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Sample records for diet restricted rats

  1. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-11-15

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD{sub 100} dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha} and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 {+-}14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 {+-} 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMP{alpha}2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}mol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 {+-} 1.9 {mu}mol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway.

  2. Time-restricted feeding on weekdays restricts weight gain: A study using rat models of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Magnus Kringstad; Choi, Man Hung; Kulseng, Bård; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2017-05-01

    A recent study reported that a special weekly scheduled time-restricted feeding regimen (TRF), i.e., no food consumption for 15h during the light (inactive) phase per day for 5 weekdays, attenuated the outcome of diverse nutritional challenges in response to high-fat diet in mice. In the present study, we wanted to further test whether this TRF could restrict body weight gain in both juvenile and adult animals when fed a high-fat diet. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats at ages from 5 to 27weeks were used. First, we found that freely fed rats with 60% fat diet gained weight significantly, which was associated with more calorie intake (particularly during light phase) than those fed standard food (7% fat). Secondly, we found that TRF restricted high-fat diet-induced weight gain in both groups of juvenile rats (5 and 13weeks of age) compared to freely fed rats with high-fat diet, despite the same levels of 24h-calorie intake during either weekdays or the weekend. Thirdly, we found that TRF did not restrict high-fat diet-induce weight gain in adult rats (27weeks of age). Thus, we suggest that this special TRF regimen could be further tested in humans (particularly young adults) for the purpose of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  4. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  5. Plasma lipid levels and body weight altered by intrauterine growth restriction and postnatal fructose diet in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Malo, Elina; Saukko, Meiju; Santaniemi, Merja; Hietaniemi, Mirella; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2013-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is known to affect the risk of adult diseases. Consumption of lipogenic fructose is increasing, and it is used as an enhancer of metabolic syndrome in rat experiments. The effects of IUGR, postnatal fructose diet, and their interaction on the lipid profile and adiposity were studied in adult rats. IUGR was induced by providing pregnant rats with 50% of daily food intake. From 1 mo onward, half of the offspring received a fructose-rich diet and were then followed to the age of 1 and 6 mo, when plasma lipid, glucose, and insulin levels were measured. The adipose tissue was visualized by magnetic resonance imaging at the age of 6 mo. IUGR and fructose diet decreased body weight in adult rats. IUGR increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 6-mo-old rats. The fructose diet evoked hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia in both the sexes and decreased fasting glucose levels in female rats. Postnatal fructose diet increased lipid content percentage in the retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal adipose tissues in male rats. Interactions between IUGR and postnatal fructose diet were observed in adult weight in males. These results demonstrate the importance of IUGR and fructose diet in adverse changes in lipid and glucose metabolism.

  6. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27649241

  7. Short-term effects of sleeve gastrectomy and caloric restriction on blood pressure in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Amaia; Becerril, Sara; Valentí, Víctor; Moncada, Rafael; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Ramírez, Beatriz; Lancha, Andoni; Martín, Marina; Burrell, María A; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-09-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy constitutes an effective surgical procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity. The aim of the present study was to establish the effects of sleeve gastrectomy and caloric restriction on weight loss and cardiovascular parameters in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Male Wistar DIO rats were subjected to surgical interventions (n = 30) (sham operation, sleeve gastrectomy, or pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by sleeve-gastrectomized animals and compared to lean control rats) or dietary interventions (n = 40) (fed ad libitum a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet or an ND with a caloric restriction of 25 %). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure values and heart rate (HR) were recorded in conscious, resting animals by noninvasive tail-cuff plethysmography before and 3 weeks after surgical or dietary interventions. Both sleeve gastrectomy and caloric restriction induced a reduction in body weight, whole-body adiposity, and serum leptin together with an increased excess weight loss in DIO rats. Sleeve gastrectomy was further associated with an improvement in insulin resistance and the lipid profile, as well as with a reduction in serum ghrelin levels. A decrease in HR and heart weight was observed in caloric-restricted groups. Sleeve-gastrectomized rats not only exhibited a reduction in HR (∆HR = -45 ± 19 bpm) but also in SBP values (∆SBP = -22 ± 10 mmHg) compared to the DIO rats (∆SBP = 14 ± 8 mmHg). Our findings provide evidence that the beneficial effects of sleeve gastrectomy on blood pressure values are beyond weight loss in rats with diet-induced obesity.

  8. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  9. High fat diet and food restriction differentially modify the behavioral effects of quinpirole and raclopride in rats.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2009-05-21

    Nutritional status can impact dopamine systems in a manner that might be important to understanding possible common neurobiological mechanisms that mediate abnormal compulsive food (e.g., obesity) and drug taking. Limiting food intake, for example, can increase sensitivity to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Much less is known regarding possible diet-induced changes in sensitivity to direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs. The present study investigated the effects of a high fat diet and of food restriction on sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist and a dopamine receptor antagonist. Free access to high fat chow increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning without changing sensitivity to raclopride-induced catalepsy or quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Food restriction (10 g/day) decreased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and raclopride-induced catalepsy without affecting sensitivity to quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Free access to a standard chow restored sensitivity to the behavioral effects of both drugs in rats that were previously food-restricted but not in rats that previously ate a high fat diet. These data confirm that food restriction can decrease sensitivity to behavioral effects of direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs, they provide evidence (i.e., no change in hypothermic effects) indicating that these changes are not due to pharmacokinetic mechanisms, and they provide initial evidence showing enhanced sensitivity to behavioral effects of dopamine receptor drugs in rats eating a high fat diet. These changes in sensitivity of dopamine systems could be relevant to understanding the impact of nutrition on therapeutic and recreational drug use.

  10. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal changes in tissue repair permit survival of diet-restricted rats from an acute lethal dose of thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, S K; Bucci, T J; Warbritton, A; Soni, M G; Mehendale, H M

    1998-10-01

    Although, diet restriction (DR) has been shown to substantially increase longevity while reducing or delaying the onset of age-related diseases, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of DR on acute toxic outcomes. An earlier study (S. K. Ramaiah et al., 1998, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 150, 12-21) revealed that a 35% DR compared to ad libitum (AL) feeding leads to a substantial increase in liver injury of thioacetamide (TA) at a low dose (50 mg/kg, i.p.). Higher liver injury was accompanied by enhanced survival. A prompt and enhanced tissue repair response in DR rats at the low dose (sixfold higher liver injury) occurred, whereas at equitoxic doses (50 mg/kg in DR and 600 mg/kg in AL rats) tissue repair in AL rats was substantially diminished and delayed. The extent of liver injury did not appear to be closely related to the extent of stimulated tissue repair response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the time course (0-120 h) of liver injury and liver tissue repair at the high dose (600 mg TA/kg, i.p., lethal in AL rats) in AL and DR rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (225-275 g) were 35% diet restricted compared to their AL cohorts for 21 days and on day 22 they received a single dose of TA (600 mg/kg, i.p.). Liver injury was assessed by plasma ALT and by histopathological examination of liver sections. Tissue repair was assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation into hepatonuclear DNA and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry during 0-120 h after TA injection. In AL-fed rats hepatic necrosis was evident at 12 h, peaked at 60 h, and persisted thereafter until mortality (3 to 6 days). Peak liver injury was approximately twofold higher in DR rats compared to that seen in AL rats. Hepatic necrosis was evident at 36 h, peaked at 48 h, persisted until 96 h, and returned to normal by 120 h. Light microscopy of liver sections revealed progression of hepatic injury in AL rats whereas injury regressed

  12. [Effect of high-fat diet and food restriction on energy metabolism in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Junxia; Zheng, Long; Lian, Weiguang; Liu, Shufeng

    2015-09-01

    To explore the effect of high-fat diet and food restriction on energy metabolism in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into OP, OR and control groups according to their body weight gain after fed with high-fat diet for 3 wk. OP and OR groups were fed with high-fat diet in the following 12 wk to promote the development of obesity. Then one-half of the rats of each group began to food restriction and were allowed access to 50% of their individual baseline mean daily food intake each day, while the other half were maintained on ad libitum food for 2 wk. Basal metabolic rate (BMR), resting metabolic rate (RMR) of each group were measured by indirect calorimetry during the high-fat diet feeding and food restriction conditions. After the rats were sacrificed, body fat content was measured. OR rats had significantly higher BMR and RMR than the other two groups during high-fat diet feeding condition. There was no significant difference between OP and control group. Food restriction led to a reduction in BMR and RMR in all groups. OR rats showed a significantly greater reduction. OP group showed a significant decrease in body fat weight and fat content during the food restriction period, while there was no significant differences in OR rats. There are significant differences between OP and OR rats in BMR and RMR either in high-fat diet feeding condition or food restricted state. OR rat has the ability to sense and respond to energy imbalance more accurately than OP rat.

  13. Dietary restriction in moderately obese rats improves body size and glucose handling without the renal and hepatic alterations observed with a high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Jessay G; Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Ibrahim, Naser H M; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; House, James D; Aukema, Harold M

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is increasing worldwide, and high-protein (HP) diets are widely used for weight loss. However, the overall safety of HP diets is not well established in obese individuals, who make up a significant proportion of the population. To evaluate the health effects of an HP diet in obesity, obesity-prone (OP) Sprague-Dawley rats were given high-fat diets for 12 weeks to induce obesity. Following this, for 8 more weeks, these rats were given either a normal-protein (NP) (15% of energy) or an HP (35% of energy) diet ad libitum, or the NP diet at a restricted level to achieve body weights similar to those of the HP group (pair-weighted (PW) group). Obesity-resistant (OR) control rats were also given the NP diet throughout the feeding period. The HP-OP group had higher food intake but lower body weight, improved glucose handling, and lowered serum haptoglobin compared with the NP-OP group. These benefits were also observed in PW-OP rats. In addition, PW-OP rats had less fat accumulation when compared with NP-OP rats, and an improved Lee index, lower liver size, and lower serum alanine aminotransferase when compared with HP-OP rats. On the other hand, kidney size, proteinuria, and serum homocysteine were increased in HP-OP rats compared with NP-OP rats, whereas PW-OP rats did not experience these effects. These results indicate that in obese rats, more benefits are obtained via dietary restriction with an NP diet and without some of the potentially detrimental effects of an HP diet.

  14. Energy restriction only slightly influences protein metabolism in obese rats, whatever the level of protein and its source in the diet.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, L; Bos, C; Azzout-Marniche, D; Fromentin, G; Mosoni, L; Hafnaoui, N; Piedcoq, J; Tomé, D; Gaudichon, C

    2013-02-01

    High protein (HP) diets during energy restriction have been studied extensively regarding their ability to reduce body fat and preserve lean body mass, but little is known about their effects on protein metabolism in lean tissues. To determine the effects of energy restriction and protein intake on protein anabolism and catabolism in rats. For 5 weeks, 56 male Wistar rats were fed an obesity induction (OI) diet . They were then subjected to a 40% energy restriction using the OI diet or a balanced HP diet for 3 weeks, whereas a control group was fed the OI diet ad libitum (n=8 per group). HP-restricted rats were divided into five groups differing only in terms of their protein source: total milk proteins, casein (C), whey (W), a mix of 50% C and W, and soy (n=8). The animals were then killed in the postprandial state and their body composition was determined. Protein synthesis rates were determined in the liver, gastrocnemius and kidney using a subcutaneous (13)C valine flooding dose. mRNA levels were measured for key enzymes involved in the three proteolysis pathways. Energy restriction, but not diet composition, impacted weight loss and adiposity, whereas lean tissue mass (except in the kidney) was not influenced by diet composition. Levels of neoglucogenic amino acids tended to fall under energy restriction (P<0.06) but this was reversed by a high level of protein. The postprandial protein synthesis rates in different organs were similar in all groups. By contrast, mRNA levels encoding proteolytic enzymes rose under energy restriction in the muscle and kidney, but this was counteracted by a HP level. In adult obese rats, energy restriction but not diet composition affected fat pads and had little impact on protein metabolism, despite marked effects on proteolysis in the kidney and muscle.

