is less severe than many studies (40%), and without micronutrient compensation does not adversely affect tibial and vertebral mechanical properties in young growing male rats when normalized for body mass. PMID:15585686

  2. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  3. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  4. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-01

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (p<0.01) and both of them were less so after taurine was supplemented (p<0.01). 2) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that brain cortex structures were sparse IUGR rats, showing many scattered apoptotic cells, decreased numbers of synapses, lower glial cell proliferation, and fewer neurons, more sparsely arranged, while these factors were significantly improved with taurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (p<0.001). 4) The results of immunohistochemistry showed that antenatal taurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (p<0.001). It can be concluded that it IUGR has a significant detrimental influence on the development of fetal rat brains, and antenatal supplement of taurine can significantly improve the IUGR

  5. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles of the KD and PUFAs in an animal model, we induced epilepsy in juvenile rats (P29–35) using intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA). KA caused status epilepticus in all rats. Two days after KA, rats were randomized to one of 4 dietary groups: Control diet; PUFA diet; KD; or KD plus PUFA. All diets were administered isocalorically at 90% of the rat recommended daily calorie requirement. Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were assessed for 3 months after diet randomization. Results: Rats receiving the KD or KD-PUFA diet had significantly fewer SRS than those receiving the Control diet or PUFA diet. The PUFA diet did not reduce SRS compared to the Control diet. Conclusions: In the KA epilepsy model, the KD protects against SRS occurrence but dietary enhancement with PUFA does not afford additional protection against spontaneous seizures. PMID:27390673

  6. Iodine Deficiency and Hypothyroidism From Voluntary Diet Restrictions in the US: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Booms, Stephanie; Hill, Elizabeth; Kulhanek, Leah; Vredeveld, Jennifer; Gregg, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States today, and this is largely due to the effectiveness of iodization in the general food supply. Recent trends among specific populations of children in the United States include adopting food restrictions, such casein-free and gluten-free diets. Although the effect of these types of diets on overall nutrition status and certain micronutrients has been studied in children with autism spectrum disorder, the effect of these limitations on iodine levels in children has not been assessed. We present here 2 cases of iodine deficiency resulting from severe food restriction and associated primary hypothyroidism. In 1 case a classic presentation with a goiter was seen. These children were able to discontinue thyroid hormone treatment once iodine levels were normalized. There were no adverse events or unanticipated outcomes. The occurrence of these cases of iodine deficiency in the United States points to the need for thyroid function testing in children with severe food restrictions, especially those who have limited exposure to dairy, baked goods, and table salt.

  7. Metabolic and Genomic Response to Dietary Isocaloric Protein Restriction in the Rat*

    PubMed Central

    Kalhan, Satish C.; Uppal, Sonal O.; Moorman, Jillian L.; Bennett, Carole; Gruca, Lourdes L.; Parimi, Prabhu S.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Serre, David; Hanson, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    We have examined hepatic, genomic, and metabolic responses to dietary protein restriction in the non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat. Animals were pair-fed either a 6 or 24% casein-based diet for 7–10 days. At the end of the dietary period, a microarray analysis of the liver was performed, followed by validation of the genes of interest. The rates of appearance of phenylalanine, methionine, serine, and glucose and the contribution of pyruvate to serine and glucose were quantified using tracer methods. Plasma and tissue amino acid levels, enzyme activities, and metabolic intermediates were measured. Protein restriction resulted in significant differential expression of a number of genes involved in cell cycle, cell differentiation, transport, transcription, and metabolic processes. RT-PCR showed that the expression of genes involved in serine biosynthesis and fatty acid oxidation was higher, and those involved in fatty acid synthesis and urea synthesis were lower in the liver of protein-restricted animals. Free serine and glycine levels were higher and taurine levels lower in all tissues examined. Tracer isotope studies showed an ∼50% increase in serine de novo synthesis. Pyruvate was the primary (∼90%) source of serine in both groups. Transmethylation of methionine was significantly higher in the protein-restricted group. This was associated with a higher S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio and lower cystathione β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase activity. Dietary isocaloric protein restriction results in profound changes in hepatic one-carbon metabolism within a short period. These may be related to high methylation demands placed on the organism and caused by possible changes in cellular osmolarity as a result of the efflux of the intracellular taurine. PMID:21147771

  8. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    PubMed

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. PMID:24291541

  9. Maternal protein restriction reduces expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 in rat placental labyrinth zone in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2012-02-01

    Both the systemic and the uteroplacental renin-angiotensin system (RAS) display dramatic changes during pregnancy. However, whether gestational protein insufficiency affects the expressions of RAS in the placenta remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that the expression of Ace2 in the placental labyrinth was reduced by maternal protein restriction. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet or a low-protein diet (LP) from Day 1 of pregnancy until they were killed at Day 14 or Day 18. The labyrinth zone (LZ) of the placenta was then dissected and snap frozen for expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR of Ace, Ace2, Agtr1a, Agtr1b, and Agtr2. Formalin-fixed placentas were used for immunohistochemical analysis on ACE and ACE2 proteins. The findings include 1) the expression of Ace2 in rat LZ was reduced by maternal protein restriction in late pregnancy; 2) ACE protein was mainly present in syncytiotrophoblasts, whereas ACE2 protein was found predominantly in fetal mesenchymal tissue and fetal capillaries; 3) Agtr1a was predominant in the rat LZ, and its mRNA levels, but not protein levels, were reduced by LP; 4) expressions of Ace, Ace2, and Agtr1a in the rat LZ and their response to LP occurred in a gender-dependent manner. These results may indicate that a reduced expression of Ace2 and perhaps an associated reduction in angiotensin (1-7) production in the placenta by maternal protein restriction may be responsible for fetal growth restriction and associated programming of adulthood hypertension.

  10. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Phinney, Stephen D; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Puglisi, Michael J; Kraemer, William J; Bibus, Doug M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Feinman, Richard D

    2009-04-01

    We recently proposed that the biological markers improved by carbohydrate restriction were precisely those that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and that the common thread was regulation of insulin as a control element. We specifically tested the idea with a 12-week study comparing two hypocaloric diets (approximately 1,500 kcal): a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = 12:59:28) and a low-fat diet (LFD) (56:24:20) in 40 subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Both interventions led to improvements in several metabolic markers, but subjects following the CRD had consistently reduced glucose (-12%) and insulin (-50%) concentrations, insulin sensitivity (-55%), weight loss (-10%), decreased adiposity (-14%), and more favorable triacylglycerol (TAG) (-51%), HDL-C (13%) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (-14%) responses. In addition to these markers for MetS, the CRD subjects showed more favorable responses to alternative indicators of cardiovascular risk: postprandial lipemia (-47%), the Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio (-16%), and LDL particle distribution. Despite a threefold higher intake of dietary saturated fat during the CRD, saturated fatty acids in TAG and cholesteryl ester were significantly decreased, as was palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), an endogenous marker of lipogenesis, compared to subjects consuming the LFD. Serum retinol binding protein 4 has been linked to insulin-resistant states, and only the CRD decreased this marker (-20%). The findings provide support for unifying the disparate markers of MetS and for the proposed intimate connection with dietary carbohydrate. The results support the use of dietary carbohydrate restriction as an effective approach to improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk.

  11. Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Ballard, Kevin D; Silvestre, Ricardo; Judelson, Daniel A; Quann, Erin E; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported that a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) ameliorated many of the traditional markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk compared with a low-fat diet (LFD). There remains concern how CRD affects vascular function because acute meals high in fat have been shown to impair endothelial function. Here, we extend our work and address these concerns by measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (approximately 1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was assessed before and after ingestion of a high-fat meal (908 kcal, 84% fat) at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol (-47% vs -15%, P = .007), insulin (-51% vs -6%, P = .009), and lymphocyte (-12% vs -1%, P = .050) responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD (P = .033). Serum interleukin-6 increased significantly over the postprandial period; and the response was augmented in the CRD (46%) compared with the LFD (-13%) group (P = .038). After 12 weeks, peak flow-mediated dilation at 3 hours increased from 5.1% to 6.5% in the CRD group and decreased from 7.9% to 5.2% in the LFD group (P = .004). These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  12. Effects of Simulated Hypogravity and Diet on Estrous Cycling in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental factors can disrupt ovulatory cycles. The study objective was to determine the effect of diet and simulated hypogravity on rat estrous cycles. Age 50 d Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to he fed either a purified or chow diet. Only normal cycling rats were used. Experimental rats (n=9-10/group) were kept as ambulatory controls (AC) or subjected to 40 d simulated hypogravity using a disuse atrophy hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. There was no effect on estrous cycles of AC fed either diet. At day 18, HLS rats fed either diet, had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus. HLS rats fed purified diet also had reduced time in estrus. Plasma estradiol was reduced in HLS rats fed purified diet but there was no effect on progesterone. This may have occurred because blood was collected from rats in estrus. Urinary progesterone collected during initial HLS was elevated in rats fed purified diet. In AC, corticosterone was elevated in chow vs purified diet fed rats. Differences were particularly striking following the application of a stressor with HLS/chow-fed rats displaying an enhanced stress response. Results emphasize the importance of diet selection when measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints. HLS is a useful model for investigating the effects of environment on reproduction and providing insight about the impact extreme environment such as spaceflight on female reproductive health.

  13. Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Courtney

    2015-11-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is an idiopathic illness characterized by debilitating fatigue and neuro-immune abnormalities. A growing body of evidence proposes mitochondrial dysfunction as a central perpetrator of the illness due to activation of immune-inflammatory pathways that burden the mitochondria. Under a model of mitochondrial dysfunction, this paper explores dietary strategies that are mitoprotective. Studied for decades, the cellular mechanisms of ketogenic diets, fasting, and caloric restriction now reveal mitochondria-specific mechanisms which could play a role in symptom reduction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Future research should examine the physiological effects of these dietary strategies in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  14. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces adiposity and inflammatory cytokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythms contributes to obesity. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day may reset the circadian rhythms and reduce obesity and resulting complications. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity...

  15. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, S.; Moterroso, V.; Morales, P.; Wagner, J.; Kipruto, S.; Bukachi, F.; Maitai, C.; Tshala-Katumbay, D.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5 mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50 mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~ 80X faster in the nervous system (14 milliseconds to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In macaca fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ~ 2X relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a “multiple hit” by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. PMID:24500607

  16. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Kimani, S; Moterroso, V; Morales, P; Wagner, J; Kipruto, S; Bukachi, F; Maitai, C; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2014-04-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~80× faster in the nervous system (14 ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ~2× relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a "multiple hit" by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC.

  17. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Sisley, Stephanie; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimulate diet intake during late pregnancy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet from Day 1 of pregnancy. On Day 21, 0.5 μg ghrelin was given into the third ventricle (ICV). Diet and water intake at 30, 60, and 120 min after ICV injection was measured. Hypothalami were dissected and analyzed for expression of genes related to appetite regulation (Npy, Agrp, Pomc and Cart) and phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC proteins (downstream proteins of ghrelin receptor activation). Results include: In response to ICV injection of ghrelin, (1) diet intake was significantly lower in LP compared to CT rats; (2) water intake was not affected in LP rats; (3) expression of Npy and Agrp, but not Pomc and Cart, were higher in the hypothalamus of LP compared to CT rats; (4) the abundance of phosphorylated AMPK and the ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK, but not the abundance of total AMPK, were lower in LP compared to CT rats; (5) the abundance of phosphorylated ACC, but not total ACC, was lower in LP rats. These findings suggest that blunted ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus of pregnant rats fed a LP diet leads to reduced diet intake and exacerbates gestational protein insufficiency.

  18. Effects of methionine restriction and endurance exercise on bones of ovariectomized rats: a study of histomorphometry, densitometry, and biomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Su, I-Hsiu; Lewis, Jack L; Chang, Ming-Shi; Hsu, Ar-Tyan; Perrone, Carmen E; Ables, Gene P

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary methionine restriction (MetR) and endurance exercise on bone quality under a condition of estrogen deficiency, female Sprague-Dawley rats (36-wk-old) were assigned to a sham surgery group or one of five ovariectomized groups subjected to interventions of no treatment (Ovx), endurance exercise (Exe), methionine restriction (MetR), methionine restriction plus endurance exercise (MetR + Exe), and estrogen treatment (Est). Rats in the exercise groups were subjected to a treadmill running regimen. MetR and control diets contained 0.172 and 0.86% methionine, respectively. After the 12-wk intervention, all animals were killed, and serum and bone tissues were collected for analyses. Compared with estrogen treatment, MetR diet and endurance exercise showed better or equivalent efficiency in reducing body weight gain caused by ovariectomy (P < 0.05). Whereas only the Est group showed evidence for reduced bone turnover compared with the Ovx group, MetR diet and/or endurance exercise demonstrated efficiencies in downregulating serum insulin, leptin, triglyceride, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P < 0.05). Both the Exe and MetR groups showed higher femoral cortical and total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), but only the Exe and Est groups preserved cancellous bone volume and/or vBMD of distal femora (P < 0.05) compared with the Ovx group. After being normalized to body mass, femora of the MetR and MetR + Exe groups had relatively higher bending strength and dimension values followed by the Sham, Exe, and Est groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, both MetR diet and endurance exercise improved cortical bone properties, but only endurance exercise preserved cancellous bone under estrogen deficiency.

  19. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  20. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer’s oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Results Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Conclusions Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting

  1. Maternal protein restriction impairs the transcriptional metabolic flexibility of skeletal muscle in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Pérez-García, Georgina; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2014-08-14

    Skeletal muscle exhibits a remarkable flexibility in the usage of fuel in response to the nutrient intake and energy demands of the organism. In fact, increased physical activity and fasting trigger a transcriptional programme in skeletal muscle cells leading to a switch from carbohydrate to lipid oxidation. Impaired metabolic flexibility has been reported to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, but it is not known whether the disability to adapt to metabolic demands is a cause or a consequence of these pathological conditions. Inasmuch as a poor nutritional environment during early life is a predisposing factor for the development of metabolic diseases in adulthood, in the present study, we aimed to determine the long-term effects of maternal malnutrition on the metabolic flexibility of offspring skeletal muscle. To this end, the transcriptional responses of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles to fasting were evaluated in adult rats born to dams fed a control (17 % protein) or a low-protein (8 % protein, protein restricted (PR)) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. With the exception of reduced body weight and reduced plasma concentrations of TAG, PR rats exhibited a metabolic profile that was the same as that of the control rats. In the fed state, PR rats exhibited an enhanced expression of key regulatory genes of fatty acid oxidation including CPT1a, PGC-1α, UCP3 and PPARα and an impaired expression of genes that increase the capacity for fat oxidation in response to fasting. These results suggest that impaired metabolic inflexibility precedes and may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders associated with early malnutrition. PMID:24823946

  2. Rats subjected to extended L-tryptophan restriction during early postnatal stage exhibit anxious-depressive features and structural changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei; Guadarrama, Leyla; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Vega-Gonzalez, Arturo; Rocha, Luisa; Escobar, Alfonso

    2006-06-01

    Serotonin transmission dysfunction has been suggested to play an important role in depression and anxiety. This study reports the results of a series of experiments in which rats were subjected to extended maize-based tortilla diets during early postnatal stages. This diet contains only approximately 20% of the L-tryptophan in normal diets of laboratory rodents. Compared with controls, experimental rats displayed a significant increase of immobility counts in the forced swimming test and exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test after 1 month of diet treatment. Low levels of serotonin contents were found in prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and brainstem using high-performance liquid chromatography. Immunocytochemical reactions against 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine revealed a significant decrease in the proliferation rate for the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus. c-Fos expression after the forced swimming test was found reduced in prefrontal cortex, dentate gyrus, CA1, and hilus of hippocampus and amygdala. Moreover, dendrite arbor atrophy and decreased spine density were evident in Golgi-Cox-impregnated CA1 pyramidal neurons. Abnormal dendrite swelling in dentate gyrus granule cells was also observed. These findings indicate an involvement of hyposerotoninergia in emotional disturbance produced by L-tryptophan restriction during critical developmental stages and suggest that neuroplasticity changes might underlie these changes.

  3. Taurine Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure and Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Post-Weaning Protein-Restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Aline R.; Batista, Thiago M.; Victorio, Jamaira A.; Clerici, Stefano P.; Delbin, Maria A.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Davel, Ana P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that exerts protective effects on vascular function and structure in several models of cardiovascular diseases through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Early protein malnutrition reprograms the cardiovascular system and is linked to hypertension in adulthood. This study assessed the effects of taurine supplementation in vascular alterations induced by protein restriction in post-weaning rats. Methods and Results Weaned male Wistar rats were fed normal- (12%, NP) or low-protein (6%, LP) diets for 90 days. Half of the NP and LP rats concomitantly received 2.5% taurine supplementation in the drinking water (NPT and LPT, respectively). LP rats showed elevated systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure versus NP rats; taurine supplementation partially prevented this increase. There was a reduced relaxation response to acetylcholine in isolated thoracic aortic rings from the LP group that was reversed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or apocynin incubation. Protein expression of p47phox NADPH oxidase subunit was enhanced, whereas extracellular (EC)-SOD and endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation at Ser 1177 (p-eNOS) were reduced in aortas from LP rats. Furthermore, ROS production was enhanced while acetylcholine-induced NO release was reduced in aortas from the LP group. Taurine supplementation improved the relaxation response to acetylcholine and eNOS-derived NO production, increased EC-SOD and p-eNOS protein expression, as well as reduced ROS generation and p47phox expression in the aortas from LPT rats. LP rats showed an increased aortic wall/lumen ratio and taurine prevented this remodeling through a reduction in wall media thickness. Conclusion Our data indicate a protective role of taurine supplementation on the high blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling induced by post-weaning protein restriction. The beneficial vascular effect of taurine was

  4. Effect of diet on triolein absorption in weanling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, C.A.; Brannon, P.M.; Wells, M.A.; Morrill, M.; Koldovsky, O. )

    1990-01-01

    To determine the effect of altered dietary fat intake on the rate of fat absorption in the intact animal, we fed male weanling rats either a high fat-low carbohydrate (HF-LC) (calories: 67% fat, 10% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or low fat-high carbohydrate (LF-HC) (calories: 10% fat, 67% carbohydrate, 20% protein) diet for 8 days. Absorption of ({sup 14}C)triolein was estimated by determining (1) {sup 14}CO{sub 2} expiration in breath, (2) intestinal triglyceride output using Triton WR-1339, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, and (3) quantitating the disappearance of labeled triolein from the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the activity of pancreatic lipase and amylase confirmed the adaptation to altered fat and carbohydrate intake. Animals fed the HF-LC diet exhibited approximately twofold greater triolein disappearance, oxidation, and intestinal triglyceride output compared with animals fed LF-HC. There was also a highly significant linear relationship between {sup 14}CO{sub 2} excretion and intestinal triglyceride output in both diet groups. These data show that high dietary fat content markedly enhances in vivo fat absorption in the weanling rat.

  5. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  6. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    PubMed

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  7. Gestational protein restriction induces alterations in placental morphology and mitochondrial function in rats during late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Moraes, Camila; Amaral, Maria Esmeria Corezola; Catisti, Rosana

    2013-12-01

    The placenta acts a regulator of nutrient composition and supply from mother to fetus and is the source of hormonal signals that affect maternal and fetal metabolism. Thus, appropriate development of the placenta is crucial for normal fetal development. We investigated the effect of gestational protein restriction (GPR) on placental morphology and mitochondrial function on day 19 of gestation. Pregnant dams were divided into two groups: normal (NP 17 % casein) or low-protein diet (LP 6 % casein). The placentas were processed for biochemical, histomorphometric and ultrastructural analysis. The integrity of rat placental mitochondria (RPM) isolated by conventional differential centrifugation was measured by oxygen uptake (Clark-type electrode). LP animals presented an increase in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol and a decrease in serum insulin levels. No alterations were observed in body, liver, fetus, or placenta weight. There was also no change in serum glucose, total protein, or lipid content. Gestational protein restriction had tissue-specific respiratory effects, with the observation of a small change in liver respiration (~13 %) and considerable respiratory inhibition in placenta samples (~37 %). The higher oxygen uptake by RPM in the LP groups suggests uncoupling between respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, ultrastructural analysis of junctional zone giant cells from LP placenta showed a disorganized cytoplasm, with loss of integrity of most organelles and intense vacuolization. The present results led us to hypothesize that GPR alters placental structure and morphology, induces sensitivity to insulin, mitochondrial abnormalities and suggests premature aging of the placenta. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  8. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Cristiana S B; Reis, Sílvia R L; Pessoa, Ana F M; De Souza, Letícia M I; Stoppiglia, Luiz F; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise A B; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Colodel, Edson M; Arantes, Vanessa C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6%) for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC) protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry. PMID:25860970

  9. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Cristiana S B; Reis, Sílvia R L; Pessoa, Ana F M; De Souza, Letícia M I; Stoppiglia, Luiz F; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise A B; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Colodel, Edson M; Arantes, Vanessa C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6%) for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC) protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry.

  10. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheim, Loanda Maria G; Oliveira, Elisângela A; Arantes, Vanessa C; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora B; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena G; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2009-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC group. Conclusion Protein

  11. Evidence that high-sucrose diet reduces dentin formation and disturbs mineralization in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Hietala, E L; Larmas, M

    1995-12-01

    In addition to its caries-promoting effect, a high-sucrose diet reduces the apposition of mineralized dentin in young rats. This study was undertaken to test whether it has a similar effect on the width of the as-yet-uncalcified matrix, predentin. Female Wistar rats were weaned at the age of 3 weeks and fed for 7 weeks with either a high-sucrose diet, a non-cariogenic raw potato starch diet, or a non-cariogenic commercial powdered rat food (for reference). The sucrose diet induced the greatest number of caries lesions. Dentin formation was smaller and the predentin zone wider in rats fed a sucrose diet when compared with rats fed the reference diet. In rats fed a starch diet, dentin formation was smaller than in rats fed a reference diet, but no alterations in the areas of caries lesions or predentin width were observed. Widening of the predentin zone in rats fed a high-sucrose diet may reflect changes in odontoblast function, such as reduced matrix synthesis and possibly disturbed mineralization. Dentinal caries progression may thus be modulated by odontoblast function, not as much by matrix formation but rather by mineralization.

  12. Lean rats gained more body weight from a high-fructooligosaccharide diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoting; Yingyi, Gu; Chen, Long; Lijuan, Gao; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2015-07-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are believed to be beneficial to the host growth and its gut health. This article is intended to investigate the different influences of a high-fructooligosaccharide (FOS) diet on the growth and gut microbiota of lean and obese rats. Diet-induced lean and obese rats were fed a high-FOS diet for 8 weeks. Rats' body weight (BW) and feed intake were recorded weekly, and their gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the lean rats gained more BW than the obese ones from the high-FOS diet. In the meanwhile, the gut microbiota in both lean and obese rats was altered by this diet. The abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the lean rats, while no significant alteration in Firmicutes was observed in all rats after the consumption of a high-FOS diet. In conclusion, this study first reported that the lean rats gained more body weight from a high-FOS diet than the obese ones, and the increase of Bacteroidetes might help rats harvest more energy from the high-FOS diet.

  13. Reduced AMPKα2 protein expression restores glucose-induced insulin secretion in islets from calorie-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Maria Esméria C; Ribeiro, Rosane A; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C

    2016-02-01

    In a state of caloric restriction (CR), improved insulin action was associated with the activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). Here, we verified whether AMPK was involved in impaired β-cell function in islets from rats subjected to CR for 21 days. Eight-week-old male rats were distributed into a control (CTL) group that was fed an isocaloric diet ad libitum or a CR group that received 60% of the food consumed by the CTL group. From days 18-21, CTL and CR rats were treated with sense (CTLS and CRS) or antisense (CTLAS and CRAS) AMPKα2 oligonucleotides. Caloric restriction was associated with decreased body weight, perigonadal fat pads and insulinaemia, while higher glucose tolerance was observed in CRS rats. Antisense treatment normalized insulinaemia and glucose tolerance in CRAS rats and increased cholesterolaemia in CRAS and CTLAS groups. These effects were associated with reduced pAMPK/AMPK protein expression in the liver of rats treated with antisense oligonucleotides. Additionally, CRS islets showed higher pAMPK/AMPK content and lower glucose-induced insulin release. As expected, antisense oligonucleotides against AMPKα2 efficiently reduced pAMPK/AMPK protein in CRAS and CTLAS islets. The lower AMPK content in CRAS islets normalized the insulin secretion in islets exposed to 16.7 mM glucose. In addition, CTLAS islets presented higher insulin secretion at 2.8 and 16.7 mM glucose. These findings support the hypothesis that higher AMPK protein expression is involved in impaired β-cell function in islets from rats subjected to CR for 21 days. PMID:27102713

  14. Preventive effects of citrulline on Western diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Freese, Kim; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Nubret, Esther; Butel, Marie-Jo; Bergheim, Ina; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A Western diet induces insulin resistance, liver steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and intestinal dysbiosis, leading to increased gut permeability and bacterial translocation, thus contributing to the progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the present study, we sought, in a model of Western diet-induced NAFLD, to determine whether citrulline (Cit), an amino acid that regulates protein and energy metabolism, could decrease Western diet-induced liver injuries, as well as the mechanisms involved. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (45 %) and fructose (30 %) in drinking water or a control diet associated with water (group C) for 8 weeks. The high-fat, high-fructose diet (Western diet) was fed either alone (group WD) or with Cit (1 g/kg per d) (group WDC) or an isonitrogenous amount of non-essential amino acids (group WDA). We evaluated nutritional and metabolic status, liver function, intestinal barrier function, gut microbiota and splanchnic inflammatory status. Cit led to a lower level of hepatic TAG restricted to microvesicular lipid droplets and to a lower mRNA expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, of pro-inflammatory cytokines Il6 (P<0·05) and Tnfα, and of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) (P<0·05). Cit also improved plasma TAG and insulin levels. In the colon, it decreased inflammation (Tnfα and Tlr4 expressions) and increased claudin-1 protein expression. This was associated with higher levels of Bacteroides/Prevotella compared with rats fed the Western diet alone. Cit improves Western diet-induced liver injuries via decreased lipid deposition, increased insulin sensitivity, lower inflammatory process and preserved antioxidant status. This may be related in part to its protective effects at the gut level.

  15. Maternal protein restriction alters VEGF signaling and decreases pulmonary alveolar in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomei; Lin, Yan; Tian, Baoling; Miao, Jianing; Xi, Chunyan; Liu, Caixia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk for respiratory morbidity from infancy, throughout childhood and into adulthood. Chronic restriction of nutrients causes abnormalities in the airways and lungs of offspring, but whether IUGR adversely impacts fetal pulmonary vascular development and underlying mechanisms remain under investigation. In this study, we investigated the effects of protein malnutrition in utero on pulmonary alveolarization and vascular growth of the fetal lung and placentae. Pregnant rats were feed with an isocaloric low-protein diet (8% protein) until delivery. Placenta and fetal lungs were harvested on 20th day of gestation (term 21 days of gestation). Lung index (lung weight as a percentage of body weight), total DNA and protein, radial alveolar count, arteriolar wall thickness, lung maturity and angiogenic factor VEGF were assessed. The lung was hypoplastic in IUGR fetus, evidenced by reduction in lung weight, DNA and protein content. Protein restriction in utero led to higher glycogen levels, but reduced number of alveoli as confirmed by the measurement of radial alveolar counts. IUGR fetus had significantly reduced VEGF, Flk-1 levels in lung but no changes in Flt-1 mRNA. Furthermore, IUGR was associated with increased lung miR-126-3p levels, which modulated the expression of angiogenic factor. In contrast, with regard to the placenta, IUGR fetus presented with decreased expression of VEGF, with no changes in VEGF receptors and expression-regulating miRNAs. This work suggested that VEGF signaling defect plays an important role in the defective lung development, which may explain the increased incidence of respiratory infections in IUGR patients. PMID:25031729

  16. Components of an anticancer diet: dietary recommendations, restrictions and supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

    2011-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol's development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol's safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  17. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

    2010-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs. PMID:22254073

  18. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS) and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF) diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences. PMID:21736742

  19. Hypoandrogenism and abnormal regulation of gonadotropin secretion in rats fed a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Glass, A R; Mellitt, R; Vigersky, R A; Swerdloff, R S

    1979-02-01

    The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was evaluated in rats fed a low protein diet for 4 weeks beginning at 21 days of age. Compared to control, the low protein group had decreased seminal vesicle and prostate weights as well as decreased testicular testosterone output in vitro, although serum testosterone was not different. The low protein group showed no consistent alterations in serum LH (basal, post-LHRH, and postcastration) compared to control although serum FSH (basal and post-LHRH) was lower in the low protein group. Despite this lower basal FSH, the low protein group had supranormal serum FSH after castration. Seminiferous tubule diameter and testicular histology were normal in the low protein group although testicular androgen-binding protein was absent. Testicular androgen-binding protein was also undetectable in a modestly food-restricted control group which had normal testicular size, testicular histology, androgen output, and serum FSH. This finding suggests that loss of testicular androgen-binding protein may be a sensitive sign of undernutrition. We conclude that rats fed a low protein diet have hypoandrogenism, normal testicular histology, and supranormal FSH after castration despite subnormal basal FSH. The latter combination suggests overproduction of an FSH inhibitor of testicular origin.

  20. Influence of restricted diet on epithelial renewal and maturation in the mice jejunum.

    PubMed

    Koga, A; Kimura, S

    1978-01-01

    It has been known that the intestinal epithelial cell is characterized by a rapid cell turnover and by a gradient of differentiation from crypt to villus. The present study was undertaken to clarity the effect of diet on the migration and the maturation of the intestinal epithelial cells. The transit time from the crypt to the extrusion zone at the villus tip was determined with tritiated thymidine. To study the maturation of the cells the distribution of the terminal digestive enzymes, maltase [EC 3.2.1.20] and leucylnaphthylamidase E1EC 3.4.1.1], along the villus and crypt was analyzed quantitatively. And total activities of the same enzymes were assayed also in the mucosal homogenates. It was observed that the decrease in the migrating speed of villus cells was brought by energy restriction and the decrease in the migrating speed was associated with an increase of the enzyme activities in the upper zone of villus. And the result was that the intestinal epithelial cells which decrease in migrating speed by dietary restriction become more mature on the upper villus than those with unrestriced control.

  1. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-10-15

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference.

  2. A low-salt diet increases the expression of renal sirtuin 1 through activation of the ghrelin receptor in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Yu; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is renoprotective; however, details regarding its distribution and functions in the kidney remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt1 was mainly expressed in the tubulointerstitial cells of normal rat kidneys and was co-localized with aquaporin 2, indicating it may be involved in water/salt regulation. Renal Sirt1 expression increased in the non-glomerular cytoplasmic portion of the kidney after a 24-h fast, but no significant changes in Sirt1 expression occurred after water loading (50 mL/kg) or 24-h water deprivation. After consuming a low-salt (0.075%) or 60% calorie restriction diet for 7 days, Sirt1 expression in the rat kidney was significantly increased, whereas a high-salt (8%) diet did not change the level of Sirt1 expression. The low-salt diet also increased Sirt1 expression in the heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. The increased Sirt1 that was observed in rats on a low-salt diet was associated with increased ghrelin expression in the distal nephron, with both molecules exhibiting similar distribution patterns. An in vitro experiment suggested that ghrelin increases Sirt1 expression in cortical collecting duct cells by activating ghrelin receptors. Our study indicates that this 'ghrelin-Sirt1 system' may participate in regulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:27600292

  3. A low-salt diet increases the expression of renal sirtuin 1 through activation of the ghrelin receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Yu; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is renoprotective; however, details regarding its distribution and functions in the kidney remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt1 was mainly expressed in the tubulointerstitial cells of normal rat kidneys and was co-localized with aquaporin 2, indicating it may be involved in water/salt regulation. Renal Sirt1 expression increased in the non-glomerular cytoplasmic portion of the kidney after a 24-h fast, but no significant changes in Sirt1 expression occurred after water loading (50 mL/kg) or 24-h water deprivation. After consuming a low-salt (0.075%) or 60% calorie restriction diet for 7 days, Sirt1 expression in the rat kidney was significantly increased, whereas a high-salt (8%) diet did not change the level of Sirt1 expression. The low-salt diet also increased Sirt1 expression in the heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. The increased Sirt1 that was observed in rats on a low-salt diet was associated with increased ghrelin expression in the distal nephron, with both molecules exhibiting similar distribution patterns. An in vitro experiment suggested that ghrelin increases Sirt1 expression in cortical collecting duct cells by activating ghrelin receptors. Our study indicates that this ‘ghrelin-Sirt1 system’ may participate in regulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:27600292

  4. Responses of brown adipose tissue to diet-induced obesity, exercise, dietary restriction and ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Nikki; Durrant, Jessica R; Bailey, David; Yoon, Lawrence; Jordan, Holly; Barton, Joanna; Brown, Roger H; Clifton, Lisa; Milliken, Tula; Harrington, Wallace; Kimbrough, Carie; Faber, Catherine A; Cariello, Neal; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2013-07-01

    Drug-induced weight loss in humans has been associated with undesirable side effects not present in weight loss from lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction or exercise). To investigate the mechanistic differences of weight loss by drug-induced and lifestyle interventions, we examined the gene expression (mRNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary restriction) for 7 days. Exercise and DR mice lost more body weight than controls and both ephedrine and exercise reduced percent body fat. All treatments reduced BAT and liver lipid accumulation (i.e., cytoplasmic lipids in brown adipocytes and hepatocytes) and increased oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/h) compared with controls. Mitochondrial biogenesis/function-related genes (TFAM, NRF1 and GABPA) were up-regulated in the BAT of all groups. UCP-1 was up-regulated in exercise and ephedrine groups, whereas MFSD2A was up-regulated in ephedrine and DR groups. PGC-1α up-regulation was observed in exercise and DR groups but not in ephedrine group. In all experimental groups, except for ephedrine, fatty acid transport and metabolism genes were up-regulated, but the magnitude of change was higher in the DR group. PRKAA1 was up-regulated in all groups but not significantly in the ephedrine group. ADRß3 was slightly up-regulated in the DR group only, whereas ESRRA remained unchanged in all groups. Although our data suggest a common pathway of BAT activation elicited by ephedrine treatment, exercise or DR, mRNA changes were indicative of additional nutrient-sensing pathways in exercise and DR.

  5. Maternal protein restriction compromises myocardial contractility in the young adult rat by changing proteins involved in calcium handling.

    PubMed

    de Belchior, Aucelia C S; Freire, David D; da Costa, Carlos P; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S; Dos Santos, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    Maternal protein restriction (MPR) during pregnancy is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in the offspring in adulthood. In this study we evaluated the cardiac function of young male rats born from mothers subjected to MPR during pregnancy, focusing on the myocardial mechanics and calcium-handling proteins. After weaning, rats received normal diet until 3 mo old, when the following parameters were assessed: arterial and left ventricular hemodynamics and in vitro cardiac contractility in isolated papillary muscles. The body weight was lower and arterial pressure higher in the MPR group compared with young adult offspring of female rats that received standard diet (controls); and left ventricle time derivatives increased in the MPR group. The force developed by the cardiac muscle was similar; but time to peak and relaxation time were longer, and the derivatives of force were depressed in the MPR. In addition, MPR group exhibited decreased post-pause potentiation of force, suggesting reduced reuptake function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Corroborating, the myocardial content of SERCA-2a and phosphorylated PLB-Ser16/total PLB ratio was decreased and sodium-calcium exchanger was increased in the MPR group. The contraction dependent on transsarcolemmal influx of calcium was higher in MPR if compared with the control group. In summary, young rats born from mothers subjected to protein restriction during pregnancy exhibit changes in the myocardial mechanics with altered expression of calcium-handling proteins, reinforcing the hypothesis that maternal malnutrition is related to increased cardiovascular risk in the offspring, not only for hypertension, but also cardiac dysfunction.