  15. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation. PMID:25892856

  17. Prenatal Food Restriction with Postweaning High-fat Diet Alters Glucose Metabolic Function in Adult Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Di; Kou, Hao; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal food restriction (PFR) with postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) on glucose metabolic function in adult offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were given PFR treatment from gestational day 11 to spontaneous delivery. All pups were fed by HFD after weaning. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted at postnatal week (PW) 20. Rats were decapitated in PW24 to collect liver and pancreas, and expression of hepatic insulin signaling genes were then quantified. Body weight from PW4 to PW24 in PFR males was lower than those in control males, whereas there was no distinct difference between females. However, body weight gain rates were higher from PW16 to PW24 in PFR males and females. Fasting serum glucose presented no changes, whereas fasting serum insulin decreased in PW20 in PFR pups. Moreover, glucose intolerance only appeared in PFR males, whereas no changes were shown in PFR females in relative values. Serum insulin increased in both PFR groups after OGTT. Remarkable pathological changes were also found in islets from PFR rats. There was an increase in the hepatic mRNA expression of IR in PFR females and of Glut2 in PFR males. PFR with postweaning HFD induced a catch-up growth in body weight, especially in PFR females. Serum insulin decreased in both PFR groups in fasting status. Insulin resistance after OGTT only existed in PFR males, whereas PFR females showed no obvious changes in glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comparative Genotoxicity Study of a Supraphysiological Dose of Triiodothyronine (T3) in Obese Rats Subjected to Either Calorie-Restricted Diet or Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Luvizotto, Renata Azevedo Melo; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Corrêa, Camila Renata; Marino, Juliana; de Oliveira, Miriane; Conde, Sandro José; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia dos Anjos; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3) in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10) and obese (OB; n = 40). The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20) were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR), whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS) given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10), and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10) for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress. PMID:23468891

  19. Moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats programs their offspring for a better response to HF diet feeding in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Palou, Mariona; Torrens, Juana María; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats on the expression of key genes involved in energy balance of their adult offspring (CR) and their adaptations under high-fat (HF) diet. Dams were fed with either ad libitum normal-fat (NF) diet or a 30% caloric restricted diet throughout lactation. After weaning, the offspring were fed with NF diet until the age of 15 weeks and then with an NF or a HF diet until the age of 28 weeks, when they were sacrificed. Body weight and food intake were followed. Blood parameters and the expression of selected genes in hypothalamus and white adipose tissue (WAT) were analysed. CR ate fewer calories and showed lower body weight gain under HF diet than their controls. CR males were also resistant to the increase of insulin and leptin occurring in their controls under HF diet, and HF diet exposed CR females showed lower circulating fasting triglyceride levels than controls. In the hypothalamus, CR males had higher ObRb mRNA levels than controls, and CR females displayed greater InsR mRNA levels than controls and decreased neuropeptide Y mRNA levels when exposed to HF diet. CR males maintained WAT capacity of fat uptake and storage and of fatty-acid oxidation under HF diet, whereas these capacities were impaired in controls; female CR showed higher WAT ObRb mRNA levels than controls. These results suggest that 30% caloric restriction in lactating dams ameliorates diet-induced obesity in their offspring by enhancing their sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling, but in a gender-dependent manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diurnal rhythms of blood glucose, serum ghrelin, faecal IgA and faecal corticosterone in rats subjected to restricted feeding using the diet board.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, Iiris; Inhilä, Katja; Savontaus, Eriika; Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Õkva, Kai; Mering, Satu; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Hau, Jann; Laaksonen, Sakari; Nevalainen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory rats are generally fed ad libitum, although this method is associated with obesity and an increased frequency of spontaneous tumours. It has been challenging looking for ways to limit feed consumption in group-housed rats without any setbacks to animal welfare and scientific results. The diet board, as a method of dietary restriction, was used in the present study. Diet board feeding allows group housing and should result in enhanced welfare compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction. With respect to animal model robustness and translatability of results it is important that the feeding regime does not affect diurnal rhythmicity of biological parameters. In the present study the effects of diet board feeding on diurnal rhythms of blood glucose, serum ghrelin, faecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and faecal corticosterone were assessed. The diet board did not alter diurnal rhythms, and adds weight to the use of this method for dietary restriction which should benefit animal health and the validity of scientific results generated from the animals.

  1. Resveratrol and caloric restriction prevent hepatic steatosis by regulating SIRT1-autophagy pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shibin; Jiang, Jinjin; Zhang, Guofu; Bu, Yongjun; Zhang, Guanghui; Zhao, Xiangmei

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (40) were divided into four groups: the STD group, which was fed a standard chow diet; the HFD group, which was fed a high-fat diet; HFD-RES group, which was fed a high-fat diet plus resveratrol (200 mg/kg.bw); and the HFD-CR group, which was fed a high-fat diet in portions containing 70% of the mean intake of the HFD group rats. The groups were maintained for 18 weeks. Metabolic parameters, Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the liver, and the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1, autophagy markers and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress-associated genes in the liver were assessed after the 18-week treatment. We found that resveratrol (200 mg/kg bw) and caloric restriction (30%) partially prevented hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, increased the expression of SIRT1 and autophagy markers while decreasing ER stress markers in the liver and alleviated lipid metabolism disorder. Moreover, caloric restriction provided superior protection against HFD-induced hepatic fatty accumulation compared with resveratrol and the effects were associated with decreased total energy intake and body weight. We conclude that the SIRT1-autophagy pathway and decreased ER stress are universally required for the protective effects of moderate caloric restriction (30%) and resveratrol (a pharmacological SIRT1 activator) supplementation

  2. A high calcium, skim milk powder diet results in a lower fat mass in male, energy-restricted, obese rats more than a low calcium, casein, or soy protein diet.

    PubMed

    Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2010-07-01

    The combination of dairy protein and dietary calcium (Ca) may enhance weight loss more effectively than either compound alone. Our purpose in this study was to determine the effect of various protein sources [skim milk powder (SMP), whey, casein, and soy protein isolate (SPI)] and 2 levels of Ca [low, 0.67% Ca (LC) or high, 2.4% Ca (HC)] on weight loss. Sixty-four 12-wk-old Sprague-Dawley, diet-induced obese rats were assigned to 1 of 8 energy-restricted (ER) diets for 4 wk with 1 of the 4 protein sources and either LC or HC concentrations. Rats were ER to 70% of the ad libitum food and energy intake of a reference group (n = 8) fed the AIN-93M diet. The interaction between dietary protein and Ca affected final body weight and fat mass (FM) (P < 0.05). FM was less in rats fed SMP-HC than in those fed casein-LC or SPI-LC. Lean body mass was greater in rats fed SMP than in those fed whey. Rats fed HC diets had a lower plasma glucagon area under the curve (AUC) than those fed LC diets. The blood glucose AUC, homeostatic model of insulin resistance, and the expression of certain hepatic genes involved in energy metabolism were affected by protein and Ca. These data suggest that consuming a diet containing SMP and HC is associated with a lower FM in obese, male, ER rats than in diets containing casein or SPI and LC; however, the role of SMP and Ca in glucose homeostasis remains to be determined.

  3. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K. N.; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  4. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-05-20

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity.

  5. Genomic and metabolic responses to methionine-restricted and methionine-restricted, cysteine-supplemented diets in Fischer 344 rat inguinal adipose tissue, liver and quadriceps muscle.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Carmen E; Mattocks, Dwight A L; Plummer, Jason D; Chittur, Sridar V; Mohney, Rob; Vignola, Katie; Orentreich, David S; Orentreich, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Methionine restriction (MR) is a dietary intervention that increases lifespan, reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity. These effects are reversed by supplementation of the MR diet with cysteine (MRC). Genomic and metabolomic studies were conducted to identify potential mechanisms by which MR induces favorable metabolic effects, and that are reversed by cysteine supplementation. Gene expression was examined by microarray analysis and TaqMan quantitative PCR. Levels of selected proteins were measured by Western blot and metabolic intermediates were analyzed by mass spectrometry. MR increased lipid metabolism in inguinal adipose tissue and quadriceps muscle while it decreased lipid synthesis in liver. In inguinal adipose tissue, MR not only caused the transcriptional upregulation of genes associated with fatty acid synthesis but also of Lpin1, Pc, Pck1 and Pdk1, genes that are associated with glyceroneogenesis. MR also upregulated lipolysis-associated genes in inguinal fat and led to increased oxidation in this tissue, as suggested by higher levels of methionine sulfoxide and 13-HODE + 9-HODE compared to control-fed (CF) rats. Moreover, MR caused a trend toward the downregulation of inflammation-associated genes in inguinal adipose tissue. MRC reversed most gene and metabolite changes induced by MR in inguinal adipose tissue, but drove the expression of Elovl6, Lpin1, Pc, and Pdk1 below CF levels. In liver, MR decreased levels of a number of long-chain fatty acids, glycerol and glycerol-3-phosphate corresponding with the gene expression data. Although MR increased the expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, levels of glycolytic intermediates were below CF levels. MR, however, stimulated gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in liver tissue. As previously reported, sulfur amino acids derived from methionine were decreased in liver by MR, but homocysteine levels were elevated. Increased liver homocysteine levels by MR were associated with

  6. Intrauterine growth restriction combined with a maternal high-fat diet increases hepatic cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Zalla, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Jeanette R; Yu, Baifeng; Yu, Xing; Chan, Gary; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) increase the risk of hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Many pregnant women eat a HFD, thus exposing the fetus to a HFD in utero. The cumulative effect of in utero exposure to IUGR and a HFD on offspring cholesterol levels remains unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanism through which IUGR and maternal HFD consumption increase cholesterol. We hypothesize that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD would increase offspring serum and hepatic cholesterol accumulation via alteration in levels of key proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. To test our hypothesis we used a rat model of surgically induced IUGR and fed the dams a regular diet or a HFD HFD-fed dams consumed the same kilocalories as regular diet-fed dams, with no difference between surgical intervention groups. In the offspring, IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increased hepatic cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein levels, and Ldlr activity in female rat offspring at birth and both sexes at postnatal day 14 relative to non-IUGR offspring both from regular diet- and HFD-fed dams. These findings suggest that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increases hepatic cholesterol accumulation via increased LDL cholesterol uptake into the liver with resulting persistent increases in hepatic cholesterol accumulation.

  7. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span.

  8. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Fábio da Silva; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib), receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR), receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF), receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels), abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth) and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females). Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters), probably through different biological mechanisms.

  9. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  10. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  11. A moderate diet restriction during pregnancy alters the levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related lipids in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of rat offspring in a sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemi; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Bindila, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition during pregnancy has been associated to increased vulnerability to develop metabolic and behavior alterations later in life. The endocannabinoid system might play an important role in these processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a moderate maternal calorie-restricted diet on the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the brain of newborn rat offspring. We focused on brain structures involved in metabolism, feeding behavior, as well as emotional and cognitive responses. Female Wistar rats were assigned during the entire pregnancy to either control diet (C) or restriction diet (R), consisting of a 20% calorie-restricted diet. Weight gain and caloric intake of rat dams were monitored and birth outcomes were assessed. 2-AG, AA and NAE levels were measured in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of the offspring. R dams displayed lower gain weight from the middle pregnancy and consumed less calories during the entire pregnancy. Offspring from R dams were underweight at birth, but litter size was unaffected. In hypothalamus, R male offspring displayed decreased levels of AA and OEA, with no change in the levels of the endocannabinoids 2-AG and AEA. R female exhibited decreased 2-AG and PEA levels. The opposite was found in the hippocampus, where R male displayed increased 2-AG and AA levels, and R female exhibited elevated levels of AEA, AA and PEA. In the olfactory bulb, only R female presented decreased levels of AEA, AA and PEA. Therefore, a moderate diet restriction during the entire pregnancy alters differentially the endocannabinoids and/or endocannabinoid-related lipids in hypothalamus and hippocampus of the underweight offspring, similarly in both sexes, whereas sex-specific alterations occur in the olfactory bulb. Consequently, endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid

  12. A moderate diet restriction during pregnancy alters the levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related lipids in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemi; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Bindila, Laura; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition during pregnancy has been associated to increased vulnerability to develop metabolic and behavior alterations later in life. The endocannabinoid system might play an important role in these processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a moderate maternal calorie-restricted diet on the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the brain of newborn rat offspring. We focused on brain structures involved in metabolism, feeding behavior, as well as emotional and cognitive responses. Female Wistar rats were assigned during the entire pregnancy to either control diet (C) or restriction diet (R), consisting of a 20% calorie-restricted diet. Weight gain and caloric intake of rat dams were monitored and birth outcomes were assessed. 2-AG, AA and NAE levels were measured in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of the offspring. R dams displayed lower gain weight from the middle pregnancy and consumed less calories during the entire pregnancy. Offspring from R dams were underweight at birth, but litter size was unaffected. In hypothalamus, R male offspring displayed decreased levels of AA and OEA, with no change in the levels of the endocannabinoids 2-AG and AEA. R female exhibited decreased 2-AG and PEA levels. The opposite was found in the hippocampus, where R male displayed increased 2-AG and AA levels, and R female exhibited elevated levels of AEA, AA and PEA. In the olfactory bulb, only R female presented decreased levels of AEA, AA and PEA. Therefore, a moderate diet restriction during the entire pregnancy alters differentially the endocannabinoids and/or endocannabinoid-related lipids in hypothalamus and hippocampus of the underweight offspring, similarly in both sexes, whereas sex-specific alterations occur in the olfactory bulb. Consequently, endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid

  13. Differential effects of calorie restriction and involuntary wheel running on body composition and bone structure in diet-induced obese rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weight reduction is recommended to reduce obesity-related health disorders. This study investigated the differential effects of weight reduction through caloric restriction and/or physical activity on bone structure and molecular characteristics of bone metabolism in an obese rat model. We tested th...

  14. Sulfur amino acids in methionine-restricted rats: hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Amany K; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; Mattocks, Dwight A L; Perrone, Carmen E

    2010-01-01

    Dietary methionine restriction in Fischer-344 rats favorably influences visceral fat mass, insulin sensitivity, metabolic parameters, and longevity. However, little is known about the effects of methionine restriction on serum methionine and its downstream sulfur amino acids. We investigated the serum sulfur amino acid profile of male Fischer-344 rats fed a methionine-restricted diet for 3 mo. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we observed marked reduction in serum concentrations of methionine, cystathionine, cysteine, and taurine in methionine-restricted rats compared with control (P<0.001) and a 2.5-fold elevation of homocysteine (P<0.001). This suggests that homocysteine trans-sulfuration may be inhibited by methionine restriction, and that some of the effects of methionine restriction may be mediated by changes in sulfur amino acids downstream of methionine. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Iron-restricted pair-feeding affects renal damage in rats with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Yoshiro; Senchi, Aya; Sawada, Hisashi; Oboshi, Makiko; Horimatsu, Tetsuo; Okuno, Keisuke; Yasumura, Seiki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that dietary iron restriction prevents the development of renal damage in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, iron deficiency is associated with appetite loss. In addition, calorie restriction is reported to prevent the development of end-stage renal pathology in CKD rats. Thus, the beneficial effect of iron restriction on renal damage may depend on calorie restriction. Here, we investigate the effect of pair-feeding iron restriction on renal damage in a rat model of CKD. Methods First, to determine the amount of food intake, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly given an ad libitum normal diet or an iron-restricted diet, and the food intake was measured. Second, CKD was induced by a 5/6 nephrectomy in SD rats, and CKD rats were given either a pair-feeding normal or iron-restricted diet. Results Food intake was reduced in the iron-restricted diet group compared to the normal diet group of SD rats for 16 weeks (mean food intake; normal diet group and iron-restricted diet group: 25 and 20 g/day, respectively). Based on the initial experiments, CKD rats received either a pair-feeding normal or iron-restricted diet (20 g/day) for 16 weeks. Importantly, pair-feeding iron restriction prevented the development of proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial damage in CKD rats. Interestingly, pair-feeding iron restriction attenuated renal expression of nuclear mineralocorticoid receptor in CKD rats. Conclusions Pair-feeding iron restriction affected renal damage in a rat model of CKD. PMID:28196143

  16. [Effect of dosed diet restriction on physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone].

    PubMed

    Levashov, M I; Ianko, R V; Chaka, E G; Safonov, S L

    2014-07-01

    The effect of dosed diet restriction on the physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone tissue was studied in 48 male Wistar rats 3- and 18-months of age. The rate of bone tissue apposition was studied by the dynamic histomorphometry method (intravital tetracycline labeling). Electric potentials on the periosteal surface of the freshly isolated femurs were recorded. The magnitude of dielectric loss factor was determined to assess the quality of bone tissue. The control rats received a standard diet. The experimental rats received a limited diet (60 % of the standard mass) for 28 days. The magnitude and rate of the bone tissue apposition on the endosteal and periosteal surface of the tibia were less by 38.4% and 122.7% respectively in experimental rats after dosed diet restriction. Electric potential in the metaphyseal-epiphyseal growth zones of the femur was 29.7% lower, and the dielectric loss factor increased by 15.8%. The bone tissue apposition rate and the electric potential magnitude were increased 10 days after completion of the dosed diet restriction. The magnitude of the dielectric loss factor decreased after returning to the standard diet. Key words: dosed diet restriction, bone, remodelling, bioelectric properties.

  17. Maternal low protein diet restricted to the preimplantation period induces a gender-specific change on hepatic gene expression in rat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Wing Yee; Miller, Daniel J; Wilkins, Adrian P; Dear, Mark S; Wright, J Neville; Osmond, Clive; Zhang, Junlong; Fleming, Tom P

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown previously that maternal low protein diet (LPD) throughout rat gestation altered hepatic gene expression and enzyme activities in offspring. Here, we investigate the effect of maternal LPD (9% casein vs. 18% control) exclusively during the preimplantation period (switched diet group) or provided throughout gestation on hepatic gene expression in day 20 fetuses. Using quantitative competitive PCR, we found that switched diet induced a two-fold increase (P = 0.008) in hepatic gene expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, a rate limiting enzyme for gluconeogenesis) in male fetuses and a 17% increase (P = 0.005) in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1, acts primarily as a reductase to produce active glucocorticoid) in female liver compared with control fetuses. Maternal LPD administered throughout gestation increased 11beta-HSD1 expression in male fetal liver by 27% (P = 0.042) compared with controls. However, maternal LPD fed for either period did not affect fetal hepatic insulin receptor (IR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), glycogen synthase (GS) nor placental glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and 3 (Glut3) transcript levels. The alteration in fetal hepatic gene expression could not be attributed specifically to known regulators including insulin or glucose concentrations in fetal blood nor alteration in cAMP in fetal liver, although a combination of these regulatory factors may be responsible. Fetal hepatic glycogen level was unaffected by maternal diet. The present findings show that the long term potential of the preimplantation embryo is sensitive to maternal LPD such that basal levels of hepatic gene expression in day 20 fetuses are altered in a gender-specific manner.

  18. Long-term, calorie-restricted intake of a high-fat diet in rats reduces impulse control and ventral striatal D2 receptor signalling - two markers of addiction vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy K; Sussman, Jacob L; Kaur, Sukhbir; D'souza, Anna M; Kieffer, Timothy J; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2015-12-01

    High impulsivity, mediated through ventral striatal dopamine signalling, represents an established risk factor for substance abuse, and may likewise confer vulnerability to pathological overeating. Mechanistically, the assumption is that trait impulsivity facilitates the initiation of maladaptive eating styles or choices. However, whether consumption of appetitive macronutrients themselves causes deficits in impulse control and striatal signalling, thereby contributing to cognitive changes permissive of overeating behaviour, has yet to be considered. We examined the effects of chronic maintenance on restricted equicaloric, but high-fat or high-sugar, diets (48 kcal/day; 60 kcal% fat or sucrose) on rats' performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task, indexing impulsivity and attention. Markers of dopamine signalling in the dorsal and ventral striatum, and plasma insulin and leptin levels, were also assessed. Rats maintained on the high-fat diet (HFD) were more impulsive, whereas the high-sugar diet (HSD) did not alter task performance. Importantly, body weight and hormone levels were similar between groups when behavioural changes were observed. Maintenance on HFD, but not on HSD, reduced the levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2 R), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphophorylated CREB (Ser133) proteins in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum. D2 R expression in the ventral striatum also negatively correlated with impulsive responding, independently of diet. These data indicate that chronic exposure to even limited amounts of high-fat foods may weaken impulse control and alter neural signalling in a manner associated with vulnerability to addictions - findings that have serious implications for the propagation of uncontrolled eating behaviour in obesity and binge-eating disorder.

  19. A light- and electron-microscope study of hepatocytes of rats fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Douglas A; Chapman, George B

    2007-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are used in the treatment of epilepsy in children refractory to drug therapy. This study identifies changes in liver morphology in rats fed four different diets: a normal rodent chow diet, a calorie-restricted high-fat (ketogenic) diet and each diet supplemented with clofibric acid. Hepatocytes of rats fed the ketogenic diet show many lipid droplets and these are reduced to control levels when clofibrate is present in the diet. Mitochondria are enlarged in the livers of rats fed the ketogenic diet and further enlarged if clofibrate is present. Alterations in the appearance or numbers of other organelles are also found.

  20. Prenatal food restriction induces poor-quality articular cartilage in female rat offspring fed a post-weaning high-fat diet and its intra-uterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Ni, Qubo; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Wang, Linlong; Shen, Lang; Liu, Yansong; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological data show that osteoarthritis (OA) is significantly associated with lower birth weight, and that OA may be a type of fetal-originated adult disease. The present study aimed to investigate the prenatal food-restriction (PFR) effect on the quality of articular cartilage in female offspring to explore the underlying mechanisms of fetal-originated OA. Maternal rats were fed a restricted diet from gestational day (GD) 11 to 20 to induce intra-uterine growth retardation. Female fetuses and female adult offspring fed a post-weaning high-fat diet were killed at GD20 and postnatal week 24, respectively. Serum and knee cartilage samples from fetuses and adult female offspring were collected and examined for cholesterol metabolism and histology. Fetal serum corticosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the PFR group were lower than those of the control, but the serum cholesterol level was not changed. The lower expression of IGF-1 in the PFR group lasted into adulthood. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, including type II collagen, aggrecan and cholesterol efflux genes including liver X receptor, were significantly induced, but the ATP-binding-cassette transporter A1 was unchanged. PFR could induce a reduction in ECM synthesis and impaired cholesterol efflux in female offspring, and eventually led to poor quality of articular cartilage and OA.