  6. Ketogenic diet does not change NKCC1 and KCC2 expression in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lira, Gisela; Mendoza-Torreblanca, Julieta Griselda; Granados-Rojas, Leticia

    2011-09-01

    In control rats, we examined the effects of ketogenic diet on NKCC1 and KCC2 expression levels in hippocampus. Neither the number of NKCC1 immunoreactive cells nor the intensity of labeling of KCC2 was found to modify in hippocampus of the rats after ketogenic diet treatment. These results indicate that ketogenic diet by itself does not modify the expression of these cation chloride cotransporters.

  7. Standard short-term diet ameliorates the lipid profile altered by a fructose-rich diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Cambri, L T; Ghezzi, A C; Arsa, G; Botezelli, J D; de Mello, M A R

    2015-08-01

    Markers of metabolic abnormalities are commonly found in rodents fed a fructose-rich diet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of a short-term standard diet to rats is able to improve the lipid profile altered by a fructose-rich diet. The male pups, immediately after birth, were divided in three groups according to the diet for 90 days. Standard diet: a standard diet for the whole experimental period; fructose (60% fructose-rich diet): fructose-rich diet during the entire experimental period; fructose/standard (FS): fructose-rich diet from the neonatal period up to 60 days of age and standard diet from 60 to 90 days of age. A fructose-rich diet from the neonatal period to 60 days reduced weight gain (P<0.05), as well as the weight of adipose tissues in all the regions analyzed (epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and posterior subcutaneous), and it altered the lipid profile (elevation of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol; P<0.05). When a standard diet was administered after the fructose-rich diet, it was able to partially reverse changes to the lipid profile, as total cholesterol levels were significantly different in all the groups (P<0.05), and triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were similar between the control and FS group. In summary, a fructose-rich diet altered the lipid profile, and a standard diet can partially reverse the changed parameters in short term.

  8. Metabolic and behavioral effects of chronic olanzapine treatment and cafeteria diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Muller, Alexandre P; Tort, Ana H; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Moreira, Julia D; Vinadé, Elsa R; Perry, Marcos L; Souza, Diogo O; Lara, Diogo R; Portela, Luis V

    2010-10-01

    Olanzapine and highly palatable diets can alter metabolism and brain function. We investigated the interaction of chronic treatment (4 months) with olanzapine and a cafeteria diet on metabolic parameters, memory tasks (spatial and aversive), the elevated plus maze and locomotor activity induced by d-amphetamine. Male Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: standard diet vehicle, standard diet and olanzapine, cafeteria diet vehicle and cafeteria diet and olanzapine. Olanzapine was administered in the drinking water (approximately 1.5 mg/kg/day), and after 3 days of treatment, the rats exhibited an expected anxiolytic effect and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. After 4 months of treatment, cafeteria diet vehicle and cafeteria diet olanzapine rats exhibited an increased body weight and heavier fat pads compared with the standard diet groups. Olanzapine increased only the epididymal and mesenteric fat pads. The cafeteria diet and olanzapine group showed greater glucose intolerance compared with all other groups. The cafeteria diet altered the effects of chronic olanzapine on the performance in the water maze and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Chronic olanzapine treatment failed to affect amphetamine-induced locomotion and to produce anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze task, regardless of the diet. Our results suggest that chronic olanzapine caused an increase in fat pads, which is putatively involved in the etiology of many metabolic diseases. Rats on the cafeteria diet were overweight and exhibited glucose intolerance. We did not observe these effects with olanzapine treatment with the standard diet. Moreover, the chronic treatment regimen caused tolerance to the antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects of olanzapine and seemed to potentiate some of the metabolic effects of the cafeteria diet. The cafeteria diet also modified the effects of chronic treatment with olanzapine on cognitive tasks, which may represent an undesirable effect of

  9. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. PMID:22995976

  10. Intrauterine growth restriction increases the preference for palatable foods and affects sensitivity to food rewards in male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Alves, Márcio Bonesso; Reis, Tatiane Madeira; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-08-27

    Clinical evidence suggests that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can cause persistent changes in the preference for palatable foods. In this study, we compared food preferences, the response to food rewards, and the role of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in feeding behavior, between IUGR and control rats. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to a control group (standard chow ad libitum) or a 50% food restriction (FR) group, which received 50% of the control dams׳ habitual intake. These diets were provided from gestation day 10 to the 21st day of lactation. Within 24h of birth, pups were cross-fostered and divided into four groups: Adlib/Adlib, FR/Adlib, FR/FR, Adlib/FR. Standard chow consumption was compared between all groups. Food preferences, conditioned place preference to a palatable diet, and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens were analyzed and compared between the two groups of interest: Adlib/Adlib (control) and FR/Adlib (exposed to growth restriction during the fetal period only). IUGR adult rats had a stronger preference for palatable foods, but showed less conditioned place preference to a palatable diet than controls. D2 receptors levels were lower in IUGR rats. At baseline, TH and pTH levels were higher in FR/Adlib than control males. Measurements taken after exposure to sweet foods revealed higher levels of TH and pTH in FR/Adlib than control females. These data showed that IUGR rats exhibited a preference for palatable foods, potentially due to alterations in their mesolimbic reward pathway. Additionally, the changes observed in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of IUGR rats proved to be sex-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 1618.

  11. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on emerging plasma markers for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Richard J; Volek, Jeff S; Davis, Steven R; Dell'Ova, Carly; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2006-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence supports carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) for weight loss and improvement in traditional markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD); less is known regarding emerging CVD risk factors. We previously reported that a weight loss intervention based on a CRD (% carbohydrate:fat:protein = 13:60:27) led to a mean weight loss of 7.5 kg and a 20% reduction of abdominal fat in 29 overweight men. This group showed reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and elevations in HDL-cholesterol as well as reductions in large and medium VLDL particles and increases in LDL particle size. In this study we report on the effect of this intervention with and without fiber supplementation on plasma homocysteine, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Methods Twenty nine overweight men [body mass index (BMI) 25–35 kg/m2] aged 20–69 years consumed an ad libitum CRD (% carbohydrate:fat:protein = 13:60:27) including a standard multivitamin every other day for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume 3 g/d of either a soluble fiber supplement (n = 14) or placebo (n = 15). Results There were no group or interaction (fiber × time) main effects, but significant time effects were observed for several variables. Energy intake was spontaneously reduced (-30.5%). This was accompanied by an increase in protein intake (96.2 ± 29.8 g/d to 107.3 ± 29.7 g/d) and methionine intake (2.25 ± 0.7 g/d, to 2.71 ± 0.78 g/d; P < 0.001). Trans fatty acid intake was significantly reduced (-38.6%) while dietary folate was unchanged, as was plasma homocysteine. Bodyweight (-7.5 ± 2.5 kg) was reduced as was plasma Lp(a) (-11.3%). Changes in plasma Lp(a) correlated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol (r = .436, P < 0.05) and fat loss (r = .385, P < 0,05). At wk 12, both CRP (-8.1%) and TNF-α (-9.3%) were reduced (P < 0.05) independently of weight loss. IL-6

  12. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (P<0·05), but no significant alteration in BW was found in obese rats. The average content of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (P<0·01), and bacteria from phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were both increased largely (P<0·01); however, the bacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet. PMID:26316354

  13. Simvastatin increases liver branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in rats fed with low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Knapik-Czajka, Malgorzata

    2014-11-01

    The rate-limiting step in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) disposal is catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). BCKDH activity is regulated mainly by a reversible dephosphorylation (activation)/phosphorylation (inactivation) cycle catalyzed by a specific phosphatase (BDP) and kinase (BDK). Current catalytic activity of BCKDH, described as BCKDH activity state, and thus also BCAAs catabolic rate depend directly on the portion of BCKDH occurring in its active dephosphorylated form. Liver BCKDH activity state alters in response to different nutritional factors. Feeding rats a low-protein diet decreases BCKDH activity. It has been previously shown that lipid lowering drugs, fibrates upregulate liver BCKDH activity and stimulate BCAAs catabolism, especially under the condition of dietary protein deprivation. Effect of statins on liver BCKDH activity has not been studied yet. The present study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effect of simvastatin on liver BCKDH activity, as well as E1, E2 and BDP and BDK mRNA levels in rats fed with either a standard (23% protein) or a low protein (8% protein) diet. For 14 days, simvastatin (80 mg/kg b wt/day) or the vehicle (0.3% methylcellulose) were administrated orally by gavage to the treated and control groups, respectively. The actual BCKDH and total BCKDH activities were assayed spectrophotometrically prior to and following incubation with lambda phosphatase, respectively. The mRNA levels of the selected genes were quantified by means of a semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In rats fed with the low protein diet simvastatin administration reversed physiological adaptation of liver BCKDH to protein restriction and increased liver BCKDH activity state by 39% (p<0.05). Changes in BCKDH activity did not correspond to any changes in mRNA levels for BCKDH catalytic and regulatory enzymes. On the contrary, in rats fed with standard diet liver BCKDH activity state did not alter substantially

  14. Caloric restriction in young rats disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P

    2016-09-01

    It is widely known that caloric restriction (CR) has benefits on several organic systems, including the central nervous system. However, the majority of the CR studies was performed in adult animals and the information about the consequences on young populations is limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of young-onset CR, started at 4weeks of age, in the number of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons and in neurogenesis of the hippocampal formation, using doublecortin (DCX) and Ki67 as markers. Knowing that CR treatment could interfere with exploratory activity, anxiety, learning and memory we have analyzed the performance of the rats in the open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests. Animals aged 4weeks were randomly assigned to control or CR groups. Controls were maintained in the ad libitum regimen during 2months. The adolescent CR rats were fed, during 2months, with 60% of the amount of food consumed by controls. We have found that young-onset CR treatment did not affect the total number of NPY-immunopositive neurons in dentate hilus, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subfields and did not change the exploratory activity and anxiety levels. Interestingly, we have found that young-onset CR might affect spatial learning process since those animals showed worse performance during the acquisition phase of Morris water maze. Furthermore, young-onset CR induced alterations of neurogenesis in the dentate subgranular layer that seems to underlie the impairment of spatial learning. Our data suggest that adolescent animals are vulnerable to CR treatment and that this diet is not suitable to be applied in this age phase. PMID:27432519

  15. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Nutrient Analysis, Growth, and Organ Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    A diet (KSC-25) to be sterilized by irradiation was formulated to contain 66% moisture and to provide the required nutrients for growing rats. Analyses of the irradiated dry diet provided data to evaluate its nutrient content. The diet was evaluated for its ability to supply all nutrients, including water, required by immature rats. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the high-moisture diet with or without access to a water bottle. Rats (n = 16) fed an irradiated purified diet in a meal form with access to a water bottle were the control animals. Feed efficiency, food and water consumption, and growth rate data were collected during the 28-day study. Organ weights were collected on day 28. The test diet met or exceeded the National Research Council (NRC) estimated nutritional requirements for immature laboratory rats. The 66% moisture KSC-25 diet provided all nutrients, including water, required by weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats for growth equivalent to the established purified diet.

  16. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43). PMID:26435020

  17. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).

  18. Conversion Percentage of Tryptophan to Nicotinamide is Higher in Rice Protein Diet than in Wheat Protein Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kawamura, Tomoyo

    2015-01-01

    We reported previously that the pellagragenic property of corn protein is not only low l-tryptophan concentration but also the lower conversion percentage of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide; the amino acid composition greatly affected the conversion percentage. The amino acid value of wheat protein is lower than that of rice protein. In the present study, we compare the conversion percentages of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide between wheat protein and rice protein diets in growing rats. The body weight gain for 28 days in rats fed with a 10% amino acid mixture diet with wheat protein was lower than that of rats fed with a 10% amino acid diet with rice protein (68.1 ± 1.6 g vs 108.4 ± 1.9 g; P < 0.05). The conversion percentage of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide was also lower for the wheat protein diet compared with the rice protein diet (1.44 ± 0.036% vs 2.84 ± 0.19%; P < 0.05). The addition of limiting amino acids (l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-tryptophan, l-methionine, l-threonine) to the wheat protein diet improved growth and the conversion percentage. In conclusion, our result supports the thinking that the composition of amino acids affects the conversion ratio of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide. PMID:25788834

  19. Caloric restricted male rats demonstrate fewer synapses in layer 2 of sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Poe, Brandon Hollis; Constance Linville, Martha; Sonntag, William Edmund; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy Karen

    2002-03-22

    Previous studies have demonstrated an age-related decline in the density of presumptive inhibitory synapses in layer 2 of rat sensorimotor cortex [J. Comp. Neurol. 439(1) (2001) 65]. Caloric restriction has been shown to ameliorate age-related deterioration in a variety of systems and to extend life span. The present study tested the hypothesis that caloric restriction would prevent the previously reported age-related synaptic decline. Accordingly, synaptic density in layer 2 of sensorimotor cortex was compared between 29-month-old male rats fed ad libitum and 29-month-old male rats that were caloric restricted (60% of ad libitum calories) from 4 months of age. In serial electron micrographs, the physical disector was used to determine the numerical density of presumptive excitatory and inhibitory synapses (those containing round or nonround vesicles, respectively) as well as that of neurons. Not only was the previously reported age-related decline in numerical density of presumptive inhibitory synapses not ameliorated by caloric restriction, the numerical density was significantly lower in caloric restricted than in ad libitum fed rats for total as well as for presumptive excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Analysis further revealed no difference in the numerical density of neurons in this region. Relating synapse density to neuron density as the ratio of synapses to neuron also demonstrated significantly fewer synapses per neuron in caloric restricted than in ad libitum fed old rats. Finally, synapse length was significantly less in caloric restricted rats. These results suggest that not only does caloric restriction fail to prevent the age-related decline in presumptive inhibitory synapses, it results in fewer presumptive excitatory synapses as well.

  20. VEGF mRNA in adipocytes increase with rebound weight-gain after diet-restriction.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Kanae; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Morimura, Mina; Nobeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Eri; Noriyuki, Maiko; Honda, Kenichi; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiko, Osamu

    2004-03-01

    The mechanism of rebound body weight-gain after a restricted-diet state is unclear. We investigated the expression of angiogenic factors in human adipocytes with a changing nutritional state in culture medium, and attempted to ascertain the mechanisms involved in rebound weight-gain. Adipocytes were divided into three groups; the first group (control group) was cultured in medium with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), the second (DR3% group) was cultured in medium with 3% FCS, and the third (DR6% group) was cultured in medium with 6% FCS. After being cultured for 48 h, each was next cultured with 12% FCS for a further 48 h. When made to change from a low nutrition state to a higher one, adipocytes changed from hypotrophic to hypertrophic. Simultaneously, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture medium increased significantly. When investigated immunohistochemically, the expression of VEGF was similarly shown in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. The same tendency with the same quantity of mRNA was shown by RT-PCR. These results show that VEGF produced and secreted from adipocytes increases, when the cultivation state of adipocytes is changed from a low nutritional state to a higher one. VEGF produced and secreted from adipocytes may be related to rebound weight-gain.

  1. Yogurt protects against growth retardation in weanling rats fed diets high in phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Gaetke, Lisa M; McClain, Craig J; Toleman, C Jean; Stuart, Mary A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adding yogurt to animal diets that were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 microg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, six groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of six AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or heat-treated (inactive) cultures added at 25% of the diet. The diets were as follows: (a) AIN, (b) AIN with active yogurt, (c) AIN and inactive yogurt, (d) AIN with PA, (e) AIN with PA plus active yogurt and (f) AIN with PA plus inactive yogurt. Body weight, weight gain and zinc concentration in bone and plasma were measured, and food efficiency ratio was calculated. Rats fed diets with PA and yogurt had normal growth compared to the control group. Growth retardation was evident in the group fed the diet with PA and no yogurt. This group had significantly lower body weight compared to all other groups (P<.05). Rats fed diets with PA, with or without yogurt, had significantly lower zinc concentration in bone and plasma (P<.05). Adding yogurt to diets high in PA resulted in normal growth in weanling rats; however, zinc concentration in bone and plasma was still suboptimal.

  2. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

  3. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

  4. Diet high in fructose leads to an overexpression of lipocalin-2 in rat fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Xu, Min; Seyhan, Hatice Ali; Ahmad, Shakil; Mihm, Sabine; Ramadori, Giuliano; Schultze, Frank Christian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) expression and its possible role and mechanism(s) of production in rat models of diet-inducible fatty liver. METHODS: Fatty liver was triggered in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either with liquid Lieber-DeCarli (LDC) or LDC + 70% cal fructose (L-HFr) diet for 4 or 8 wk. Chow-nourished animals served as controls. Hepatic expression of LCN-2 and other metabolic and inflammatory mediators was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Serum LCN-2, fasting leptin, and lipid profile were evaluated via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Radioimmunoassay, and colorimetric assays, respectively. The localization of LCN-2 in the liver was detected by using immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, HE stain was used to evaluate hepatic fat degeneration and inflammation. RESULTS: Both LDC-fed and L-HFr-fed rat histologically featured fatty liver. In the liver, mRNA transcriptions of Mcp-1, a2-m, Il-8 and Glut5 were increased in the L-HFr group at both time points (P < 0.001), while the transcription of Tlr4, Inos, and Tnf-α was significantly up-regulated at week 4. Interestingly, hepatic Lcn-2 expression was 90-fold at week 4 and 507-fold at week 8 higher in L-HFr-subjected rats vs control (P < 0.001). In contrast to HDL-cholesterol, systemic levels of LCN-2, fasting leptin and triglycerides were elevated in the L-HFr regimen (P < 0.001). Moreover, protein expression of hepatic LCN-2, CD14, phospho-MAPK, caspase-9, cytochrome c and 4-hydroxynonenal was increased in the L-HFr group. Conversely, the hepatic expression of PGC-1α (a mitochondrial-biogenic protein) was reduced in the L-HFr category at week 8. The localization of LCN-2 in the liver was predominantly restricted to MPO+ granulocytes. CONCLUSION: Fructose diet up-regulates hepatic LCN-2 expression, which correlates with the increased indicators of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The LCN-2 may be involved in liver

  5. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity. PMID:27239252

  6. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  7. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  8. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  9. Influence of aging and caloric restriction on activation of Ras/MAPK, calcineurin, and CaMK-IV activities in rat T cells.

    PubMed

    Pahlavani, M A; Vargas, D M

    2000-02-01

    The signaling cascade mediated by Ras (p21ras) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and calcium/calmodulin regulating enzymes, calcineurin (CaN) and CaMK-IV, are considered to be essential for T-cell growth and function. In the present study, the effect of aging and caloric restriction (CR) on the induction of Ras and MAPK activation by concanavalin A (ConA) was studied. Splenic T cells were isolated from young (4-6 months) and old (22-24 months) rats that had free access to food (control group), and from caloric restricted old (22-24 months) rats that beginning at 6 weeks of age were fed 60%(40% caloric restriction) of the diet consumed by the control rats. We found that the induction of Ras activity in T cells isolated from control old rats was lower (P<0.001) than that in control young rats. However, the levels of Ras activity in T cells isolated from CR old rats were similar to the levels in the age-matched control rats. The induction of MAPK activity in T cells isolated from control old rats and CR old rats was significantly less than in T cells isolated from control young rats, and caloric restriction significantly (P<0.05) reduced the age-related decline in MAPK activation. We also measured the induction of CaN and CaMK-IV activities by ConA in T cells from control young and old and CR old rats. The induction of both CaN and CaMK-IV activity decreased with age. Caloric restriction significantly (P<0.05) reduced the age-related decline in CaN activity, but had no significant effect on CaMK-IV activity. The changes in Ras/MAPK activation and in CaN and CaMK-IV activity with age or with CR were not associated with alterations in their corresponding protein levels. Thus, caloric restriction has a differential effect on the activation of the upstream signaling molecules that are altered with age.

  10. Decreased rat rhabdomyosarcoma pulmonary metastases in response to a low methionine diet.

    PubMed

    Breillout, F; Hadida, F; Echinard-Garin, P; Lascaux, V; Poupon, M F

    1987-01-01

    Many Experimental and human tumor cell lines have been previously described as being dependent upon exogenous methionine for their in vitro proliferation. The rationale of the experiments described herein was to decrease the in vivo growth of malignant tumors by reducing the exogenous methionine available in diets fed to Wistar AG rats bearing the highly metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma, RMS-J1. The methionine content in the diet was reduced either by replacing casein (diet 1) with soybean protein (diet 4), or by lowering the amount of soybean protein in the diet (from 23 g/100 g to 12 g/100g) (diet 5), or by using a crystalline amino acid-defined mixture as the source of protein (diet 7). In the latter diet homocysteine replaced methionine and allowed the survival of the animals. Diet 4 significantly reduced the mean number of lung metastases without affecting the primary tumor growth. Treatment of RMS-J1 bearing rats with diet 5 led to the decrease of pulmonary invasion (78 and 21 median lung metastases, respectively, in control and treated groups). This diminished metastatic dissemination resulted from the reduced methionine consumption: the lowered casein content in diet 3 (10 g/100 g) as compared to diet 1 (23 g) did not alter primary tumor growth or the amplitude of lung invasion. Moreover, the addition of methionine to diet 5 prevented the diminution of the median number of lung metastases. Replacement of methionine with homocysteine in the crystalline amino acid-defined mixture (diet 7) fed to RMS-J1 bearing rats led to a limited retardation of primary tumor growth (less than 10%) and to a significant decrease in pulmonary invasion: the median number of pulmonary metastases was 28 and 9 for control and treated rats respectively.

  11. The hypolipidaemic effect of gum tragacanth in diet induced hyperlipidaemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Amer, S; Kamil, R; Siddiqui, P Q

    1999-07-01

    Previous research indicated that fiber in the diet of men lowers plasma lipid and LDL cholesterol concentration. To further study the lipid lowering effect of fibre, we conducted an animal study using rats with diet induced hyperlipidaemia. Rats were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental diets. Two of the diets contained cholesterol and choice acid to induce hyperlipidaemia, the fiber source in the hyperlipidaemic diet was gum tragacanth (5%). The rats consumed one of the three diets ad libitum for 4 weeks before they were killed. Plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the hyperlipidaemic group than in the non hyperlipidaemic control group. A marked improvement in the plasma LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol concentration was observed in the rats that were fed hyperlipidaemic diet containing grum tragacanth. No significant difference in the plasma triglyceride concentration was detected in the three groups. Plasma HDL concentration was significantly higher in the non-hyperlipidaemic group than in the hyperlipidaemic group than. Addition of gum tragacanth to the hyperlipidaemic diet significantly improved the plasma HDL concentration in the hyperlipidaemic rats. These results suggest that fiber from gum tragacanth lowers plasma cholesterol and LDL in hyperlipidaemia. Gum tragacanth could be useful adjunct to the dietary management of hyperlipidaemia.

  12. Leptin signal transduction underlies the differential metabolic response of LEW and WKY rats to cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Micaelo, N; González-Abuín, N; Ardévol, A; Pinent, M; Petretto, E; Behmoaras, J; Blay, M

    2016-01-01

    Although the effect of genetic background on obesity-related phenotypes is well established, the main objective of this study is to determine the phenotypic responses to cafeteria diet (CAF) of two genetically distinct inbred rat strains and give insight into the molecular mechanisms that might be underlying. Lewis (LEW) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed with either a standard or a CAF diet. The effects of the diet and the strain in the body weight gain, food intake, respiratory quotient, biochemical parameters in plasma as well as in the expression of genes that regulate leptin signalling were determined. Whereas CAF diet promoted weight gain in LEW and WKY rats, as consequence of increased energy intake, metabolic management of this energy surplus was significantly affected by genetic background. LEW and WKY showed a different metabolic profile, LEW rats showed hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high FFA levels, ketogenesis, high adiposity index and inflammation, but WKY did not. Leptin signalling, and specifically the LepRb-mediated regulation of STAT3 activation and Socs3 gene expression in the hypothalamus were inversely modulated by the CAF diet in LEW (upregulated) and WKY rats (downregulated). In the present study, we show evidence of gene-environment interactions in obesity exerted by differential phenotypic responses to CAF diet between LEW and WKY rats. Specifically, we found the leptin-signalling pathway as a divergent point between the strain-specific adaptations to diet.

  13. Neuropsychological Studies on Adolescents with Phenylketonuria Returned to Phenylalanine-Restricted Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, J. T. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated neuropsychological effects of high or low phenylalanine diets on nine phenylketonuric (PKU) adolescents who had been on unrestricted diets for 2 to 11 years. Results found that PKU adolescents on unrestricted diets have a neuropsychological deficit which can be partly reversed by returning to dietary phenylalanine restricted…

  14. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Ying; Liu, Hu; Ma, Li-Juan; Xu, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes, which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats, which were fed different diets. Methods: Seventy-six adult (6–8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular, high-fat, or low-fat diets) for 6 months. The rats were randomly divided into six groups. They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10), nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n = 14), nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n = 14), smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10), smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n = 14), and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n = 14). A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods. Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air. Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group, serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t = 6.932, 11.026; all P < 0.001). BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r = −0.751, P = 0.012). Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6, t = 4.196, 3

  15. Chronic caloric restriction reduces tissue damage and improves spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rich, Nicholas J; Van Landingham, Jacob W; Figueiroa, Silvia; Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S; Levenson, Cathy W

    2010-10-01

    Although it has been known for some time that chronic caloric or dietary restriction reduces the risk of neurodegenerative disorders and injury following ischemia, the possible role of chronic restriction in improving outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been previously studied. Therefore, 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two dietary groups, an ad libitum fed group (AL) and a caloric-restriction group (CR) that was provided with 70% of the food intake of AL rats (n = 10/group). After 4 months, a weight-drop device (300 g) was used to produce a 2-mm bilateral medial frontal cortex contusion following craniotomy. Additional animals in each dietary group (n = 10) were used as sham-operated controls. The CR diet resulted in body weights that were reduced by 30% compared with AL controls. Not only did CR decrease the size of the cortical lesion after injury, there were marked improvements in spatial memory as measured by Morris water maze that included an increase in the number of animals successfully finding the platform as well as significantly reduced time to finding the hidden platform. Western analysis, used to examine the expression of proteins that play a role in neuronal survival, revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the cortical region around the site of injury and in the hippocampus in CR rats after injury. These findings suggest that molecular mechanisms involved in cell survival may play a role in reducing tissue damage and improving cognition after TBI and that these mechanisms can be regulated by dietary interventions. PMID:20544832

  16. Effect of diet textural characteristics on the temporal rhythms of feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Mok, E; Thibault, L

    To examine whether the diurnal rhythms of protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich diet ingestion can be altered by presenting the diets in different textural forms, adult male Wistar rats were assigned to two dietary groups. One group received a two-way choice between high-protein powder and high-carbohydrate granular (HPP-HCG) diets. In the other group the textures were reversed [high-protein granular and high-carbohydrate powder (HPG-HCP) diets]. Rats fed HPP-HCG diets selected significantly less protein (kcal) vs. rats fed HPG-HCP diets, during the 24-h and 12-h dark phase and during the 4-h early and late dark phases. Carbohydrate intakes of the two dietary groups were not significantly different. Total caloric intake for the HPG-HCP dietary group was significantly higher than that of the HPP-HCG dietary group during the 24-h and 12-h dark phase. Body weight was significantly lower in rats fed HPP-HCG diets. In conclusion, macronutrient-rich diets presented in different textural forms alter protein-rich diet ingestion and total energy intake. PMID:10073498

  17. Long-term modification of the excretion of prostaglandin E(2) by fetal exposure to a maternal low protein diet in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R C; Jackson, A A; Langley-Evans, S C

    1999-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal undernutrition in both humans and animals is associated with long-term changes in the structure, physiological functions and metabolism of key tissues and organs. This phenomenon, termed programming, is implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Using an established rat model of hypertension programmed by prenatal protein restriction, assessment was made of the long-term influence of maternal diet upon prostaglandin metabolism. Pregnant rats were fed isoenergetic diets containing 18% casein (control) or 9% casein (low protein) from conception until littering. The offspring of these pregnancies were studied at day 20 of gestation, full-term gestation and at 4, 7 or 12 weeks postnatal age. Prostaglandin E(2) concentrations in plasma were similar in control and low-protein diet-exposed rats at 4 weeks of age. Urinary prostaglandin E(2) excretion was, however, significantly increased by prenatal undernutrition in rats at both 4 and 12 weeks postnatal age. The principal enzyme of prostaglandin E(2) degradation, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) exhibited significantly lower activity in the kidneys of 4-week-old rats exposed to a maternal low-protein diet. This effect was transient and absent by 12 weeks postnatal age. There was also some evidence of an altered developmental profile of PGDH activity in the lungs of low-protein diet-exposed rats. These data are consistent with the long-term programming effects of the maternal diet upon renal prostaglandin metabolism. In the rat, increased local prostaglandin E(2) concentrations associated with impaired degradation may contribute to increased renovascular resistance and hypertension.

  18. Effects of mild calorie restriction on anxiety and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responses to stress in the male rat

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Rachel; Dinan, Tara; Cai, Guohui; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic calorie restriction (CR) is one of the few interventions to improve longevity and quality of life in a variety of species. It also reduces behavioral indices of anxiety and influences some stress hormones under basal conditions. However, it is not known how CR influences hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function or if those on a CR diet have heightened HPA axis responses to stress. We hypothesized elevated basal glucocorticoid levels induced by CR would lead to exacerbated HPA axis responses to the psychological stress, restraint, in the male rat. We first confirmed rats fed 75% of their normal calorie intake for 3 weeks were less anxious than ad libitum‐fed (AD) rats in the elevated plus maze test for anxiety. The anxiolytic effect was mild, with only grooming significantly attenuated in the open field and no measured behavior affected in the light/dark box. Despite elevated basal glucocorticoids, CR rats had very similar hormonal and central responses to 15‐min restraint to the AD rats. Both CR and AD rats responded to restraint stress with a robust increase in glucocorticoids that was resolved by 60 min. Both groups also showed robust neuronal activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and in other stress‐ and feeding‐sensitive brain regions that was not substantially affected by calorie intake. Our findings thus demonstrate chronic mild CR is subtly anxiolytic and is not likely to affect HPA axis responses to psychological stress. These findings support research suggesting a beneficial effect of mild CR. PMID:24760519

  19. Correlation of serum leptin and insulin levels of pregnant protein-restricted rats with predictive obesity variables.

    PubMed

    Macêdo, G S; Ferreira, C L P; Menegaz, A; Arantes, V C; Veloso, R V; Carneiro, E M; Boschero, A C; Oller do Nascimento, C M P; Latorraca, M Q; Gomes-da-Silva, M H G

    2008-06-01

    During pregnancy and protein restriction, changes in serum insulin and leptin levels, food intake and several metabolic parameters normally result in enhanced adiposity. We evaluated serum leptin and insulin levels and their correlations with some predictive obesity variables in Wistar rats (90 days), up to the 14th day of pregnancy: control non-pregnant (N = 5) and pregnant (N = 7) groups (control diet: 17% protein), and low-protein non-pregnant (N = 5) and pregnant (N = 6) groups (low-protein diet: 6%). Independent of the protein content of the diet, pregnancy increased total (F1,19 = 22.28, P < 0.001) and relative (F1,19 = 5.57, P < 0.03) food intake, the variation of weight (F1,19 = 49.79, P < 0.000) and final body weight (F1,19 = 19.52, P < 0.001), but glycemia (F1,19 = 9.02, P = 0.01) and the relative weight of gonadal adipose tissue (F1,19 = 17.11, P < 0.001) were decreased. Pregnancy (F1,19 = 18.13, P < 0.001) and low-protein diet (F1,19 = 20.35, P < 0.001) increased the absolute weight of brown adipose tissue. However, the relative weight of this tissue was increased only by protein restriction (F1,19 = 15.20, P < 0.001) and the relative lipid in carcass was decreased in low-protein groups (F1,19 = 4.34, P = 0.05). Serum insulin and leptin levels were similar among groups and did not correlate with food intake. However, there was a positive relationship between serum insulin levels and carcass fat depots in low-protein groups (r = 0.37, P < 0.05), while in pregnancy serum leptin correlated with weight of gonadal (r = 0.39, P < 0.02) and retroperitoneal (r = 0.41, P < 0.01) adipose tissues. Unexpectedly, protein restriction during 14 days of pregnancy did not alter the serum profile of adiposity signals and their effects on food intake and adiposity, probably due to the short term of exposure to low-protein diet. PMID:18622496

  20. Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2016-01-14

    The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.05). Control animals, whether maintained throughout the study on AIN-93M, or continued on HFS rather than reverting back to AIN-93M, did not differ from each other in body weight or adiposity. Overall, the HF diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones). The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation.

  1. Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Megan C.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2016-01-01

    The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.05). Control animals, whether maintained throughout the study on AIN-93M, or continued on HFS rather than reverting back to AIN-93M, did not differ from each other in body weight or adiposity. Overall, the HF diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones). The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation. PMID:26784224

  2. Hypercholesterolemic diet applied to rat dams protects their offspring against cognitive deficits. Simulated neonatal anoxia model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Iwo

    2004-09-30

    There is accumulating data suggesting a neuroprotective activity of cholesterol, especially in stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a protective activity of this lipid in simulated neonatal anoxia was investigated. Rats were subjected to high cholesterol by feeding their dams with a diet enriched with cholesterol. Half of these rats were subjected to anoxia. One and a half months later, the rats were tested for their ability to acquire a spatial memory, one group on the linear maze and the other on the Morris water maze. After these assessments, the level of total plasma cholesterol was measured. Rats from dams subjected to neonatal anoxia on standard diet performed worse than control rats in both types of behavioral experiments, whereas anoxic rats from dams were housed on hypercholesterolemic diet performed as control animals. It suggests that dietetic cholesterol applied by their dams protected rats against cognitive deficits elicited by neonatal anoxia. Furthermore, offspring of anoxic rats housed on standard diet had elevated levels of blood cholesterol in relation to control animals. Generally, anoxia affected the concentration of this lipid much stronger than hypercholesterolemic diet of their dams. It might mean that the anoxia-related rise of cholesterol could be involved in physiological phenomenon being an adaptive response to neurotoxic processes. This concept is discussed in relation to pathological mechanisms in AD.

  3. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-05-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups.

  4. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity.

  5. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. PMID:25516334

  6. Effects of high fat diet on fecal contents of bile acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Furihata, C; Matsushima, T

    1987-11-01

    The effects of dietary oils and fats used in Japan on the fecal contents of bile acids in rats were studied. F344/Du Crj female rats (8 weeks old) were fed on diet containing 20% corn oil, rape seed oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, lard, or tallow as high oil or fat diets or on 0.2% linoleic acid diet as a low fatty acid diet for 4 weeks, and then their feces were collected. Bile acids in the feces were partially purified and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Analyses showed that lard or tallow in the diet resulted in significant increases in the contents of bile acids in the feces, whereas sesame oil in the diet resulted in significant decreases in their contents. PMID:3121554

  7. Caloric restriction stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons through neuropeptide Y and ghrelin receptors activation

    PubMed Central

    Carmo-Silva, Sara; Botelho, Mariana; de Almeida, Luís Pereira; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is an anti-aging intervention known to extend lifespan in several experimental models, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy. Caloric restriction increases neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and plasma ghrelin, a peripheral gut hormone that acts in hypothalamus to modulate energy homeostasis. NPY and ghrelin have been shown to be neuroprotective in different brain areas and to induce several physiological modifications similar to those induced by caloric restriction. However, the effect of NPY and ghrelin in autophagy in cortical neurons is currently not known. Using a cell culture of rat cortical neurons we investigate the involvement of NPY and ghrelin in caloric restriction-induced autophagy. We observed that a caloric restriction mimetic cell culture medium stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons and NPY or ghrelin receptor antagonists blocked this effect. On the other hand, exogenous NPY or ghrelin stimulate autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Moreover, NPY mediates the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Since autophagy impairment occurs in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, NPY and ghrelin synergistic effect on autophagy stimulation may suggest a new strategy to delay aging process. PMID:27441412

  8. Sorbitol accumulation in male and female rats consuming starch or fructose diets with or without copper

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M.; Beal, T. )

    1989-02-09

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the sex of the rats, tissue sorbitol accumulation and copper deficiency in rats consuming dietary fructose. Rats were provided with a diet containing either 62.7% fructose or starch, and either 6.0 or 0.6 {mu}g copper/g for three weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of all rats consuming the copper-deficient diets was about 40% of copper sufficient rats. Hepatic, renal and thymic sorbitol concentrations were significantly elevated in males consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups regardless of the sex of the rat. Hepatic, renal the thymic fructose concentrations were significantly higher in rats eating fructose as compared to female rats. Hepatic glucose concentration was higher in males and females consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups. Renal glucose concentration was elevated in males as compared to females. These results demonstrate that the pathology and complications of copper deficiency in the male rat consuming fructose closely parallel aberration in tissue sorbitol accumulation.

  9. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF THE DASH DIET ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH EXERCISE AND CALORIC RESTRICTION ON INSULIN SENSITIVITY AND LIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Craighead, Linda; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Johnson, Julie; Watkins, Lana L.; Wang, Jenny T.; Kuhn, Cynthia; Feinglos, Mark; Hinderliter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body mass index 25–40) men (N= 47) and women (N= 97) with high blood pressure (130–159/85–99 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to either: (1) DASH diet alone (DASH-A); (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction (DASH-WM); or usual diet controls (UC). Body composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipids were measured before and following 4 months of treatment. Insulin sensitivity was estimated based on glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. Participants in the DASH-WM condition lost weight (−8.7 [95% CI = −2.0, −9.7] kg,), and exhibited a significant increase in aerobic capacity, while the DASH-A and UC participants maintained their weight (−0.3 [95% CI = −1.2, 0.5] kg and +0.9 [95% CI = 0.0, 1.7] kg, respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity. DASH-WM demonstrated lower glucose levels following the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared to both DASH-A and UC, and lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to UC; DASH-A participants generally did not differ from UC in these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids. PMID:20212264

  11. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  12. Food restriction retards body growth and prevents end-stage renal pathology in remnant kidneys of rats regardless of protein intake.

    PubMed

    Tapp, D C; Wortham, W G; Addison, J F; Hammonds, D N; Barnes, J L; Venkatachalam, M A

    1989-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of food restriction (without protein or phosphorus restriction) and protein restriction (without the restriction of other nutrients or calories) on the outcome of the remnant kidney model of chronic renal failure in rats. After 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were assigned to one of the following dietary groups: group I (control-ad libitum) consumed a 21% casein diet ad libitum; group II (food restriction with protein restriction) consumed 36% less calories, protein and minerals than group I; group III (food restriction without protein restriction) consumed 36% less calories and minerals than group I, but equivalent amounts of protein; group IV (protein restriction) consumed 38% less protein than group I, but equivalent amounts of calories and minerals; group V (NaCl restriction) consumed 40% less sodium chloride than group I, but equivalent amounts of all other nutrients. All groups consumed equivalent amounts of calcium, phosphorus and vitamins. Groups II and III experienced retardation of growth in comparison to groups I, IV and V. The food-restricted groups II and III, but not groups IV and V, had less proteinuria than group I 20 weeks postablation. By 21 weeks postablation, the kidneys from group I showed severe parenchymal damage, characteristic of end-stage renal pathology. These changes were prevented in the food-restricted groups II and III, but not in groups IV and V. The percentage of glomeruli with severe structural damage was less in groups II (27.3 +/- 8.8) and III (26.9 +/- 7.5) compared with group I (72.4 +/- 7.8). In contrast, the corresponding values in groups IV and V were not significantly different from group I. Interstitial volume (the percentage of tubulointerstitium which is interstitium) which was proportional to the severity of tubular damage was significantly lower in groups II (25.1 +/- 4.5) and III (20.4 +/- 2.8) when compared with groups I (48.1 +/- 3.0), IV (44.4 +/- 6.6), or V (41

  13. Erythrocyte morphology and filterability in rats fed on diets containing different fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Maccoll, A J; James, K A; Booth, C L

    1996-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the type of dietary fat or oil affects erythrocyte morphology and/or filterability in normal healthy rats. A feeding trial was carried out, in which nine groups of nine rats were fed on diets containing one of the following treatments (test fats or oils): anhydrous milk fat, anhydrous milk fat after passage through a column of active carbon, palm oil, MaxEPA fish oil, hydrogenated coconut oil, anhydrous tallow shortening, margarine hardstock, olive oil and soyabean oil. The test fats or oils supplemented with 10 g safflower-seed oil/kg were incorporated into otherwise nutritionally adequate diets so that the test fat or oil plus safflower-seed oil contributed 35% of the gross energy of the diet. The rats were fed for 10 weeks. Diet had a significant effect on five of the six classes of erythrocytes identified, and the proportion of cells in each class was shown to be dependent on diet. However, the attribute causing the dependence was not clear. There was no significant effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability index. There was no statistical correlation between erythrocyte filterability index and morphology. Although it has been observed that diet, particularly fish oil, can improve the filterability of erythrocytes once filterability is impaired, the effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability in normal healthy animals including humans is unclear. The importance of the differences in erythrocyte morphology due to diet is also unclear. Both areas deserve further investigation. PMID:8774223

  14. Erythrocyte morphology and filterability in rats fed on diets containing different fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Maccoll, A J; James, K A; Booth, C L

    1996-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the type of dietary fat or oil affects erythrocyte morphology and/or filterability in normal healthy rats. A feeding trial was carried out, in which nine groups of nine rats were fed on diets containing one of the following treatments (test fats or oils): anhydrous milk fat, anhydrous milk fat after passage through a column of active carbon, palm oil, MaxEPA fish oil, hydrogenated coconut oil, anhydrous tallow shortening, margarine hardstock, olive oil and soyabean oil. The test fats or oils supplemented with 10 g safflower-seed oil/kg were incorporated into otherwise nutritionally adequate diets so that the test fat or oil plus safflower-seed oil contributed 35% of the gross energy of the diet. The rats were fed for 10 weeks. Diet had a significant effect on five of the six classes of erythrocytes identified, and the proportion of cells in each class was shown to be dependent on diet. However, the attribute causing the dependence was not clear. There was no significant effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability index. There was no statistical correlation between erythrocyte filterability index and morphology. Although it has been observed that diet, particularly fish oil, can improve the filterability of erythrocytes once filterability is impaired, the effect of diet on erythrocyte filterability in normal healthy animals including humans is unclear. The importance of the differences in erythrocyte morphology due to diet is also unclear. Both areas deserve further investigation.

  15. Effects of diet and exposure to hindlimb suspension on estrous cycling in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    Various factors can disrupt the female reproductive cycle resulting in subfertility. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether physiological changes associated with exposure to hypogravity disrupt reproductive cycles. The hindlimb suspension (HLS) model was used to simulate the major physiological effects of hypogravity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Also, to determine whether diet may influence reproductive results, rats were fed purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G or chow diet. Rats (n = 9-11/group) subjected to HLS had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus, indicating hypoestrogenism. Interestingly, HLS rats fed AIN-93G but not chow diet had significantly reduced time spent in estrus and decreased plasma estradiol. Attenuation of hypoestrogenism in the chow-fed rats suggested that diet provided an exogenous source of estrogen. The mechanism involved in the disruption of estrous cycling remains to be determined. HLS increased urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels during the initial 4 days of HLS, suggesting that physiological responses to acute stress may be a potential mechanism in the disruption of estrous cycles. Higher basal urinary CORT was observed in rats fed chow vs. AIN-93G diet. HLS resulted in increased urinary CORT. However, two-way ANOVA indicated a significant HLS effect (P < 0.001) but no effect of HLS x diet effect on urinary CORT levels, suggesting that estrogenic activity associated with the chow diet did not enhance the stress response. The results of this study indicate that HLS, diet, and the combination of HLS and diet influence estrous cycling. This has important implications for future reproductive success in the hypogravity environment of space.

  16. Protein Restriction During the Last Third of Pregnancy Malprograms the Neuroendocrine Axes to Induce Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Male Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Malta, Ananda; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Pavanello, Audrei; Torrezan, Rosana; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic malprogramming has been associated with low birth weight; however, the interplay between insulin secretion disruption and adrenal function upon lipid metabolism is unclear in adult offspring from protein-malnourished mothers during the last third of gestation. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of a maternal low-protein diet during the last third of pregnancy on adult offspring metabolism, including pancreatic islet function and morphophysiological aspects of the liver, adrenal gland, white adipose tissue, and pancreas. Virgin female Wistar rats (age 70 d) were mated and fed a protein-restricted diet (4%, intrauterine protein restricted [IUPR]) from day 14 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas control dams were fed a 20.5% protein diet. At age 91 d, their body composition, glucose-insulin homeostasis, ACTH, corticosterone, leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile, pancreatic islet function and liver, adrenal gland, and pancreas morphology were assessed. The birth weights of the IUPR rats were 20% lower than the control rats (P < .001). Adult IUPR rats were heavier, hyperphagic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic, and hypercorticosteronemic (P < .05) with higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, ACTH, and insulin sensitivity index levels (P < .01). The insulinotropic action of glucose and acetylcholine as well as muscarinic and adrenergic receptor function were impaired in the IUPR rats (P < .05). Maternal undernutrition during the last third of gestation disrupts the pancreatic islet insulinotropic response and induces obesity-associated complications. Such alterations lead to a high risk of metabolic syndrome, characterized by insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:27007071

  17. Obesogenic diets may differentially alter dopamine control of sucrose and fructose intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Carolyn E; Hajnal, Andras

    2011-07-25

    Chronic overeating of obesogenic diets can lead to obesity, reduced dopamine signaling, and increased consumption of added sugars to compensate for blunted reward. However, the specific role of diet composition yet remains unknown. To study this, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a high-energy diet with high fat and low carbohydrate content (HFHE), a fat-sugar combination high-energy diet (FCHE), or standard chow for 24 weeks. We found that both high-energy diets produced substantial body weight gain compared to chow-fed controls. To investigate dopamine control of short (2-h) intake of palatable sucrose or fructose solutions, rats were pretreated peripherally (IP) with equimolar doses (0-600 nmol/kg) of the dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (raclopride) subtype-specific receptor antagonists. The results showed an overall increase in the efficacy of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists on suppression of intake in obese rats compared to lean rats, with effects differing based on diets and test solutions. Specifically, SCH23390 potently reduced both sucrose and fructose intake in all groups; however, lower doses were more effective in HFHE rats. In contrast, raclopride was most effective at reducing fructose intake in the obese FCHE rats. Thus, it appears that obesity due to the consumption of combinations of dietary fat and sugar rather than extra calories from dietary fat alone may result in reduced D2 receptor signaling. Furthermore, such deficits seem to preferentially affect the control of fructose intake. These findings demonstrate for the first time a plausible interaction between diet composition and dopamine control of carbohydrate intake in diet-induced obese rats. It also provides additional evidence that sucrose and fructose intake is regulated differentially by the dopamine system.

  18. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  19. Detection of Expressional Changes Induced by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Developing Rat Mammary Gland via Exploratory Pathways Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beinder, Lea; Faehrmann, Nina; Wachtveitl, Rainer; Winterfeld, Ilona; Hartner, Andrea; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Rauh, Manfred; Ruebner, Matthias; Huebner, Hanna; Noegel, Stephanie C.; Doerr, Helmuth G.; Rascher, Wolfgang; Fahlbusch, Fabian B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is thought to lead to fetal programming that in turn contributes to developmental changes of many organs postnatally. There is evidence that IUGR is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. A higher incidence of breast cancer was also observed after IUGR. This could be due to changes in mammary gland developmental pathways. We sought to characterise IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of mammary development at the level of the transcriptome in a rat model of IUGR, using pathways analysis bioinformatics. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed the mammary glands of Wistar rats with IUGR induced by maternal low protein (LP) diet at the beginning (d21) and the end (d28) of pubertal ductal morphogenesis. Mammary glands of the LP group were smaller in size at d28, however did not show morphologic changes. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the mammary gland using Agilent SurePrint arrays at d21 and d28. In silico analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. In mammary gland tissue of LP rats at d21 of life a prominent upregulation of WT1 and CDKN1A (p21) expression was observed. Differentially regulated genes were associated with the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-1/-2 pathway. Western Blot analysis showed reduced levels of phosphorylated ERK-1/-2 in the mammary glands of the LP group at d21. To identify possible changes in circulating steroid levels, serum LC-Tandem mass-spectrometry was performed. LP rats showed higher serum progesterone levels and an increased corticosterone/dehydrocorticosterone-ratio at d28. Conclusions/Significance Our data obtained from gene array analysis support the hypothesis that IUGR influences pubertal development of the rat mammary gland. We identified prominent differential regulation of genes and pathways for factors regulating cell cycle and growth. Moreover, we detected new

  20. Taurine supplementation preserves hypothalamic leptin action in normal and protein-restricted mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Rafael L; Batista, Thiago M; Ribeiro, Rosane A; Branco, Renato C S; Da Silva, Priscilla M R; Izumi, Clarice; Araujo, Thiago R; Greene, Lewis J; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2015-11-01

    Malnutrition programs the neuroendocrine axis by disruption of food-intake control, leading to obesity. Taurine (Tau) is neuroprotective and improves anorexigenic actions in the hypothalamus. We evaluated the hypothalamic gene-expression profile and food-intake control in protein-restricted mice submitted to a high-fat diet (HFD) and Tau supplementation. Mice were fed on a control (14 % protein-C) or a protein-restricted diet (6 % protein-R) for 6 weeks. Thereafter, mice received, or not, HFD for 8 weeks (CH and RH) with or without 5 % Tau supplementation (CHT and RHT). Protein restriction led to higher food intake, but calories were matched to controls. Excessive calorie intake occurred in HFD mice and this was prevented by Tau supplementation only in the CH group. Additionally, RH and CH mice developed hypothalamic leptin resistance, which was prevented by Tau. Global alterations in the expressions of genes involved in hypothalamic metabolism, cellular defense, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways were induced by dietary manipulations and Tau treatment. The orexigenic peptides NPY and AgRP were increased by protein restriction and lowered by the HFD. The anorexigenic peptide Pomc was increased by HFD, and this was prevented by Tau only in CH mice. Thus, food intake was disrupted by dietary protein restriction and obesity. HFD-induced alterations were not enhanced by previous protein deficiency, but the some beneficial effects of Tau supplementation upon food intake were blunted by protein restriction. Tau effects upon feeding behavior control are complex and involve interactions with a vast gene network, preventing hypothalamic leptin resistance. PMID:26133737

  1. Salicylate elimination diets in children: is food restriction supported by the evidence?

    PubMed

    Gray, Paul E A; Mehr, Sam; Katelaris, Constance H; Wainstein, Brynn K; Star, Anita; Campbell, Dianne; Joshi, Preeti; Wong, Melanie; Frankum, Brad; Keat, Karuna; Dunne, Geraldine; Dennison, Barbara; Kakakios, Alyson; Ziegler, John B

    2013-06-17

    A review of case notes from our Sydney-based paediatric allergy services, between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2011, identified 74 children who had been prescribed diets that eliminated foods containing natural salicylates before attending our clinics. The most common indications for starting the diets were eczema (34/74) and behavioural disturbances (17/74) including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We could find no peer-reviewed evidence to support the efficacy of salicylate elimination diets in managing these diseases. We do not prescribe these diets, and in a survey of European and North American food allergy experts, only 1/23 respondents used a similar diet for eczema, with none of the respondents using salicylate elimination to treat ADHD. A high proportion (31/66) of children suffered adverse outcomes, including nutritional deficiencies and food aversion, with four children developing eating disorders. We could find no published evidence to support the safety of these diets in children. While this uncontrolled study does not prove a causal relationship between salicylate elimination diets and harm, the frequency of adverse events appears high, and in the absence of evidence of safety or efficacy, we cannot recommend the use of these diets in children.

  2. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to protein diets and energy restriction: a randomized control trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite some beneficial effects on bone, high protein diets are conventionally considered a primary dietary risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture due to the acid load associated with protein catabolism. To test the hypothesis that high dietary protein diets do not negatively affect calcium ...

  3. Histomorphometric Study of Alveolar Bone Healing in Rats Fed a Boron-Deficient Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone healing after tooth extraction in rats is a suitable experimental model to study bone formation. Thus, we performed a study to determine the effects of boron (B) deficiency on bone healing by using this model. Weanling Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (+B; 3 mg B/kg diet), and ...

  4. Pterostilbene improves glycaemic control in rats fed an obesogenic diet: Involvement of skeletal muscle and liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to determine whether pterostilbene improved glycaemic control in rats showing insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Rats were divided into 3 groups: control group and two groups treated with either 15 mg/kg/d (PT15) or 30 mg/kg/d of pterostilbene (PT30). HOMA-IR was decr...

  5. Effects of the Cosmos 1129 Soviet paste diet on body composition in the growing rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Six Simonsen albino rats (45 days of age) were placed on a regimen of 40 g/day the semipurified Soviet paste diet used in the 18.5 day Cosmos 1129 spacecraft was to support the rats for various experiments on the physiological effects of weightlessness. The animals were maintained on the Soviet paste diet for 35 days, metabolic rate was measured and body composition was determined by direct analysis. The results were compared with a control group of rates of the same age, which had been kept on a standard commercial grain diet during the same period of time.

  6. Eggs modulate the inflammatory response to carbohydrate restricted diets in overweight men

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Joseph C; Mutungi, Gisella; Puglisi, Michael J; Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2008-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) consistently lower glucose and insulin levels and improve atherogenic dyslipidemia [decreasing triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)]. We have previously shown that male subjects following a CRD experienced significant increases in HDL-C only if they were consuming a higher intake of cholesterol provided by eggs compared to those individuals who were taking lower concentrations of dietary cholesterol. Here, as a follow up of our previous study, we examined the effects of eggs (a source of both dietary cholesterol and lutein) on adiponectin, a marker of insulin sensitivity, and on inflammatory markers in the context of a CRD. Methods Twenty eight overweight men [body mass index (BMI) 26–37 kg/m2] aged 40–70 y consumed an ad libitum CRD (% energy from CHO:fat:protein = 17:57:26) for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume eggs (EGG, n = 15) (640 mg additional cholesterol/day provided by eggs) or placebo (SUB, n = 13) (no additional dietary cholesterol). Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention to assess plasma lipids, insulin, adiponectin and markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1). Results Body weight, percent total body fat and trunk fat were reduced for all subjects after 12 wk (P < 0.0001). Increases in adiponectin were also observed (P < 0.01). Subjects in the EGG group had a 21% increase in this adipokine compared to a 7% increase in the SUB group (P < 0.05). Plasma CRP was significantly decreased only in the EGG group (P < 0.05). MCP-1 levels were decreased for the SUB group (P < 0.001), but unchanged in the EGG group. VCAM-1, ICAM-1, TNF-α, and IL-8 were not modified by CRD or eggs. Conclusion A CRD with daily intake of

  7. Apoptosis induced by a low-carbohydrate and high-protein diet in rat livers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Maria Emília L; Xavier, Analucia R; Oliveira, Felipe L; Filho, Porphirio JS; Azeredo, Vilma B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diets can cause lesions in rat livers. METHODS: We randomly divided 20 female Wistar rats into a control diet group and an experimental diet group. Animals in the control group received an AIN-93M diet, and animals in the experimental group received an Atkins-based diet (59.46% protein, 31.77% fat, and 8.77% carbohydrate). After 8 wk, the rats were anesthetized and exsanguinated for transaminases analysis, and their livers were removed for flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy studies. We expressed the data as mean ± standard deviation (SD) assuming unpaired and parametric data; we analyzed differences using the Student’s t-test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: We found that plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. According to flow cytometry, the percentages of nonviable cells were 11.67% ± 1.12% for early apoptosis, 12.07% ± 1.11% for late apoptosis, and 7.11% ± 0.44% for non-apoptotic death in the experimental diet group and 3.73% ± 0.50% for early apoptosis, 5.67% ± 0.72% for late apoptosis, and 3.82% ± 0.28% for non-apoptotic death in the control diet group. The mean percentage of early apoptosis was higher in the experimental diet group than in the control diet group. Immunohistochemistry for autophagy was negative in both groups. Sinusoidal dilation around the central vein and small hepatocytes was only observed in the experimental diet group, and fibrosis was not identified by hematoxylin-eosin or Trichrome Masson staining in either group. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of an experimental diet resulted in cellular and histopathological lesions in rat livers. Apoptosis was our principal finding; elevated plasma transaminases demonstrate hepatic lesions. PMID:27298559

  8. Hypoxia-Induced Intrauterine Growth Restriction Increases the Susceptibility of Rats to High-Fat Diet–Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Clausen, Christian F.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Morton, Jude S.; Proctor, Spencer D.; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Davidge, Sandra T.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It is recognized that there is a remarkable variability in the systemic response to high-fat (HF) diets that cannot be completely explained by genetic factors. In addition, pregnancy complications leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) later in life. Thus, we hypothesized that offspring born with IUGR exhibit permanent metabolic changes that make them more susceptible to HF diet–induced MetS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SD rats born normal (control) or with hypoxia-induced IUGR were randomized to low-fat (10% fat) or HF (45% fat) diets. After 9 weeks of feeding, physiological and molecular pathways involved in the MetS were evaluated. RESULTS IUGR offspring exhibited decreased energy intake and physical activity relative to controls. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with decreased total body fat content, a relative increase in intra-abdominal fat deposition and adipocyte size, an increase in fasting plasma concentrations of leptin, triglyceride and free fatty acids, and an increased concentration of triglycerides and ceramides in both liver and skeletal muscle. These changes in lipid homeostasis were accompanied by in vivo insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance and associated with increased phosphorylation of protein kinase C θ, inhibition of insulin receptor substrate 1, and a decreased activation of protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt) in liver and skeletal muscle in response to insulin. CONCLUSIONS IUGR enhances specific deleterious metabolic responses to a HF diet. Our results suggest that offspring born with IUGR may require special attention and follow-up to prevent the early onset of MetS. PMID:21270262

  9. Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36 h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS.

  10. Soybean diet improves insulin secretion through activation of cAMP/PKA pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Roberto V; Latorraca, Márcia Q; Arantes, Vanessa C; Reis, Marise A B; Ferreira, Fabiano; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2008-11-01

    Maternal malnutrition leads to permanent alterations in insulin secretion of offspring and the soybean diet contributes to improve insulin release. At least a soy component, genistein, seems to increase the insulin secretion by activating the cAMP/PKA and PLC/PKC pathways. Here, we investigated the effect of the soybean diet on the expression of PKAalpha and PKCalpha, and insulin secretion in response to glucose and activators of adenylate cyclase and PKC in adult pancreatic rat islets. Rats from mothers fed with 17% or 6% protein (casein) during pregnancy and lactation were maintained with 17% casein (CC and CR groups) or soybean (SC and SR groups) diet until 90 days of life. The soybean diet improved the insulin response to a physiological concentration of glucose in control islets, but only in the presence of supra-physiological concentrations of glucose in islets from CR and SR groups. PMA also improved the insulin response in islets of SC and SR groups. The expression of PKCalpha was similar in all groups. Forskolin increased the insulin secretion; however, the magnitude of the increment was lower in islets from CR and SR groups than in control animals and in those from rats maintained with soybean diet than in rats fed with casein diet. The PKAalpha expression was similar between SR and CR groups and lower in SC than in CC islets. Thus, soybean diet improved the secretory pattern of beta cells, at least in part, by activating the cAMP/PKA-signaling cascade. PMID:18430554

  11. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p <0.05. Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p <0.05. We conclude that dietary intervention differentially affects the oxidative markers in obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  12. Effect of a soluble cocoa fiber-enriched diet in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, David; Moulay, Leila; Muguerza, Begoña; Quiñones, Mar; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2010-06-01

    The effects of a soluble cocoa fiber (SCF) were studied in Zucker fatty rats. Two groups of Zucker fatty rats were fed the following diets: standard diet and 5% SCF-enriched diet. A group of Zucker lean rats fed the standard diet was used for results comparison with obese Zucker animals. Solid and liquid intakes, body weight, plasma glucose, lipid profile, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were recorded weekly. At the end of the experimental period insulin was determined, and fat apparent digestibility (FAD) and insulin resistance were calculated. The Zucker fatty rats fed 5% SCF-enriched diet showed less weight gain and food intake than those fed the standard diet. The group fed the fiber-enriched diet showed lower values of the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and triglyceride levels than the standard group. FAD was also lower in the fiber group. Both SBP and DBP were decreased. In addition, SCF reduced plasma glucose and insulin, and as a consequence the insulin resistance was also decreased. Our data demonstrate that SCF resulted in an improvement of the studied risk factors associated with cardiometabolic disorders.

  13. The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Madero, Magdalena; Arriaga, Julio C; Jalal, Diana; Rivard, Christopher; McFann, Kim; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Vázquez, Armando; Ruiz, Arturo; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jimenez, Carlos Roncal; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    One of the proposed causes of obesity and metabolic syndrome is the excessive intake of products containing added sugars, in particular, fructose. Although the ability of excessive intake of fructose to induce metabolic syndrome is mounting, to date, no study has addressed whether a diet specifically lowering fructose but not total carbohydrates can reduce features of metabolic syndrome. A total of 131 patients were randomized to compare the short-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets-a low-fructose diet vs a moderate natural fructose diet-on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters. Patients were randomized to receive 1500, 1800, or 2000 cal diets according to sex, age, and height. Because natural fructose might be differently absorbed compared with fructose from added sugars, we randomized obese subjects to either a low-fructose diet (<20 g/d) or a moderate-fructose diet with natural fruit supplements (50-70 g/d) and compared the effects of both diets on the primary outcome of weight loss in a 6-week follow-up period. Blood pressure, lipid profile, serum glucose, insulin resistance, uric acid, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and quality of life scores were included as secondary outcomes. One hundred two (78%) of the 131 participants were women, mean age was 38.8 ± 8.8 years, and the mean body mass index was 32.4 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). Each intervention diet was associated with significant weight loss compared with baseline. Weight loss was higher in the moderate natural fructose group (4.19 ± 0.30 kg) than the low-fructose group (2.83 ± 0.29 kg) (P = .0016). Compared with baseline, each intervention diet was associated with significant improvement in secondary outcomes. Reduction of energy and added fructose intake may represent an important therapeutic target to reduce the frequency of obesity and diabetes. For weight loss achievement, an energy-restricted moderate natural fructose diet was superior to a low-fructose diet.

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised before and during Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Repercussions

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, S. B.; Volpato, G. T.; Rudge, M. V. C.; Damasceno, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swimming before and during pregnancy on rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring. For this, nondiabetic and streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic (SD) pregnant rats were mated and generated offspring with appropriate (control, C) and small (IUGR) for pregnancy age, respectively. Following that, C and IUGR groups were further distributed into nonexercised control (C), exercised control (Cex), nonexercised IUGR (IUGR), and exercised IUGR (IUGRex). IUGR rats presented lower mating rate than control rats. Regardless of physical exercise IUGR rats presented decreased body weight from birth to lactation. At 90 days of life, IUGR rats presented glucose intolerance. Maternal organ weights were increased and relative adiposity of IUGRex rats was lower than Cex. IUGR and IUGRex offspring presented reduced body weight than C and Cex, respectively. IUGRex dams presented an increased rate of appropriate for pregnancy age newborns. IUGEex male and female offspring relative brain weight was increased compared with Cex. Therefore, swimming before and during pregnancy prevented glucose intolerance, reduced general adiposity, and increased maternal and offspring organ weight in rats, showing the benefit of physical exercise for IUGR rats. PMID:26345406

  15. Dietary salt restriction in hyperthyroid rats. Differential influence on left and right ventricular mass

    PubMed Central

    Wangensteen, Rosemary; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Perez-Abud, Rocío; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; Osuna, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of salt restriction on cardiac morphology and biochemistry and its effects on hemodynamic and renal variables in experimental hyperthyroidism. Four groups of male Wistar rats were used: control, hyperthyroid, and the same groups under low salt intake. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly for 4 weeks. Morphologic, metabolic, plasma, cardiac, and renal variables were also measured. Low salt intake decreased BP in T4-treated rats but not in controls. Low salt intake reduced relative left ventricular mass but increased absolute right ventricular weight and right ventricular weight/BW ratio in both control and hyperthyroid groups. Low salt intake increased Na+/H+ exchanger-1 (NHE-1) protein abundance in both ventricles in normal rats but not in hyperthyroid rats, independently of its effect on ventricular mass. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein abundance was not related to left or right ventricular mass in hyperthyroid or controls rats under normal or low salt conditions. Proteinuria was increased in hyperthyroid rats and attenuated by low salt intake. In this study, low salt intake produced an increase in right ventricular mass in normal and hyperthyroid rats. Changes in the left or right ventricular mass of control and hyperthyroid rats under low salt intake were not explained by the NHE-1 or mTOR protein abundance values observed. In hyperthyroid rats, low salt intake also slightly reduced BP and decreased HR, proteinuria, and water and sodium balances. PMID:25030483

  16. Preventing dyslipidemia by Chlorella pyrenoidosa in rats and hamsters after chronic high fat diet treatment.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Jong-Yuh; Shih, Mei-Fen

    2005-05-13

    The effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on serum lipid profiles, after concomitant long-term treatment of high-fat diet (HFD) in rats and hamsters was studied. Wistar rats and Syrian hamsters were fed with or without various concentrations of Chlorella pyrenoidosa contained high-fat diet (CHFD) for 2, 4 and 8 weeks prior to assay of serum lipids. Fasting triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol as well as HDL cholesterol levels in high-fat diet treated rats and hamster were determined. Results showed that triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in HFD treated rats and hamsters were increased from the normal rodent diet (NRD) treated controls after 2, 4, and 8-week treatments. However, the presence of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in high-fat diets significantly decreased the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol with comparison to HFD group in rats and hamsters. The total cholesterol/HDL ratios, an indication of occurrence of coronary heart disease, were decreased in all CHFD treated grouped rats and hamsters which suggests administration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa could lower the occurring risk of heart diseases. In conclusion, Chlorella pyrenoidosa has the ability to prevent dyslipidemia in chronic high-fat fed animals and could be potential in use to prevent intestinal absorption of redundant lipid from our daily intake and subsequently to prevent hyperlipidemia as well as atherosclerosis. PMID:15850594

  17. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed. PMID:25766070

  18. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed.

  19. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  20. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty. PMID:26396423

  1. Shortened blood coagulation times in genetically obese rats and diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Noriyuki; Nagakubo, Dai; Hashida, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Saya; Kuratani, Motoi; Hirai, Norihiko; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Asai, Fumitoshi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate blood coagulation times in genetically obese rats and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice in order to clarify the relationship between visceral obesity and blood coagulation. WBN/Kob-Lepr(fa) (fa/fa) rats, a genetically obese model, exhibited a significantly shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) than age-matched Wistar rats. C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (60%), a DIO model, exhibited significantly shorter aPTT, PT and thrombin time than lean mice fed a standard diet. Higher body weight, visceral fat weight and insulin resistance were also shared by fa/fa rats and DIO mice. These results suggest that visceral obesity is related to accelerated blood coagulation in addition to disrupted metabolism of glucose and lipids.

  2. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi (black Zeera) seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Muhammad Rashad; Sadiq, Soban; Nayak, Salma; Tahir, Muhammad Usman

    2012-04-01

    Medicinal plants play a key role in preventing various diseases. Hyperlipidemia is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. 2% cholesterol diet were given to rats for six weeks and rats showed high lipid levels were included in the study. Then all rats were divided into, normal control group (A), hyperlipidemia positive control group (B), and the remaining two groups (C and D) served as experimental groups. Group C hyperlipidemic experimental rats received aqueous dried extract of Carum carvi seeds at 60 mg/kg of body weight for eight weeks on daily basis. On the other hand group D rats received simvastatin at 1.0 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected after eight weeks. The hyperlipidemic positive control group rats showed variable increase in serum triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol levels. Serum HDL levels decreased in hyperlipidemic positive control groups. Carum carvi and simvastatin significantly decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On comparison Carum carvi reduced lipid levels more, effectively than the simvastatin. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity which might be involved in hypolipidemia. In conclusion, Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract decrease lipid levels in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

  3. Western-style diet induces insulin insensitivity and hyperactivity in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Marwitz, Shannon E; Woodie, Lauren N; Blythe, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, as has the incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In 2012, it was found that overweight children have a twofold higher chance of developing ADHD than their normal weight counterparts. Previous work has documented learning and memory impairments linked to consumption of an energy-dense diet in rats, but the relationship between diet and ADHD-like behaviors has yet to be explored using animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the role of diet in the etiology of attention and hyperactivity disorders using a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or a Western-style diet (WSD) for ten weeks, and specific physiological and behavioral effects were examined. Tail blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in order to assess insulin insensitivity. Rats also performed several behavioral tasks, including the open field task, novel object recognition test, and attentional set-shifting task. Rats exposed to a WSD had significantly higher fasting insulin levels than controls, but both groups had similar glucose levels. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) indicated the development of insulin resistance in WSD rats. Performance in the open field test indicated that WSD induced pronounced hyperactivity and impulsivity. Further, control diet animals were able to discriminate between old and novel objects, but the WSD animals were significantly impaired in object recognition. However, regardless of dietary condition, rats were able to perform the attentional set-shifting paradigm. While WSD impaired episodic memory and induced hyperactivity, attentional set-shifting capabilities are unaffected. With the increasing prevalence of both obesity and ADHD, understanding the potential links between the two conditions is of clinical

  4. Hypothalamic neuropeptide expression following chronic food restriction in sedentary and wheel-running rats.

    PubMed

    de Rijke, C E; Hillebrand, J J G; Verhagen, L A W; Roeling, T A P; Adan, R A H

    2005-10-01

    When rats are given access to a running-wheel in combination with food restriction, they will become hyperactive and decrease their food intake, a paradoxical phenomenon known as activity-based anorexia (ABA). Little is known about the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance during the development of ABA. Therefore, rats were killed during the development of ABA, before they entered a state of severe starvation. Neuropeptide mRNA expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR on punches of separate hypothalamic nuclei. As is expected in a state of negative energy balance, expression levels of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were increased 5-fold in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of food-restricted running ABA rats vs 2-fold in sedentary food-restricted controls. The co-regulated expression of AgRP and NPY strongly correlated with relative body weight and white adipose tissue mass. Arcuate expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was reduced 2-fold in the ABA group. In second-order neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA expression was upregulated 2-fold in food-restricted running rats, but not in food-restricted sedentary controls. Prepro-orexin, CART and corticotropin-releasing hormone expression levels in the LHA and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were unchanged in both food-restricted groups. From this study it was concluded that during the development of ABA, neuropeptides in first-order neurons in the ARC and MCH in the LHA are regulated in an adequate response to negative energy balance, whereas expression levels of the other studied neuropeptides in secondary neurons of the LHA and PVN are unchanged and are probably regulated by factors other than energy status alone.

  5. Sickness behavior is accentuated in rats with metabolic disorders induced by a fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Lidiane; Fonseca, Wesley F; Enes-Marques, Silvia; Paffaro, Valdemar A; Vilela, Fabiana C; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated behavioral responses to an immune challenge among animals with fructose-induced metabolic disorders. Adult male Wistar rats were provided either water or a fructose solution (10%) for 5 weeks. Sickness behaviors were assessed 2h following the injection of either a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle. The rats were subjected to an open field test, a social interaction test, a food intake test and a fever evaluation. Cytokine expression was assessed in both adipose tissue and hypothalamus samples. The neural response was assessed in the forebrain immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. Compared with the control group, the fructose diet induced dyslipidemia and significantly higher plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose levels as well as both epididymal and retroperitoneal adiposity. Furthermore, in response to LPS (1 mg/kg), the rats subjected to a fructose diet exhibited exacerbated sickness behaviors and accentuated febrile responses. LPS induced Fos protein expression in several areas of the brains of the control rats; however, higher numbers of Fos-positive cells were observed in the brains of the rats that were fed a fructose diet. Moreover, larger increases in cytokine expression were observed in both the hypothalamus and the adipose tissue of the obese rats compared with the control rats in response to LPS. In this study, fructose diets played an important role in both the induction of metabolic disorders and the modulation of sickness behaviors in response to an immunological challenge, most likely through the induction of cytokines in the hypothalamus.