  1. Both Food Restriction and High-Fat Diet during Gestation Induce Low Birth Weight and Altered Physical Activity in Adult Rat Offspring: The “Similarities in the Inequalities” Model

    PubMed Central

    Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called “Similarities in the Inequalities”, in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the “similarities in the inequalities” phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib), receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR), receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam’s habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF), receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels), abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The “similarities in the inequalities” effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth) and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females). Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters), probably through different biological mechanisms. PMID:25738800

  2. Diet restriction enhances compensatory liver tissue repair and survival following administration of lethal dose of thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, S K; Soni, M G; Bucci, T J; Mehendale, H M

    1998-05-01

    Diet restriction is known to prevent a plethora of age-associated diseases including cancer. However, the effects of diet restriction on noncancer end points are not known. The objective of this study was to investigate whether diet restriction protects against hepatotoxicity of thioacetamide (TA), and if so, to investigate the underlying mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on 65% of their ad libitum (AL) food consumption for a period of 3 weeks and then treated with a single low dose of 50 mg TA/kg i.p.. Plasma enzymes (ALT and SDH), hepatic glycogen levels, and 3H-thymidine incorporation into hepatocellular nuclear DNA were measured during a time course (0-120 h) after TA administration. Liver sections were examined for histopathology, and cell-cycle progression was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry. In AL rats hepatic necrosis was evident at 12 h, peaked at 36 h, persisted up to 72 h, and was resolved by 96 h. In the diet-restricted (DR) group hepatic necrosis was observed at 12 h, peaked at 24 h, persisted till 72 h, and was resolved by 96 h. Maximal injury indicated by enzyme elevation occurred in DR rats and was approximately sixfold greater than that observed in the AL group. Histopathological examination of the liver sections revealed liver injury concordant with plasma enzyme elevations. There was a higher and sustained S-phase synthesis in the DR rats compared to AL group. S-phase stimulation was evident at 36 h, peaked at 48 h, and persisted until 96 h in the DR rats, whereas in the AL rats peak S-phase stimulation occurred at 36 h and subsided by 72 h. PCNA studies revealed a corresponding stimulation of cell-cycle progression indicating highly stimulated compensatory tissue repair. The 14-day lethality experiments (600 mg TA/kg i.p.) indicated 70% survival in the DR rats compared to 10% survival in the AL group. Although diet restriction increases hepatotoxic injury of TA, it protects

  3. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  4. Comments on Dietary Restriction, Okinawa Diet and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia S.; Gavrilov, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans. PMID:21893946

  5. Opposing effects of NaCl restriction and carbohydrate loading on urine volume in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, H A; Kwon, T-H; Ring, T; Dimke, H; Lebeck, J; Frøkiaer, J; Collins, P B; Nielsen, S; Frische, S

    2011-05-01

    To test the effects of dietary NaCl and carbohydrate content on urine volume in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were subjected to NaCl restriction using either a NaCl-deficient carbohydrate-rich synthetic diet (Altromin C1036) supplemented to contain 0.16% NaCl (C1036 + lowNaCl) or a modified normal cereal-based diet (Altromin 1320) containing 0.086% NaCl (lowNaCl-1320). Normal diet contained 0.2683% NaCl. Using the C1036 + lowNaCl diet, earlier reported paradoxical increases in water intake and urine volume of diabetic rats were reproduced. However, water intake and urine volume also increased in diabetic rats offered the synthetic C1036 diet supplemented with NaCl to normal levels. Using the lowNaCl-1320 diet, water intake and urine volume were markedly reduced. Highly significant correlations between urine volume and both osmotic output and urinary glucose excretion were found in diabetic rats on normal diet, but these correlations were absent in diabetic rats on synthetic diet, which showed higher urine volumes than expected from the correlations. In contrast, urine volume was significantly correlated with carbohydrate intake in diabetic rats, irrespective of the diet. (i) The synthetic diet dramatically increases the urine volume in STZ-DM rats irrespectively of NaCl content. (ii) Rats with STZ-DM on a normal diet show reduced water intake and urine volume in response to dietary NaCl restriction. (iii) A shift to high carbohydrate diet induces polyuria in STZ-DM rats. (iv) Urine volume in all STZ-DM rats only shows correlation with dietary carbohydrate intake. (v) Glucose-driven osmotic diuresis is unlikely to explain the carbohydrate-induced polyuria. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  6. [Suplemented restricted diet in old patients with chronic renal disease].

    PubMed

    Teplan, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    In last decades was confirmed remarkable increase in number of old patients with chronic kidney disease. Despide of developments in dialysis technology and kidney transplantation there is a growing number of old patients who are not suitable for these methods. Recently were published data showing long-term effect of protein restricted diet supplemented with keto amino acids in elderly. Based on our results obtained in re-analysis of 3 000 patients we can confirm also good compliance and low risk of malnutrition.Key words: chronic kidney disease - keto amino acids - old age - restricted diet.

  7. Effect of high fat, fiber and caloric restriction on rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D.; Van Sant, J.; Butler, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female rats given 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were placed on diets of control fat (CF-4.5%) or high fat (HF-20%) with either control fiber (6%) or high fiber (FB-12%). A 60% reduction in the CF diet was used to study the effects of caloric restriction on tumorigenesis. Results showed that HF diets had a shorter latency period than CF rats. The respective average number of tumors per rat and tumor volume were 7.3 +/- 1.3 and 23694 mm/sup 2/ for rats on a HF diet and 5.1+/-1.1 and 9144 mm/sup 3/ for CF rats. Addition of high fiber to the diets reduced the tumor incidence from 95% to 70% in the CF group but did not reduce the incidence in HF group. Although tumor number was reduced to 3.7+/-1.5 in CF+FB rats, the tumor volumes were not reduced (8950 mm/sup 3/). Rats fed HF+FB did not have fewer tumors (7.0+/-1.1), but did show a 53% reduction in tumor load. The estrogen dependent enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was not affected by dietary levels of fat, which suggests that the promotional effects of fat may not be through estrogen stimulation. None of the caloric restricted rats had tumors 12 weeks post-DMBA. These restricted rats all had significantly elevated levels of serum corticosterone.

  8. Offspring metabolomic response to maternal protein restriction in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

    PubMed

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Moyon, Thomas; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Coupé, Bérengère; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), along with postnatal growth trajectory, is closely linked with metabolic diseases and obesity at adulthood. The present study reports the time-dependent metabolomic response of male offspring of rat dams exposed to maternal adequate protein diet during pregnancy and lactation (CC) or protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth, RC) or through pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth, RR). Plasma LC-HRMS metabolomic fingerprints for 8 male rats per group, combined with multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA and HCA), were used to study the impact of IUGR and postnatal growth velocity on the offspring metabolism in early life (until weaning) and once they reached adulthood (8 months). Compared with CC rats, RR pups had clear-cut alterations in plasma metabolome during suckling, but none at adulthood; in contrast, in RC pups, alterations in metabolome were minimal in early life but more pronounced in the long run. In particular, our results pinpoint transient alterations in proline, arginine, and histidine in RR rats, compared to CC rats, and persistent differences in tyrosine and carnitine, compared to RC rats at adulthood. These findings suggest that the long-term deregulation in feeding behavior and fatty acid metabolism in IUGR rats depends on postnatal growth velocity.

  9. Effects of salt restriction on renal growth and glomerular injury in rats with remnant kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lax, D S; Benstein, J A; Tolbert, E; Dworkin, L D

    1992-06-01

    Male Munich-Wistar rats underwent right nephrectomy and infarction of two thirds of the left kidney. Rats were randomly assigned to ingest standard chow (REM) or a moderately salt restricted chow (LS). A third group of rats were fed the low salt diet and were injected with an androgen (LSA). Eight weeks after ablation, glomerular volume and glomerular capillary radius were markedly increased in REM. This increase was prevented by the low salt diet, however, the antihypertrophic effect of the diet was overcome by androgen. Values for glomerular volume and capillary radius were similar in LSA and REM. Morphologic studies revealed that approximately 25% of glomeruli were abnormal in REM. Much less injury was observed in salt restricted rats, however, the protective effect of the low salt diet was significantly abrogated when renal growth was stimulated in salt restricted rats by androgen. Micropuncture studies revealed that glomerular pressure was elevated in all three groups and not affected by diet or androgen. Serum cholesterol was also similar in the three groups. These findings indicate that renal and glomerular hypertrophy are correlated with the development of glomerular injury after reduction in renal mass and suggest that dietary salt restriction lessens renal damage, at least in part, by inhibiting compensatory renal growth.

  10. Calorie shifting diet versus calorie restriction diet: a comparative clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Ajami, Marjan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamid Reza

    2014-04-01

    Finding new tolerable methods in weight loss has largely been an issue of interest for specialists. Present study compared a novel method of calorie shifting diet (CSD) with classic calorie restriction (CR) on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. Seventy-four subjects (body mass index ≥25; 37) were randomized to 4 weeks control diet, 6 weeks CSD or CR diets, and 4 weeks follow-up period. CSD consisted of three phases each lasts for 2 weeks, 11 days calorie restriction which included four meals every day, and 4 h fasting between meals follow with 3 days self-selecting diet. CR subjects receive determined low calorie diet. Anthropometric and metabolic measures were assessed at different time points in the study. Four weeks after treatment, significant weight, and fat loss started (6.02 and 5.15 kg) and continued for 1 month of follow-up (5.24 and 4.3 kg), which was correlated to the restricted energy intake (P < 0.05). During three CSD phases, resting metabolic rate tended to remain unchanged. The decrease in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerol were greater among subjects on the CSD diet (P < 0.05). Feeling of hunger decreased and satisfaction increased among those on the CSD diet after 4 weeks (P < 0.05). The CSD diet was associated with a greater improvement in some anthropometric measures, Adherence was better among CSD subjects. Longer and larger studies are required to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of CSD diet.

  11. Physically Active Rats Lose More Weight during Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Smyers, Mark E.; Bachir, Kailey Z.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Novak, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  12. Phosphate restriction significantly reduces mortality in uremic rats with established vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Finch, Jane L; Lee, Duk H; Liapis, Helen; Ritter, Cindy; Zhang, Sarah; Suarez, Edu; Ferder, Leon; Slatopolsky, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The role of hyperphosphatemia in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, cardiovascular disease, and progression of renal failure is widely known. Here we studied effects of dietary phosphate restriction on mortality and vascular calcification in uremic rats. Control and uremic rats were fed a high-phosphate diet and at 3 months a portion of rats of each group were killed. Serum phosphate and the calcium phosphate product increased in uremic rats, as did aortic calcium. Of the rats, 56% had positive aortic staining for calcium (von Kossa), RUNX2, and osteopontin. The remaining uremic rats were continued on diets containing high phosphate without and with sevelamer, or low phosphate, and after 3 more months they were killed. Serum phosphate was highest in uremic rats on high phosphate. Serum PTH and FGF-23 were markedly lower in rats on low phosphate. Mortality on high phosphate was 71.4%, with sevelamer reducing this to 37.5% and phosphate restriction to 5.9%. Positive aortic staining for von Kossa, RUNX2, and osteopontin was increased, but phosphate restriction inhibited this. Kidneys from low-phosphate and sevelamer-treated uremic rats had less interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, and inflammation than those of uremic rats on high phosphate. Importantly, kidneys from rats on low phosphate showed improvement over kidneys from high-phosphate rats at 3 months. Left ventricles from rats on low phosphate had less perivascular fibrosis and smaller cardiomyocyte size compared to rats on high phosphate. Thus, intensive phosphate restriction significantly reduces mortality in uremic rats with severe vascular calcification.

  13. Effects of food restriction and hyperoxia on rat survival and lung polyamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, N M; Tierney, D F; Hacker, A D

    1988-05-01

    We fed Sprague-Dawley rats either freely or by restricting them to 20% of their usual diet for 21 days. In one experiment, we refed half of the food-restricted rats for 12 h, then exposed the three groups to air or 85% O2 for 5 days. The mortalities in 85% O2 were 100, 33, and 0% for the food-restricted, restricted-refed, and freely fed groups, respectively. In air lung polyamine contents and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activities were significantly lower with food restriction. After hyperoxia, lung polyamine and protein contents and enzyme activities were increased in the two surviving groups, but spermine and DNA contents of refed rats did not increase. In a second experiment, we exposed rats to 60% O2 and found that DNA synthesis of food-restricted rats was lower than the freely fed rats in air and remained low after hyperoxia. We conclude that food restriction increases the mortality from 85% O2 and is associated with lower DNA synthesis and polyamine content. We speculate that food-restricted animals may accumulate greater lung injury partly because of a compromised repair process.