  6. Sickness behavior is accentuated in rats with metabolic disorders induced by a fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Lidiane; Fonseca, Wesley F; Enes-Marques, Silvia; Paffaro, Valdemar A; Vilela, Fabiana C; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated behavioral responses to an immune challenge among animals with fructose-induced metabolic disorders. Adult male Wistar rats were provided either water or a fructose solution (10%) for 5 weeks. Sickness behaviors were assessed 2h following the injection of either a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle. The rats were subjected to an open field test, a social interaction test, a food intake test and a fever evaluation. Cytokine expression was assessed in both adipose tissue and hypothalamus samples. The neural response was assessed in the forebrain immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. Compared with the control group, the fructose diet induced dyslipidemia and significantly higher plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose levels as well as both epididymal and retroperitoneal adiposity. Furthermore, in response to LPS (1 mg/kg), the rats subjected to a fructose diet exhibited exacerbated sickness behaviors and accentuated febrile responses. LPS induced Fos protein expression in several areas of the brains of the control rats; however, higher numbers of Fos-positive cells were observed in the brains of the rats that were fed a fructose diet. Moreover, larger increases in cytokine expression were observed in both the hypothalamus and the adipose tissue of the obese rats compared with the control rats in response to LPS. In this study, fructose diets played an important role in both the induction of metabolic disorders and the modulation of sickness behaviors in response to an immunological challenge, most likely through the induction of cytokines in the hypothalamus. PMID:26616874

  7. The effect of radish sourced 4-(Methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate on ameliorating the severity of high fat diet inducted nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    You, Hong; Hao, Rui; Li, Ru; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a high fat diet and over nutrition induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) in rat, and to investigate the effect of 4-(Methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) on ameliorating the NAFLD. Twenty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were equally divided into 4 groups (C, M, E1 & E2). Control group (C) were treated with standard restricted diet; Model group (M) were given high fat liquid diet ad libitum; Experimental group (E1 & E2) were treated with high fat liquid diet ad libitum and MTBITC by gavage. The experiment last 9 weeks, and serum chemistry and liver histology were assessed. The rats of M group showed severe lipid deposition and peroxidation in liver. When compared with group C, group M also showed significantly higher serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein, tumor necrosis factor-α and glucose. Histopathologic sections demonstrated lipid accumulation and macrovascular steatosis with ballooning degeneration in the livers of M. Group E2 presented significantly better conditions when assessed based on the parameters of NAFLD. The data suggested that MTBITC might significantly attenuate fat liquid diet induced NAFLD. PMID:26629094

  8. Effect of the dietary fibre content of lifelong diet on colonic cellular proliferation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C A; Wilson, R G; Hanlon, L; Eastwood, M A

    1992-08-01

    The effect of the fibre content of lifelong (18 months) diets on proximal and distal colonic cellular proliferation and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) content was investigated in 40 rats. Rats were fed a low fibre diet (17 g/kg non-starch polysaccharides NSP) or the stock diet (133 g/kg NSP). The higher fibre fed rats had increased caecal and colonic total contents (p < 0.001) and SCFAs than the low fibre fed rats (caecal SCFAs: higher fibre rats 96.4 (6.8) mumol/g wet weight v low fibre 22.7 (3.0): p < 0.001, colonic SCFAs: higher fibre 52.3 (3.1) mumol/g wet weight v low fibre 6.9 (2.2) mumol/g wet weight: p < 0.001). Cellular proliferation was increased in the proximal colon (bromodeoxyuridine labelling index, higher fibre 9.3 v low fibre 8.4 p < 0.05; flow cytometry, % cells in S phase higher fibre diet 7.9 v low fibre 6.9; p < 0.01) and there was a shift of proliferating cells to a higher region in each crypt. There was no significant difference in the percentage of cells in S phase in the distal colon of rats in both diet groups. The proliferative zone, however, was expanded in the distal colon of the higher fibre diet fed rats. This study indicates that long term higher fibre intake in rats is associated with a modest increase in cellular proliferation in the proximal colon but not the distal colon.

  9. Long-term treatment with N-acetylcysteine, but not caloric restriction, protects mesenchymal stem cells of aged rats against tumor necrosis factor-induced death.

    PubMed

    Muscari, Claudio; Bonafe', Francesca; Farruggia, Giovanna; Stanic, Ivana; Gamberini, Chiara; Carboni, Marco; Basile, Ilaria; Giordano, Emanuele; Caldarera, Claudio Marcello; Guarnieri, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulation was evaluated after a long-term antioxidant treatment, or caloric restriction, in aged rats. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of 30-month-old rats which orally received N-acetylcysteine in the last 18 months. The necrotic cell death-induced in vitro by TNFalpha, determined by trypan blue exclusion, was markedly attenuated in MSCs obtained from treated vs. control aged rats (percent mean+/-SEM: 10.9+/-2.17 vs. 17.8+/-0.53; p<0.05). Also, the proliferation rate of MSCs from control, but not N-acetylcysteine-treated, aged rats evaluated up to 2 weeks was significantly higher than that of MSCs from younger (4-month-old) rats. No significant effect was observed relative to the parameters investigated when the aged rats were previously subjected to a hypocaloric diet for 18 months. In conclusion, a prolonged supplementation with N-acetylcysteine in rats can increase resistance to necrotic death of MSCs and may also counteract an excessive rate of MSC proliferation.

  10. Angiogenesis in adipose tissues and skeletal muscles with rebound weight-gain after diet-restriction in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morimura, M; Ishiko, O; Sumi, T; Yoshida, H; Ogita, S

    2001-11-01

    The mechanisms of excessive body weight gain after diet-restriction are still unclear. In this study, we investigated expression of angiogenic factors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of rabbits which had rebound weight gains; trying to make inquiries into the mechanisms of this rebound weight gain. Ten rabbits were divided into two groups. One group had free food intake (group C), and the other group had restricted food intake until day 40 of the experiments and then had free food intake (group DR). Specimens of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were collected from each rabbit on days 20, 40, and 60 after the initial examination, and expressions of CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) were investigated. Expression of VEGF was significantly strong in the adipose tissue of group DR at the recovery period of body weight. In conclusion, rebound weight gain after a restricted-diet may be associated with angiogenesis in adipose tissue, and the angiogenesis may be induced by VEGF.

  11. Triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine decreases food intake, body weight, and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; de Bruin, Kora; la Fleur, Susanne E; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The novel triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine blocks dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake and is a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity. Obesity is associated with lower striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability, which may be related to disturbed regulation of food intake. This study assesses the effects of chronic tesofensine treatment on food intake and body weight in association with changes in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/3R) availability of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Four groups of 15 DIO rats were randomized to one of the following treatments for 28 days: 1. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg), 2. vehicle, 3. vehicle+restricted diet isocaloric to caloric intake of group 1, and 4. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg)+ a treatment-free period of 28 days. Caloric intake and weight gain decreased significantly more in the tesofensine-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats, which confirms previous findings. After treatment discontinuation, caloric intake and body weight gain gradually increased again. Tesofensine-treated rats showed significantly lower D2/3R availability in nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum than both vehicle-treated rats and vehicle-treated rats on restricted isocaloric diet. No correlations were observed between food intake or body weight and D2/3R availability. Thus, chronic tesofensine treatment leads to decreased food intake and weight gain. However, this appears not to be directly related to the decreased striatal D2/3R availability, which is mainly a pharmacological effect.

  12. Effect of postweaning nutritional and environmental restrictions on discrimination learning in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, A K; Shukla, A P

    1997-12-01

    Charles Foster littermate albino rats (72) were randomized into 9 independent groups in a 3 x 3 factorial design by varying nutrition and environment each at three levels: normal nutrition, 25% nutritional restriction and 50% nutritional restriction; normal environment, 3-week environmental restriction and 6-week environmental restriction. The nutritional and environmental restrictions were imposed from the 30th day of life for 6 weeks. The animals were subsequently tested for black/white original learning followed by reversal discrimination learning in a T-maze. The results indicated significant main effects for nutrition and environment on indices of learning ability. However, the nutrition x environment interaction was not significant. Post hoc analysis revealed that moderate and severe nutritional restriction as well as long-term environmental restriction caused significant discrimination learning deficits. Short-term environmental restriction failed to produce significant effect on learning behaviour. The results are discussed in context of environmental stress effects, altered brain mechanisms and psychological changes such as increased drive level and emotionality of the animal. PMID:9567762

  13. Abnormality of epiphyseal plate induced by selenium deficiency diet in two generation DA rats.

    PubMed

    Min, Zixin; Zhao, Wenxiang; Zhong, Nannan; Guo, Yuanxu; Sun, Mengyao; Wang, Quancheng; Zhang, Rui; Yan, Jidong; Tian, Lifang; Zhang, Fujun; Han, Yan; Ning, Qilan; Meng, Liesu; Sun, Jian; Lu, Shemin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to observe the effects of Se deficiency on epiphyseal plates of two generation DA rats fed with artificial total synthetic low Se diet. All F0 and F1 DA rats were fed with synthetic low Se diet (SeD group) and low Se diet supplied with Se (SeS group). The levels of selenium and enzyme activities of GPx were detected in plasma of the rats. General growth of bone and articular cartilage was measured macroscopically and microscopically. The epiphyseal plate of femur heads or tibia were obtained to histological and immunohistochemical examinations. The cartilage from left knee joints and femur heads was used to detect the gene expression of collagens, ADAMTSs and several selenoproteins by RT-qPCR. Two generation SeD rats showed Se insufficiency status. The thicknesses of the femur and tibial epiphyseal plates in both F0 and F1 SeD rats were significantly less than that of SeS rats. In F1 generation, SeD rats showed much fewer proliferative chondrocyte layers than SeS ones. Importantly, two generation SeD rats both showed significantly more serious pathological changes of epiphyseal plates. In two generation rats, gene expressions of COL II, GPx1 and GPx4 were significantly down-regulated in SeD rats than SeS ones; meanwhile ADAMTS-4 showed an up-regulated expression in cartilage. Dietary Se deficiency can apparently cause epiphyseal plate lesion and decrease cartilage type II collagen production and GPx1 activity in two generation DA rats fed with the artificial total synthesis low Se diet.

  14. Short-term calorie restriction and refeeding differently affect lipogenic enzymes in major white adipose tissue depots of young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Wronska, A; Sledzinski, T; Goyke, E; Lawniczak, A; Wierzbicki, P; Kmiec, Z

    2014-02-01

    The metabolic effects of short-term calorie restriction (SCR) and subsequent refeeding were compared in different white adipose tissue (WAT) depots of young (5-month old) and old (24-month) male Wistar rats. The animals were subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (i.e. 40% lower food supply than of control rats) for 30 days, and then re-fed for 0, 2, or 4 days. WAT samples from perirenal (pWAT), epididymal (eWAT), and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots were analysed for the enzymatic activities of ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The total WAT mass almost doubled in old rats, however, aging did not alter the relative proportions of the major regional fat depots. Serum leptin concentration was prominently higher in old rats, in which SCR resulted in less suppression of leptin level than in young animals, whereas refeeding increased leptin concentration in young, but not old, rats. In young rats refeeding elevated leptin gene expression only in pWAT, while in old rats the expression was induced first in eWAT, and later in pWAT. A prominent age-related decrease of ACL and FAS activities, but not of G6PD activity, was found in all the studied WAT depots. In young control rats, ACL activity was highest in pWAT, FAS activity was similar in all WAT depots, and G6PD activity was lowest in eWAT. In old rats, the enzymatic activities were lower in eWAT than in the other depots. The patterns of response to SCR and refeeding varied by age and WAT location. SCR stimulated ACL activity in pWAT but not in other depots of young rats, while FAS activity in pWAT and sWAT did not change in young and decreased in the old animals. Among the studied depots, pWAT was most responsive to refeeding in both age groups. In conclusion, SCR in old rats, as compared to the young, may be accompanied by reduced 'rebound effect' upon returning to unrestricted diet.

  15. Long–Term Effects of High-and Low-Glycemic Load Energy-Restricted Diets on Metabolic Adaptation and the Composition of Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition changes in response to caloric restriction (CR) remains controversial. Objective To examine the effects of two CR diets differing primarily in glycemic load on RMR and the % o...

  16. Restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces spontaneous metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. We previously reported that consumption of a high-fat diet enhances metastasis in mice (Yan, Clin Exp Metastasis 2010). The present study investigated the effects of restricted feeding of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) i...

  17. PCB congener patterns in rats consuming diets containing Great Lakes salmon: Analysis of fish, diets, and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Feeley, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary toxicological investigation into Great Lakes contaminants, chinook salmon were collected from lake Huron (LH) and Lake Ontario (LO) and incorporated into standard rat diets as 20 or 100% of the protein complement. Final PCB concentrations in the experiment ranged from 3.15 ng/g in the control diet to 1,080 ngg in the high-dose LO diet, with maximal estimated daily consumption by the rats of 82 {micro}g PCBs/kg body wt in the LO20 dietary group. Seventeen PCB congeners, PCB 85, 99, 101, 105, 110, 118, 128, 129, 132, 138, 149, 153, 170, 177, 180, 187, and 199, occurred at > 3.0% of the total PCBs in the fish with no major site differences. Cumulatively, these 17 congeners accounted for up to 75% of the total PCBs in the fish compared to 44 and 54% in two commercial Aroclors, 1254 and 1260, respectively. PCB 77 was the major dioxin-like congener in the fish, followed by PCB 126 and then PCB 169. All major dietary congeners bioaccumulated in the adipose tissue of the rats with the exception of PCB congeners 101, 110, 132, and 149.

  18. Reduced inflammatory response in rats fed fat-rich diets: role of leukotrienes.

    PubMed

    Lopes, L R; Jancar, S; Curi, R; Sannomiya, P

    2000-05-26

    The effect of fat-rich diets on the acute inflammatory response was examined. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were fed, for 6 weeks, with a control diet (4% fat content), or a control diet supplemented with coconut or soybean oils (15% fat content). Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and pleurisy were evaluated. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and leukotriene (LT) C4/D4 concentrations were determined in the pleural exudate (ELISA). Pleural samples were tested for their effect on cutaneous vascular permeability of control rats and the effect of a LTD4 receptor antagonist (L660-711; 10 mg/kg; i.v.) examined. Relative to controls, rats fed both fat-rich diets presented a significant reduction in protein leakage and oedema formation without affecting the number of migrating leukocytes. Production of LTC4/D4 in pleural exudate was significantly increased from 1.8 +/- 0.2 ng/ml in controls to 2.8 +/- 0.2 and 3.0 +/- 0.3 ng/ml in animals fed coconut and soybean oil enriched diets, respectively, without changes in PGE2 production. The activity of these samples on cutaneous vascular permeability was 50% reduced, returning to control values after treatment of testing animals with a LTD4 receptor antagonist. Rats fed fat-rich diets presented a reduced inflammatory response due, at least in part, to the LTC4/D4 mediated vasoconstrictor effect.

  19. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  20. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  1. Effects of xylitol and carbohydrate diets on dental caries, dentine formation and mineralization in young rats.

    PubMed

    Hietala, E L; Larmas, M

    1995-12-01

    Female Wistar rats were weaned at the age of 3 weeks and fed for 7 weeks either a high-sucrose diet, a non-cariogenic raw potato-starch diet, a high-sucrose diet with 5% xylitol supplement, a raw potato-starch diet with 5% xylitol supplement or a non-cariogenic, commercial, powdered rat food (Ewos R3) for reference. A low xylitol concentration reduced the progression and severity of carious lesions but did not affect dentine apposition or the width of predentine in rats fed high-carbohydrate diets. Widening of the predentine zone in rats fed a high-sucrose diet might reflect disturbed mineralization, which could not be explained by serum ionized calcium or phosphate ion levels and which could not be corrected by low xylitol concentrations. It is concluded that the reduced area of dentinal carious lesions after low xylitol supplementation is not dependent on dentine formation or mineralization, but rather on direct effects in the mouth.

  2. Age-related changes in meat tenderness and tissue pentosidine: effect of diet restriction and aminoguanidine in broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Kenney, P B; Klandorf, H

    1999-09-01

    The nonenzymatic glycosylation of tissue protein contributes to the formation of crosslinks that leads to structural and functional deterioration in the long-lived tissue protein, collagen. The accumulation of these crosslinks thus contributes to the objectionable toughness of meat from aged animals, decreases its economic value, and limits its use in whole muscle foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of diet restriction and the crosslinking inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on reducing the accumulation of crosslinks, thereby improving meat tenderness in broiler breeder hens. The glycoxidation product, pentosidine, was also measured in skin (Ps) to determine whether changes in its concentrations correlated with the changes in shear value (SV). Chicks (n = 450) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups from 8 to 125 wk after hatch: ad libitum (AL), diet restricted (DR), AL and DR groups supplemented with 400 ppm AG each (AL+AG and DR+AG, respectively). Shear value was measured with an Instron Universal Mechanical Machine. Skin pentosidine was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. There was an age-related, linear increase in SV (P<0.0001, r = 0.96), which correlated (r = 0.86) with the age-related increase in Ps in AL hens. Diet restriction retarded SV (P<0.0001) over the sampling period. In general, SV values for AL+AG were similar to those measured in DR, whereas no additive effect was observed for AG in DR birds. It was concluded that there was a linear increase in meat toughness (SV) with age that correlates with the accumulation of Ps, and that the decline in meat tenderness can be retarded by DR or AG. Secondly, the effect of DR on accumulation of Ps was so pronounced that AG supplementation did not further enhance this effect.

  3. Urinary folate excretion in chronic ethanol- and diet-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.D.; McMartin, K.E.; Bairnsfather, L.

    1986-03-05

    Acute ethanol treatment of rats produces a marked increase in urinary folate excretion, which accumulates in correlation with the duration of ethanol treatment. In order to study the role of excess urinary folate excretion in the development of folate deficiency by chronic ethanol feeding, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for four months on one of the following liquid diets: ethanol, pair-fed control, ethanol minus folic acid, and pair-fed control minus folic acid. A fifth group was provided a control chow diet ad libitum. Blood ethanol levels were generally maintained between 80-150 mg/dl at various times of the day. Decrease in plasma and tissue folate levels occurred within four weeks in all liquid diet groups compared to chow rats and within two weeks for urinary folate levels. Greater effects were generally observed in both folate-deficient groups than in the control or ethanol group. Acute ethanol treatment of rats from the various diet groups produced increases in urinary folate excretion in all groups except the ethanol minus folic acid diet group. When the folate system of rats are compromised by dietary deprivation and/or chronic ethanol treatment, these results suggest that urinary folate excretion is greatly reduced as a conservation measure.

  4. The mTORC1-Signaling Pathway and Hepatic Polyribosome Profile Are Enhanced after the Recovery of a Protein Restricted Diet by a Combination of Soy or Black Bean with Corn Protein

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Mota, Claudia C.; Rodriguez-Gaytan, Cinthya; Adjibade, Pauline; Mazroui, Rachid; Gálvez, Amanda; Granados, Omar; Tovar, Armando R.; Torres, Nimbe

    2016-01-01

    Between 6% and 11% of the world’s population suffers from malnutrition or undernutrition associated with poverty, aging or long-term hospitalization. The present work examined the effect of different types of proteins on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1)-signaling pathway in: (1) healthy; and (2) protein restricted rats. (1) In total, 200 rats were divided into eight groups and fed one of the following diets: 20% casein (C), soy (S), black bean (B), B + Corn (BCr), Pea (P), spirulina (Sp), sesame (Se) or Corn (Cr). Rats fed C or BCr had the highest body weight gain; rats fed BCr had the highest pS6K1/S6K1 ratio; rats fed B, BCr or P had the highest eIF4G expression; (2) In total, 84 rats were fed 0.5% C for 21 day and protein rehabilitated with different proteins. The S, soy + Corn (SCr) and BCr groups had the highest body weight gain. Rats fed SCr and BCr had the highest eIF4G expression and liver polysome formation. These findings suggest that the quality of the dietary proteins modulate the mTORC1-signaling pathway. In conclusion, the combination of BCr or SCr are the best proteins for dietary protein rehabilitation due to the significant increase in body weight, activation of the mTORC1-signaling pathway in liver and muscle, and liver polysome formation. PMID:27657118

  5. Moderate exercise training and chronic caloric restriction modulate redox status in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Santin, Katiane; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Cechetti, Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Nardin, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Leite, Marina Concli; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity has been related to antioxidant adaptations, which is associated with health benefits, including those to the nervous system. Additionally, available data suggest exercise and a caloric restriction regimen may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurological disorders. Therefore, our aim was to compare hippocampal redox status and glial parameters among sedentary, trained, caloric-restricted sedentary and caloric-restricted trained rats. Forty male adult rats were divided into 4 groups: ad libitum-fed sedentary (AS), ad libitum-fed exercise training (AE), calorie-restricted sedentary (RS) and calorie-restricted exercise training (RE). The caloric restriction (decrease of 30% in food intake) and exercise training (moderate in a treadmill) were carried out for 3 months. Thereafter hippocampus was surgically removed, and then redox and glial parameters were assessed. Increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) were observed in AE, RS and RE. The nitrite/nitrate levels decreased only in RE. We found a decrease in carbonyl content in AE, RS and RE, while no modifications were detected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, S100B and glial fibrilary acid protein (GFAP) content did not change, but caloric restriction was able to increase glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in RS and glutamate uptake in RS and RE. Exercise training, caloric restriction and both combined can decrease oxidative damage in the hippocampus, possibly involving modulation of astroglial function, and could be used as a strategy for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21974860

  6. Quercetin ameliorates cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic changes in diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the responses to the flavonol, quercetin, in male Wistar rats (8-9 wk old) divided into 4 groups. Two groups were given either a corn starch-rich (C) or high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet for 16 wk; the remaining 2 groups were given either a C or H diet for 8 wk followed by supplementation with 0.8 g/kg quercetin in the food for the following 8 wk (CQ and HQ, respectively). The H diet contained ~68% carbohydrates, mainly as fructose and sucrose, and ~24% fat from beef tallow; the C diet contained ~68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides and ~0.7% fat. Compared with the C rats, the H rats had greater body weight and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, higher systolic blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular remodeling, and NAFLD. The H rats had lower protein expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) with greater expression of NF-κB in both the heart and the liver and less expression of caspase-3 in the liver than in C rats. HQ rats had higher expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and CPT1 and lower expression of NF-κB than H rats in both the heart and the liver. HQ rats had less abdominal fat and lower systolic blood pressure along with attenuation of changes in structure and function of the heart and the liver compared with H rats, although body weight and dyslipidemia did not differ between the H and HQ rats. Thus, quercetin treatment attenuated most of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodeling, and NAFLD, with the most likely mechanisms being decreases in oxidative stress and inflammation.

  7. Glucose metabolic adaptations in the intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Rogers, Lisa; Bassilian, Sara; Lee, W N Paul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2006-06-01

    We studied glucose metabolic adaptations in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) rat offspring to decipher glucose homeostasis in metabolic programming. Glucose futile cycling (GFC), which is altered when there is imbalance between glucose production and utilization, was studied during a glucose tolerance test (GTT) in 2-day-old (n = 8), 2-mo-old (n = 22), and 15-mo-old (n = 22) female rat offspring. The IUGR rats exposed to either prenatal (CM/SP, n = 5 per age), postnatal (SM/CP, n = 6), or pre- and postnatal (SM/SP, n = 6) nutrient restriction were compared with age-matched controls (CM/CP, n = 5). At 2 days, IUGR pups (SP) were smaller and glucose intolerant and had increased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal (P < 0.01) compared with controls (CP). At 2 mo, the GTT, glucose clearance, and GFC did not change. However, a decline in hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (P < 0.05) and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (P < 0.05) enzyme activities in the IUGR offspring was detected. At 15 mo, prenatal nutrient restriction (CM/SP) resulted in greater weight gain (P < 0.01) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001) compared with postnatal nutrient restriction (SM/CP). A decline in GFC in the face of a normal GTT occurred in both the prenatal (CM/SP, P < 0.01) and postnatal calorie (SM/CP, P < 0.03) and growth-restricted offspring. The IUGR offspring with pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (SM/SP) were smaller, hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.03), and hypoleptinemic (P < 0.03), with no change in GTT, hepatic glucose production, GFC, or glucose clearance. We conclude that there is pre- and postnatal programming that affects the postnatal compensatory adaptation of GFC and disposal initiated by changes in circulating insulin concentrations, thereby determining hepatic insulin sensitivity in a phenotype-specific manner. PMID:16449299

  8. /sup 54/Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets.

  9. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; de Mello, Maria Alice Roston; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones. PMID:11955290

  10. Laser phototherapy improves early stage of cutaneous wound healing of rats under hyperlipidic diet.

    PubMed

    Uzêda-E-Silva, Virgínia Dias; Rodriguez, Tania Tavares; Rocha, Isadora Almeida Rios; Xavier, Flávia Calo Aquino; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser photobiomodulation in cutaneous healing of rats under a hyperlipidic diet. Forty-eight Wistar Albinus rats, weaned, received standard diet (SD) or hyperlipidic diet (HD) for 20 weeks. The groups were divided into SD rats and HD rats, SD-irradiated rats (LSD), and HD-irradiated rats (LHD). Standard cutaneous wound (1 cm(2)) was created on the dorsum of each rat. The irradiation started immediately after surgery and every 48 h for 7 or 14 days (λ660 nm, 40 mW, 6 J/cm(2), ϕ 0,04 cm(2), CW), when they were killed under deep anesthesia. The specimens were removed, routinely processed, stained with hematoxylin/eosin (H/E), and evaluated by light microscopy. Rats fed with hyperlipidic diet had greater intensity in the inflammatory process and prolonged hyperemia. At day 7, the intensity of inflammation was reduced in LSD and LHD groups when compared to their control groups, SD (p = 0.002) and HD (p = 0.02). There was an increase in fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, especially in the LHD group. At day 14, the HD group presented more intensive hyperemia than the SD group. It can be concluded that the hyperlipidic diet modified the inflammation pattern in wound healing and that laser light has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process only in early stages. PMID:27412288

  11. Effects of aproteic diet on hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal regulation in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Ponzo, Osvaldo J.; Rondina, Dora; Szwarcfarb, Berta; Carbone, Silvia; Moguilevsky, Jaime; Scacchi, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    The effect of an aproteic diet (Ap) on the reproductive axis in young male rats was studied. Also the refeeding effect at different times after the aproteic diet was studied. The Ap diet was given during 21 days. In refeeding groups, the control diet was given during 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the aproteic diet. We studied the plasmatic testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Also the hypothalamic GnRH concentration and in vitro hypothalamic GnRH secretion in basal and induced condition was studied. The total protein deficit produced significant reduction in body, testis, seminal vesicles and prostate weights. This was accompanied with decreased levels of plasmatic testosterone (P<0.02). In this aproteic group there was a significant reduction in LH (P<0.05) and FSH (P<0.05) plasmatic levels. Refeeding with control diet reversed this situation, producing significant increment in LH (P<0.05) and FSH levels (P<0.01) at the fourth and second weeks, respectively. The basal hypothalamic GnRH secretion did not differ from the control; nevertheless the induced secretion was significantly (P<0.05) greater in the aproteic group. Also the hypothalamic GnRH concentration was increased (P<0.05) in animals fed with the aproteic diet. The minor testis, prostate, and seminal vesicles" weight, and a decreased plasmatic testosterone in rats fed with an aproteic diet, are produced by a decrease in gonadotrophin secretion. This decrease in turn is caused by a reduction in GnRH secretion, since hypothalamic GnRH concentration is increased in rats fed with the aproteic group, and induced secretion is greater in this group. All these alterations produced by an aproteic diet are reversible, since-with contol diet refeeding-the gonadotrophin secretion returned at control levels.

  12. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, James A; Babyak, Michael A; Sherwood, Andrew; Craighead, Linda; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Johnson, Julie; Watkins, Lana L; Wang, Jenny T; Kuhn, Cynthia; Feinglos, Mark; Hinderliter, Alan

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body mass index: 25 to 40) men (n=47) and women (n=97) with high blood pressure (130 to 159/85 to 99 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) DASH diet alone; (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction; or (3) usual diet controls (UC). Body composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipids were measured before and after 4 months of treatment. Insulin sensitivity was estimated on the basis of glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. Participants in the DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction condition lost weight (-8.7 kg [95% CI: -2.0 to -9.7 kg]) and exhibited a significant increase in aerobic capacity, whereas the DASH diet alone and UC participants maintained their weight (-0.3 kg [95% CI: -1.2 to 0.5 kg] and +0.9 kg [95% CI: 0.0 to 1.7 kg], respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity. DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction demonstrated lower glucose levels after the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared with both DASH diet alone and UC, as well as lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with UC. DASH diet alone participants generally did not differ from UC in these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids.

  13. The effect of purified compared with nonpurified diet on bone changes induced by hindlimb suspension of female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bone changes induced by unloading in rats fed different diets, because space flight studies use a semipurified diet, whereas space flight simulation studies typically use nonpurified diets. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) 93G diet or a standard nonpurified diet and kept ambulatory or subjected to unloading by hindlimb suspension (HLS) for 38 days. Bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical strength, and factors related to the diet that affect bone (i.e., urinary calcium excretion, estradiol, and corticosterone) were measured. Average food intakes (grams per day) differed for diets, but caloric intake (kilocalories per day) and the final body masses of treatment groups were similar. The HLS-induced decrease in femoral BMC was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-8.6%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-11.4%). The HLS-induced decrease in femoral mechanical strength was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-24%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-31%). However, bone lengths were decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet compared with a purified diet. Plasma estradiol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the HLS/AIN-93G group but similar in the HLS and ambulatory rats fed a nonpurified diet. Plasma estradiol was related to femoral BMC (r = 0.85, P < 0.01). Urinary calcium excretion was higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet than those fed a purified AIN-93G diet, which is consistent with the higher level of calcium in the nonpurified diet. Urinary corticosterone levels were higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet than rats fed the AIN-93G diet. Although the osteopenia induced by unloading was similar in both diet groups, there were differences in longitudinal bone growth, calcium excretion, plasma estradiol levels, and urinary corticosterone levels. Results indicate that the type of standard

  14. Obesity induced by cafeteria diet disrupts fertility in the rat by affecting multiple ovarian targets.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, M V; Torelli, C; Pustovrh, M C; Paz, D A; Elia, E M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity constitutes a health problem of increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. However, the mechanisms involved in this disruption are not fully understood. Animals fed a cafeteria diet constitute the model for the study of obesity that most closely reflects Western diet habits. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a cafeteria diet affects ovarian function and to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved. For that purpose, 22-day-old female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n = 20) or cafeteria diet (CAF group; n = 20). The cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycaemia, without altering serum triglycerides, cholesterol or C-reactive protein concentrations. This diet also altered ovarian function: the rats showed prolonged dioestrous phases, decreased serum oestradiol concentrations and increased number of antral atretic follicles. Moreover, follicular cysts were detected in the CAF group, concomitantly with a decrease in the number of anti-Müllerian hormone immunoreactive pre-antral follicles and COX-2-positive antral and pre-ovulatory follicles. The authors conclude that a cafeteria diet reduces ovarian reserve, induces the presence of follicular cysts and disturbs the ovulatory process, leading to the delayed pregnancy observed in these animals.

  15. Effects of fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipid profiles of MSG obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, O A; Olayiwola, I O; Ademuyiwa, O; Balogun, E A

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of some fibre-enriched diets on tissue lipids in an animal model of obesity induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), obese rats were fed diets containing 30% of Acha, Cassava, Maize and Plantain for five weeks and weight gain, feed intake and lee index were recorded. The lipid profiles of plasma, erythrocytes, kidney, heart and liver as well as hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity were measured. The diets significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight gain and lee index in the obese rats. Obesity-induced increase in plasma and erythrocytes lipid levels was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by these diets. MSG-induced obesity also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in hepatic cholesterol level which was reduced by the diets. MSG-obesity was characterised by a significant (p<0.05) increase in cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids in kidney and this was reversed by the diets except Maize which did not reverse the increased cholesterol level. Only Acha reversed the obesity-induced increase in heart cholesterol and phospholipids. The increased activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase associated with obesity was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced by the diets. In conclusion, dyslipidemia associated with MSG-induced obesity could be attenuated by consumption of fibre-enriched diets. PMID:22898616

  16. The effect caused by the double condition of potassium loading and simultaneous sodium restriction on the glomerular zone of rats. Histochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Sugihara, H; Tsuchiyama, H

    1978-03-01

    The effect caused by the double condition of potassium loading (K loading) and simultaneous sodium restriction (Na restriction) on the glomerular zone of rats is reported. After 2-week-diet of K loading and simultaneous Na restriction an increase of width of glomerular zone and decreases and micronization of fat granules were seen. Enzymic activity (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, steroid 3beta-ol-dehydrogenase) was increased. After 3-week-diet of the same condition the width of glomerular zone became 1/4 to 1/5 of the whole cortex. The cells in the glomerular zone demonstrated a trabecular arrangement. Ultrastructurally, hypertrophy of cells became marked and the size of cell was about 1.5 times that of normal cells. Dense body increased in number and became irregular in shape. In the widened cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus were well developed with numerous coated vesicles. Changes of mitochondria such as increase in number, transformation into round shape and vesicular cristae were characteristic. The severity of these changes was proportional to the duration of K loading and simultaneous Na restriction. After 8-week-diet the increase of large-sized lipid vacuole and dense body, and intramitochondrial deposition were observed in parallel with the above-mentioned changes. The changes observed in this study appeared earlier and stronger than those in the single-conditioned group of only K loading or Na restriction. The cause of these changes were considered to be a result of accelerated function of the glomerular cells.

  17. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  18. Preventing leptin resistance by blocking angiotensin II AT1 receptors in diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Fielitz, Helge; Lau, Margot; Geißler, Cathleen; Werner, Lars; Winkler, Martina; Raasch, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) represent an approach for treating metabolic syndrome due to their potency in reducing hypertension, body weight and onset of type 2 diabetes. The mechanism underlying ARB-induced weight loss is still unclear. Experimental Approach Leptin resistance tests (LRTs) in diet-induced obese or lean rats were conducted to determine whether telmisartan (8 mg·kg−1·day−1, 14 days) enhances leptin sensitivity. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) staining was performed in hypothalami to determine leptin transport across the blood–brain barrier. Key Results Telmisartin reduced weight gain, food intake and plasma leptin but blood pressure remained unchanged. The 24 h profiles of plasma leptin after saline injections were similar in controls and telmisartan-treated rats, but after leptin injections were higher in controls and slightly lower in telmisartan-treated animals. After telmisartan, energy intake during LRT was lower in leptin-than in saline-pretreated rats, but remained unchanged in controls, irrespectively of whether rats received saline or leptin. Leptin minimized the gain in body weight during LRT in telmisartan-treated rats as compared with saline-treated animals. pSTAT3 staining was reduced in cafeteria diet-fed rats as compared with chow-fed rats but this was normalized by telmisartan. Telmisartin reduced hypothalamic mRNA levels of the orexigenic peptides melanin-concentrating hormone and prepro-orexin. Conclusions and Implications Rats fed a cafeteria diet develop leptin resistance after 2 weeks. Leptin sensitivity was preserved by telmisartan treatment even in rats fed a cafeteria diet. This pleiotropic effect is not related to the hypotensive action of telmisartan. PMID:25258168

  19. Effect of zinc-deficient diet on oral tissues and periodontal indices in rats.

    PubMed

    Seyedmajidi, Seyed Ali; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Khani, Zohreh; Zahedpasha, Samir; Jenabian, Niloofar; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) as a nutritional factor affects the health of the oral tissues. This study was done for the evaluation of the effects of zinc deficiency on the oral tissues of rats. The study was carried out on 14 male Wistar rats, cessation of lactation on the 24(th) day after birth. The rats were randomly divided into two groups. Zinc deficient (ZD) diet was used for one group and another group was fed with a zinc-containing (ZC) diet. The alterations of the oral tissues in both groups were evaluated clinically after four weeks. Also the gingival index and periodontal pocket depth were recorded. The measurement of serum zinc level was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The microscopic slides of oral tissue specimen were evaluated quantitatively. The serum zinc level of the ZD rats was lower than the ZC group (p< 0.001). According clinical findings, the gingival index was lower in ZC rat (p=0.001), but there was no significant difference regarding the periodontal pocket depth between two groups (p=0.07). Aphthous ulcer was observed in ZD rats on the floor of the mouth. There was no significant difference regarding the epithelial and keratin thickening between two groups. This study indicated that oral and periodontal health was better in ZC rats than in ZD rats. Aphthous lesions were more prominent in ZD rats. This study confirmed that zinc deficiency may endanger oral and periodo ntal structures.

  20. Effect of large amounts of dihydroxyacetone in the diet of rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapira, J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments in which dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was used as nutrient for growing rats have not fulfilled the expectation that DHA could be used as a significant portion of the diet. Any attempt to treat major cerebral damage by prolonged administration of DHA is strongly contraindicated. For this reason, regenerated formose mixtures containing appreciable amounts of DHA will not be suitable as a significant portion of the diet for the crews of long-duration space missions.

  1. Feeding with powdered diet after weaning affects sex difference in acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, K; Mitsushima, D; Masuda, J; Mogi, K; Funabashi, T; Endo, Y; Kimura, F

    2005-01-01

    We have reported in the past that female rats fed a powdered diet showed better spatial learning and memory functions than female rats a fed pelleted diet. In the present study, we examined the effects of feeding with powdered diet on acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in both sexes of rats. After weaning (3 weeks of age), rats were fed either standard pelleted diet or powdered diet, and after maturation (9-12 weeks of age), they were used in an in vivo microdialysis study, in which no eserine (a cholinesterase inhibitor) was added to the perfusate. The dialysate was collected from the dorsal hippocampus at 20-min intervals under freely moving conditions for more than 24 h. Acetylcholine in the dialysate was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. As we reported previously, the acetylcholine release showed a clear daily rhythm in both sexes, and males showed significantly greater acetylcholine release in the hippocampus than females in rats fed pelleted diet. Conversely, in rats fed powdered diet, no sex difference in the acetylcholine release was observed, since feeding with powdered diet significantly increased the acetylcholine release only in females. To further examine the number of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase was performed in both sexes of rats fed either standard pelleted diet or powdered diet. However, neither sex nor feeding conditions affect the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the areas. These results suggest that powdered diet after weaning enhances spontaneous acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in female rats without changes in the number of cholinergic neurons in the areas. It is possible that this effect of feeding contributes to improve the performance in spatial learning and memory functions in female rats fed powdered diet.

  2. Effects of stock or purified diet on rat liver enzymes involved in the synthesis of dimethyl selenide.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, H S; Ganther, H E

    1976-11-01

    Rats fed either a stock deit or a purified diet based on casein were tested for their ability to convert 75Se-sodium selenite to volatile selenium (dimethyl selenide) in vivo. This conversion was also studied in liver and kidney in vitro. When injected with a subacute dose of selenite (2 mg Se/kg), rats previously fed stock diet volatilized more than twice as much of the dose compared to rats fed the purified diet, confirming earlier findings. Parallel dietary effects were also observed in vitro using subcellular fractions incubated with 75Se-selenite, glutathione, TPNH, and S-adenosylmethionine. The 9-000 X g supernate prepared from rats fed stock diet synthesized dimethyl selenide at approximately twice the rate of that prepared from rats fed purified diet. A fourfold higher activity was observed with liver microsomal fractions from rats fed the stock diet, whereas cytosol was slightly more active in rats fed the purified diet. Kidney fractions showed analogous changes with diet, although the activity of kidney microsomal fraction was very low. Only minor differences in the levels of glutathione reductase, nonspecific disulfide reducatse, and non-protein thiols were observed in liver and kidney from rats fed the two diets. Considering the effects of diet on the various enzymes known from our previous studies to be involved in dimethyl selenide synthesis, it was concluded that the enhanced ability of rats fed stock diet to synthesize dimethyl selenide results from the induction of a liver microsomal enzyme, apparently a Se-methyltransferase, caused by unknown substances in the stock diet.

  3. Effects of casein and glucose on responses of cows fed diets based on restrictively fermented grass silage.

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, A; Varvikko, T; Huhtanen, P

    2003-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether well fed dairy cows given restrictively fermented grass silage diet will respond to incremental glucose and amino acid supply at early stage of lactation. Four rumen-cannulated Finnish Ayrshire cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment with 14-d periods. The cows were fed good quality restrictively fermented grass silage ensiled with a formic acid additive for ad libitum intake. A concentrate mixture consisting of barley (85%) and solvent extracted rapeseed meal (11.4%) was given at a rate of 9 kg/d. The four treatments were continuous abomasal infusions of water (control), casein 300 g/d, glucose 300 g/d, and casein 300 g/d + glucose 300 g/d. The infusions had only minor effects on feed intake, diet digestibility, or rumen fermentation pattern. Both casein and glucose infusions increased milk, protein and lactose yields the effects being partly additive on the combined infusion. Infused casein increased milk protein and urea as well as plasma urea concentrations. Both casein and glucose tended to increase plasma glucose concentration. Casein increased arterial plasma concentrations of essential amino acids (EAA), branched-chain AA (BCAA), and total AA (TAA). Both casein and glucose, although glucose usually less than casein, increased arteriovenous differences of EAA, nonessential AA, BCAA, and TAA. Extraction efficiencies of AA were higher for glucose than for casein. Mammary plasma flow was at highest on the control diet, but reduced owing to infused nutrients, the reduction being less with combined rather than separate infusions of casein and glucose. Based on the partly additive increases in milk production parameters and changes in plasma metabolites, it is suggested that glucose alone increased milk protein yield by sparing AA from hepatic utilization, while casein increased both supply of AA and glucose. It was concluded that cows at early stage of lactation fed diets comprising of restrictively

  4. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors.

  5. Effect of chronic ethanol diet on expression of gonadotropin genes in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Salonen, I; Pakarinen, P; Huhtaniemi, I

    1992-02-01

    The present study elucidates further the defect in the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the male rat after a 6% ethanol diet for 5 weeks. The body, testis, prostate and seminal vesicle weights of the ethanol-treated animals did not differ from those of the pair-fed controls. However, the weights of the ethanol and pair-fed groups were significantly lower than in untreated controls (P less than .001). The pituitary luteinizing hormone beta mRNA level of ethanol-treated rats was significantly higher (P less than .05) but the follicle-stimulating hormone beta mRNA level was lower (P less than .05) than those of the diet control group. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone beta mRNA level of the diet controls was higher than that of the untreated controls (P less than .05). There were no significant differences in the levels of common-alpha subunit or prolactin mRNA between the groups. The serum and testicular testosterone concentrations of the ethanol and diet control groups did not differ, but both were significantly lower than in untreated controls (P less than .01). The serum luteinizing hormone of ethanol rats was significantly higher than that of diet controls (P less than .01), but the pituitary luteinizing hormone, the serum and pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone and the prolactin of ethanol and diet control animals did not differ.

  6. Environmental enrichment and cafeteria diet attenuate the response to chronic variable stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeeni, N; Bassil, M; Fromentin, G; Chaumontet, C; Darcel, N; Tome, D; Daher, C F

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment (EE) or the intake of a highly palatable diet may reduce the response to chronic stress in rodents. To further explore the relationships between EE, dietary intake and stress, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of two diets for 5 weeks: high carbohydrate (HC) or "cafeteria" (CAF) (Standard HC plus a choice of highly palatable cafeteria foods: chocolate, biscuits, and peanut butter). In addition, they were either housed in empty cages or cages with EE. After the first two weeks, half of the animals from each group were stressed daily using a chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm, while the other half were kept undisturbed. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the 5-week period. The effects of stress, enrichment and dietary intake on animal adiposity, serum lipids, and stress hormones were analyzed. Results showed an increase in intra-abdominal fat associated with the CAF diet and an increase in body weight gain associated with both the CAF diet and EE. Furthermore, the increase in ACTH associated with CVS was attenuated in the presence of EE and the CAF diet independently while the stress-induced increase in corticosterone was reduced by the combination of EE and CAF feeding. The present study provides evidence that the availability of a positive environment combined to a highly palatable diet increases resilience to the effects of CVS in rats. These results highlight the important place of palatable food and supportive environments in reducing central stress responses.

  7. Environmental enrichment and cafeteria diet attenuate the response to chronic variable stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeeni, N; Bassil, M; Fromentin, G; Chaumontet, C; Darcel, N; Tome, D; Daher, C F

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment (EE) or the intake of a highly palatable diet may reduce the response to chronic stress in rodents. To further explore the relationships between EE, dietary intake and stress, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of two diets for 5 weeks: high carbohydrate (HC) or "cafeteria" (CAF) (Standard HC plus a choice of highly palatable cafeteria foods: chocolate, biscuits, and peanut butter). In addition, they were either housed in empty cages or cages with EE. After the first two weeks, half of the animals from each group were stressed daily using a chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm, while the other half were kept undisturbed. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the 5-week period. The effects of stress, enrichment and dietary intake on animal adiposity, serum lipids, and stress hormones were analyzed. Results showed an increase in intra-abdominal fat associated with the CAF diet and an increase in body weight gain associated with both the CAF diet and EE. Furthermore, the increase in ACTH associated with CVS was attenuated in the presence of EE and the CAF diet independently while the stress-induced increase in corticosterone was reduced by the combination of EE and CAF feeding. The present study provides evidence that the availability of a positive environment combined to a highly palatable diet increases resilience to the effects of CVS in rats. These results highlight the important place of palatable food and supportive environments in reducing central stress responses. PMID:25446213

  8. Long Term Effects of Energy-Restricted Diets Differing in Glycemic Load on Metabolic Adaptation and Body Composition*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sai Krupa; Gilhooly, Cheryl H.; Golden, Julie K.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Fuss, Paul J.; Dallal, Gerard E.; McCrory, Megan A.; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets with food provided for 6 months and self-administered for 6 additional months at 30% caloric restriction (CR) was performed in 29 overweight adults (mean±SD, age 35±5y; BMI 27.5±1.5 kg/m2). Total energy expenditure (TEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), fat and fat free mass (FFM), were measured at 3, 6 and 12 months. Changes in TEE, but not changes in RMR, were greater than accounted for by the loss of FFM and fat mass (P=0.001-0.013) suggesting an adaptive response to long-term CR. There was no significant effect of diet group on change in RMR or TEE. However, in subjects who lost >5% body weight (n=26), the LG diet group had a higher percentage of weight loss as fat than the HG group (p<0.05), a finding that may have implications for dietary recommendations during weight reduction. PMID:20711415

  9. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Mathai, Michael L; Ward, Leigh C; Mouatt, Peter; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom. PMID:26378573

  10. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Eidi, Maryam; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  11. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  12. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Mathai, Michael L; Ward, Leigh C; Mouatt, Peter; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-09-11

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom.

  13. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Mathai, Michael L.; Ward, Leigh C.; Mouatt, Peter; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom. PMID:26378573

  14. Hypercholesterolemic diet induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis in sympathectomized rats via intrinsic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hachani, Rafik; Dab, Houcine; Feriani, Anouar; Saber, Sami; Sakly, Mohsen; Vicaut, Eric; Callebert, Jacques; Sercombe, Richard; Kacem, Kamel

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we intend to investigate the role of hypercholesterolemic diet, a high risk factor for atherosclerosis, on vascular cell apoptosis in rats that have been previously sympathectomized. Thus, newborn male Wistar rats received injections of guanethidine for sympathectomy. Sham received injections of vehicle. The two groups were fed 1% cholesterol diet for 3months. Sympathectomy alone group was also exploited. Apoptosis in abdominal aortic tissue was identified by TUNEL method and conventional agarose gel electrophoresis to detect specific DNA fragmentation. Caspases 3 and 9, Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c were examined by immunoblotting. Oil Red O staining was used to reveal lipid in the arterial wall. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and macrophages were identified by immunostaining for α-smooth muscle actin and rat macrophage marker (ED1), respectively. The efficacy of sympathectomy was evaluated by analysis of perivascular sympathetic fibers. Our study showed that hypercholesterolemic diet, when performed in rats with neonatal sympathectomy, 1) increased aortic TUNEL-positive cells compared to sham and sympathectomy alone groups, 2) illustrated a typical apoptotic DNA ladder on agarose gel electrophoresis, 3) induced Bax translocation from cytosol to mitochondria, 4) enhanced cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, 5) increased expression of active caspases 3 and 9, and 6) decreased Bcl-2 expression. VSMCs are identified as the major cell type exhibiting apoptosis in this model. Taken together, it can be concluded that hypercholesterolemic diet, when performed in rats with neonatal sympathectomy, induces vascular cell apoptosis in an intrinsic pathway.

  15. Organ weights and water content of rats fed on protein-deficient diets*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Elvira S.; Boyd, Eldon M.

    1968-01-01

    To provide the basic information needed for studies of drug toxicity in rats suffering from protein deficiency, weanling male albino rats were fed for 28 days on either laboratory chow or a synthetic diet containing 27% or 8% of casein. The low-protein diet produced a kwashiorkoric cachexia characterized by stunting, alopecia, tail dermatitis, apathy, augmented calorie intake per kg body-weight and a 20% death rate. Autopsies at weekly intervals disclosed that the synthetic normal-protein diet produced a slight loss of total body-weight, due to loss of weight in the adrenal glands and gastrointestinal tissues, and a more-or-less generalized dehydration of body organs. The body-weight of the kwashiorkoric rats was half that of the control groups, due especially to loss of weight in caecum, kidneys, liver, muscle, skin, spleen, salivary glands and thymus gland; loss of weight was less marked in other organs, particularly the stomach, heart and testes and, especially, the brain. There was further dehydration of adrenals and brain but the liver and gastrointestinal tissues tended to be hydrated. The kwashiorkoric diet had not entirely suppressed growth-stimulated relative increase in weight of muscle, skin and testes. The histology of organs was essentially normal in the survivors. Absence of oedema in organs distinguished the kwashiorkoric rats from rats with total calorie depletion. PMID:5303670

  16. Endochondral ossification of the condyle in rats on a strontium or low-calcium diet.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, M; Saburi, N; Oka, T; Matsumoto, A

    1985-09-01

    The mechanism of abnormal endochondral ossification induced by administration of strontium salts was studied in the mandibular condyles of rats by radiographic, histologic, and histochemical methods. It was shown by radiographic and histologic findings that ossification of the mandibular ramus was clearly inhibited in rats fed a low-calcium diet and rats fed a strontium diet. The change in appearance of the mandibular condyles of the rats fed strontium was more severe than that in those fed low amounts of calcium. From the histochemical findings, it was suggested that the metabolic dysfunction of chondroitin sulfate, periodic acid-Schiff positive materials, and collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the condylar cartilage (or in the part corresponding to trabecular bone of the mandibular ramus) was one factor inhibiting normal endochondral ossification.

  17. Moderate caloric restriction during gestation in rats alters adipose tissue sympathetic innervation and later adiposity in offspring.

    PubMed

    García, Ana Paula; Palou, Mariona; Sánchez, Juana; Priego, Teresa; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Maternal prenatal undernutrition predisposes offspring to higher adiposity in adulthood. Mechanisms involved in these programming effects, apart from those described in central nervous system development, have not been established. Here we aimed to evaluate whether moderate caloric restriction during early pregnancy in rats affects white adipose tissue (WAT) sympathetic innervation in the offspring, and its relationship with adiposity development. For this purpose, inguinal and retroperitoneal WAT (iWAT and rpWAT, respectively) were analyzed in male and female offspring of control and 20% caloric-restricted (from 1-12 d of pregnancy) (CR) dams. Body weight (BW), the weight, DNA-content, morphological features and the immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase and Neuropeptide Y area (TH+ and NPY+ respectively, performed by immunohistochemistry) of both fat depots, were studied at 25 d and 6 m of age, the latter after 2 m exposure to high fat diet. At 6 m of life, CR males but not females, exhibited greater BW, and greater weight and total DNA-content in iWAT, without changes in adipocytes size, suggesting the development of hyperplasia in this depot. However, in rpWAT, CR males but not females, showed larger adipocyte diameter, with no changes in DNA-content, suggesting the development of hypertrophy. These parameters were not different between control and CR animals at the age of 25 d. In iWAT, both at 25 d and 6 m, CR males but not females, showed lower TH(+) and NPY(+), suggesting lower sympathetic innervation in CR males compared to control males. In rpWAT, at 6 m but not at 25 d, CR males but not females, showed lower TH(+) and NPY(+). Thus, the effects of caloric restriction during gestation on later adiposity and on the differences in the adult phenotype between internal and subcutaneous fat depots in the male offspring may be associated in part with specific alterations in sympathetic innervation, which may impact on WAT architecture.

  18. Psychomotor Vigilance Task Performance During and Following Chronic Sleep Restriction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deurveilher, Samuel; Bush, Jacquelyn E.; Rusak, Benjamin; Eskes, Gail A.; Semba, Kazue

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) impairs sustained attention in humans, as commonly assessed with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). To further investigate the mechanisms underlying performance deficits during CSR, we examined the effect of CSR on performance on a rat version of PVT (rPVT). Design: Adult male rats were trained on a rPVT that required them to press a bar when they detected irregularly presented, brief light stimuli, and were then tested during CSR. CSR consisted of 100 or 148 h of continuous cycles of 3-h sleep deprivation (using slowly rotating wheels) alternating with a 1-h sleep opportunity (3/1 protocol). Measurements and Results: After 28 h of CSR, the latency of correct responses and the percentages of lapses and omissions increased, whereas the percentage of correct responses decreased. Over 52–148 h of CSR, all performance measures showed partial or nearly complete recovery, and were at baseline levels on the first or second day after CSR. There were large interindividual differences in the magnitude of performance impairment during CSR, suggesting differential vulnerability to the effects of sleep loss. Wheel-running controls showed no changes in performance. Conclusions: A 28-h period of the 3/1 chronic sleep restriction (CSR) protocol disrupted performance on a sustained attention task in rats, as sleep deprivation does in humans. Performance improved after longer periods of CSR, suggesting allostatic adaptation, contrary to some reports of progressive deterioration in psychomotor vigilance task performance during CSR in humans. However, as observed in humans, there were individual differences among rats in the vulnerability of their attention performance to CSR. Citation: Deurveilher S, Bush JE, Rusak B, Eskes GA, Semba K. Psychomotor vigilance task performance during and following chronic sleep restriction in rats. SLEEP 2015;38(4):515–528. PMID:25515100

  19. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  20. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  1. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR.

  2. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR. PMID:24077597

  3. A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Rusli, Fenni; Boekschoten, Mark V; Zubia, Arantza Aguirre; Lute, Carolien; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie-restricted diet could prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat (MF) diet. Methods and results Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a (i) control (C), (ii) 30E% calorie restricted (CR), (iii) MF (25E% fat), or (iv) intermittent (INT) diet, a diet alternating weekly between 40E% CR and an ad libitum MF diet until sacrifice at the age of 12 months. The metabolic, morphological, and molecular features of NAFLD were examined. The INT diet resulted in healthy metabolic and morphological features as displayed by the continuous CR diet: glucose tolerant, low hepatic triglyceride content, low plasma alanine aminotransferase. In contrast, the C- and MF-exposed mice with high body weight developed signs of NAFLD. However, the gene expression profiles of INT-exposed mice differed to those of CR-exposed mice and showed to be more similar with those of C- and MF-exposed mice with a comparable body weight. Conclusions Our study reveals that the INT diet maintains metabolic health and reverses the adverse effects of the MF diet, thus effectively prevents the development of NAFLD in 12-month-old male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:25504628

  4. Satiety Hormone and Metabolomic Response to an Intermittent High Energy Diet Differs in Rats Consuming Long-Term Diets High in Protein or Prebiotic Fiber

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large differences in the composition of diet between early development and adulthood can have detrimental effects on obesity risk. We examined the effects of an intermittent high fat/sucrose diet (HFS) on satiety hormone and serum metabolite response in disparate diets. Wistar rat pups were fed control (C), high prebiotic fiber (HF) or high protein (HP) diets (weaning to 16 weeks), HFS diet challenged (6 weeks), and finally reverted to their respective C, HF, or HP diet (4 weeks). At conclusion, measurement of body composition and satiety hormones was accompanied by 1H NMR metabolic profiles in fasted and postprandial states. Metabolomic profiling predicted dietary source with >90% accuracy. The HF group was characterized by lowest body weight and body fat (P < 0.05) and increased satiety hormone levels (glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide-YY). Regularized modeling confirmed that the HF diet is associated with higher gut hormone secretion that could reflect the known effects of prebiotics on gut microbiota and their fementative end products, the short chain fatty acids. Rats reared on a HF diet appear to experience fewer adverse effects from an intermittent high fat diet in adulthood when rematched to their postnatal diet. Metabolite profiles associated with the diets provide a distinct biochemical signature of their effects. PMID:22788871

  5. Ameliorating effect of Allium Sativum on high-fat diet induced fatty liver in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aisha; Usmani, Ambreen; Waqar, Humera; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect provided by fresh garlic on fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at BMSI, JPMC from October to November 2008. Thirty adult albino rats, 200-240 gram weight, were divided into three groups. Group A received control diet, Group B received high-fat diet (20 mg butter/100 gm diet) and Group C received high-fat diet with fresh garlic (20 mg butter with 6 gm fresh garlic/100 gm diet). The groups were further divided on the basis of duration of treatment, four weeks and eight weeks respectively. The rats were sacrificed, liver removed, weighed and relative liver weight calculated. Hepatic tissue was processed and tissue slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: There was significant increase in relative liver weight in group B animals as compared to the control animals, which decreased significantly in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed ballooned hepatocytes having vesicular appearance with pyknotic nuclei in high-fat group which were preserved to a great extent in group C animals. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of fresh garlic along with high-fat diet prevents its damaging effects on liver to a great extent. PMID:27182249

  6. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet.

  7. Restricted feeding with scheduled sucrose access results in an upregulation of the rat dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Sweigart, Kristi L; Lakoski, Joan M; Norgren, Ralph; Hajnal, Andras

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that the mesoaccumbens dopamine system undergoes neurochemical alterations as a result of restricted feeding conditions with access to sugars. This effect appears to be similar to the neuroadaptation resulting from drugs of abuse and may underlay some pathological feeding behaviors. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms of these alterations, the present study used quantitative autoradiography and in situ hybridization to assess dopamine membrane transporter (DAT) protein density and mRNA expression in restricted-fed and free-fed adult male rats. The restricted feeding regimen consisted of daily limited access to either a normally preferred sucrose solution (0.3 M) or a less preferred chow in a scheduled (i.e., contingent) fashion for 7 days. Restricted-fed rats with the contingent sucrose access lost less body weight, ate more total food, and drank more fluid than free-fed, contingent food, or noncontingent controls. In addition, these animals had selectively higher DAT binding in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. This increase in protein binding also was accompanied by an increase in DAT mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area. In contrast to the restricted-fed groups, no differential effect in DAT regulation was observed across free-fed groups. The observed alteration in behavior and DAT regulation suggest that neuroadaptation in the mesoaccumbens dopamine system develops in response to repeated feeding on palatable foods under dietary constraints. This supports the notion that similar cellular changes may be involved in restrictive eating disorders and bingeing.

  8. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  9. Reproductive and neurobehavioral outcome of drinking purified water under magnesium deficiency in the rat's diet.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Qiang

    2008-05-01

    Taking magnesium deficient diet and drinking soft water (including purified water, essentially mineral free) are common consumed in the world. The present study was conducted to assess the potential combined influence of maternal drinking purified water and taking magnesium deficient diet on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat were assigned to four groups: group 1 fed with control diet (Mg(2+) 0.4 g/kg) and control water (Mg(2+) 12.7 mg/L), group 2 fed with control diet and purified water (Mg(2+) 0.015 mg/L), group 3 fed with magnesium deficient diet (Mg(2+) 0.2 g/kg) and control water, group 4 fed with magnesium deficient diet and purified water from 5 weeks of age of the F0 generation to 3 weeks of the F1 generation, respectively. Reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured. Maternal body weights significantly decreased during treatment (before mating) and lactation periods in the group fed with magnesium deficient diet and purified water. There were no significant differences of the reproductive outcome in the groups. Offspring's body weight, development of reflexes significantly reduced in the group 4. Although it was no significant difference in the four groups, the data showed a trend toward a decreased risk for offspring body weight, neurobehavioral development as follows: group 1>group 2>group 3>group 4. Therefore, purified water cannot obviously affect the reproductive outcome when magnesium is sufficient or half of the estimated average requirement (EAR) in the diet. However, drinking purified water can decrease maternal magnesium level slightly, induce offspring's development retardation, especially when the magnesium deficiency in the diet. Furthermore, magnesium deficiency in the diet (half of the EAR) can produce growth delay and reflex development retardation in F1-offspring. Therefore, drinking purified water should be carefully considered, especially for susceptible population.

  10. Polydatin supplementation ameliorates diet-induced development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Yingying; Zhang, Nan; Yao, Fanrong

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease remains to be elucidated, and the currently available treatments are not entirely effective. Polydatin, a stilbenoid compound derived from the rhizome of Polygonum cuspidatum, has previously been demonstrated to possess hepatoprotective effects. The present study aimed to determine the effects of polydatin supplementation on hepatic fat accumulation and injury in rats fed a high-fat diet. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of polydatin were examined. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and received one of four treatment regimes for 12 weeks: Control diet, control diet supplemented with polydatin, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet supplemented with polydatin. Polydatin was supplemented in the drinking water at a concentration of 0.3% (wt/vol). The results of the present study showed that long-term high-fat feeding resulted in fatty liver in rats, which was manifested by excessive hepatic neutral fat accumulation and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Polydatin supplementation alleviated the hepatic pathological changes, and attenuated the insulin resistance, as shown by an improved homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance values and a glucose tolerance test. Polydatin supplementation also corrected abnormal leptin and adiponectin levels. Specifically, polydatin supplementation enhanced insulin sensitivity in the liver, as shown by improved insulin receptor substrate 2 expression levels and Akt phosphorylation in the rat liver, following high-fat diet feeding. The results of the present study suggest that polydatin protects rats against high-fat feeding-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Polydatin may be an effective hepatoprotective agent and a potential candidate for the prevention of fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. PMID:25333896

  11. Strain differences among rats in response to Remington iodine-deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; Krulich, L.

    1981-08-01

    Male rats of five different strains (Simonsen albino, Wistar, Long-Evans, Holtzman Sprague-Dawley, and Charles River Sprague-Dawley) were tested for their response to the U.S. Biochemical Corp. Remington low iodine diet containing 15-18 microgram I/kg. Measurements made after the diet had been fed for 28-30 days indicated that Simonsen albino and Wistar strains consistently showed the greatest response, based on degree of thyroid enlargement, depletion of thyroidal iodine, reduction in serum T4, and elevation of serum TSH. Long-Evans and Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats responded relatively poorly to the low iodine diet. One experiment included female rats, and the limited data suggested that within a given strain there was no significant sex difference. With more prolonged feeding (84 days), the difference between a rapidly responding strain (Simonsen albino) and a more slowly responding strain (Holtzman Sprague-Dawley) was not so marked. Our results indicate that given sufficient time and a diet sufficiently low in iodine, even a more slowly responding strain will ultimately develop signs of extreme iodine deficiency. However, it is inconvenient and expensive to maintain rats on a Remington low iodine diet for 3 months, and studies on the effect of severe iodine deficiency are much more rapidly performed using a rapidly responding strain such as the Simonsen albino. Our observation that rats of different strains differ markedly in their responses to an iodine-deficient diet suggests that hereditary factors play an important role in this response.

  12. A return to ad libitum feeding following caloric restriction promotes hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Linden, Melissa A; Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2016-09-01

    Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats develop obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but lifestyle modifications, such as caloric restriction (CR), can prevent these conditions. We sought to determine if prior CR had protective effects on metabolic health and NAFLD development following a 4-wk return to ad libitum (AL) feeding. Four-week-old male OLETF rats (n = 8-10/group) were fed AL for 16 wk (O-AL), CR for 16 wk (O-CR; ∼70% kcal of O-AL), or CR for 12 wk followed by 4 wk of AL feeding (O-AL4wk). CR-induced benefit in prevention of NAFLD, including reduced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and markers of Kupffer cell activation/number, was largely lost in AL4wk rats. These findings occurred in conjunction with a partial loss of CR-induced beneficial effects on obesity and serum triglycerides in O-AL4wk rats, but in the absence of changes in serum glucose or insulin. CR-induced increases in hepatic mitochondrial respiration remained significantly elevated (P < 0.01) in O-AL4wk compared with O-AL rats, while mitochondrial [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase activity, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity did not differ among OLETF groups. NAFLD development in O-AL4wk rats was accompanied by increases in the protein content of the de novo lipogenesis markers fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and decreases in phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC)/ACC compared with O-CR rats (P < 0.05 for each). The beneficial effects of chronic CR on NAFLD development were largely lost with 4 wk of AL feeding in the hyperphagic OLETF rat, highlighting the importance of maintaining energy balance in the prevention of NAFLD. PMID:27445343

  13. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.

  14. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life. PMID:27480608

  15. Energy Dense, Protein Restricted Diet Increases Adiposity and Perturbs Metabolism in Young, Genetically Lean Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Kimberly D.; Scheffler, Tracy L.; Kasten, Steven C.; Reinholt, Brad M.; van Eyk, Gregory R.; Escobar, Jeffery; Scheffler, Jason M.; Gerrard, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood) are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12), containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1–12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11) with 12.2–19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001) energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); blood glucose increased (P<0.05) in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01), even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC) was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001). Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05) subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7) was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs. PMID:23991090

  16. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  17. Maternal protein restriction during gestation impairs female offspring pancreas development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Lizbeth; Morales, Angélica; Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Rodríguez-Mata, Verónica; Zambrano, Elena; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2016-08-01

    A maternal low-protein (LP) diet programs fetal pancreatic islet β-cell development and function and predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction later in life. We hypothesized that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy differentially alters β- and α-cell populations in offspring by modifying islet ontogeny and function throughout life. We aimed to investigate the effect of an LP maternal diet on pancreatic islet morphology and cellular composition in female offspring on postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 110. Mothers were divided into 2 groups: during pregnancy, the control group (C) was fed a diet containing 20% casein, and the LP group was fed an isocaloric diet with 10% casein. Offspring pancreases were obtained at each PND and then processed. β and α cells were detected by immunohistochemistry, and cellular area and islet size were quantified. Islet cytoarchitecture and total area were similar in C and LP offspring at all ages studied. At the early ages (PNDs 7-21), the proportion of β cells was lower in LP than C offspring. The proportion of α cells was lower in LP than C offspring on PND 14 and higher on PND 21. The β/α-cell ratio was lower in LP compared with C offspring on PNDs 7 and 21 and higher on PND 36 (being similar on PNDs 14 and 110). We concluded that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy modifies offspring islet cell ontogeny by altering the proportions of islet sizes and by reducing the number of β cells postnatally, which may impact pancreatic function in adult life. PMID:27440540

  18. Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood. Methods At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C), high prebiotic fiber (HF) or high protein (HP) diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS) diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR. Results Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF. Conclusion These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection. PMID:20920272

  19. Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. )

    1989-02-09

    The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

  20. The Preventive Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Weak Bones Caused by the Interaction of Exercise and Food Restriction in Young Female Rats During the Period from Acquiring Bone Mass to Maintaining Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Kato, Shoyo; Noma, Yuichi; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing calcium (Ca) intake is important for female athletes with a risk of weak bone caused by inadequate food intake. The aim of the present study was to examine the preventive effect of Ca supplementation on low bone strength in young female athletes with inadequate food intake, using the rats as an experimental model. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (SED), voluntary running exercise and ad libitum feeding group (EX), voluntary running exercise and 30% food restriction group (EX-FR), and a voluntary running exercise, 30% food-restricted and high-Ca diet group (EX-FR+Ca). To Ca supplementation, we used 1.2% Ca diet as "high-Ca diet" that contains two-fold Ca of normal Ca diet. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. As a result, the energy availability, internal organ weight, bone strength, bone mineral density, and Ca absorption in the EX-FR group were significantly lower than those in the EX group. The bone strength and Ca absorption in the EX-FR+Ca group were significantly higher than those in the EX-FR group. However, the bone strength in the EX-FR+Ca group did not reach that in the EX group. These results suggested that Ca supplementation had a positive effect on bone strength, but the effect was not sufficient to prevent lower bone strength caused by food restriction in young female athletes. PMID:26511476

  1. The Preventive Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Weak Bones Caused by the Interaction of Exercise and Food Restriction in Young Female Rats During the Period from Acquiring Bone Mass to Maintaining Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Kato, Shoyo; Noma, Yuichi; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing calcium (Ca) intake is important for female athletes with a risk of weak bone caused by inadequate food intake. The aim of the present study was to examine the preventive effect of Ca supplementation on low bone strength in young female athletes with inadequate food intake, using the rats as an experimental model. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (SED), voluntary running exercise and ad libitum feeding group (EX), voluntary running exercise and 30% food restriction group (EX-FR), and a voluntary running exercise, 30% food-restricted and high-Ca diet group (EX-FR+Ca). To Ca supplementation, we used 1.2% Ca diet as "high-Ca diet" that contains two-fold Ca of normal Ca diet. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. As a result, the energy availability, internal organ weight, bone strength, bone mineral density, and Ca absorption in the EX-FR group were significantly lower than those in the EX group. The bone strength and Ca absorption in the EX-FR+Ca group were significantly higher than those in the EX-FR group. However, the bone strength in the EX-FR+Ca group did not reach that in the EX group. These results suggested that Ca supplementation had a positive effect on bone strength, but the effect was not sufficient to prevent lower bone strength caused by food restriction in young female athletes.

  2. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  3. Food intake in laboratory rats provided standard and fenbendazole-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek

    2008-11-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.

  4. Coated vesicles in the rat adrenal glomerular zone after a low-sodium diet.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Lafarga, M

    1976-03-15

    In rats subjected to a low-sodium diet, a great activity was observed of the coated vesicles at Golgi complex and cell surfaces of glomerular adrenal zone. These findings are related to the function of these organoids in the uptake and transport of necessary substances under stimulating conditions of the zone.

  5. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  6. Quercetin Increases Hepatic Homocysteine Remethylation and Transsulfuration in Rats Fed a Methionine-Enriched Diet.

    PubMed

    Meng, Bin; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Pu, Lingling; Tang, Zhenchuang; Guo, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of quercetin on mRNA expression and activity of critical enzymes in homocysteine metabolism in rats fed a methionine-enriched diet. Rats were fed for 6 weeks the following diets, that is, control, 0.5% quercetin, 1.0% methionine, and 1.0% methionine plus 0.5% quercetin diets. Serum homocysteine was significantly increased after methionine treatment and decreased after the addition of quercetin. The mRNA expression of methionine synthase was significantly increased after methionine or methionine plus quercetin supplementation, while its enzymatic activity was significantly increased after methionine plus quercetin supplementation. The mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase were upregulated after quercetin, methionine, or quercetin plus methionine treatment and a more significant increase was observed for hepatic cystathionine β-synthase in the methionine plus quercetin treated rats, suggesting an interaction between methionine and quercetin. Meanwhile, hepatic ratio of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine was significantly decreased in response to methionine supplementation and normalized after the addition of quercetin. It is concluded that quercetin reduces serum homocysteine by increasing remethylation and transsulfuration of homocysteine in rats exposed to a methionine-enriched diet.

  7. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Induced by a High-Fat Diet Promotes Diethylnitrosamine Initiated Early Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have a high risk for liver cancer. However, it is unknown whether high-fat diet induced NASH promotes chemical carcinogen-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a low d...

  8. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fat diet promotes diethylnitrosamine initiated early hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at a high risk for liver cancer. However, it is unknown whether high-fat diet induced NASH promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a low dose of hepatic carcinogen die...

  9. Feeding blueberry diets dose-dependently inhibits bone resorption in young rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional status is a critical factor that influences bone development. We previously reported that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for only two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly promoted bone formation. Howeve...

  10. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  11. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Dasgin, Halil; Gülec, Atila; Onbasilar, İlyas; Akyol, Asli

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring's plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring's plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development.