  14. Effects of age and diet on rat skin histology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Regan

    2005-03-01

    To document age-related histologic morphometric changes of rat skin and the effects of calorie restriction on such changes. Fischer 344 rats of three age groups (young, 4 mo; adult, 1 year; old, 24+ months) were procured from ad libitum (AL) diet and calorie-restricted (CR) colonies of the National Institute of Aging and were used for histologic study. Each study group consisted of six animals. Skin samples from the dorsum (DS) and footpad (FP) of these animals were excised and processed for histology with staining techniques for general morphology (hematoxylin-eosin-phloxine) and for differentiation of collagen bundles and elastic fibers (Verhoeff-van Gieson technique). Light microscopic morphometric and stereologic point counting procedures were applied manually to tissue sections to obtain quantitative data on the depth of the epidermis, dermis, and stratum corneum, epidermal nuclear number, and percentage fraction of collagen, elastic fibers, capillaries, and pilosebaceous units. Data were analyzed with two-way of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant effects of age, diet, and age-diet interaction on these parameters in AL rats and their age-matched cohorts. Significant effects of age, diet, or age-diet interaction were observed in respect of the thickness of epidermis, dermis, stratum corneum of FP, epidermal nuclear number, collagen percentage fraction, and area fraction of capillaries. DS epidermis showed increasing thickness in AL group, but this was reduced in CR rats. A similar trend in DS dermal depth was observed. Fewer capillaries were present in aging CR rats. The DS epidermal nuclear profiles and collagen area fraction also showed effects of diet and age-diet interaction. Aging changes, especially the effect of CR, was more evident in the measured parameters of dorsal skin. No alterations were observed in the distribution of pilosebaceous units and elastic fiber profiles of the skin. The Fischer 344 rat shows many age-related changes

  15. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Fuller, Patrick M.; Yokota, Shigefumi; Lu, Jun; Saper, Clifford B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic partial sleep loss is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans. We used rats with lesions in the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which spontaneously sleep about 30% less than intact rats, as an animal model to study the consequences of chronic partial sleep loss on energy metabolism. Participants: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-365 g). Interventions: We ablated the VLPO in rats using orexin-B-saporin and instrumented them with electrodes for sleep recordings. We monitored their food intake and body weight for the next 60 days and assessed their sleep-wake by 24-h EEG/EMG recordings on day 20 and day 50 post-surgery. On day 60, after blood samples were collected for metabolic profiling, the animals were euthanized and the brains were harvested for histological confirmation of the lesion site. Measurements and Results: VLPO-lesioned animals slept up to 40% less than sham-lesioned rats. However, they showed slower weight gain than sham-lesioned controls, despite having normal food intake. An increase in plasma ghrelin and a decrease in leptin levels were observed, whereas plasma insulin levels remained unaffected. As expected from leaner animals, plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein were reduced in VLPO-lesioned animals. Conclusions: Chronic partial sleep loss did not lead to obesity or metabolic syndrome in rats. This finding raises the question whether adverse metabolic outcomes associated with chronic partial sleep loss in humans may be due to factors other than short sleep, such as circadian disruption, inactivity, or diet during the additional waking hours. Citation: Vetrivelan R; Fuller PM; Yokota S; Lu J; Saper CB. Metabolic effects of chronic sleep restriction in rats. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1511-1520. PMID:23115400

  16. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  17. A ketogenic diet does not impair rat behavior or long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Thio, Liu Lin; Rensing, Nicholas; Maloney, Susan; Wozniak, David F; Xiong, Chengjie; Yamada, Kelvin A

    2010-08-01

    The effect of the ketogenic diet on behavior and cognition is unclear. We addressed this issue in rats behaviorally and electrophysiologically.We fed postnatal day 21 rats a standard diet (SD), ketogenic diet (KD), or calorie-restricted diet (CR) for 2–3 weeks. CR controlled for the slower weight gain experienced by KD-fed rats. We assessed behavioral performance with a locomotor activity and a conditioned fear test. To evaluate possible parallel effects of diet on synaptic function, we examined paired-pulse modulation (PPM) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the medial perforant path in vivo. KD-fed rats performed similarly to SD-fed rats on the behavioral tests and electrophysiologic assays. These data suggest that the KD does not alter behavioral performance or synaptic plasticity.

  18. Low-protein diet impairs vascular relaxation in virgin and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Koumentaki, Angeliki; Anthony, Frederick; Poston, Lucilla; Wheeler, Timothy

    2002-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with increases in maternal cardiac output and plasma volume and a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance. Cardiac output and plasma volume are substantially reduced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, but it is not known whether vascular function is also compromised. We have investigated vascular function in virgin and pregnant Wistar rats subjected to dietary protein restriction [9% (w/v) casein, compared with 18% (w/v) casein for controls]. The diets were fed to the groups for 18 days; in the pregnant rats, the diets were given from day 1 of pregnancy. Branches of the mesenteric arteries were studied on day 18 of the dietary period using myography. Significant reductions in sensitivity to acetylcholine occurred in vessels from virgin (P=0.04) and pregnant (P=0.01) rats that had consumed the 9% casein diet. In arteries from the virgin rats on the restricted diet there was also a significant reduction in sensitivity (P=0.0003) and maximum relaxation (P=0.009) to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Mean placental and fetal weights were significantly lower in the rats fed on 9% casein (P<0.0001 and P=0.005 respectively). Thus low-protein diets impair vasodilator responses in female rats. These effects may contribute to the poor cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy and lower fetal weights associated with restricted protein intake.

  19. Exercise and caloric restriction modify rat mammary carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennink, M.R.; Palmer, H.J.; Messina, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    This study was designed to determine the effect of energy expenditure and dietary restriction on tumorigenesis. Energy balance was altered in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment by: 1) exercising rats by running on a treadmill or 2) a 16% reduction in caloric intake. Treatments were begun 24 days after initiation and continued for 160 days. Mammary cancer was initiated with 10 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene given intragastrically. All 4 groups received the same quantity of fat, protein vitamins, minerals and sucrose in the diet. Energy restriction (ER) was achieved by removing 15% of the corn starch from the diet fed to the ER groups. Energy content of the carcass (as a % of the ad lib., sedentary group) was: pair-fed, EX = 71; ER, sedentary = 75; ER, EX = 61. ER decreased total body protein by 6%. EX did not change body protein. EX reduced the rate constant (rate constant is the change in tumor incidence or size with time) of the cummulative mean tumor incidence by 16% and ER reduced the rate constant by 28%. EX decreased the rate constant of the cummulative mean tumor size by 23%; however, ER increased the rate constant by 46%. In this experiment, EX was equally or more effective than ER in reducing tumorigenesis.

  20. Tissue glutathione and cysteine levels in methionine-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Richie, John P; Komninou, Despina; Leutzinger, Yvonne; Kleinman, Wayne; Orentreich, Norman; Malloy, Virginia; Zimmerman, Jay A

    2004-09-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that lifelong methionine (Met) restriction (MR) increases lifespan, decreases the incidence of aging-related diseases, increases blood glutathione (GSH) levels, and prevents loss of GSH during aging in rats. Our present objective was to elucidate the effects of MR on GSH metabolism and transport by determining the time course and nature of GSH and cysteine changes in blood and other tissues in young and mature rats. Male F-344 rats were placed on control (0.86% Met) or MR (0.17% Met) defined amino acid diets at age 7 wk and killed at different times thereafter. MR was also initiated in adult (12-mo-old) rats. Throughout the first 2 mo of MR, blood GSH levels increased 84% and liver GSH decreased 66% in relation to controls. After this period, liver GSH levels remained constant through at least 6 mo. GSH levels also decreased in the pancreas (80%) and kidney (22%) but remained unchanged in other tissues examined after 11 wk of MR. The increase in blood GSH was evident as soon as 1 wk after initiating MR and reached a plateau by 6 wk. A similar increase in erythrocyte GSH levels was observed when MR was administered to mature adult rats. Fasting decreased liver GSH in controls but had no further effect in MR animals. By 1 mo, cysteine levels had decreased in all tissues except brain. These results suggest that adaptive changes occur in the metabolism of Met, cysteine, and/or GSH as a result of MR in young and adult rats. These early metabolic changes lead to conservation of GSH levels in most extrahepatic tissues and increased GSH in erythrocytes by depleting liver GSH to a critical level.

  1. Dietary phosphate restriction ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in adenine-induced kidney disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Van, Tan Vu; Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Shiota, Asuka; Tanaka, Terumi; Tanimura, Ayako; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia causes endothelial dysfunction as well as vascular calcification. Management of serum phosphate level by dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders is considered to be beneficial to prevent chronic kidney disease patients from cardiovascular disease, but it has been unclear whether keeping lower serum phosphate level can ameliorate endothelial dysfunction. In this study we investigated whether low-phosphate diet can ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in adenine-induced kidney disease rats, one of useful animal model of chronic kidney disease. Administration of 0.75% adenine-containing diet for 21 days induced renal failure with hyperphosphatemia, and impaired acetylcholine-dependent vasodilation of thoracic aortic ring in rats. Then adenine-induced kidney disease rats were treated with either control diet (1% phosphate) or low-phosphate diet (0.2% phosphate) for 16 days. Low-phosphate diet ameliorated not only hyperphosphatemia but also the impaired vasodilation of aorta. In addition, the activatory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 1177 and Akt at serine 473 in the aorta were inhibited by in adenine-induced kidney disease rats. The inhibited phosphorylations were improved by the low-phosphate diet treatment. Thus, dietary phosphate restriction can improve aortic endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease with hyperphosphatemia by increase in the activatory phosphorylations of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and Akt. PMID:22798709

  2. Calorie restriction aggravated cortical and trabecular bone architecture in ovariectomy-induced estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyejin; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Han Sung; Choue, Ryowon

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that calorie restriction (CR) and estrogen deficiency (ovariectomy [OVX]) would aggravate bone biomarkers and structural parameters in rats. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to sham-operated groups and fed either an ad libitum diet (SHAM-AL) or a CR diet (SHAM-CR); ovariectomy-operated groups were fed an ad libitum diet (OVX-AL) or a CR diet (OVX-CR). For 8 weeks, the OVX-AL and SHAM-AL groups were fed the same diet, whereas CR groups were fed a diet containing 50% fewer calories. Bone-related biomarkers and structural parameters (OC; deoxypyridinoline [DPD]; N-terminal telopeptide, NTx; architecture and mineralization; and microcomputed tomography images) were analyzed at the end of the experiment. The serum OC levels of calorie-restricted groups (SHAM-CR and OVX-CR) were significantly lower than those of the AL groups (SHAM-AL and OVX-AL) (P < .05). Urinary DPD levels of calorie-restricted and ovariectomized groups were higher than those of their counterparts (P < .05), whereas urinary NTx levels of calorie-restricted groups were higher than those of AL groups (P < .05). In regard to trabecular bone, the calorie-restricted and ovariectomized groups had lower values of bone volume to total volume, trabecular number, and bone mineral density, but higher values of trabecular separation than those of their counterparts (P < .05). Regarding cortical bone, the calorie-restricted groups had reduced values of bone volume, mean polar moment of inertia, and cortical thickness compared to the AL groups (P < .05). In conclusion, severe CR with or without OVX during the growth period in rats is equally detrimental to bone; CR has detrimental effects on trabecular and cortical bone; and estrogen deficiency only had an effect on trabecular bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy-restricted diets result in higher numbers of CD4+, CD8+, immunoglobulins (A, M, and G), and CD45RA cells in spleen and CD4+, immunoglobulin A, and CD45RA cells in colonic lamina propria of rats.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bob N; Friel, James K; Rempel, Curtis B; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy restriction (ER) offers certain health benefits, particularly when ER is controlled through manipulation of dietary fats. Our hypothesis is that cellular immunity is modulated by dietary ER. Furthermore, we believe that the immune response may differ between spleen and colon because their lymphatic and vascular organization is different. The objective of the study was to test this hypothesis by determining the effects of dietary ER through manipulation of energy intake from high-fat (HF) diets on the expression and frequency of the CD4(+) (T-helper/T-inducer) and CD8(+) (T-cytotoxic/T-suppressor) cells, CD45RA (B-cell-specific marker), and immunoglobulins (Ig) A-, G-, and M-bearing cells in spleen and colon in rats by immunohistochemical method. Rats fed the HF diet had a significantly (P < .05) reduced number of immune cells as compared with those fed ER diets. Energy-restricted diet-fed rats showed higher (P < .05) numbers of CD4(+), CD8(+), IgA, IgM, IgG, and CD45RA cells in spleen and CD4(+), IgA, and CD45RA cells in colonic lamina propria. The IgA-containing cells were markedly higher in the colon compared with the spleen. No change occurred in the number of IgM- and IgG-containing cells in colonic tissues between groups, except for the 20% ER group where IgM-labeled cells were higher (P < .05) compared with HF and 40% ER groups. These findings suggest that ER may modulate adaptive immune function and that CD4(+) and IgA cells may serve as biological indicators for dietary energy-modulated immunoresponse in spleen and colon, respectively.