  12. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Dasgin, Halil; Gülec, Atila; Onbasilar, İlyas; Akyol, Asli

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring’s plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring’s plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development. PMID:26633475

  13. Effect of short term oral cadmium exposure in rats fed low zinc and low copper diets

    SciTech Connect

    Panemangalore, M.; Lee, C.J.; Wilson, K.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of 0, 0.15 and 5.0 ppm Cd in drinking water was determined in 10 week old F-344 rats fed either control - C (30 ppm Zn + 5 ppm Cu), low Zn - LZn (5 ppm Zn), low copper - LCu (0.5 ppm Cu) and low Zn + low Cu - LZn + LCu (5 ppm Zn + 0.5 ppm Cu) diets for 8 weeks. All groups gained about 9 g/wk and neither the decrease in dietary Zn and Cu levels or Cd exposure altered wt gain or food intake (14 g/day). Liver Zn levels averaged about 19 mg/g in all groups and were unaffected by either diet or Cd exposure; but metallothionein (MT) concentration increased from 19..mu..g/g to 40 ..mu..g/g in groups exposed to 5.0 ppm Cd and was lower in rats given LZn and LZn + LCu diet (pless than or equal to0.05). In contrast, kidney Zn levels declined in groups fed LZn + LCu diets, but exposure to Cd maintained Zn levels. Kidney MT concentration fell in response to LZn, LCu and LZn + LCu diets, while exposure to 5.0 ppm Cd elevated MT concentration almost 3 fold, however, LZn and LCu diets decreased the extent of MT induction (pless than or equal to0.05). Kidney Zn levels appear to be more susceptible to modulation by dietary Zn and Cu levels, and oral Cd exposure.

  14. Effects of a 15% orange-pulp diet on tumorigenesis and immune response in rats with colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Kossoy, G; Ben-Hur, H; Stark, A; Zusman, I; Madar, Z

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the feeding of rats with a 15% orange-pulp diet affects the lymphatic system and the tumorigenic response in rats exposed to a high dose of carcinogen. Five-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups fed a control chow diet or the same diet with 15% orange pulp. All rats were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg) weekly for 6 weeks. At 8 months, tumors, spleens and descending colon were taken from each group for analyses. Feeding rats the 15% orange-pulp diet did not reduce the tumor number but modified the number of adenocarcinomas found in the orange-pulp group compared to controls: 66.7% vs. 93.7%. The number of endophytic tumors was also significantly lower in the experimental group: 6.3% vs. 32.3% in controls. DMH affected the size of the splenic structures. The size of follicles and germinal centers decreased significantly in tumor-bearing rats compared to tumor-free rats. This effect was changed in rats fed the orange-pulp diet. In tumor-bearing rats from this group, only the area of the marginal zone decreased and the red pulp increased compared to tumor-free rats. The size of germinal centers significantly increased compared to tumor-bearing rats in controls. The total number of lymphoid cells decreased in germinal centers of spleens obtained from control tumor-bearing rats compared to tumor-free rats. DMH alone significantly increased the total number of cells in the colon mucosa of the rats fed the control diet. In tumor-bearing rats exposed to the carcinogen and fed the 15% orange-pulp diet, the total number of cells and the number of Ki-67+ cells increased in the depth of tumors whereas the number of CD8+ T cells increased in the colon mucosa, at the border of tumors and its depth. The caspase-3 protein a cysteine protease was elevated in tumors from rats fed the orange-pulp diet. Although the 15% orange-pulp diet did not change the number of tumors in the tumor-bearing rats, feeding rats orange

  15. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  16. Severe Calorie Restriction Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Protects Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Dirceu S.; Costa-Pereira, Liliane V.; Santos, Carina S.; Mendes, Bruno F.; Costa, Karine B.; Santos, Cynthia Fernandes F.; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Magalhães, Flávio C.; Esteves, Elizabethe A.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Guatimosim, Sílvia; Dias-Peixoto, Marco F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent studies have proposed that if a severe caloric restriction (SCR) is initiated at the earliest period of postnatal life, it can lead to beneficial cardiac adaptations later on. We investigated the effects of SCR in Wistar rats from birth to adult age on risk factors for cardiac diseases (CD), as well as cardiac function, redox status, and HSP72 content in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: From birth to the age of 3 months, CR50 rats were fed 50% of the food that the ad libitum group (AL) was fed. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight were assessed weekly. In the last week of the SCR protocol, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured and the double product index was calculated. Also, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were decapitated, visceral fat was weighed, and blood and hearts were harvested for biochemical, functional, tissue redox status, and western blot analyzes. Compared to AL, CR50 rats had reduced the main risk factors for CD. Moreover, the FR50 rats showed increased cardiac function both at baseline conditions (45% > AL rats) and during the post-ischemic period (60% > AL rats) which may be explained by a decreased cardiac oxidative stress and increased HSP72 content. Conclusion: SCR from birth to adult age reduced risk factors for CD, increased basal cardiac function and protected hearts from the I/R, possibly by a mechanism involving ROS. PMID:27092082

  17. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improv...

  18. Environmental Enrichment Mitigates Detrimental Cognitive Effects of Ketogenic Diet in Weanling Rats.

    PubMed

    Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures.

  19. Diet-induced changes in gene expression of lactase in rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Goda, T; Yasutake, H; Suzuki, Y; Takase, S; Koldovský, O

    1995-06-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which jejunal lactase activity is modified by carbohydrate and/or fat intake, mRNA levels and the absolute synthesis rate of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) were determined in 6-wk-old rats that were fed either low-starch diets containing long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT, 73% energy as corn oil) or medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT, 66% energy as MCT, 7% energy as corn oil), or a high-starch diet (70% energy as cornstarch) for 7 days. LPH mRNA levels in the jejunum were similar between LCT-fed and MCT-fed rats, but animals fed the high-starch diet exhibited a greater (2x) LPH mRNA level than other groups. The absolute synthesis rate of LPH, estimated by the flooding dose technique using [3H]phenylalanine, was greater (2.4x) in rats fed the high-starch diet than in other groups. A short-term force-feeding experiment revealed that sucrose was able to evoke LPH mRNA levels within 12 h but that a nonmetabolizable sugar (alpha-methylglucoside) was unable to enhance it. By contrast, animals fed the high-LCT diet showed a lower (by 30%) lactase activity than rats fed the low-starch, high-MCT diet, which was accompanied by not only a reduction of immunoreactive LPH in brush-border membranes but also a reduction in lactase activity per unit weight of immunoreactive LPH. These results suggest that both gene expression and posttranslational events of LPH might be influenced by dietary manipulations; carbohydrate intake primarily increases LPH mRNA levels, and LCT accelerates inactivation and/or degradation of lactase.

  20. Characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced in wistar rats following four different diets

    PubMed Central

    Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Khazzaka, Aline; Esseily, Fady; Obeid, Omar; Lahoud-Zouein, May; Younes, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased worldwide in parallel with overnutrition characterized by high-fat and high-carbohydrate intake. Our objective was to establish, in 16 weeks, a model of NAFLD in Wistar pathogen-free rats following four dietary types. MATERIALS/METHODS Forty (6 weeks old) healthy Wistar male rats, weighing an average of 150 g were randomly divided into four groups of ten and assigned a diet with the same quantity (15 g/rat/day), but with different composition. The moderate-fat (MF) group was fed a moderate-fat diet (31.5% fat and 50% carbohydrates), the high-fat (HF) group was fed a fat-rich diet (51% fat), the high-sucrose (HS) group and the high-fructose (HFr) group were fed a carbohydrate-rich diet (61%). The carbohydrate contents of the HS group was composed of 60.3% sucrose while that of the HFr group was composed of 59.3% fructose. RESULTS At week 16, the HF group had the highest percentage of cells enriched in fat (40%) and the highest weight and liver weight (P < 0.05). The HFr group showed significantly higher levels of serum triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin at week 16 as compared to week 1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The 15 g/rat/day diet composed of 51% fat or 61% carbohydrates enriched mainly in fructose may induce characteristics of NAFLD in rats. PMID:26244072

  1. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Wimmer, R D; McDonald, T J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2011-04-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers were fed 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet), to evaluate effects of maternal diet on male offspring behavior. Impaired learning was observed during fixed ratio-1 operant conditioning in RC offspring that required more sessions to learn vs. the CC offspring (9.4±0.8 and 3.8±0.3 sessions, respectively, p<0.05). Performance in fixed ratio-5 conditioning showed the RR (5.4±1.1), CR (4.0±0.8), and RC (5.0±0.8) offspring required more sessions to reach performance criterion than CC offspring (2.5±0.5, p<0.05). Furthermore, motivational effects during the progressive ratio test revealed less responding in the RR (48.1±17), CR (74.7±8.4), and RC (65.9±11.2) for positive reinforcement vs. the CC offspring (131.5±7.5, p<0.05). These findings demonstrate negative developmental programming effects due to perinatal isocaloric low protein diet on learning and motivation behavior with the nutritional challenge in the prenatal period showing more vulnerability in offspring behavior.

  2. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Wimmer, R D; McDonald, T J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2011-04-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers were fed 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet), to evaluate effects of maternal diet on male offspring behavior. Impaired learning was observed during fixed ratio-1 operant conditioning in RC offspring that required more sessions to learn vs. the CC offspring (9.4±0.8 and 3.8±0.3 sessions, respectively, p<0.05). Performance in fixed ratio-5 conditioning showed the RR (5.4±1.1), CR (4.0±0.8), and RC (5.0±0.8) offspring required more sessions to reach performance criterion than CC offspring (2.5±0.5, p<0.05). Furthermore, motivational effects during the progressive ratio test revealed less responding in the RR (48.1±17), CR (74.7±8.4), and RC (65.9±11.2) for positive reinforcement vs. the CC offspring (131.5±7.5, p<0.05). These findings demonstrate negative developmental programming effects due to perinatal isocaloric low protein diet on learning and motivation behavior with the nutritional challenge in the prenatal period showing more vulnerability in offspring behavior. PMID:21078378

  3. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  4. Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 from rat diets containing wheat bran or cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Oace, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Bioavailability of vitamin B-6 (B-6) in the total diet was studied in male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats fed fiber-free (FF) diets with 0.2 or 6.9 mg pyridoxine/kg diet (0-, 2- or 6.9-PYR), 20% wheat bran (WB) diets with 3.9- or 5.5-PYR or 7% cellulose (C) diets with 0- or 2-PYR for 28 d. Body weight gain (mean +/- SEM) with 0-PYR was 70 +/- 9.0 and 81.2 +/- 4.2 g for FF and C, respectively. All other groups gained 170-180 g. Urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), a major B-6 metabolite, for FF groups was 1.31 +/- 0.22, 2.26 +/- 0.28 and 6.39 +/- 1.73 micrograms/24 h, at 0-, 2- and 6.9-PYR, respectively. Rats fed WB diets excreted 4.99 +/- 0.58 and 9.81 +/- 0.76 micrograms/24 h (3.9- and 5.5-PYR, respectively) and those fed C diets excreted 1.46 +/- 0.34 and 2.69 +/- 0.72 micrograms/24 h (0- and 2-PYR). There was increasing turnover and shorter biological half-life of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine (1 mu Ci injected on d 1) with increasing dietary B-6. Growth, 4-PA and /sup 14/C turnover data indicated that WB contributed to B-6 intake of these rats. Cellulose acted as a simple dietary diluent and had no effect on indices of B-6 status. These data suggest that dietary fiber, as cellulose or the indigestible component of wheat bran, does not adversely affect the bioavailability of vitamin B-6.

  5. Type of diet modulates the metabolic response to sleep deprivation in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that sleep loss is associated with an increased risk of obesity and diabetes; however, animal models have failed to produce weight gain under sleep deprivation (SD). Previous studies have suggested that this discrepancy could be due to more extreme SD conditions in experimental animals, their higher resting metabolic rate than that of humans, and the decreased opportunity for animals to ingest high-calorie foods. Thus, our objective was to determine whether diets with different textures/compositions could modify feeding behavior and affect the metabolic repercussions in SD in rats. Methods Three groups of male rats were used: one was designated as control, one was sleep deprived for 96 h by the platform technique (SD-96h) and one was SD-96h followed by a 24-h recovery (rebound). In the first experiment, the animals were fed chow pellets (CPs); in the second, they received high-fat diet and in the third, they were fed a liquid diet (LD). Results We observed that SD induces energy deficits that were related to changes in feeding behavior and affected by the type of diet consumed. Regardless of the diet consumed, SD consistently increased animals' glucagon levels and decreased their leptin and triacylglycerol levels and liver glycogen stores. However, such changes were mostly avoided in the rats on the liquid diet. SD induces a wide range of metabolic and hormonal changes that are strongly linked to the severity of weight loss. Conclusions The LD, but not the CP or high-fat diets, favored energy intake, consequently lessening the energy deficit induced by SD. PMID:22152222

  6. Deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase activity in rat liver after protein restriction.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, G M; von der Decken, A

    1975-01-01

    Rats were fed for 6 days on a diet containing either 3 or 20% high-quality protein. Nuclei were isolated from liver and DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (EC 2.7.7.6) extracted with 1 M-(NH4)2SO4. The proteins were then precipitated with 3.5 M-(NH4)2SO4 and after dialysis applied to a DEAE-Sephadex column. The column was developed with a gradient of (NH4)2SO4. Polymerase I separated well from alpha-amanitin-sensitive polymerase II. The enzyme activities were compared between the two dietary groups. Rats that had received 3% protein showed a lower polymerase I activity per g wet wt. of liver, per mg of DNA and per mg of protein. Polymerase II was lower in activity per g wet wt. of liver and per mg of DNA, but was higher per mg of protein. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretograms showed a higher proportion of contaminating proteins in polymerase II fractions isolated from 20%-protein-fed rats. The data explain the lower activity obtained per mg of protein in these rats. It is concluded that a decrease in dietary protein content from 20 to 3% induces a fall in content and specific activity of RNA polymerase I and II in liver. PMID:1156400

  7. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  8. Effects of feeding tryptophan-limiting diets on the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, K; Shimada, H; Kondo, T

    1996-10-01

    We investigated the effects of feeding various types of nicotinic acid-free, tryptophan-limiting diets on the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin in rats. Various tryptophan-limiting diets were made by adding zein, gelatin, glycine, threonine, methionine, or glycine + threonine + methionine to a nicotinic acid-free, 9% casein diet. When the rats were fed with the tryptophan-limiting diets, the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin was markedly decreased. However, the ratio recovered after the addition of tryptophan to the tryptophan-limiting diets. These results clearly prove that the conversion was lowest when the rats were fed with the tryptophan-limiting diets. Therefore, we think that the pellagragenic factor of corn is simply due to a low content of tryptophan, but the adverse effect is due to a low conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin.

  9. Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats Causes Microvascular and Neural Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Eric P.; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Oltman, Christine L.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective was to determine the effect of diet induced obesity (DIO) on microvascular and neural function. Methods Rats were fed a standard or high fat diet for up to 32 weeks. Measurements were performed of vasodilation in epineurial arterioles by videomicroscopy, endoneurial blood flow by hydrogen clearance, nerve conduction velocity by electrical stimulation, size-frequency distribution of myelinated fibers of the sciatic nerve, intraepidermal nerve fiber density using confocal microscopy and thermal nociception using the Hargreaves method. Results Rats fed a high fat diet for 32 weeks developed sensory neuropathy as indicated by slowing of sensory nerve conduction velocity and thermal hypoalgesia. Motor nerve conduction velocity and endoneurial blood flow were not impaired. Mean axonal diameter of myelinated fibers of the sciatic nerve was unchanged in high fat fed rats compared to control. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density was significantly reduced in high fat fed rats. Vascular relaxation to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was decreased and expression of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) increased in epineurial arterioles of rats fed a high fat diet. In contrast, insulin-mediated vascular relaxation was increased in epineurial arterioles. NEP activity was significantly increased in the skin of the hindpaw. Markers of oxidative stress were increased in the aorta and serum of high fat fed rats but not in epineurial arterioles. Conclusion Chronic obesity causes microvascular and neural dysfunction. This is associated with increased expression of NEP but not oxidative stress in epineurial arterioles. NEP degrades vasoactive peptides which may explain the decrease in microvascular function. PMID:20503263

  10. Low-fiber diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; Surgery - low fiber diet ... of: Irritable bowel syndrome Diverticulitis Crohn disease Ulcerative colitis Sometimes people are put on this diet after ...

  11. Effects of diet and fluoride on early phases of odontogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, I; Adamowicz-Klepalska, B

    2000-01-01

    The influence of diet and fluoride on odontogenesis in rats was investigated. 20 foetuses, 20 days old, were divided into four groups. The control group was fed with the standard diet and drank water with 0.16 mg F/l. The second, third and fourth groups were fed with the deficit, experimental diet and drank distilled water with 10 and 110 mg of natrium fluoride per litre or without fluoride. In each group, the observed tooth-bud development assumed different stages. The less advanced cap stage assumed the tooth-bud in the group fed with the deficit diet and given distilled water without fluoride. In the remaining groups, the development of observed first molars in mandible assumed the different level of its advancement in the same stage of odontogenesis--bell stage.

  12. Iron excess disturbs metabolic status and relative gonad mass in rats on high fat, fructose, and salt diets.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Szulińska, Monika

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic and physiological changes in rats fed a diet high in fat, fructose, and salt, and with excess iron level. Mineral status was also estimated. Wistar rats were assigned to groups fed either a standard control diet (C) or a diet high in fat, fructose, and salt. The noncontrol diets contained either normal (M) or high level (MFe) of iron. After 6 weeks, the length and weight of the rats were measured, and the animals were euthanized. The kidneys and gonads were collected, and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of insulin, nitric oxide, and iron were measured. The iron, zinc, copper, and calcium concentrations of tissues were determined. It was found that the M diet led to a significant increase in the relative kidney mass of the rats compared with the control group. Among the rats fed the M diet, markedly higher serum level of iron and lower levels of zinc and copper were observed in tissues, while significantly higher calcium levels were found in the gonads. The MFe diet resulted in decreased obesity index, insulin level, and nitric oxide serum concentration in the rats, when compared with both the M and C diets. The high iron level in the modified diet increased the relative mass of the gonads. The excess iron level in the diet disturbed the zinc, copper, and calcium status of tissues. The decrease in insulin and nitric oxide in rats fed the diet high in iron, fat, fructose, and salt was associated with disorders of zinc, copper, and calcium status, as well as with an increase in the relative mass of the gonads.

  13. Forty percent methionine restriction decreases mitochondrial oxygen radical production and leak at complex I during forward electron flow and lowers oxidative damage to proteins and mitochondrial DNA in rat kidney and brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Caro, Pilar; Gomez, Jose; Sanchez, Ines; Naudi, Alba; Ayala, Victoria; López-Torres, Monica; Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    Eighty percent dietary methionine restriction (MetR) in rodents (without calorie restriction), like dietary restriction (DR), increases maximum longevity and strongly decreases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. Eighty percent MetR also lowers the degree of membrane fatty acid unsaturation in rat liver. Mitochondrial ROS generation and the degree of fatty acid unsaturation are the only two known factors linking oxidative stress with longevity in vertebrates. However, it is unknown whether 40% MetR, the relevant methionine restriction degree to clarify the mechanisms of action of standard (40%) DR can reproduce these effects in mitochondria from vital tissues of strong relevance for aging. Here we study the effect of 40% MetR on ROS production and oxidative stress in rat brain and kidney mitochondria. Male Wistar rats were fed during 7 weeks semipurified diets differing only in their methionine content: control or 40% MetR diets. It was found that 40% MetR decreases mitochondrial ROS production and percent free radical leak (by 62-71%) at complex I during forward (but not during reverse) electron flow in both brain and kidney mitochondria, increases the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of brain mitochondria, lowers oxidative damage to kidney mitochondrial DNA, and decreases specific markers of mitochondrial protein oxidation, lipoxidation, and glycoxidation in both tissues. Forty percent MetR also decreased the amount of respiratory complexes I, III, and IV and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in brain mitochondria and complex IV in kidney mitochondria, without changing the degree of mitochondrial membrane fatty acid unsaturation. Forty percent MetR, differing from 80% MetR, did not inhibit the increase in rat body weight. These changes are very similar to the ones previously found during dietary and protein restriction in rats. We conclude that methionine is the only dietary factor responsible for the decrease in

  14. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  15. Isoflavone and protein constituents of lactic acid-fermented soy milk combine to prevent dyslipidemia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-12-10

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  16. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  17. A carbohydrate-restricted diet alters gut peptides and adiposity signals in men and women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew R; Miller, Carla K; Ulbrecht, Jan S; Mauger, Joanna L; Parker-Klees, Lynn; Gutschall, Melissa Davis; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Covasa, Mihai

    2007-08-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets have been shown to enhance satiation- and other homeostatic-signaling pathways controlling food intake and energy balance, which may serve to reduce the incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study was designed as a correlational, observational investigation of the effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on weight loss and body fat reduction and associated changes in circulating leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in overweight/obese patients (4 men and 16 women) with metabolic syndrome. Subjects received clinical instruction on the initiation and maintenance of the commercial South Beach Diet, consisting of 2 phases: Phase I (initial 2 wk of the study) and Phase II (remaining 10 wk). Participants showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in body weight (93.5 +/- 3.6 kg vs. 88.3 +/- 3.4 kg), BMI (33.9 +/- 1.3 kg/m(2) vs. 32.0 +/- 1.3 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (112.8 +/- 2.8 cm vs. 107.7 +/- 3.0 cm), and total percent body fat (40.2 +/- 1.5% vs. 39.2 +/- 1.5%) by study completion. Plasma fasting insulin and leptin concentrations decreased significantly from baseline concentrations (139.1 +/- 12.2 pmol/L and 44.1 +/- 4.5 microg/L, respectively) by the end of Phase I (98.6 +/- 2.6 pmol/L and 33.3 +/- 4.1 microg/L, respectively). Plasma fasting ghrelin concentrations significantly increased from baseline (836.7 +/- 66.7 ng/L) by Phase II (939.9 +/- 56.8 ng/L). The postprandial increase in plasma CCK concentrations (difference in plasma CCK concentrations from fasting to postprandial) after Phase I (2.4 +/- 0.3 pmol/L) and Phase II (2.5 +/- 0.4 pmol/L) was significantly greater than the postprandial increase at baseline (1.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/L). Collectively, these results suggest that in patients with metabolic syndrome, improved adiposity signaling and increased postprandial CCK concentrations may act together as a possible compensatory control mechanism to maintain low intakes and facilitate weight loss

  18. Contaminant and nutrient concentrations of natural ingredient rat and mouse diet used in chemical toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Rao, G N; Knapka, J J

    1987-08-01

    The NIH-07 open formula natural ingredient rat and mouse ration is the standard diet for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity studies conducted for the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Contaminant and nutrient concentrations were determined in 2 to 94 lots of this diet used in the NTP toxicology studies. All nutrient concentrations were equivalent to or greater than the requirements for rats and mice as set forth by the National Research Council. Aflatoxins, Hg, chlorinated hydrocarbons except methoxychlor, organophosphates except malathion, estrogenic activity, and Salmonella sp. were not present at the detectable levels. Fluorine, As, Cd, Pb, Se, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosomorpholine, nitrate, nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, ethylene dibromide, methoxychlor, malathion, and trypsin inhibitor activity were present at or above the detectable levels. Five lots of diet had nitrosamine content of 100 to 273 ppb and 7 lots had 2.08 to 3.37 ppm of Pb. All other lots of NIH-07 diet used for NTP toxicology studies contained low levels of the contaminants. After determination of the contaminant concentrations in the 94 lots of diet and the contaminant concentrations in natural ingredients used in formulating NIH-07 diet, maximum allowable levels of contaminants were established and a flexible scoring system for acceptability of each lot of diet for chemical toxicology studies was developed. By prescreening ingredients such as fish meal for heavy metals and nitrosamines, and applying the flexible scoring system proposed, more than 95% of the lots of NIH-07 diet produced during the last 3 years had scores of greater than or equal to 95 out of 100 points and were considered acceptable for toxicology studies.

  19. Cocoa Flavonoid-Enriched Diet Modulates Systemic and Intestinal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Adult Lewis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that a diet containing 10% cocoa, a rich source of flavonoids, has immunomodulatory effects on rats and, among others effects, is able to attenuate the immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in both systemic and intestinal compartments. The purpose of the present study was focused on investigating whether these effects were attributed exclusively to the flavonoid content or to other compounds present in cocoa. To this end, eight-week-old Lewis rats were fed, for two weeks, either a standard diet or three isoenergetic diets containing increasing proportions of cocoa flavonoids from different sources: one with 0.2% polyphenols from conventional defatted cocoa, and two others with 0.4% and 0.8% polyphenols, respectively, from non-fermented cocoa. Diet intake and body weight were monitored and fecal samples were obtained throughout the study to determine fecal pH, IgA, bacteria proportions, and IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, IgG and IgM concentrations in serum samples collected during the study were quantified. At the end of the dietary intervention no clear changes of serum IgG or IgM concentrations were quantified, showing few effects of cocoa polyphenol diets at the systemic level. However, in the intestine, all cocoa polyphenol-enriched diets attenuated the age-related increase of both fecal IgA and IgA-coated bacteria, as well as the proportion of bacteria in feces. As these effects were not dependent on the dose of polyphenol present in the diets, other compounds and/or the precise polyphenol composition present in cocoa raw material used for the diets could be key factors in this effect. PMID:23966108

  20. Facilitation and feedback in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis during food restriction in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Belenguer, S; Oliver, C; Mormède, P

    1993-12-01

    After 4 weeks of food restriction to 50% of ad libitum intake in rats, plasma corticosterone levels were increased, without any change in adrenal weight, and with no evidence of sympathetic nervous system activation (as measured by Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Phenylethanolamine N-Methyl Transferase activities in the adrenal gland). Plasma corticosterone levels were normalized wih the addition of 35% of the calories as sugar. The adrenocortical axis activity was therefore investigated in more detail (nycthemeral cycle of corticosterone levels, ACTH and corticosterone response to a CRF challenge) in ad libitum fed rats and in animals fed 85% or 50% of the intake of the control animals, just before switching the lights off in order to maintain the diurnal rhythm of food intake. Food restriction to 85% did not change mean plasma corticosterone levels but sharpened the peak of corticosterone measured in the evening, indicating that the adrenocortical axis is more sensitive to the endogenous signals responsible for its diurnal cycle of activity. Indeed, the ACTH response to CRF was also increased. A 50% food restriction regimen increased mean corticosterone levels and attenuated the day/night difference, with high corticosterone levels maintained throughout the day. However, the ACTH response to CRF was not different from that measured in ad libitum fed rats, but the corticosterone response was lower, confirming that the adrenal gland is hyposensitive to ACTH. The results are discussed in terms of the balance between inhibiting/activating mechanisms and endocrine/neural influences at each level of the hypothalamo-hypophyso-adrenal axis, depending on the level of food deprivation.

  1. Effects of energy restriction and wheel running on mammary carcinogenesis and host systemic factors in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin; Zacher, Jarrod H; Neil, Elizabeth S; McGinley, John N; Thompson, Henry J

    2012-03-01

    Limiting energy availability via diet or physical activity has health benefits; however, it is not known whether these interventions have similar effects on the development of cancer. Two questions were addressed as follows: (i) Does limiting energy availability by increasing physical activity have the same effect on mammary carcinogenesis as limiting caloric intake? and (ii) Are host systemic factors, implicated as risk biomarkers for breast cancer, similarly affected by these interventions? Female Sprague Dawley rats were injected with 50-mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea per kg body weight at 21 days of age and randomized to one of five groups (30 rats per group) as follows: (i) sham running wheel control; (ii) restricted fed to 85% of the sham control; (iii and iv) voluntary running in a motorized activity wheel (37 m/min) to a maximum of 3,500 m/d or 1,750 m/d; and (v) sedentary ad libitum fed control with no access to a running wheel. The three energetics interventions inhibited the carcinogenic response, reducing cancer incidence (P = 0.01), cancer multiplicity (P < 0.001), and cancer burden (P < 0.001) whereas prolonging cancer latency (P = 0.004) although differences among energetics interventions were not significant. Of the plasma biomarkers associated with the development of cancer, the energetics interventions reduced bioavailable insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, interleukin-6, serum amyloid protein, TNF-α, and leptin and increased IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and adiponectin. Plasma-fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, estradiol, and progesterone were unaffected. The plasma biomarkers of greatest value in predicting the carcinogenic response were adiponectin > IGF-1/IGFBP-3 > IGFBP-3 > leptin > IGF-1.

  2. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Karine; Sicotte, Benoit; Béland, Mélanie; Bhat, Menakshi; Gaboury, Louis; Couture, Réjean; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days), rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2), apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9) and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  3. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Bibeau, Karine; Sicotte, Benoit; Béland, Mélanie; Bhat, Menakshi; Gaboury, Louis; Couture, Réjean; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days), rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2), apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9) and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia. PMID:26727492

  4. Metyrapone Blocks Maternal Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Female Rat Offspring Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yishi; Corral, Julia; Saraswat, Aditi; Husain, Sumair; Dhar, Ankita; Sakurai, Reiko; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) during pregnancy affects pulmonary surfactant production in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring through unknown mechanisms. Since pulmonary surfactant production is regulated by maternal and fetal corticosteroid levels, both known to be increased in IUGR pregnancies, we hypothesized that metyrapone (MTP), a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, would block the effects of MFR on surfactant production in the offspring. Three groups of pregnant rat dams were used (1) control dams fed ad libitum; (2) MFR (50% reduction in calories) from days 10 to 22 of gestation; and (3) MFR + MTP in drinking water (0.5 mg/mL), days 11 to 22 of gestation. At 5 months, the MFR offspring weighed significantly more, had reduced alveolar number, increased septal thickness, and decreased surfactant protein and phospholipid synthesis. These MFR-induced effects were normalized by the antiglucocorticoid MTP, suggesting that the stress of MFR causes hypercorticoidism, altering lung structure and function in adulthood. PMID:24023031

  5. Corticosterone administration in drinking water decreases high-fat diet intake but not preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2016-04-15

    One of the mechanisms through which regular exercise contributes to weight maintenance could be by reducing intake and preference for high-fat (HF) diets. Indeed, we previously demonstrated that wheel-running rats robustly reduced HF diet intake and preference. The reduced HF diet preference by wheel running can be so profound that the rats consumed only the chow diet and completely avoided the HF diet. Because previous research indicates that exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases circulating levels of corticosterone, this study tested the hypothesis that elevation of circulating corticosterone is involved in wheel running-induced reduction in HF diet preference in rats.Experiment 1 measured plasma corticosterone levels under sedentary and wheel-running conditions in the two-diet-choice (high-carbohydrate chow vs. HF) feeding regimen. The results revealed that plasma corticosterone is significantly increased and positively correlated with the levels of running in wheel-running rats with two-diet choice.Experiments 2 and 3 determined whether elevated corticosterone without wheel running is sufficient to reduce HF diet intake and preference. Corticosterone was elevated by adding it to the drinking water. Compared with controls, corticosterone-drinking rats had reduced HF diet intake and body weight, but the HF diet preference between groups did not differ. The results of this study support a role for elevated corticosterone on the reduced HF diet intake during wheel running. The elevation of corticosterone alone, however, is not sufficient to produce a robust reduction in HF diet preference.

  6. The eicosapentaenoic to docosahexaenoic acid ratio of diets affects the pathogenesis of arthritis in Lew/SSN rats.

    PubMed

    Volker, D H; FitzGerald, P E; Garg, M L

    2000-03-01

    Dietary-induced changes in tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids modify inflammatory reactions through changes in the synthesis of lipid and peptide mediators of inflammation. Four semipurified 20% fat diets, based on beef tallow (BT), safflower oil (SFO), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were provided. The DHA and EPA ratios of the (n-3) fatty acid-based diets were 1.1 and 3.4, respectively. The effect of prefeeding diets differing in EPA to DHA ratios prior to the induction of streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis in female Lew/SSN rats was examined. Weanling rats were fed diets for 5 wk before arthritis induction and 5 wk post-arthritis induction. Footpad thickness, hock circumference, plasma and macrophage fatty acids and histological assessment were compared. There were no differences in food intake and final body weights among the groups. Footpad inflammation, reported as percentage change (adjusted for growth) was greatest for rats fed the BT-based diet, intermediate in those fed the SFO-based diet and least for the rats fed the EPA- and DHA-based diets (P < 0.05). Macrophage phospholipids revealed cellular incorporation of EPA and DHA from the fish-oil based diets which modified lipid and peptide mediators of inflammation. Histological sections of rat hocks ranked by severity of arthritis-related changes suggested that the SFO- and EPA-based diets were more successful in ameliorating the destructive arthritic phase in hock joints than the BT- and DHA-based diets (P = 0.09) in this model of arthritis. The course of SCW-induced arthritis can be altered by diet-induced changes in macrophage fatty acid composition. The EPA-based diet is more effective in suppression of inflammation than the DHA-based diet.

  7. Corticosterone administration in drinking water decreases high-fat diet intake but not preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2016-04-15

    One of the mechanisms through which regular exercise contributes to weight maintenance could be by reducing intake and preference for high-fat (HF) diets. Indeed, we previously demonstrated that wheel-running rats robustly reduced HF diet intake and preference. The reduced HF diet preference by wheel running can be so profound that the rats consumed only the chow diet and completely avoided the HF diet. Because previous research indicates that exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases circulating levels of corticosterone, this study tested the hypothesis that elevation of circulating corticosterone is involved in wheel running-induced reduction in HF diet preference in rats.Experiment 1 measured plasma corticosterone levels under sedentary and wheel-running conditions in the two-diet-choice (high-carbohydrate chow vs. HF) feeding regimen. The results revealed that plasma corticosterone is significantly increased and positively correlated with the levels of running in wheel-running rats with two-diet choice.Experiments 2 and 3 determined whether elevated corticosterone without wheel running is sufficient to reduce HF diet intake and preference. Corticosterone was elevated by adding it to the drinking water. Compared with controls, corticosterone-drinking rats had reduced HF diet intake and body weight, but the HF diet preference between groups did not differ. The results of this study support a role for elevated corticosterone on the reduced HF diet intake during wheel running. The elevation of corticosterone alone, however, is not sufficient to produce a robust reduction in HF diet preference. PMID:26818055

  8. Effect of food deprivation and maintenance diet composition on fat preference and acceptance in rats.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Z S; Synowski, S J

    High-fat diets typically elicit greater kcal intake and/or weight gain than low-fat diets. Palatability, caloric density, and the unique postingestive effects of fat have each been shown to contribute to high-fat diet hyperphagia. Because long-term intake reflects the sum of many individual eating episodes (meals), it is important to investigate factors that may modulate fat intake at a meal. The present studies used high-fat (hi-fat) and high-carbohydrate (hi-carb) liquid diets (both 2.3 kcal/mL) to assess the effect of hunger level (0 versus 24-h food deprivation) and fat content of the maintenance diet (12 versus 48%) on fat preference (when a choice among foods is offered in a two-bottle test), and acceptance (only one food offered) in male rats. Preference for hi-fat relative to hi-carb (two-bottle test) was enhanced by 24-h food deprivation, and by a high-fat maintenance diet. In contrast, neither deprivation nor maintenance diet composition influenced relative meal size (one-bottle test) of hi-fat and hi-carb: irrespective of test conditions, meal size of hi-fat was bigger than meal size of hi-carb. PMID:10627086

  9. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals.

  10. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  11. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism. PMID:26301251

  12. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (P<.05) higher moisture contents than the corn starch-based diet (control). All the accession-based diets of C. esculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals. PMID:21554124

  13. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-05-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the catabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formation from (1-/sup 14/C)- and (2-/sup 14/C)glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate.

  14. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko; Murat, Dogru; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo; Shimmura, Shigeto; Shinmura, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  15. Calorigenic effect of adrenaline in rats under conditions of restricted motor activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaszewska, L.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies, it was demonstrated that long term restricted motor activity in rats induces a decrease in body weight, an increase in release of adrenaline, and a decrease in the release of noradrenaline with the urine, as well as a reduction in activity of the thymus gland and level of thyroxin in the blood. At the same time, a decrease was found in the internal body temperature that was accompanied by an increase in the rate of metabolism in the state of rest. An investigation is presented which attempts to clarify whether the calorigenic effect of adrenaline under conditions of increased metabolism in the period of immobility is exposed to changes.

  16. Perinatal thiamine restriction affects central GABA and glutamate concentrations and motor behavior of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita Hélen; de Freitas-Silva, Danielle Marra; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Pereira, Sílvia Rejane Castanheira; Ribeiro, Ângela Maria

    2016-03-23

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of perinatal thiamine deficiency, from the 11th day of gestation until the 5th day of lactation, on motor behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult rat offspring, using 3-month-old, adult, male Wistar rats. All rats were submitted to motor tests, using the rotarod and paw print tasks. After behavioral tests, their thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord were dissected for glutamate and GABA quantifications by high performance liquid chromatography. The thiamine-restricted mothers (RM) group showed a significant reduction of time spent on the rotarod at 25 rpm and an increase in hind-base width. A significant decrease of glutamate concentration in the cerebellum and an increase of GABA concentrations in the thalamus were also observed. For the offspring from control mothers (CM) group there were significant correlations between thalamic GABA concentrations and both rotarod performance and average hind-base width. In addition, for rats from the RM group a significant correlation between stride length and cerebellar GABA concentration was found. These results show that the deficiency of thiamine during an early developmental period affects certain motor behavior parameters and GABA and glutamate levels in specific brain areas. Hence, a thiamine deficiency episode during an early developmental period can induce motor impairments and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter changes that are persistent and detectable in later periods of life. PMID:26836141

  17. Effects of a high fat diet on bone of growing rats. Correlations between visceral fat, adiponectin and bone mass density

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Gerard; Cavalie, Helian; Ebal, Edmond; Michaux, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated some bone parameters (bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area) in growing rats fed with a high fat diet. Correlations between bone and body composition parameters are reported. Two groups of Wistar male rats (35 days old, body mass 80 ± 6 g) were used. Water and food were given "ad libitum" during 10 weeks. Sixteen rats (L) were given a lipid enriched diet and were compared to 16 rats (S) fed with a standard diet. Body composition and bone parameters were assessed using DXA. Results indicated that L rats had lower body mass, lean body mass; fat mass was not different between the two groups. Bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area of L rats were lower compared with S rats. Significant correlations were noted between body composition, adiponectin and bone parameters. High fat diet intake during the growing period has deleterious effects on bone parameters in rats. This study confirms in growing rats that a high fat diet is pathogenic, including bone metabolism. PMID:18442361

  18. Postnatal maternal separation modifies the response to an obesogenic diet in adulthood in rats

    PubMed Central

    Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Milagro, Fermín I.; Ramírez, María J.; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Campión, Javier

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY An early-life adverse environment has been implicated in the susceptibility to different diseases in adulthood, such as mental disorders, diabetes and obesity. We analyzed the effects of a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 35 days in adult female rats that had experienced 180 minutes daily of maternal separation (MS) during lactancy. Changes in the obesity phenotype, biochemical profile, levels of glucocorticoid metabolism biomarkers, and the expression of different obesity- and glucocorticoid-metabolism-related genes were analyzed in periovaric adipose tissue. HFS intake increased body weight, adiposity and serum leptin levels, whereas MS decreased fat pad masses but only in rats fed an HFS diet. MS reduced insulin resistance markers but only in chow-fed rats. Corticosterone and estradiol serum levels did not change in this experimental model. A multiple gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of adiponutrin (Adpn) was increased owing to MS, and an interaction between HFS diet intake and MS was observed in the mRNA levels of leptin (Lep) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a). These results revealed that early-life stress affects the response to an HFS diet later in life, and that this response can lead to phenotype and transcriptomic changes. PMID:22773756

  19. Lycopene Improves Diet-Mediated Recuperation in Rat Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Piña-Zentella, Rosa María; Rosado, Jorge L; Gallegos-Corona, Marco A; Madrigal-Pérez, Luis Alberto; García, Olga P; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the synergic effect of lycopene (LYC) treatment with a dietary control in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model induced with a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during 4 weeks with a normal diet (ND·4w) or an HFD (HFD·4w) to produce an NAFLD model. Then, rats from the ND·4w group continued during 4 weeks with the same diet (ND·8w), and rats from HFD were fed during 4 weeks with an ND (HFD·4w+ND·4w) or an ND plus LYC (HFD·4w+ND+LYC·4w). LYC (20 mg/kg) was administered daily by gavage. ND and ND+LYC diets partially reverted the following alterations due to HFD: liver weight, serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL), hepatic total cholesterol (TC), and catalytic activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as macroscopic and microscopic images of livers. A higher recuperation to reach normality was obtained with ND+LYC in: liver weight, hepatic TC, serum LDL, and, in some instances, macroscopic and microscopic images of livers. Failures to recovery with both NDs were observed for malondialdehyde level and serum aspartate aminotransferase activity. Taken together, the results from this study suggest the potentially protective role of LYC against NAFLD; however, more clinical trials are needed to support this idea. PMID:27214602

  20. Cognitive differences between Sprague-Dawley rats selectively bred for sensitivity or resistance to diet induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Sunam; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Myers, Dean A

    2016-09-15

    Epidemiological studies have shown strong correlations between high fat diets, diet-induced obesity and cognitive impairment, primarily focusing on cognitive defects after the onset of obesity. A remaining question is whether cognitive impairment precedes obesity in individuals metabolically prone to diet-induced obesity. The inbred diet-induced obesity sensitive (DIO) and resistant (DR) strains of Sprague-Dawley rats serve as models for human polygenic obesity. DIO rats become overweight on a standard rat chow and have metabolic symptoms similar to overweight humans. We hypothesized that cognitive impairment pre-exists in adult male DIO rats prior to exposure to high fat diet. Male DIO and DR rats were fed a standard rat chow diet from 4 through 20 weeks of age and subjected to the Morris water maze at 12 weeks of age. At 5 and 20 weeks of age, brains of DIO and DR males were examined for indices of inflammation, lipid peroxidation and neuroproliferation. DIO rats showed significant memory impairment on water maze and increased indices of hippocampal inflammation at 20 weeks of age compared to DR rats. At 5 weeks of age, DIO rats exhibited significantly less neural progenitor cell (NPCs) proliferation in the dentate gyrus and increased hippocampal lipid peroxidation compared to DR rats. Therefore, we conclude that DIO rats exhibit early post-weaning indices of hippocampal inflammation, lipid peroxidation and decreased NPC proliferation, as well as impaired hippocampal dependent memory by early adulthood suggesting that inherent metabolic differences predispose the DIO strain to cognitive deficit prior to exposure to high fat diet and/or obesity. PMID:27173431

  1. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats

    PubMed Central

    Goodspeed, Danielle; Seferovic, Maxim D.; Holland, William; Mcknight, Robert A.; Summers, Scott A.; Branch, D. Ware; Lane, Robert H.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) confers heritable alterations in DNA methylation, rendering risk of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because CpG methylation is coupled to intake of essential nutrients along the one-carbon pathway, we reasoned that essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) may abrogate IUGR-conferred multigenerational MetS. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation causing IUGR in F1. Among the F2 generation, IUGR lineage rats were underweight at birth (6.7 vs. 8.0 g, P < 0.0001) and obese by adulthood (p160: 613 vs. 510 g; P < 0.0001). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies revealed increased central fat mass (Δ+40 g), accompanied by dyslipidemic (>30% elevated, P < 0.05) serum triglycerides (139 mg/dl), very-LDLs (27.8 mg/dl), and fatty acids (632 µM). Hyperglycemic-euglycemic clamp studies and glucose tolerance testing revealed insulin resistance. Conversely, IUGR lineage ENS-fed rats did not manifest MetS, with significantly lower body weight (p160: 410 g), >5-fold less central fat mass, normal hepatic glucose efflux, and >70% reduced circulating triglycerides and very-LDLs compared with IUGR control-fed F2 offspring (P < 0.01). Moreover, increased methylation of the IGF-1 P2 transcriptional start site among IUGR lineage F2 offspring was reversed in ENS (P < 0.04). This is an initial demonstration that supplementation along the one-carbon pathway abrogates adult morbidity and associated epigenomic modifications of IGF-1 in a rodent model of multigenerational MetS.—Goodspeed, D., Seferovic, M. D., Holland, W., Mcknight, R. A., Summers, S. A., Branch, D. W., Lane, R. H., Aagaard, K. M. Essential nutrient supplementation prevents heritable metabolic disease in multigenerational intrauterine growth-restricted rats. PMID:25395450

  2. Fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells in ovariectomised rats exposed to ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Bobowiec, R; Wojcik, M; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Tusinska, E

    2013-02-01

    The discrepancy about the role of estrogens in hepatic fibrogenesis and lack of studies addressed of ketogenic diet (KD) on hepatic stellate cells (HSC), prompted us to investigate the activity of HSC in control, KD- and thioacetamide (TAA)-administrated rats with different plasma concentration of estradiol (E2). HSC were isolated by the collagenase perfusion methods and separated by the Percoll gradient centrifugation. After the 4(th) and 8(th) day of incubation, lysates of HSC and the media were collected for further analysis. The HSC derived from KD-rats released remarkably more transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 than cells obtained from animals fed with a standard diet. The ovariectomy of KD-rats markedly intensified the secretion of this fibrogenic cytokine on the 8(th) day of incubation (201.33 ±1 7.15 pg/ml). In HSC of rats exposed to E2, the TGF-β1 concentration did not exceed 157 ± 34.39 pg/ml. In respect to the collagen type I, the HSC obtained from ovariectomised KD-rats released an augmented amount of this ECM protein after the 8(th) day of culture (1.83 ± 0.14 U/ml). In the same time, higher quantities of ASMA appeared in the KD rats (1.41 ± 0.3 pg/mg protein). Exposition of rats to E2 did not markedly decrease the amount of ASMA. In summary, KD was able to induce morphological and functional changes in HSC, especially derived from rats deprived of ovarian estrogens. However, the preservation of E2 in ovariectomised rats didn't substantially alter the activation of HSC.

  3. Diet restriction in migraine, based on IgG against foods: A clinical double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Kadriye; Ertaş, Mustafa; Orhan, Elif Kocasoy; Üstay, Didem Kanca; Lieners, Camille; Baykan, Betül

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that specific foods trigger migraine attacks in some patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of diet restriction, based on IgG antibodies against food antigens on the course of migraine attacks in this randomised, double blind, cross-over, headache-diary based trial on 30 patients diagnosed with migraine without aura. Methods: Following a 6-week baseline, IgG antibodies against 266 food antigens were detected by ELISA. Then, the patients were randomised to a 6-week diet either excluding or including specific foods with raised IgG antibodies, individually. Following a 2-week diet-free interval after the first diet period, the same patients were given the opposite 6-week diet (provocation diet following elimination diet or vice versa). Patients and their physicians were blinded to IgG test results and the type of diet (provocation or elimination). Primary parameters were number of headache days and migraine attack count. Of 30 patients, 28 were female and 2 were male, aged 19–52 years (mean, 35 ± 10 years). Results: The average count of reactions with abnormally high titre was 24 ± 11 against 266 foods. Compared to baseline, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of headache days (from 10.5 ± 4.4 to 7.5 ± 3.7; P < 0.001) and number of migraine attacks (from 9.0 ± 4.4 to 6.2 ± 3.8; P < 0.001) in the elimination diet period. Conclusion: This is the first randomised, cross-over study in migraineurs, showing that diet restriction based on IgG antibodies is an effective strategy in reducing the frequency of migraine attacks. PMID:20647174

  4. [Effect of phytosterols and alkylglycerols in the diet on morphometric indicators of liver structure in rats].

    PubMed

    Gadzhieva, Z M; Kulakova, S N

    2014-01-01

    In the experiment where rats were fed a diet with phytosterols and alkylglycerols for 1,5 months, changes were observed in morphometric parameters in the liver structure in rats. In animals, which were fed a diet with 20% replacement of the fat component (lard) on phytosterols (stanols derived from rapeseed and conifers), blood circulatory disorders of the liver were observed. There was dilatation of the lumens of the central veins and hepatic veins in the interlobular vascular bundles. On the periphery of the lobules, around the vascular bundles, abundant clusters of lymphocytes were revealed. In both groups of rats fed a diet containing various amounts of alkylglycerols obtained from Berrytenthis magister liver (7 and 50 mg per day) and lard as a fat component, in peripheral areas of hepatic lobules the reticuloendothelial cell count was increased as compared with the control group of animals fed a diet containing as fatty component a mixture of lard and sunflower oil (1:1). These cells contained polysaccharides in the cytoplasm and formed thin bands along the hepatic tubules. In addition, in all groups of rats receiving diets with lipid components (both stanols and alkylglycerols), the occurrence of reticuloendothelium proliferation foci in the middle and central zones of liver lobules were 1,8, 2,3 and 2,1 fold higher than in control group. As compared to control animals, the foci in the above groups contained 1,8, 1,7 and 1,6 fold more cells. Furthermore, the number of animals with reticuloendothelium proliferation foci in the groups receiving investigated lipid components was also increased by 2 fold, as compared to controls.

  5. [Effect of phytosterols and alkylglycerols in the diet on morphometric indicators of liver structure in rats].

    PubMed

    Gadzhieva, Z M; Kulakova, S N

    2014-01-01

    In the experiment where rats were fed a diet with phytosterols and alkylglycerols for 1,5 months, changes were observed in morphometric parameters in the liver structure in rats. In animals, which were fed a diet with 20% replacement of the fat component (lard) on phytosterols (stanols derived from rapeseed and conifers), blood circulatory disorders of the liver were observed. There was dilatation of the lumens of the central veins and hepatic veins in the interlobular vascular bundles. On the periphery of the lobules, around the vascular bundles, abundant clusters of lymphocytes were revealed. In both groups of rats fed a diet containing various amounts of alkylglycerols obtained from Berrytenthis magister liver (7 and 50 mg per day) and lard as a fat component, in peripheral areas of hepatic lobules the reticuloendothelial cell count was increased as compared with the control group of animals fed a diet containing as fatty component a mixture of lard and sunflower oil (1:1). These cells contained polysaccharides in the cytoplasm and formed thin bands along the hepatic tubules. In addition, in all groups of rats receiving diets with lipid components (both stanols and alkylglycerols), the occurrence of reticuloendothelium proliferation foci in the middle and central zones of liver lobules were 1,8, 2,3 and 2,1 fold higher than in control group. As compared to control animals, the foci in the above groups contained 1,8, 1,7 and 1,6 fold more cells. Furthermore, the number of animals with reticuloendothelium proliferation foci in the groups receiving investigated lipid components was also increased by 2 fold, as compared to controls. PMID:25059069

  6. Nucleoside-nucleotide free diet protects rat colonic mucosa from damage induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, A A; Morioka, T; Ameho, C K; Yamauchi, K; Kulkarni, A D; Al-Mansouri, H M; Kawajiri, A; Yamamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that intestinal recovery from injury induced by radiation, endotoxin, and protein deficiency is improved by the ingestion of nucleosides and nucleotides. AIM: This study examined the effect of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides supplementation on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colonic damage in experimental colitis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into two groups and fed nucleic acid free 20% casein diet (control) or this diet supplemented with 0.5% nucleoside-nucleotide mixture for four weeks. On the second week, colonic inflammation was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol containing 25 mg of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid. Additionally, other sets of rats were treated with 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol, 25 mg of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in 0.25 ml saline, or 0.25 ml of 0.9% saline. RESULTS: After two weeks, colon weight, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the nucleoside-nucleotide supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented control groups. The same variables seen in the trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-ethanol group fed nucleoside-nucleotide free diet were greater (p < 0.05) than in the rest of the groups fed nucleoside-nucleotide free diet and treated with ethanol, trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in saline, or saline. Histologically, segmental ulceration and inflammation associated with significantly increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts were observed in the supplemented group compared with the controls. In the nucleoside-nucleotide supplemented group the epithelial damage, mucosal erosion, oedema, and coagulative necrosis of the muscularis propria was more extensive in comparison to the non-supplemented control groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that dietary nucleosides and nucleotides may aggravate colonic damage and inflammation in chemically

  7. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. PMID:27190278

  8. Maternal protein restriction in the rat during pregnancy and/or lactation alters cognitive and anxiety behaviors of female offspring.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Charco, R; Bautista, C J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-02-01

    Maternal protein deficiencies can developmentally program offspring to lifelong dysfunction of many physiological systems. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during fetal and early postnatal development would negatively affect female offspring anxiety, exploration, associative learning and motivation as measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers (C) received a 20% casein diet and restricted mothers (R) a 10% casein diet to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second lactation diet) to enable evaluation of offspring effects influenced by maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal protein restriction decreased open arm time and distance in RR and RC offspring, increased anxiety behavior, in the EPM. In the OFT, the RR and RC offspring displayed decreased exploration (increased stress) as indexed by decreased distance in the center zone. These behaviors in the EPM and OFT was associated with increased corticosterone levels during an immobilization test in the RR offspring with intermediary effects in the RC offspring. Learning impairment was observed in the RR, CR and RC offspring during fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. Motivational effects were measured in RR offspring responding less, decreased motivation, and CR offspring making more responses, increased motivation, than CC offspring. These findings reveal the negative effects of developmental protein restriction on female offspring behavior. The underlying basis for these negative outcomes remains to be elucidated.

  9. Simulated weightlessness and synbiotic diet effects on rat bone mechanical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarper, Hüseyin; Blanton, Cynthia; DePalma, Jude; Melnykov, Igor V.; Gabaldón, Annette M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports results on exposure to simulated weightlessness that leads to a rapid decrease in bone mineral density known as spaceflight osteopenia by evaluating the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with synbiotics to counteract the effects of skeletal unloading. Forty adult male rats were studied under four different conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design with main effects of diet (synbiotic and control) and weight condition (unloaded and control). Hindlimb unloading was performed at all times for 14 days followed by 14 days of recovery (reambulation). The synbiotic diet contained probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis lactis and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide. This paper also reports on the development of a desktop three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of bones from rats subjected to simulated weightlessness. The importance of quantifying bone resistance to breakage is critical when examining the effectiveness of interventions against osteopenia resulting from skeletal unloading, such as astronauts experience, disuse or disease. Mechanical strength indices provide information beyond measures of bone density and microarchitecture that enhance the overall assessment of a treatment's potency. In this study we used a newly constructed three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of femur and tibia bones from hindlimb-unloaded rats fed an experimental synbiotic diet enriched with probiotics and fermentable fiber. Two calculated outputs for each sample were Young's modulus of elasticity and fracture stress. Bone major elements (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous) were quantified using ICP-MS analysis. Hindlimb unloading was associated with a significant loss of strength in the femur, and with significant reductions in major bone elements. The synbiotic diet did not protect against these unloading effects. Tibia strength and major elements were not reduced by hindlimb unloading, as was

  10. Diets Rich in Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Induce Morphological Alterations in the Rat Ventral Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Furriel, Angélica; Campos-Silva, Pamella; Silva, Paola Cariello Guedes Picarote; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos; Gregório, Bianca Martins

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the influence of dietary lipid quality on the body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of the rat ventral prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) and HF-SP (high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). We analyzed body mass, fat mass deposits, plasma blood, insulin resistance and the ventral prostate structure. Results Groups that received high-fat diets were heavier and presented larger fat deposits than SC group. The HF-S and HF-SP groups had higher glucose, insulin and total cholesterol serum levels and insulin resistance compared with the SC. The acinar area, epithelium height and area density of the lumen were higher in the HF-SP than in the other groups. The epithelium area density and epithelial cell proliferation were greater in the HF-P and HF-SP than in the SC group. All of the groups that received high-fat diets had greater area density of the stroma, area density of smooth muscle cells and stromal cell proliferation compared with the SC group. Conclusion Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids induced overweight. Independently of insulin resistance, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation. Saturated fatty acids influenced only stromal cellular proliferation. These structural and morphometric alterations may be considered risk factors for the development of adverse remodeling process in the rat ventral prostate. PMID:25029463

  11. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of the nervous system to advancing age is all too often manifest in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review article we describe evidence suggesting that two dietary interventions, caloric restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF), can prolong the health-span of the nervous system by impinging upon fundamental metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that regulate life-span. CR and IF affect energy and oxygen radical metabolism, and cellular stress response systems, in ways that protect neurons against genetic and environmental factors to which they would otherwise succumb during aging. There are multiple interactive pathways and molecular mechanisms by which CR and IF benefit neurons including those involving insulin-like signaling, FoxO transcription factors, sirtuins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. These pathways stimulate the production of protein chaperones, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes, all of which help cells cope with stress and resist disease. A better understanding of the impact of CR and IF on the aging nervous system will likely lead to novel approaches for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16899414

  12. Impact of ovariectomy, high fat diet, and lifestyle modifications on oxidative/antioxidative status in the rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Vuković, Rosemary; Blažetić, Senka; Oršolić, Ivana; Heffer, Marija; Vari, Sandor G.; Gajdoš, Martin; Krivošíková, Zora; Kramárová, Patrícia; Kebis, Anton; Has-Schön, Elizabeta

    2014-01-01

    Aim To estimate the impact of high fat diet and estrogen deficiency on the oxidative and antioxidative status in the liver of the ovariectomized rats, as well as the ameliorating effect of physical activity or consumption of functional food containing bioactive compounds with antioxidative properties on oxidative damage in the rat liver. Methods The study was conducted from November 2012 to April 2013. Liver oxidative damage was determined by lipid peroxidation levels expressed in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), while liver antioxidative status was determined by catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. Sixty-four female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: sham operated and ovariectomized rats that received either standard diet, high fat diet, or high fat diet supplemented with cereal selenized onion biscuits or high fat diet together with introduction of physical exercise of animals. Results High fat diet significantly increased TBARS content in the liver compared to standard diet (P = 0.032, P = 0.030). Furthermore, high fat diet decreased the activities of CAT, GR, and GST, as well as the content of GSH (P < 0.050). GPx activity remained unchanged in all groups. Physical activity and consumption of cereal selenized onion biscuits showed protective effect through increased GR activity in sham operated rats (P = 0.026, P = 0.009), while in ovariectomized group CAT activity was increased (P = 0.018) in rats that received cereal selenized onion biscuits. Conclusion Feeding rats with high fat diet was accompanied by decreased antioxidative enzyme activities and increased lipid peroxidation. Bioactive compounds of cereal selenized onion biscuits showed potential to attenuate the adverse impact of high fat diet on antioxidative status. PMID:24891280

  13. Identification of a nutrient-sensing transcriptional network in monocytes by using inbred rat models on a cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; González-Abuín, Noemi; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Ana; Pinent, Montserrat; Petretto, Enrico; Blay, Mayte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity has reached pandemic levels worldwide. The current models of diet-induced obesity in rodents use predominantly high-fat based diets that do not take into account the consumption of variety of highly palatable, energy-dense foods that are prevalent in Western society. We and others have shown that the cafeteria (CAF) diet is a robust and reproducible model of human metabolic syndrome with tissue inflammation in the rat. We have previously shown that inbred rat strains such as Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Lewis (LEW) show different susceptibilities to CAF diets with distinct metabolic and morphometric profiles. Here, we show a difference in plasma MCP-1 levels and investigate the effect of the CAF diet on peripheral blood monocyte transcriptome, as powerful stress-sensing immune cells, in WKY and LEW rats. We found that 75.5% of the differentially expressed transcripts under the CAF diet were upregulated in WKY rats and were functionally related to the activation of the immune response. Using a gene co-expression network constructed from the genes differentially expressed between CAF diet-fed LEW and WKY rats, we identified acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (Acss2) as a hub gene for a nutrient-sensing cluster of transcripts in monocytes. The Acss2 genomic region is significantly enriched for previously established metabolism quantitative trait loci in the rat. Notably, monocyte expression levels of Acss2 significantly correlated with plasma glucose, triglyceride, leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels as well as morphometric measurements such as body weight and the total fat following feeding with the CAF diet in the rat. These results show the importance of the genetic background in nutritional genomics and identify inbred rat strains as potential models for CAF-diet-induced obesity. PMID:27483348

  14. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

  15. Effects of Lycium barbarum aqueous and ethanol extracts on high-fat-diet induced oxidative stress in rat liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Cui, BoKang; Liu, Su; Lin, XiaoJun; Wang, Jun; Li, ShuHong; Wang, QiBo; Li, ShengPing

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) on blood lipid levels, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver tissue antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed a high fat diet (HF). The rats were randomly divided into seven groups of ten rats each and fed a different diet for eight weeks as follows: One group (NC group) was fed a standard diet, one group was fed a high-fat diet (HF group), one group was fed a high-fat diet and orally fed with 20 mg/kg b.w. simvastatin (HF + simvastatin group), and the other group was fed the high fat diet and orally fed with 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBAE (HF + LBAE), or 50 mg/kg b.w. or 100 mg/kg b.w. LBEE (HF + LBEE), respectively. After eight weeks, the HF diet caused deleterious metabolic effects. Rats fed the HF diet alone showed increased hepatocellular enzyme activities in plasma, a significant decline in antioxidant enzyme activities, and elevated liver lipid peroxidation indices. LBAE and LBEE administration significantly reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal levels. These data suggest that these antioxidants protect against toxicity parameters in HF rats.

  16. The influence of high iron diet on rat lung manganese absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Khristy; Molina, Ramon; Donaghey, Thomas; Brain, Joseph D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne . E-mail: wessling@hsph.harvard.edu

    2006-01-15

    Individuals chronically exposed to manganese are at high risk for neurotoxic effects of this metal. A primary route of exposure is through respiration, although little is known about pulmonary uptake of metals or factors that modify this process. High dietary iron levels inversely affect intestinal uptake of manganese, and a major goal of this study was to determine if dietary iron loading could increase lung non-heme iron levels and alter manganese absorption. Rats were fed a high iron (1% carbonyl iron) or control diet for 4 weeks. Lung non-heme iron levels increased {approx}2-fold in rats fed the high iron diet. To determine if iron-loading affected manganese uptake, {sup 54}Mn was administered by intratracheal (it) instillation or intravenous (iv) injection for pharmacokinetic studies. {sup 54}Mn absorption from the lungs to the blood was lower in it-instilled rats fed the 1% carbonyl iron diet. Pharmacokinetics of iv-injected {sup 54}Mn revealed that the isotope was cleared more rapidly from the blood of iron-loaded rats. In situ analysis of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in lung detected mRNA in airway epithelium and bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT). Staining of the latter was significantly reduced in rats fed the high iron diet. In situ analysis of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA showed staining in BALT alone. These data demonstrate that manganese absorption from the lungs to the blood can be modified by iron status and the route of administration.

  17. Phototherapy improves wound healing in rats subjected to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Leite, Saulo Nani; Leite, Marcel Nani; Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Frade, Marco Andrey C

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the phototherapy effects on wound healing in rats submitted to normal and high-fat diets. Thirty-six rats received normal lipidic diet (NL) and 36 high lipidic (HL) diet for 45 days. The nutritional status was measured by body mass, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. Four experimental groups were performed according light (L) therapy applied "on" or "off" (660 nm, 100 mW, 70 J/cm(2), 2 J) on 1.5-mm-punched dorsum skin wounds as NLL+, NLL-, HLL+, and HLL-. The wound healing rate (WHR) and oxidative stress markers were analyzed on 2nd, 7th, and 14th days. Despite no difference among body mass, the HL rats presented higher blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels than NL rats. Respectively, on the 2nd and 14th days, the HLL+ group presented the highest WHRs (0.38 ± 0.16/0.97 ± 0.02) among all groups, while the HLL- (-0.002 ± 0.12/0.81 ± 12.1) the lowest WHRs. Hydroxyproline level was lower in HLL- (6.41 ± 1.09 μg/mg) than HLL+ (7.71 ± 0.61 μg/mg) and also NLL+ (9.33 ± 0.84 μg/mg). HLL+ presented oxidative stress markers similar to normal control group (NLL-) during follow up and highest antioxidant defense on 7th day. The results showed phototherapy accelerated the cutaneous wound healing by modulating oxidative stress in rats with metabolic disorders under a high-fat diet.

  18. Hypolipidemic activity of haritaki (terminalia chebula) in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Maruthappan, V; Shree, K Sakthi

    2010-04-01

    Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) family Combretaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. It is component of the classic Ayurvedic combination called "Triphala". Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogemc diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with Haritaki showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Haritaki was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Haritaki at 1.05 and 2.10 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent. PMID:22247850

  19. Effect of nicotine on antioxidant defence mechanisms in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ashakumary, L; Vijayammal, P L

    1996-03-01

    Nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and lung cancer in smokers. Lipid peroxidation is a process associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the level of lipid peroxides is increased in smokers. In rats fed a high-fat diet, the tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was found to be increased. On nicotine administration along with a high-fat diet an additive effect was observed in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers. The activities of scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were found to be decreased, while the glutathione concentration and activity of glutathione peroxidase were enhanced. PMID:8849484

  20. Detrimental effects of a high fat/high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal markers in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Wang, Xiuzhe; Schultzberg, Marianne; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Freeman, Linnea R

    2016-10-01

    High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months. All animals underwent cognitive testing for 12days in a water radial arm maze to assess spatial and working reference memory. Hippocampal tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for structural changes and inflammation, and Western blot analysis. Young and Aged rats fed the HFHC diet exhibited worse performance on a spatial working memory task. They also exhibited significant reduction of NeuN and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity as well as an increased activation of microglial cells in the hippocampal formation. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus showed higher levels of p-Tau S202/T205 and T231 in Aged HFHC rats, suggesting abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein following the HFHC diet exposure. This work demonstrates HFHC diet-induced cognitive impairment with aging and a link between high fat diet consumption and pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Detrimental effects of a high fat/high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal markers in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Wang, Xiuzhe; Schultzberg, Marianne; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Freeman, Linnea R

    2016-10-01

    High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months. All animals underwent cognitive testing for 12days in a water radial arm maze to assess spatial and working reference memory. Hippocampal tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for structural changes and inflammation, and Western blot analysis. Young and Aged rats fed the HFHC diet exhibited worse performance on a spatial working memory task. They also exhibited significant reduction of NeuN and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity as well as an increased activation of microglial cells in the hippocampal formation. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus showed higher levels of p-Tau S202/T205 and T231 in Aged HFHC rats, suggesting abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein following the HFHC diet exposure. This work demonstrates HFHC diet-induced cognitive impairment with aging and a link between high fat diet consumption and pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27343935

  2. Inaccessible food cues affect stress and weight gain in calorically-restricted and ad lib fed rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Polivy, Janet; Fleming, Alison; Hargreaves, Duane; Herman, C Peter; Lao, Grace

    2010-02-01

    Research suggests that caloric restriction (CR) is beneficial; however, the effects of CR in the context of food cues are unclear. A 2 (food cue vs. no cue)x2 (CR vs. ad lib) between-subjects design was employed to test these effects in 40 rats. It was predicted that cue exposure and CR would induce stress, and that these factors might interact synergistically. The results demonstrated that cue-exposed CR rats weighed less than did non-exposed CR rats. A blunted stress response was evident in CR rats relative to ad lib rats. Finally, cue-exposed rats had higher corticosterone levels and body weight during ad lib feeding than did non-cued rats. These results suggest that both CR and chronic food-cue exposure can be stressful, and the implications of this research are discussed in the context of humans' 'obesigenic' environment.

  3. Circadian plasma level profile of lisuride in rats and mice after continuous administration via the diet.

    PubMed

    Krause, W; Reissmann, F; Kühne, G; Schöbel, C

    1995-01-01

    Lisuride (Dopergin, CAS 18016-80-3), a dopamine D2 agonist, was administered to male and female rats and mice continuously via the diet for 14 days. The doses were 0.2 mg/kg/d in mice and 1 mg/kg/d in mice and rats. Plasma level profiles (0-22 or 24 h) were determined by measuring lisuride concentrations by radioimmunoassay. At all doses a plateau-like plasma level of lisuride was observed. A clear circadian rhythm of lisuride concentrations (highs during night, low levels during day) was found for male rats (1 mg/kg/d) and for male mice (0.2 mg/kg/d). Female animals did not show this phenomenon as pronounced. At the same dose of 1 mg/kg/d rats showed higher plasma levels than mice. For males the ratio of total AUCs was 1.9 and for female animals 8.6.

  4. Costs and Outcomes over 36 Years of Patients with Phenylketonuria Who Do and Do Not Remain on a Phenylalanine-Restricted Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guest, J. F.; Bai, J. J.; Taylor, R. R.; Sladkevicius, E.; Lee, P. J.; Lachmann, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To quantify the costs and consequences of managing phenylketonuria (PKU) in the UK and to estimate the potential implications to the UK's National Health Service (NHS) of keeping patients on a phenylalanine-restricted diet for life. Methods: A computer-based model was constructed depicting the management of PKU patients over the…

  5. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input–output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. PMID:26009636

  6. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  7. High salt-diet reduces SLC14A1 gene expression in the choroid plexus of Dahl salt sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lirong; Meng, Jie; Xuan, Chengluan; Ge, Jingyan; Sun, Wenzhu; O'Rourke, Stephen T; Sun, Chengwen

    2015-05-29

    Elevated Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contributes to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. CSF is formed by the choroid plexus (CP) in cerebral ventricles, and [Na(+)] in CSF is controlled by transporters in CP. Here, we examined the effect of high salt diet on the expression of urea transporters (UTs) in the CP of Dahl S vs Dahl R rats using real time PCR. High salt intake (8%, for 2 weeks) did not alter the mRNA levels of UT-A (encoded by SLC14A2 gene) in the CP of either Dahl S or Dahl R rats. In contrast, the mRNA levels of UT-B (encoded by SLC14A1 gene) were significantly reduced in the CP of Dahl S rats on high salt diet as compared with Dahl R rats or Dahl S rats on normal salt diet. Reduced UT-B expression was associated with increased [Na(+)] in the CSF and elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) in Dahl S rats treated with high salt diet, as measured by radiotelemetry. High salt diet-induced reduction in UT-B protein expression in the CP of Dahl S rats was confirmed by Western blot. Immunohistochemistry using UT-B specific antibodies demonstrated that UT-B protein was expressed on the epithelial cells in the CP. These data indicate that high salt diet induces elevations in CSF [Na(+)] and in MAP, both of which are associated with reduced UT-B expression in the CP of Dahl S rats, as compared with Dahl R rats. The results suggest that altered UT-B expression in the CP may contribute to an imbalance of water and electrolytes in the CSF of Dahl S rats on high salt diet, thereby leading to alterations in MAP.

  8. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products May include lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs ... specific region. Others, like the DASH diet, were designed for people who have certain health problems. But ...

  9. The Timing of Nutrient Restriction During Rat Pregnancy/Lactation Alters Metabolic Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    DESAI, Mina; GAYLE, Dave; BABU, Jooby; ROSS, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Modulation of growth of intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) newborns causes either adult obesity or normalization of body weight and fat. We investigated the impact of rapid versus delayed catch-up growth of IUGR offspring on glucose and lipid profiles. Study Design From 10d to term gestation and through lactation, control pregnant rats received ad libitum food, whereas study rats were 50% food-restricted. Glucose and lipid profiles were determined in offspring at ages, 1 day, 3 weeks and 9 months. Results Food-restriction during pregnancy produced hypoglycemic IUGR pups. Those permitted rapid catch-up growth demonstrated adult obesity with insulin-resistance (hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia) and hypertriglyceridemia. Conversely, IUGR exhibiting delayed catch-up growth demonstrated normal adult body weight and insulin-deficiency (hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia) and elevated cholesterol levels. Conclusion The timing and rate of IUGR newborn catch-up growth causes markedly altered adult phenotypes. Although delayed newborn catch-up growth may be beneficial in prevention of adult obesity, there may be significant adverse effects on pancreatic function. PMID:17547893

  10. Anti-obesity and cardioprotective effects of cinnamic acid in high fat diet- induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mnafgui, Kais; Derbali, Amal; Sayadi, Sami; Gharsallah, Neji; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Allouche, Noureddine

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder that is associated with numerous diseases including hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Cinnamic acid is a phytochemical compound having many biological effects and could be considered for the management of obesity. This study is aimed to assess the possible anti-obesity and cardioprotective properties of cinnamic acid (CA) in high fat diet-fed rats (HFD). Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. They received normal diet, HFD diet, HFD supplemented with fluvastatin (2 mg/kg/day) or cinnamic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. The results showed an increase in body weight of HFD rats by ~27 % as compared to control group. Moreover, serum lipase activity underwent a significant rise by 103 % which led to an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (T-Ch), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol in serum of untreated HFD-fed rats. Furthermore, the concentration of leptin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity exhibited remarkable increases in serum of HFD-fed rats as compared to controls. Whereas, the administration of CA to HFD-fed rats improved the body weight gain and serum lipid profile and reverted back near to normal the activities of lipase and ACE. In addition, the echocardiography evidenced that CA is able to protect the aorta and aortic arch and avoided vasoconstriction by increasing their diameters and improved liver steatosis and kidney indices of toxicity. Overall, these results suggest that cinnamic acid exerts anti-obesity and antihypertensive effects through inhibition of lipid digestive enzymes and ACE.