  4. Hyperproteic diet and pregnancy of rat.

    PubMed

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Gambardella, P; D'Aponte, D; Ferrante, P

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of a purified diet enriched with animal protein (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on different stages of rat pregnancy. We observed that hyperproteic diet, especially when administered from the first day of pregnancy, induces morphological alterations of liver, adrenal cortex, heart and kidney. Moreover, haematic dosages, carried out on 15th day of pregnancy, have shown moderate but significant increase of glucose and triglycerides and significant decrease of circulating aldosterone and corticosterone as well. Finally an early administration of hyperproteic diet causes less numerous litters and high mortality rate at birth.

  5. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  6. Medicinal Chemistry of the Epigenetic Diet and Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S.L.; Hardy, T.M.; Tollefsbol, T.O.

    2013-01-01

    The pronounced effects of the epigenetic diet (ED) and caloric restriction (CR) have on epigenetic gene regulation have been documented in many pre-clinical and clinical studies. Understanding epigenetics is of high importance because of the concept that external factors such as nutrition and diet may possess the ability to alter gene expression without modifying the DNA sequence. The ED introduces bioactive medicinal chemistry compounds such as sulforaphane (SFN), curcumin (CCM), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and resveratrol (RSV) that are thought to aid in extending the human lifespan. CR, although similar to ED in the target of longevity, mildly reduces the total daily calorie intake while concurrently providing all beneficial nutrients. Both CR and ED may act as epigenetic modifiers to slow the aging process through histone modification, DNA methylation, and by modulating microRNA expression. CR and ED have been proposed as two important mechanisms that modulate and potentially slow the progression of age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, obesity, Alzheimer’s and osteoporosis to name a few. While many investigators have examined CR and ED as separate entities, this review will primarily focus on both as they relate to age-related diseases, their epigenetic effects and their medicinal chemistry. PMID:23895687

  7. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Gunnels, Trint A; Schriefer, JohnHenry M

    2015-07-14

    We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18-67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects' self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was noted in total and LDL cholesterol

  8. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  9. Restricted calorie ketogenic diet for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Maroon, Joseph; Bost, Jeffrey; Amos, Austin; Zuccoli, Giulio

    2013-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults and generally considered to be universally fatal. Glioblastoma multiforme accounts for 12% to 15% of all intracranial neoplasms and affects 2 to 3 adults per every 100,000 in the United States annually. In children glioblastoma multiforme accounts for only approximately 7% to 9% of central nervous system tumors. The mean survival rate in adults after diagnosis ranges from 12 to 18 months with standard therapy and 3 to 6 months without therapy. The prognosis in children is better compared to adult tumor onset with a mean survival of approximately 4 years following gross total surgical resection and chemotherapy. There have been few advances in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme in the past 40 years beyond surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and corticosteroids. For this reason a restrictive calorie ketogenic diet, similar to that used in children to control drug resistant seizure activity, has been advanced as an alternative adjunctive treatment to help prolonged survival. This article reviews the science of tumor metabolism and discusses the mechanism of calorie restriction, cellular energy metabolism, and how dietary induced ketosis can inhibit cancer cell's energy supply to slow tumor growth.

  10. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Sejersen, H; Sørensen, M T; Larsen, T; Bendixen, E; Ingvartsen, K L

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the liver response in young pigs to a high-fat diet (containing 25% animal fat) and diet restriction (equivalent to 60% of maintenance) using differential proteome analysis. The objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents to a high-fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss. The high-fat diet increased (P<0.05) the subcutaneous and visceral fat deposition by 45 and 56%, respectively. However, the young pigs on the high-fat diet had normal glucose tolerance and liver lipid content despite a general increase (P<0.05) in plasma lipids (i.e., NEFA, triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol, and lipoproteins). In addition, diet restriction in young pigs induced a modest BW loss (0.7 kg/d; P<0.01) through increased fat mobilization whereas the concentrations of plasma phospholipids, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein decreased (P<0.05) by 37, 36, and 38%, respectively. Data from the proteome analysis indicate that the liver response to a high-fat diet in young pigs is similar to that of humans in terms of increased fatty acid oxidation whereas the liver response to diet restriction is similar to humans in terms of increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and decreased urea synthesis. Our results suggest that 5 liver proteins, namely acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain 1, sterol carrier protein 2, apolipoprotein C-III, liver fatty acid binding protein, and acyl-CoA-binding protein, play a role in intracellular lipid transport and export in young pigs. In contrast to humans, our results indicate that young pigs are resistant to fat-induced liver lipid accumulation whereas diet restriction decreases fatty acid oxidation and the subsequent ketogenesis in the liver. Consequently, the liver response in adolescents to a high fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss cannot reliably be reproduced in young pigs.

  11. An oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin reflects malnutrition due to an insufficient diet in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Hasegawa, Mari; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Yasuaki; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether protein- and food-intake restrictions modulate the oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed a 3%, 5%, 10% or 20% casein diet for 2 weeks. The plasma albumin concentration significantly decreased with decreasing protein intake. However, no significant difference in plasma albumin concentration was seen between rats fed the 5% or 10% casein diet. In rats fed the 5% casein diet, the percentage of mercaptalbumin within total plasma albumin was significantly lower and that of nonmercaptalbumin-1 was significantly higher than in rats fed the 10% casein diet. In experiments with food-intake restriction for 2 weeks, rats were fed 50% or 75% of the amount of a 20% casein diet consumed by control rats. The percentage of mercaptalbumin was significantly lower and that of nonmercaptalbumin-2 was significantly higher in rats with food-intake restriction than in control rats. When rats with malnutrition were refed with the 20% casein diet ad libitum, the percentage of mercaptalbumin rapidly increased. The change in the percentage of mercaptalbumin was correlated with the plasma transthyretin concentration. These results indicate that the oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin may be applied as a sensitive marker of nutritional status reflecting dietary pattern. PMID:28163385

  12. Effect of varying levels of diet copper upon blood pressure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.C.C.; Medeiros, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of copper deficiency, adequate diet copper, and excess diet copper upon blood pressure in the rat. In experiment 1, Long-Evans rats whose dams had been fed either a copper restricted diet (0.7 ppm Cu), a copper adequate diet (7.5 ppm Cu), or a commercial ration (7.5 ppm Cu) were maintained on these diets until 100 days of age. Rats in the copper deficient group had lower blood pressure than the chow fed group. In experiment 2, Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) were divided into two diet copper intake groups at 5 wk of age. One group was fed 18 ppm Cu and the other 100 ppm Cu until the animals were 20 wk of age. Rats fed 100 ppm Cu showed an increase in systolic pressure compared to rats fed 18 ppm Cu. The increase was more pronounced for the Wistar strain and blood pressure in this strain approached the blood pressure of the SHR strain. These changes could not be explained on the basis of urine output or water and feed intake. These studies demonstrated that copper deficiency and excess diet copper intake have dramatic effects upon blood pressure in rats.

  13. Dietary salt restriction improves cardiac and adipose tissue pathology independently of obesity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Takuya; Murase, Tamayo; Takatsu, Miwa; Nagasawa, Kai; Matsuura, Natsumi; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2014-12-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) enhances salt sensitivity of blood pressure and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effects of dietary salt restriction on cardiac pathology associated with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. We investigated whether dietary salt restriction might ameliorate cardiac injury in DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats and represent a model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats were fed a normal-salt (0.36% NaCl in chow) or low-salt (0.0466% NaCl in chow) diet from 9 weeks of age and were compared with similarly treated homozygous lean littermates (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+), or DS/lean rats). DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet progressively developed hypertension and showed left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction at 15 weeks. Dietary salt restriction attenuated all of these changes in DS/obese rats. The levels of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and the expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes were increased in DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet, and dietary salt restriction downregulated these parameters in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats. In addition, dietary salt restriction attenuated the increase in visceral adipose tissue inflammation and the decrease in insulin signaling apparent in DS/obese rats without reducing body weight or visceral adipocyte size. Dietary salt restriction did not alter fasting serum glucose levels but it markedly decreased the fasting serum insulin concentration in DS/obese rats. Dietary salt restriction not only prevents hypertension and cardiac injury but also ameliorates insulin resistance, without reducing obesity, in this model of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Effect of chronic caloric restriction on physiological variables related to energy metabolism in the male Fischer 344 rat.

    PubMed

    Duffy, P H; Feuers, R J; Leakey, J A; Nakamura, K; Turturro, A; Hart, R W

    1989-05-01

    In the present study, a number of physiological and behavioral measures that are related to metabolism were continuously monitored in 19-month-old male Fischer 344 rats that were fed ad libitum or fed a caloric restricted diet. Caloric restricted rats ate fewer meals but consumed more food during each meal and spent more time eating per meal than did rats fed ad libitum. Therefore, the timing and duration of meals as well as the total number of calories consumed may be associated with life extension. Average body temperature per day was significantly lower in restricted rats but body temperature range per day and motor activity were higher in restricted rats. Dramatic changes in respiratory quotient, indicating rapid changes in metabolic pathway and lower temperature, occurred in caloric restricted rats when carbohydrate reserves were depleted. Lower body temperature and metabolism during this time interval may result in less DNA damage, thereby increasing the survival potential of restricted rats. Nighttime feeding was found to synchronize physiological performance between ad libitum and caloric restricted rats better than daytime feeding, thereby allowing investigators to distinguish the effects of caloric restriction from those related solely to the time-of-day of feeding.

  15. Effect of nickel sulfate on testicular steroidogenesis in rats during protein restriction.

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kusal K; Dasgupta, Shakuntala

    2002-01-01

    Nickel, a widely used heavy metal, exerts potent toxic effects on peripheral tissues as well as on the reproductive system. Low dietary protein coupled with exposure to this metal induces more severe changes, including biochemical defects, structural disorders, and altered physiologic functions. This study was designed to assess the effects of nickel sulfate on testicular steroidogenesis and to ascertain whether such alterations are reversible with normal protein and protein-restricted dietary regime. Nickel sulfate [2 mg/100 g body weight (bw)] dissolved in double-distilled water was administered on alternate days for 10 doses in a normal protein diet (18% casein) and a protein-restricted diet (5% casein) to Wistar male albino rats (bw 160 +/- 5 g). Two groups, one with a normal protein diet and the other with a protein-restricted diet, served as controls. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, all the animals except those in withdrawal groups were sacrificed by decapitation. We observed a significant reduction in the activities of the testicular steroidogenic enzymes and plasma testosterone concentration accompanied by a significant elevation in cholesterol and ascorbic acid level in both dietary groups. After 15 days of withdrawal from the nickel sulfate treatment, the testicular steroidogenic enzymes, along with plasma testosterone level, improved significantly in both normal protein-fed and protein-restricted dietary groups. The effects of nickel on testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid concentration were also reduced after withdrawal. Our results indicate that nickel sulfate affects the steroidogenic enzymes, causing alteration in the formation of testosterone in both dietary groups, which was manifested in the elevated cholesterol and ascorbic acid level with decreased activities of steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats testes. However, these alterations were reversible in both groups of animals fed normal protein diets and protein-restricted diets

  16. Anti-apoptotic and Pro-survival Effects of Food Restriction on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Hearts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Yuan; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Chen, Chiao-Nan Joyce; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Kao, Chung-Lan; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lee, Shin-Da

    2017-04-01

    Food restriction and weight loss are known to prevent obesity-related heart diseases. This study investigates whether food restriction elicits anti-apoptotic and pro-survival effects on high-fat diet-induced obese hearts. Histopathological analysis, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats which were fed with regular chow diet (CON, 13.5 % fat), a high-fat ad libitum diet (HFa, 45 % fat), or a high-fat food-restricted diet (HFr, 45 % fat, maintaining the same weight as CON) for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood pressure, heart weight, triglycerides, insulin, HOMAIR, interstitial spaces, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were increased in HFa relative to CON, whereas these parameters were decreased in HFr relative to HFa. The protein levels of cardiac Fas ligand, Fas receptors, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways), as well as t-Bid/Bid, Bax/Bcl-2, Bad/p-Bad, Cytochrome c, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways) in HFr were lower than those in HFa. Moreover, the Bcl-xL and IGF-1-related components of IGF-1, p-PI3 K/PI3 K, p-Akt/Akt in HFr were higher than those in HFa. Our findings suggest that a restricted high-fat diet for maintaining weight control could diminish cardiac Fas receptor-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways as well as might enhance IGF-1-related pro-survival pathways. In sum, food restriction for maintaining normal weight could elicit anti-apoptotic and pro-survival effects on high-fat diet-induced obese hearts.

  17. Early and Late Postnatal Myocardial and Vascular Changes in a Protein Restriction Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Fahlbusch, Fabian; Cordasic, Nada; Amann, Kerstin; Münzel, Kathrin; Plank, Christian; Wachtveitl, Rainer; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl F.; Hartner, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in later life. Early structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular system after IUGR may contribute to its pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that IUGR leads to primary myocardial and vascular alterations before the onset of hypertension. A rat IUGR model of maternal protein restriction during gestation was used. Dams were fed low protein (LP; casein 8.4%) or isocaloric normal protein diet (NP; casein 17.2%). The offspring was reduced to six males per litter. Immunohistochemical and real-time PCR analyses were performed in myocardial and vascular tissue of neonates and animals at day 70 of life. In the aortas of newborn IUGR rats expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was induced 3.2-fold. At day 70 of life, the expression of collagen I was increased 5.6-fold in aortas of IUGR rats. In the hearts of neonate IUGR rats, cell proliferation was more prominent compared to controls. At day 70 the expression of osteopontin was induced 7.2-fold. A 3- to 7-fold increase in the expression of the profibrotic cytokines TGF-β and CTGF as well as of microfibrillar matrix molecules was observed. The myocardial expression and deposition of collagens was more prominent in IUGR animals compared to controls at day 70. In the low-protein diet model, IUGR leads to changes in the expression patterns of profibrotic genes and discrete structural abnormalities of vessels and hearts in adolescence, but, with the exception of CTGF, not as early as at the time of birth. Invasive and non-invasive blood pressure measurements confirmed that IUGR rats were normotensive at the time point investigated and that the changes observed occurred independently of an increased blood pressure. Hence, altered matrix composition of the vascular wall and the myocardium may predispose IUGR animals to cardiovascular disease later in life. PMID:21655297

  18. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. PMID:26110252

  19. Food Restriction Increases Acquisition, Persistence and Drug Prime-Induced Expression of a Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Danielle; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) is more persistent in food-restricted than ad libitum fed rats. This study assessed whether food restriction acts during conditioning and/or expression to increase persistence. In Experiment 1, rats were food-restricted during conditioning with a 7.0 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of cocaine. After the first CPP test, half of the rats were switched to ad libitum feeding for three weeks, half remained on food restriction, and this was followed by CPP testing. Rats tested under the ad libitum feeding condition displayed extinction by the fifth test. Their CPP did not reinstate in response to overnight food deprivation or a cocaine prime. Rats maintained on food restriction displayed a persistent CPP. In Experiment 2, rats were ad libitum fed during conditioning with the 7.0 mg/kg dose. In the first test only a trend toward CPP was displayed. Rats maintained under the ad libitum feeding condition did not display a CPP during subsequent testing and did not respond to a cocaine prime. Rats tested under food-restriction also did not display a CPP, but expressed a CPP following a cocaine prime. In Experiment 3, rats were ad libitum fed during conditioning with a 12.0 mg/kg dose. After the first test, half of the rats were switched to food restriction for three weeks. Rats that were maintained under the ad libitum condition displayed extinction by the fourth test. Their CPP was not reinstated by a cocaine prime. Rats tested under food-restriction displayed a persistent CPP. These results indicate that food restriction lowers the threshold dose for cocaine CPP and interacts with a previously acquired CPP to increase its persistence. In so far as CPP models Pavlovian conditioning that contributes to addiction, these results suggest the importance of diet and the physiology of energy balance as modulatory factors. PMID:22074687

  20. Caloric restriction and Metabolism in Lean and Obese rats.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data related to obese and lean strains of rat commonly used in the laboratory that are calorically restricted and its effects on physiologic parameters (Body Composition and metabolism).This dataset is associated with the following publication:Aydin, C., K. Jarema , P. Phillips , and C. Gordon. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health. Experimental Physiology Journal. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 100(1): 1280-97, (2015).

  1. Improvement in motor and exploratory behavior in Rett syndrome mice with restricted ketogenic and standard diets.

    PubMed

    Mantis, John G; Fritz, Christie L; Marsh, Jeremy; Heinrichs, Stephen C; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2009-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare X-linked autistic-spectrum neurological disorder associated with impaired energy metabolism, seizure susceptibility, progressive social behavioral regression, and motor impairment primarily in young girls. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of restricted diets, including a ketogenic diet (KD) and a standard rodent chow diet (SD), on behavior in male Mecp2(308/y) mice, a model of RTT. The KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has anticonvulsant efficacy in children with intractable epilepsy and may be therapeutic in children with RTT. Following an 11-day pretrial period, adult wild-type and mutant Rett mice were separated into groups that were fed either an SD in unrestricted or restricted amounts or a ketogenic diet (KetoCal) in restricted amounts for a total of 30 days. The restricted diets were administered to reduce mouse body weight by 20-23% compared to the body weight of each mouse before the initiation of the diet. All mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests to determine the influence of the diet on the RTT phenotype. We found that performance in tests of motor behavior and anxiety was significantly worse in male RTT mice compared to wild-type mice and that restriction of either the KD or the SD improved motor behavior and reduced anxiety. We conclude that although both restricted diets increased the tendency of Rett mice to explore a novel environment, the beneficial effects of the KD were due more to calorie restriction than to the composition of the diet. Our findings suggest that calorically restricted diets could be effective in reducing the anxiety and in improving motor behavior in girls with RTT.

  2. Dietary Adequacy of Children with Autism Compared to Controls and the Impact of Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Graf-Myles, Jennifer; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey; Royster, Caitlin; Kahn, Phoebe; Soskey, Laura; Rothschild, Leah; Swedo, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Children with autism may consume a restricted diet relative to typical peers, whether due to therapeutic measures or sensory sensitivities. Our objective was to compare children with autism to both typically developing and developmentally delayed children on nutrient and food group intake and overall diet quality and to evaluate the impact of diet restriction. Methods Three-day food records and interview information were analyzed from 69 children with autism, 14 children with developmental delay, and 37 typically developing children, drawn from a larger longitudinal study. Results Children with autism did not differ significantly from children with other developmental delays on any dietary measures. Although there were differences in average intake of some nutrients between autism and typical controls, only calcium and dairy were also less likely to be consumed in adequate amounts by the autism group. Intentional diet restriction accounted for most of the differences between autism and typical controls. On average, all groups had inadequate fiber, vitamin D, and vegetable intake. Inadequate intake of folate, grains, and dairy was noted for the autism subgroup with intentional diet restrictions. Children in the autism group not following a restricted diet received significantly worse Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than those following a restricted diet and typical controls. These differences were not nutritionally significant. Conclusion When evaluating nutritional adequacy of children with autism, special consideration should be given to calcium, folate, dairy, and grains. Diets of all children with autism should be evaluated for idiosyncratic deficiencies due to unique dietary patterns. PMID:24042076

  3. Dietary adequacy of children with autism compared with controls and the impact of restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Graf-Myles, Jennifer; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey; Royster, Caitlin; Kahn, Phoebe; Soskey, Laura; Rothschild, Leah; Swedo, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Children with autism (AUT) may consume a restricted diet relative to typical peers, whether due to therapeutic measures or sensory sensitivities. The objective of this study was to compare children with AUT with both typically developing (TYP) and developmentally delayed children on nutrient and food group intake and overall diet quality and to evaluate the impact of diet restriction. Three-day food records and interview information were analyzed from 69 children with AUT, 14 children with developmental delay, and 37 TYP children, drawn from a larger longitudinal study. Children with AUT did not differ significantly from children with other developmental delays on any dietary measures. Although there were differences in the average intake of some nutrients between AUT and typical controls, only calcium and dairy were also less likely to be consumed in adequate amounts by the AUT group. Intentional diet restriction accounted for most of the differences between AUT and typical controls. On average, all groups had inadequate fiber, vitamin D, and vegetable intake. Inadequate intake of folate, grains, and dairy was noted for the AUT subgroup with intentional diet restrictions. Children in the AUT group not following a restricted diet received significantly worse Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than those following a restricted diet and typical controls. These differences were not nutritionally significant. When evaluating nutritional adequacy of children with AUT, special consideration should be given to calcium, folate, dairy, and grains. Diets of all children with AUT should be evaluated for idiosyncratic deficiencies because of unique dietary patterns.

  4. Benefits of caloric restriction in the myenteric neuronal plasticity in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joice N B; Mari, Renata B; Stabille, Sandra R; de Faria, Haroldo G; Mota, Thais F M; Ferreira, Walter M

    2014-09-01

    Aging is a biologic process characterized by progressive damage of structures and functions of organic systems. In gastrointestinal tract, it can involve enteric nervous system, which plays an important role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, causing hastening of intestinal transit thus reducing its absorptive function. Caloric restriction has been used in several studies with the intention of delaying deleterious effects of aging. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction on myenteric neurons of ileum by aging in rats. 30 Wistar rats were grouped as follows: GI (animals aged 6 months fed with normal diet), GII (animals aged 18 months fed with normal diet) and GIII (animals aged 18 months subject to 31% of caloric restriction). The rats of the GI group were euthanized at 6 months of age and after experimental period of 12 months animals of the group GII and GIII were euthanized, the ileum of all groups were collected, measured and processed by NADPH-dp and Acetylcholinesterase. Quantitative analysis of neurons revealed that aging promotes the increasing of myenteric neurons NADPH-dp and reduces Acetylcholinesterase neuronal population. However, in the cellular profile area, were not observed significant differences between the groups. The caloric restriction has been efficient and can be used preventively because it minimizes quantitative changes associated with aging on ileum myenteric plexuses.

  5. Sodium restriction modulates innate immunity and prevents cardiac remodeling in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jover, Bernard; Reynes, Christelle; Rugale, Caroline; Reboul, Cyril; Jeanson, Laura; Tournier, Michel; Lajoix, Anne Dominique; Desmetz, Caroline

    2017-02-27

    In the view of the relationships between excessive sodium intake, immunity and target organ damage, we hypothesized that reduction in dietary sodium would be beneficial in the prevention of cardiac alterations through a restrained local immunity response in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60% fructose diet with either a normal sodium (0.64% NaCl) or a low sodium content (<0.01% NaCl) for 8weeks. After 4weeks, rats were infused or not with angiotensin II (200ng.kg(-1).min(-1), sc) for 4weeks. Tail-cuff blood pressure was determined in conscious rats. Heart and left ventricle weight, cardiomyocyte size, and cardiac fibrosis were evaluated. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in order to identify differentially regulated cardiac mRNAs between normal and low sodium diets. We validated those results using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Angiotensin II-induced blood pressure rise was blunted (~ 50%) in the low-sodium fed rats while cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were prevented. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 66 differentially regulated genes including 13 downregulated genes under the low sodium diet and implicated in the innate immune response. This was confirmed by reduced cardiac macrophages infiltration under the low sodium diet. Dietary sodium restriction prevents structural alterations of the heart of rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance and angiotensin II-hypertension. The reduction of cardiac inflammation and macrophage infiltration suggests that innate immunity has an important role in the beneficial effect of sodium restriction on cardiac remodeling.