  11. Chronic restricted access to food leading to undernutrition affects rat neuroendocrine status and olfactory-driven behaviors.

    PubMed

    Badonnel, Karine; Lacroix, Marie-Christine; Monnerie, Régine; Durieux, Didier; Caillol, Monique; Baly, Christine

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that olfactory-driven behaviors in rats are influenced by short-term caloric restriction, partly through the modulation of olfactory sensitivity by appetite-modulating hormones or peptides such as insulin and leptin. Here, we addressed the issue of a long-term modulation of their neuroendocrine status by evaluating the effect of chronic food restriction in rats following a limitation of the duration of daily food intake to 2 h (SF) instead of 8 h (LF) on the expression of insulin and leptin system in the olfactory mucosa and bulb and on olfactory behaviors. This restriction resulted in a one-third reduction in the daily food intake and a 25% reduction in the body weight of SF rats when compared to controls, and was accompanied by lower levels of triglycerides, glucose, insulin and leptin in SF rats. Under these conditions, we observed a modulation of olfactory-mediated behaviors regarding food odors. In addition, restriction had a differential effect on the expression of insulin receptors, but not that of leptin receptors, in the olfactory mucosa, whereas no transcriptional change was observed at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. Overall, these data demonstrated that long-term changes in nutritional status modulate olfactory-mediated behaviors. Modulation of insulin system expression in the olfactory mucosa of food restricted rats suggests that this hormone could be part of this process.

  12. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  13. Memory and hippocampal architecture following short-term midazolam in western diet-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Dorothea S; Falangola, Maria F; Ledreux, Aurélie; Nie, Xingju; Suhre, Wendy M; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-05-16

    The impact of short-term benzodiazepine exposure on cognition in middle-aged or older patients is a highly debated topic among anesthesiologists, critical care physicians and public media. "Western diet" (WD) consumption is linked to impaired cognition as well. The combination of benzodiazepines with substantial exposure to WD might set the stage for increased hippocampal vulnerability for benzodiazepines leading to exaggerated cognitive impairment in the postoperative period. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were fed either WD or standard rodent diet from 5 to 10.5 months of age. Rats were exposed to midazolam or placebo two days prior to an MRI scan using Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) to assess brain microstructural integrity, followed by behavioral testing using a water radial arm maze. Hippocampal tissue was collected to assess alterations in protein biochemistry in brain regions associated with learning and memory. Our results showed that rats exposed to the combination of midazolam and WD had significantly delayed time of learning and exhibited spatial memory impairment. Further, we observed an overall increase of kurtosis metrics in the hippocampus and increased expression of the mitochondrial protein VDAC2 in midazolam-treated rats. Our data suggest that both the short-acting benzodiazepine midazolam and WD contribute to negatively affect the brain in middle-aged rats. This study is the first application of DKI on the effects of midazolam and WD exposure, and the findings demonstrate that diffusion metrics are sensitive indicators of changes in the complexity of neurite architecture.

  14. Hepcidin expression in the liver of rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Natsumi; Kotani, Megumi; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2011-10-01

    Mg deficiency accelerates Fe accumulation in the liver, which may induce various metabolic disturbances. In the present study, we examined the gene expression of Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver to regulate intestinal Fe absorption negatively, in Mg-deficient rats. Although liver Fe concentration was significantly higher in rats fed an Mg-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in rats fed a control diet, Hepcidin expression in the liver was comparable between the dietary groups. Previous studies revealed that Fe overload up-regulated Hepcidin expression through transcriptional activation by Fe-induced bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) 6, a growth/differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β family, in the liver. Mg deficiency up-regulated the expression of Bmp6 but did not affect the expression of inhibition of DNA binding 1, a sensitive Bmp-responsive gene. In addition, the expression of Bmp receptors such as activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), activin receptor type IIA (Actr2a), activin receptor type IIB (Actr2b) and Bmp type II receptor (Bmpr2) was lower in the liver of Mg-deficient rats than in that of control rats. The present study indicates that accumulation of hepatic Fe by Mg deficiency is a stimulant inducing Bmp6 expression but not Hepcidin expression by blunting Bmp signalling possibly resulting from down-regulation of the receptor expression. Unresponsive Hepcidin expression may have a role in Mg deficiency-induced changes related to increased liver Fe.

  15. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Duivenvoorde, Loes P M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Derous, Davina; van der Stelt, Inge; Masania, Jinit; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J; Keijer, Jaap

    2015-06-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a non-invasive challenge test that measures the flexibility to adapt metabolism. Metabolic inflexibility is one of the hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome. To test whether OxR can be used to reveal early diet-induced health effects, we exposed mice to a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for only 5 days. The response to OxR was assessed by calorimetric measurements, followed by analysis of gene expression in liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) and serum markers for e.g. protein glycation and oxidation. Although HF feeding increased body weight, HF and LF mice did not differ in indirect calorimetric values under normoxic conditions and in a fasting state. Exposure to OxR; however, increased oxygen consumption and lipid oxidation in HF mice versus LF mice. Furthermore, OxR induced gluconeogenesis and an antioxidant response in the liver of HF mice, whereas it induced de novo lipogenesis and an antioxidant response in eWAT of LF mice, indicating that HF and LF mice differed in their adaptation to OxR. OxR also increased serum markers of protein glycation and oxidation in HF mice, whereas these changes were absent in LF mice. Cumulatively, OxR is a promising new method to test food products on potential beneficial effects for human health. PMID:24974902

  16. Perinatal protein restriction affects milk free amino acid and fatty acid profile in lactating rats: potential role on pup growth and metabolic status.

    PubMed

    Martin Agnoux, Aurore; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Boquien, Clair-Yves; David, Agnes; Desnots, Emmanuelle; Ferchaud-Roucher, Veronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

    2015-07-01

    Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. Although maternal milk is the only channel through which nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring during the postnatal period, the impact of maternal undernutrition on milk composition is poorly understood. The present study investigates, in a rat model of nutritional programming, the effects of feeding an isocaloric, low-protein diet throughout gestation and lactation on milk composition and its possible consequences on offspring's growth and metabolic status. We used an integrated methodological approach that combined targeted analyses of macronutrients, free amino acid and fatty acid content throughout lactation, with an untargeted mass-spectrometric-based metabolomic phenotyping. Whereas perinatal dietary protein restriction failed to alter milk protein content, it dramatically decreased the concentration of most free amino acids at the end of lactation. Interestingly, a decrease of several amino acids involved in insulin secretion or gluconeogenesis was observed, suggesting that maternal protein restriction during the perinatal period may impact the insulinotrophic effect of milk, which may, in turn, account for the slower growth of the suckled male offspring. Besides, the decrease in sulfur amino acids may alter redox status in the offspring. Maternal undernutrition was also associated with an increase in milk total fatty acid content, with modifications in their pattern. Altogether, our results show that milk composition is clearly influenced by maternal diet and suggest that alterations in milk composition may play a role in offspring growth and metabolic programming. PMID:25935308

  17. Folic acid and protein content in maternal diet and postnatal high-fat feeding affect the tissue levels of iron, zinc, and copper in the rat.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Chmurzynska, Agata

    2011-12-01

    Although maternal, fetal, and placental mechanisms compensate for disturbances in the fetal environment, any nutritional inadequacies present during pregnancy may affect fetal metabolism, and their consequences may appear in later life. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of maternal diet during gestation on Fe, Zn, and Cu levels in the livers and kidneys of adult rats. The study was carried out on the offspring (n = 48) of mothers fed either a protein-balanced or a protein-restricted diet (18% vs. 9% casein) during pregnancy, with or without folic acid supplementation (0.005- vs. 0.002-g folic acid/kg diet). At 10 weeks of age, the offspring of each maternal group were randomly assigned to groups fed either the AIN-93G diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks, until the end of the experiment. The levels of Fe, Zn, and Cu in the livers and kidneys were determined by the F-AAS method. It was found that postnatal exposure to the high-fat diet was associated with increased hepatic Fe levels (p < 0.001), and with decreased liver Zn and Cu contents (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), as well as with decreased renal Cu contents (p < 0.001). Moreover, the offspring's tissue mineral levels were also affected by protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet. Both prenatal protein restriction and folic acid supplementation increased the liver Zn content (p < 0.05) and the kidney Zn content (p < 0.001; p < 0.05, respectively), while folic acid supplementation resulted in a reduction in renal Cu level (p < 0.05). Summarizing, the results of this study show that maternal dietary folic acid and protein intake during pregnancy, as well as the type of postweaning diet, affect Fe, Zn, and Cu levels in the offspring of the rat. However, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unclear, and warrant further investigation.

  18. Resveratrol partially prevents oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Bautista, Claudia J; Vázquez-Martínez, Magaly; Larrea, Fernando; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Protein restriction in pregnancy produces maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction potentially as a result of oxidative stress. Data are lacking on the effects of inhibition of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that maternal resveratrol administration decreases oxidative stress, preventing, at least partially, maternal low protein-induced maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction. In the present study, pregnant wistar rats ate control (C) (20% casein) or a protein-restricted (R) (10% casein) isocaloric diet. Half of each group received resveratrol orally, 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1), throughout pregnancy. Post-delivery, mothers and offspring ate C. Oxidative stress biomarkers and anti-oxidant enzymes were measured in placenta, maternal and fetal liver, and maternal serum corticosterone at 19 days of gestation (dG). Maternal (19 dG) and offspring (postnatal day 110) glucose, insulin, triglycerides, cholesterol, fat and leptin were determined. R mothers showed metabolic dysfunction, increased corticosterone and oxidative stress and reduced anti-oxidant enzyme activity vs. C. R placental and fetal liver oxidative stress biomarkers and anti-oxidant enzyme activity increased. R offspring showed higher male and female leptin, insulin and corticosterone, male triglycerides and female fat than C. Resveratrol decreased maternal leptin and improved maternal, fetal and placental oxidative stress markers. R induced offspring insulin and leptin increases were prevented and other R changes were offspring sex-dependent. Resveratrol partially prevents low protein diet-induced maternal, placental and sex-specific offspring oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction. Oxidative stress is one mechanism programming offspring metabolic outcomes. These studies provide mechanistic evidence to guide human pregnancy interventions when fetal nutrition is impaired by poor maternal nutrition or placental function. PMID:26662841

  19. Sensorimotor restriction affects complex movement topography and reachable space in the rat motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Budri, Mirco; Lodi, Enrico; Franchi, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) studies with 500 ms of current pulses suggest that the forelimb area of the motor cortex is organized into several spatially distinct functional zones that organize movements into complex sequences. Here we studied how sensorimotor restriction modifies the extent of functional zones, complex movements, and reachable space representation in the rat forelimb M1. Sensorimotor restriction was achieved by means of whole-forelimb casting of 30 days duration. Long-duration ICMS was carried out 12 h and 14 days after cast removal. Evoked movements were measured using a high-resolution 3D optical system. Long-term cast caused: (i) a reduction in the number of sites where complex forelimb movement could be evoked; (ii) a shrinkage of functional zones but no change in their center of gravity; (iii) a reduction in movement with proximal/distal coactivation; (iv) a reduction in maximal velocity, trajectory and vector length of movement, but no changes in latency or duration; (v) a large restriction of reachable space. Fourteen days of forelimb freedom after casting caused: (i) a recovery of the number of sites where complex forelimb movement could be evoked; (ii) a recovery of functional zone extent and movement with proximal/distal coactivation; (iii) an increase in movement kinematics, but only partial restoration of control rat values; (iv) a slight increase in reachability parameters, but these remained far below baseline values. We pose the hypothesis that specific aspects of complex movement may be stored within parallel motor cortex re-entrant systems. PMID:25565987

  20. Calcium metabolism in bone and teeth of rats during exposure to restriction of motor activity and to swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Y G; Charapakhin, K P; Kuznetsov, N A; Kakurin, V J

    1999-06-01

    The effects of motor activity restriction for 90 days (hypokinesia, HK) and swimming training (T) on calcium metabolism in rat bones and teeth were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: untrained vivarium control rats (UVCR), untrained hypokinetic rats (UHKR), trained hypokinetic rats (THKR) and trained vivarium control rats (TVCR). Hypokinesia was obtained keeping the animals for 90 days in small individual cages which restricted their movements in all directions without hindering food and water intakes. Rats of THKR and TVCR were forced to swim for 15 to 90 minutes everyday. On the 1st, 7th, 15th day of a prehypokinetic period and on the 5th, 10th, 20th, 40th, 60th and 90th day of the hypokinetic period, six rats of each group were decapitated. Radioactive calcium was injected to the animals 70 days before autopsy. Calcium and phosphorus in serum, bones (molars, incisors, upper and lower jaws, parietal, scapular, clavicle, pelvic and tibial bones) and in the respective ash residues were measured. Body and bone weights, and radioactive calcium were also determined. Under prolonged exposure to HK (THKR and UHKR groups), bone weights and bone and ash Ca and P concentrations decreased, whereas serum Ca and P and 45Ca resorption increased, in comparison to the respective values in the UVCR and TVCR groups. Swimming exercise apparently did not modify calcium metabolism in the hypokinetic or control rats. PMID:10517263

  1. Enhanced effect of daytime restricted feeding on the circadian rhythm of streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; ZhuGe, Fen; Sun, Lu; Ni, Yinhua; Fu, Ou; Gao, Guangang; Chen, Junjie; Kato, Hisanori; Fu, Zhengwei

    2012-05-15

    There is increasing awareness of the link between impaired circadian clocks and multiple metabolic diseases. However, the impairment of the circadian clock by type 2 diabetes has not been fully elucidated. To understand whether and how the function of circadian clock is impaired under the diabetic condition, we examined not only the expression of circadian genes in the heart and pineal gland but also the behavioral rhythm of type 2 diabetic and control rats in both the nighttime restricted feeding (NRF) and daytime restricted feeding (DRF) conditions. In the NRF condition, the circadian expression of clock genes in the heart and pineal gland was conserved in the diabetic rats, being similar to that in the control rats. DRF shifted the circadian phases of peripheral clock genes more efficiently in the diabetic rats than those in the control rats. Moreover, the activity rhythm of rats in the diabetic group was completely shifted from the dark phase to the light phase after 5 days of DRF treatment, whereas the activity rhythm of rats in the control group was still under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after the same DRF treatment. Furthermore, the serum glucose rhythm of type 2 diabetic rats was also shifted and controlled by the external feeding schedule, ignoring the SCN rhythm. Therefore, DRF shows stronger effect on the reentrainment of circadian rhythm in the type 2 diabetic rats, suggesting that the circadian system in diabetes is unstable and more easily shifted by feeding stimuli.

  2. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Monocrotaline-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingge; Lei, Jingyi; Qu, Yinxian; Zhang, Huan; Xin, Weichuan; Ma, Feng; Liu, Shuwen; Li, Zhichao; Jin, Faguang; Fu, Enqing

    2015-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective nonpharmacological interventions protecting against cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension in the systemic circulation. However, whether CR could attenuate pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is largely unknown. The PAH model was developed by subjecting the rats to a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline. CR lowered mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and reduced vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in PAH rats. Meanwhile, CR attenuated endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by increased relaxation in response to acetylcholine. The beneficial effects of CR were associated with restored sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and reduced eNOS acetylation in pulmonary arteries of PAH rats. To further clarify the role of SIRT1 in the protective effects of CR, adenoviral vectors for overexpression of SIRT1 were administered intratracheally at 1 day before monocrotaline injection. Overexpression of SIRT1 exhibited similar beneficial effects on mPAP and endothelial function, and increased eNOS phosphorylation and reduced eNOS acetylation in the absence of CR. Moreover, SIRT1 overexpression attenuated the increase in mPAP in hypoxia-induced PAH animals. Overall, the present data demonstrate that CR may serve as an effective treatment of PAH, and targeting the SIRT1/eNOS pathway may improve treatment of PAH. PMID:25636073

  3. Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Feillet, Céline A; Mendoza, Jorge; Pévet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis. RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland. Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin. These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids. In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking. Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.

  4. High fat diet exacerbates vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats exposed to continuous hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Xia; Tang, Feng; Ga, Qin; Wuren, Tana; Wang, Ya-Ping; Rondina, Matthew T; Ge, Ri-Li

    2015-02-13

    Independently, a high fat diet and hypoxia are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and often occur concurrently in patients. Nevertheless, the effects of a high fat diet on vascular endothelial function combined with hypoxia, a situation occurring with increasing frequency in many parts of the world, remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of a high fat diet on vascular endothelial function in rats exposed to continuous hypoxia for 4 weeks. Seventy two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: a hypoxia group fed regular chow, a combined hypoxia and high fat diet (HFD) group, and for comparison, rats maintained in normoxia, regular chow conditions were set as baseline (BL) group. The experimental data of BL group were obtained at beginning of hypoxia given in the other groups. Continuous hypoxia was induced in a hypobaric chamber maintained at an altitude of 5000 m. Compared to hypoxic conditions alone, hypoxia plus a HFD prevented adaptive changes in plasma nitric oxide (NOx) levels and caused earlier and more severe changes in aortic endothelial structures. Functionally, hypoxia plus a HFD resulted in impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation responses to acetylcholine and altered the bioavailability of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate L-Arginine. At the molecular level, hypoxia plus a HFD blunted increases in endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA and protein in aortic endothelial tissue. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that in the setting of hypoxia, a high fat diet leads to earlier and more severe VED than hypoxia alone. These data have important implications for populations residing at high-altitude, as dietary patterns shift towards increased fat intake. PMID:25603049

  5. Effects of High-Butterfat Diet on Embryo Implantation in Female Rats Exposed to Bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alan M; Cheong, Ana; Ying, Jun; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Thomas, Michael A; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor associated with poor pregnancy outcomes in human and rodents. The effects of butterfat diets on embryo implantation and whether it modifies BPA's actions are currently unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of butterfat diet on embryo implantation success in female rats exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of BPA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dietary butterfat (10% or 39% kcal/kg body weight [BW]) in the presence or absence of BPA (250 μg/kg BW) or ethinylestradiol (0.1 μg/kg BW) shortly before and during pregnancy to assess embryo implantation potentials by preimplantation development and transport, in vitro blastulation, outgrowth, and implantation. On gestational day (GD) 4.5, rats treated with BPA alone had higher serum total BPA level (2.3-3.7 ng/ml). They had more late-stage preimplantation embryos, whereas those receiving high butterfat (HBF) diet had the most advanced-stage embryos; dams cotreated with HBF and BPA had the most number of advanced embryos. BPA markedly delayed embryo transport to the uterus, but neither amount of butterfat had modifying effects. An in vitro implantation assay showed HBF doubled the outgrowth area, with BPA having no effect. In vivo, BPA reduced the number of implanted embryos on GD8, and cotreatment with HBF eliminated this adverse effect. HBF diet overall resulted in more and larger GD8 embryos. This study reveals the implantation disruptive effects of maternal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of BPA and identifies HBF diet as a modifier of BPA in promoting early embryonic health.

  6. A palatable hyperlipidic diet causes obesity and affects brain glucose metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that either the continuous intake of a palatable hyperlipidic diet (H) or the alternation of chow (C) and an H diet (CH regimen) induced obesity in rats. Here, we investigated whether the time of the start and duration of these feeding regimens are relevant and whether they affect brain glucose metabolism. Methods Male Wistar rats received C, H, or CH diets during various periods of their life spans: days 30-60, days 30-90, or days 60-90. Experiments were performed the 60th or the 90th day of life. Rats were killed by decapitation. The glucose, insulin, leptin plasma concentration, and lipid content of the carcasses were determined. The brain was sliced and incubated with or without insulin for the analysis of glucose uptake, oxidation, and the conversion of [1-14C]-glucose to lipids. Results The relative carcass lipid content increased in all of the H and CH groups, and the H30-60 and H30-90 groups had the highest levels. Groups H30-60, H30-90, CH30-60, and CH30-90 exhibited a higher serum glucose level. Serum leptin increased in all H groups and in the CH60-90 and CH30-90 groups. Serum insulin was elevated in the H30-60, H60-90, CH60-90, CH30-90 groups. Basal brain glucose consumption and hypothalamic insulin receptor density were lower only in the CH30-60 group. The rate of brain lipogenesis was increased in the H30-90 and CH30-90 groups. Conclusion These findings indicate that both H and CH diet regimens increased body adiposity independent treatment and the age at which treatment was started, whereas these diets caused hyperglycemia and affected brain metabolism when started at an early age. PMID:21943199

  7. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  8. Effect of lead on fetal development in rats fed with 8% casein diet

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, D.K.; Lal, B.; Chandra, S.V.

    1987-10-01

    Nutritional status is known to affect the susceptibility of humans and animals to chemical insult. Prevalence of protein malnutrition in developing countries and increasing reports of exposure to lead through environmental pollution have led us to investigate the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of lead in pregnant rats maintained on low protein diet so as to asses the developmental toxicity of lead in protein malnourished state.

  9. Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Ewen, S W; Pusztai, A

    1999-10-16

    Diets containing genetically modified (GM) potatoes expressing the lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) had variable effects on different parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract. Some effects, such as the proliferation of the gastric mucosa, were mainly due to the expression of the GNA transgene. However, other parts of the construct or the genetic transformation (or both) could also have contributed to the overall biological effects of the GNA-GM potatoes, particularly on the small intestine and caecum.

  10. Lentil-based diets attenuate hypertension and large-artery remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Matthew G; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for CVD, the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The prevalence of hypertension is expected to continue increasing, and current pharmacological treatments cannot alleviate all the associated problems. Pulse crops have been touted as a general health food and are now being studied for their possible effects on several disease states including hypertension, obesity and diabetes. In the present study, 15-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed diets containing 30% w/w beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas, or mixed pulses or a pulse-free control diet for 4 weeks. Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were placed on a control diet. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured weekly, while blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline and week 4. Fasting serum obtained in week 4 of the study was analysed for circulating lipids. A histological analysis was carried out on aortic sections to determine vascular geometry. Of all the pulse varieties studied, lentils were found to be able to attenuate the rise in BP in the SHR model (P< 0·05). Lentils were able to decrease the media:lumen ratio and media width of the aorta. The total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol levels of rats fed the pulse-based diets were found to be lower when compared with those of the WKY rat and SHR controls (P< 0·05). Although all pulses reduced circulating TC and LDL-C levels in the SHR, only lentils significantly reduced the rise in BP and large-artery remodelling in the SHR, but had no effect on PWV. These results indicate that the effects of lentils on arterial remodelling and BP in the SHR are independent of circulating LDL-C levels.

  11. Hypercaloric diet modulates effects of chronic stress: a behavioral and biometric study on rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla de; Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes de; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Marques; Silva, Fernanda Ribeiro da; Vercelino, Rafael; de Souza, Izabel C Custodio; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that has been associated with chronic stress and hypercaloric diet (HD) consumption. Increased ingestion of food containing sugar and fat ingredients (comfort food) is proposed to "compensate" chronic stress effects. However, this eating habit may increase body fat depositions leading to obesity. This study evaluated behavioral/physiological parameters seeking to establish whether there is an association between the effects of HD intake and stress, and to test the hypothesis that the development of anxious behavior and obesity during chronic stress periods depends on the type of diet. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats (n = 100) were divided into four groups: standard chow, hypercaloric diet, chronic stress/standard chow and chronic stress/hypercaloric diet. Chronic stress was induced by restraint stress exposure for 1 h/day, for 80 d. At the end of this period, rat behavior was evaluated using open-field and plus-maze tests. The results showed that HD alone increased weight gain and adipose deposition in subcutaneous and mesenteric areas. However, stress reduced weight gain and adipose tissue in these areas. HD also increased naso-anal length and concurrent stress prevented this. Behavioral data indicated that stress increased anxiety-like behaviors and comfort food reduced these anxiogenic effects; locomotor activity increased in rats fed with HD. Furthermore, HD decreased corticosterone levels and stress increased adrenal weight. The data indicate that when rats are given HD and experience chronic stress this association reduces the pro-obesogenic effects of HD, and decreases adrenocortical activity.

  12. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose) on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group) were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control). After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1). Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06). Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p < 0.01) and lower plasma glutathione peroxidase concentration (p < 0.01) but these levels were not affected by diet type. PAI-1 was elevated in the plasma of obese rats, and the wheat bran diet in comparison to the control group reduced PAI-1 to levels seen in the lean rats (p < 0.05). These changes in circulating PAI-1 levels could not be explained by PAI-1 secretion rates from visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of

  13. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R S; Surya, D; Nalini, N

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells.

  14. [Morphological changes in the liver of rats subjected to deficient diet and bromex administration].

    PubMed

    Krustev, L; Tasheva, M; Kaloianova-Simeonova, F

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with male albino rats, with a mean body weight 165 g, grouped into 4 groups: on protein deficiency diet (with 3.8% protein in food), 4-week treatment with 1/50 LD50 bromex and a control group (not treated). It was established that the separate bromex treatment of the animals or their putting on a 6-week deficiency diet led to moderate changes in hepatocyte organelles. The combined effect of both factors--bromex and deficiency diet--sums the effect leading to the reduction of chromatin inclusions of the nuclei, reduces the amount of GER, Ser and mitochondria, dystrophic changes in mitochondria, increase of secondary lysozyomes and build up of fatty acids in hepatocytes. PMID:7178068

  15. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products. PMID:20387744

  16. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products.

  17. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements.

  18. Cholesterol and unsaturated fat diets influence lipid and glucose concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Adamopoulos, P N; Papamichael, C M; Zampelas, A; Moulopoulos, S D

    1996-03-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary cholesterol and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and glucose concentrations. Four groups of ten male Wistar albino rats were fed diets of different fatty acid composition for 40 days. The control group consumed nonpurified diet (containing fat 3.7 g/100 g diet), and cholesterol, olive oil, and safflower oil groups consumed the nonpurified diet enriched with 14 g fat/100 g diet with egg yolk, olive oil, or safflower oil, respectively. Compared with the control, the diet enriched with cholesterol significantly increased fasting plasma cholesterol (P < 0.01), triacylglycerol (P < 0.01), total lipid (P < 0.01) and glucose (P < 0.05) concentrations; in the olive oil group, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly increased compared with control group (P < 0.01 in both instances). In safflower oil group, triacylglycerol levels were also significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with the controls. After comparing diets providing the same amount of fat (cholesterol, olive oil, and safflower oil groups), higher cholesterol, triacylglycerol and total lipid levels were observed in the cholesterol group than in the olive oil group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), and safflower oil group (P < 0.01 in all instances). High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the cholesterol group than in the olive oil and safflower oil groups (P < 0.05 in both instances) and fasting plasma glucose levels were higher in the cholesterol than in the olive oil (P < 0.05) and safflower oil groups (P < 0.01). Finally, after comparing lipid and glucose levels in the unsaturated fatty acids-enriched diets, higher plasma cholesterol concentrations were observed in the olive oil than in the safflower oil group (P < 0.05). These data suggest that not only the amount but also the type of dietary fat can influence serum lipid levels.

  19. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women.

    PubMed

    Volek, Js; Sharman, Mj; Gómez, Al; Judelson, DA; Rubin, Mr; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, Dn; Kraemer, Wj

    2004-11-08

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK) and low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight/obese men and women. DESIGN: Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day) diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%). SUBJECTS: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean +/- s.e.m.: age 33.2 +/- 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 +/- 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 +/- 1.1 kg/m2) and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 +/- 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 +/- 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 +/- 1.1 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. RESULTS: Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28%) and the LF (~58:22:20%) were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day) compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day) diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake). The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the

  20. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    PubMed Central

    Volek, JS; Sharman, MJ; Gómez, AL; Judelson, DA; Rubin, MR; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, DN; Kraemer, WJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK) and low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day) diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%). Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2) and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2). Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28%) and the LF (~58:22:20%) were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day) compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day) diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake). The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the VLCK diet in

  1. Cardiolipin profiles as a potential biomarker of mitochondrial health in diet-induced obese mice subjected to exercise, diet-restriction and ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Faber, Catherine; Zhu, Zhaohai J; Castellino, Stephen; Wagner, David S; Brown, Roger H; Peterson, Richard A; Gates, Lisa; Barton, Joanna; Bickett, Mark; Hagerty, Laura; Kimbrough, Carie; Sola, Mario; Bailey, David; Jordan, Holly; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2014-11-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is crucial for mitochondrial energy metabolism and structural integrity. Alterations in CL quantity or CL species have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several pathological conditions and diseases, including mitochondrial dysfunction-related compound attrition and post-market withdrawal of promising drugs. Here we report alterations in the CL profiles in conjunction with morphology of soleus muscle (SM) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, subjected to ephedrine treatment (EPH: 200 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) orally), treadmill exercise (EX: 10 meters per min, 1 h per day), or dietary restriction (DR: 25% less of mean food consumed by the EX group) for 7 days. Mice from the DR and EPH groups had a significant decrease in percent body weight and reduced fat mass compared with DIO controls. Morphologic alterations in the BAT included brown adipocytes with reduced cytoplasmic lipid droplets and increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia in the EX, DR and EPH groups. Increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia in the BAT was ultrastructurally manifested by increased mitochondrial cristae, fenestration of mitochondrial cristae, increased electron density of mitochondrial matrix, and increased complexity of shape and elongation of mitochondria. Mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations in the SM of the EX and DR groups included increased mitochondrial cristae, cup-shaped mitochondria and mitochondrial degeneration. All four CL species (tri-linoleoyl-mono-docosahexaenoyl, tetralinoleoyl, tri-linoleoyl-mono-oleoyl, and di-linoleoyl-di-oleoyl) were increased in the BAT of the DR and EPH groups and in the SM of the EPH and EX groups. In conclusion, cardiolipin profiling supported standard methods for assessing mitochondrial biogenesis and health, and may serve as a potential marker of mitochondrial dysfunction in preclinical toxicity studies.

  2. Calcium and vitamin D enriched diets increase and preserve vertebral mineral content in aging laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Schapira, D; Linn, S; Sarid, M; Mokadi, S; Kabala, A; Silbermann, M

    1995-05-01

    To assess the long-term effect of vitamin D or calcium supplementation on the skeletal metabolism of aging laboratory rodents, 1.5-month-old female Wistar rats were fed with diets containing twice the concentration of vitamin D (group 2) and of calcium (group 3) as in the usual rat chow. Follow-up to 24 months of age did not show significant differences between the enriched-diet groups and the controls (group 1) in terms of the vertebral body weight and protein content. Significantly higher bone mineral contents were found in groups 2 and 3 than were found in controls, as revealed by an increased bone mineral density (BMD: +62%, group 2; +48%, group 3) and vertebral calcium content (+73%, group 2; +84%, group 3). The vertebral alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity was significantly lower in the enriched diet groups than in controls (-47%, group 2; -45%, group 3). The ratio alkaline phosphatase/acid phosphatase activity was markedly reduced in groups 2 and 3 (-57% and -59%, respectively), which might indicate a diminished rate of bone turnover. The trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) decreased in all groups during senescence, being significantly elevated in group 3 as compared to controls. Vitamin D and calcium dietary supplementations increase the axial mineral bone content in laboratory rats and might reduce the bone turnover. Their influence on the trabecular bone volume has yet to be examined.

  3. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  4. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  5. Effect of diet on insulin binding and glucose transport in rat sarcolemmal vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Grimditch, G.K.; Barnard, R.J.; Sternlicht, E.; Whitson, R.H.; Kaplan, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFS) and a low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet (LFC) on glucose tolerance, insulin binding, and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. During the intravenous glucose tolerance test, peak glucose values at 5 min were significantly higher in the HFS group; 0-, 20-, and 60-min values were similar. Insulin values were significantly higher in the HFS group at all time points (except 60 min), indicating whole-body insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle was responsible, in part, for this insulin resistance, because specific D-glucose transport in isolated sarcolemmal (SL) vesicles under basal conditions was similar between LFC and HFS rats, despite the higher plasma insulin levels. Scatchard analyses of insulin binding curves to sarcolemmal vesicles revealed that the K/sub a/ of the high-affinity binding sites was significantly reduced by the HFS diet; no other binding changes were noted. Specific D-glucose transport in SL vesicles after maximum insulin stimulation (1 U/kg) was significantly depressed in the HFS group, indicating that HFS feeding also caused a postbinding defect. These results indicate that the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle associated with a HFS diet is due to both a decrease in the K/sub a/ of the high-affinity insulin receptors and a postbinding defect.

  6. Protective effect of lycopene on high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Jin; Wang, Jian; Li, Yuxia; Xiao, Li; Duan, Dan; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-08-01

    A Western diet, high in saturated fats, has been linked to the development of cognitive impairment. Lycopene has recently received considerable attention for its potent protective properties demonstrated in several models of nervous system dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether lycopene exerts protective effects on cognition. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lycopene on learning and memory impairment and the potential underlying mechanism in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). One-month-old male rats were fed different diets for 16 weeks (n=12 per group), including a standard chow diet (CD), a HFD, or a HFD plus lycopene (4mg/kg, oral gavage in the last three weeks). Behavioral testing, including the Morris water maze (MWM), object recognition task (ORT), and anxiety-like behavior in an open field (OF), were assessed at week 16. The dendritic spine density and neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 subfield were subsequently measured. The results indicate that HFD consumption for 16 weeks significantly impaired spatial memory (P<0.001), working memory (P<0.01), and object recognition memory (P<0.01), decreased the dendritic spine density (P<0.001), damaged pyramidal neurons in the CA1 subfield (P<0.001) compared with the CD group. However, lycopene significantly attenuated learning and memory impairments and prevented the reduction in dendritic spine density (P<0.001). Thus, this study indicated that lycopene helps to protect HFD induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27177726

  7. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Abu, Mohd Nazri; Samat, Suhana; Kamarapani, Norathirah; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC) which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD) which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC), and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO). After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%), adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L), total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L), blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L), resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL), and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL) hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL) and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L) hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet. PMID:25821506

  8. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamarapani, Norathirah; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC) which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD) which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC), and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO). After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%), adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L), total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L), blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L), resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL), and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL) hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL) and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L) hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet. PMID:25821506

  9. [COLD and HOT nature of Coptis & Evodia and their prescriptions investigated with diet restriction/cold-water swimming mice models].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-shen; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhang, Xue-ru; Zhou, Can-ping; Xiao, Xiao-he; Jin, Cheng

    2009-11-01

    To establish a new method to evaluate the COLD and HOT nature of Coptis & Evodia and their prescriptions Zuojinwan and Fanzuojinwan. Physical models of mice were established by diet restriction with cold-water swimming (weak model, WM) and fed with high protein animal feeds (strong model, SM). An instrument with cold and hot pads was used to investigate the variation of temperature tropism among SM and WM groups of mice affected by drugs. Meanwhile, the oxygen consumption and activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were detected, in order to investigate the mechanism of energy metabolism which might be affected by these drugs. The results showed that the drug effects gradually changed in an order of "Coptis-->Zuojinwan--> Fanzuojinwan-->Evodia". In detail, Coptis increased the remaining rate (RR) of mice on hot pad, decreased oxygen consumption and ATPase activity (n=6, P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), w