  6. Diet-dependent modulation of hippocampal expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in cannabinoid antagonist-treated obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Patricia; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Blanco, Eduardo; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Crespillo, Ana; Vida, Margarita; Grondona, Jesús M; Cifuentes, Manuel; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity produces changes in endocannabinoid signaling (ECS), influencing the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, we demonstrated that, in high-fat-diet-fed rats, blockade of CB1 receptor by AM251 not only reduced body weight but also increased adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, suggesting an influence of diet on hippocampal cannabinoid function. To further explore the role of hippocampal ECS in high-fat-diet-induced obesity, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical expression of the enzymes that produce (diacylglycerol lipase alpha and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D) and degrade (monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amino hydrolase) endocannabinoids may be altered in the hippocampus of AM251 (3 mg/kg)-treated rats fed three different diets: standard diet (normal chow), high-carbohydrate diet (70% carbohydrate) and high-fat diet (60% fat). Results indicated that AM251 reduced caloric intake and body weight gain, and induced a modulation of the expression of ECS-related proteins in the hippocampus of animals exposed to hypercaloric diets. These effects were differentially restricted to either the 2-arachinodoyl glycerol or anandamide signaling pathways, in a diet-dependent manner. AM251-treated rats fed the high-carbohydrate diet showed a reduction of the diacylglycerol lipase alpha : monoacylglycerol lipase ratio, whereas AM251-treated rats fed the high-fat diet showed a decrease of the N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D : fatty acid amino hydrolase ratio. These results are consistent with the reduced levels of hippocampal endocannabinoids found after food restriction. Regarding the CB1 expression, AM251 induced specific changes focused in the CA1 stratum pyramidale of high-fat-diet-fed rats. These findings indicated that the cannabinoid antagonist AM251 modulates ECS-related proteins in the rat hippocampus in a diet-specific manner. Overall, these results suggest that the hippocampal ECS participates

  7. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Michael B.; Teegarden, Dorothy; Loan, Marta Van; Schoeller, Dale A.; Matkovic, Velimir; Lyle, Roseann M.; Craig, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day), high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day), or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day). Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH)2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025); assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk) fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05) and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025). Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction. PMID:22253969

  8. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  9. Milk composition of rats feeding restricted litters.

    PubMed Central

    Grigor, M R; Allan, J; Carne, A; Carrington, J M; Geursen, A

    1986-01-01

    Milk samples were taken from rats feeding ten pups and from both the suckled and non-suckled glands of rats feeding two pups. The lipid, protein and lactose concentrations were similar in the milks from the secreting glands, but the fluid from the non-suckled glands contained less lactose and lipid but significantly higher total protein and transferrin concentrations. The fatty acid compositions of the milk from the three sources were very similar. The mammary tissue from the rats feeding ten pups had a higher DNA content/g wet wt. than either the suckled or non-suckled mammary tissue of the rats feeding two pups. The specific activities of several lipogenic enzymes were significantly lower in the non-suckled mammary tissue. PMID:3707536

  10. THE NEUROPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF CALORIE RESTRICTION, THE KETOGENIC DIET, AND KETONE BODIES

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Marwan A.; Rho, Jong M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet have been repeatedly demonstrated in clinical settings and in various animal models of neurological disease. The underlying mechanisms involve an improvement in mitochondrial function, a decrease in the expression of apoptotic factors and an increase in the activity of neurotrophic factors. Clinical applications of ketogenic diets have been significantly hampered however by poor tolerability and potentially serious side-effects. Recent research aimed at identifying a mediator that can reproduce the neuroprotective effects of calorie restriction with less demanding changes to dietary intake suggests that ketone bodies might represent an appropriate candidate. Ketone bodies protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury and the underlying mechanisms are similar to those of calorie restriction and of the ketogenic diet. The present review describes the neuroprotective effects of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet and ketone bodies and compare the molecular mechanisms of action of these interventions. PMID:18845187

  11. Effect of calorie restriction and refeeding on skin wound healing in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicole D; Li, Garrick D; Zhu, Min; Miller, Marshall; Levette, Andrew; Chachich, Mark E; Spangler, Edward L; Allard, Joanne S; Hyun, Dong-Hoon; Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a reliable anti-aging intervention that attenuates the onset of a number of age-related diseases, reduces oxidative damage, and maintains function during aging. In the current study, we assessed the effects of CR and other feeding regimens on wound healing in 7-month-old Fischer-344 rats from a larger cohort of rats that had been fed either ad libitum (AL) or 40% calorie restricted based on AL consumption. Rats were assigned to one of three diet groups that received three skin punch wounds along the dorsal interscapular region (12-mm diameter near the front limbs) of the back as follows: (1) CR (n = 8) were wounded and maintained on CR until they healed, (2) AL (n = 5) were wounded and maintained on AL until wound closure was completed, and (3) CR rats were refed (RF, n = 9) AL for 48 h prior to wounding and maintained on AL until they healed. We observed that young rats on CR healed more slowly while CR rats refed for 48 h prior to wounding healed as fast as AL fed rats, similar to a study reported in aged CR and RF mice (Reed et al. 1996). Our data suggest that CR subjects, regardless of age, fail to heal well and that provision of increased nutrition to CR subjects prior to wounding enhances the healing process.

  12. Impact of maternal chromium restriction on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and oxidative stress in WNIN rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Raghunath, Manchala

    2011-12-01

    Robust evidence suggests that nutritional insult during fetal development could program the offspring to glucose intolerance, impaired insulin response and insulin resistance (IR). Considering the importance of chromium (Cr) in maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, this study determined the effect of maternal Cr restriction (CrR) on glucose metabolism and plasma insulin in Wistar/NIN (WNIN) rat offspring and the associated biochemical and/or molecular mechanisms. Female, weanling WNIN rats received ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet or the same with 65% restriction of Cr and mated with control males. Some of the Cr-restricted dams were rehabilitated from conception or parturition and their pups weaned on to control diet. At the time of weaning, half of the Cr restricted offspring were rehabilitated to control diet while others continued on Cr-restricted diet. Maternal CrR increased fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of IR, and area under the curve of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test in the offspring. Expression and activity of rate-limiting enzymes of glucose metabolism were comparable among different groups and expression of genes involved in insulin secretion was increased albeit in male offspring whereas antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased in offspring of both genders. Rehabilitation, in general, corrected the changes albeit partially. Maternal dietary CrR induced IR, impaired glucose tolerance in WNIN rat offspring and was associated with increased oxidative stress, which may predispose them to type 2 diabetes in their later life.

  13. Leucine improves protein nutritional status and regulates hepatic lipid metabolism in calorie-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, João Alfredo B; Nishimura, Luciana Sigueta; de Matos-Neto, Emídio Marques; Donato, Jose; Tirapegui, Julio

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have highlighted the potential of leucine supplementation for the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Caloric restriction is a common approach to improve the health in diabetic and obese subjects. However, very few studies assessed the effects of leucine supplementation in calorie-restricted animals. Rats were subjected to a 30% calorie-restricted diet for 6 weeks to study the effects of leucine supplementation on protein status markers and lipid metabolism. Caloric restriction reduced the body weight. However, increased leucine intake preserved body lean mass and protein mass and improved protein anabolism as indicated by the increased circulating levels of albumin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and the liver expression of albumin and IGF-1 messenger RNA. Leucine supplementation also increased the circulating levels of interleukin-6 and leptin but did not affect the tumour necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentrations. Ketone bodies were increased in rats consuming a leucine-rich diet, but we observed no changes in cholesterol or triglycerides concentrations. Caloric restriction reduced the liver expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α and glucose-6-phosphatase, whereas leucine supplementation increased the liver expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA) reductase and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. A leucine-rich diet during caloric restriction preserved whole body protein mass and improved markers of protein anabolism. In addition, leucine modulated the hepatic lipid metabolism. These results indicate that increased leucine intake may be useful in preventing excessive protein waste in conditions of large weight loss.

  14. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  15. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  16. Effect of inulin and oligofructose enrichment of the diet on rats suffering thiamine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dębski, B; Kurył, T; Gralak, M A; Pierzynowska, J; Drywień, M

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine deficiency resulted in inhibition of two main pathways supplying energy to the tissues: glycolysis and β-oxidation. Glycolysis was found to be inhibited to 40% of initial value calculated on the basis of RBC trans-membrane transport of glucose. Prolongation of experiment cause lowering of uptake of this sugar. In rats, energy production from fatty acids (FA) seems to be less sensitive to thiamine deficiency than glycolysis. After 30 days of feeding, utilization of FA in rats was depressed to the 61% of initial value. Thiamine deficiency suppressed insulin secretion, and the changes were statistically significant. Feeding of rats with thiamine restricted diet for 1 month caused the reduction of serum insulin by 14%. In the same animals, trans-membrane glucose transport was reduced over two-times, what might suggest a decreased efficiency of insulin action in such conditions. The kind and concentration of non-digestible fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) did not affect significantly serum insulin concentration in animals fed thiamine restricted diet. Substitution of a part of wheat starch with FOS has only insignificant compensatory effect on the uptake of glucose. A partial amelioration of the β-oxidation inhibition caused by feeding rats with thiamine deficient diet was observed in animals supplemented with FOS. However, this effect was statistically significant only in rats receiving diet containing 10% of inulin. The effect of supplemented FOS and their concentration on trans-membrane glucose transport in RBC was statistically significant, when pulled supplementation groups were used for statistical evaluation.

  17. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  18. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  19. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pósa, Anikó; Kupai, Krisztina; Szalai, Zita; Veszelka, Médea; Török, Szilvia; Varga, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX) or sham operation (SO). OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running) and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL), high triglyceride diet (HT), or restricted diet (CR). The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet. PMID:25874022

  20. Lack of Additive Effects of Resveratrol and Energy Restriction in the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Milton-Laskibar, Iñaki; Aguirre, Leixuri; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rolo, Anabela P; Soeiro Teodoro, João; Palmeira, Carlos M; Portillo, María P

    2017-07-11

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the effect of resveratrol on liver steatosis in obese rats, to compare the effects induced by resveratrol and energy restriction and to research potential additive effects. Rats were initially fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for six weeks and then allocated in four experimental groups fed a standard diet: a control group, a resveratrol-treated group, an energy restricted group and a group submitted to energy restriction and treated with resveratrol. We measured liver triacylglycerols, transaminases, FAS, MTP, CPT1a, CS, COX, SDH and ATP synthase activities, FATP2/FATP5, DGAT2, PPARα, SIRT1, UCP2 protein expressions, ACC and AMPK phosphorylation and PGC1α deacetylation. Resveratrol reduced triacylglycerols compared with the controls, although this reduction was lower than that induced by energy restriction. The mechanisms of action were different. Both decreased protein expression of fatty acid transporters, thus suggesting reduced fatty acid uptake from blood stream and liver triacylglycerol delivery, but only energy restriction reduced the assembly. These results show that resveratrol is useful for liver steatosis treatment within a balanced diet, although its effectiveness is lower than that of energy restriction. However, resveratrol is unable to increase the reduction in triacylglycerol content induced by energy restriction.

  1. Energy intake of rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Prats, E; Monfar, M; Castellà, J; Iglesias, R; Alemany, M

    1989-02-01

    The proportion of lipid, carbohydrate and protein energy self-selected by male and female rats from a cafeteria diet has been studied for a 48-day period (36-day in female rats). The diet consisted in 12 different items and was offered daily, in excess and under otherwise standard conditions, to rats--caged in groups of three--from weaning to adulthood. Groups of control animals were studied in parallel and compared with the cafeteria groups. Cafeteria diet fed groups of rats ingested more energy and lowered their metabolic efficiency with age. Male rats ate more than females and increased their body weight even after female practically stopped growing. There was a wide variation in the aliments consumed each day by the cafeteria-fed rats. However, the proportion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate the rats ate remained constant. Male rats ingested more lipid than females. Carbohydrate consumption was constant in control and cafeteria fed groups of rats independently of sex. Protein consumption was higher in cafeteria rats than in controls, but the differences were not so important as with liquid. Fiber content of the cafeteria diet was lower than that of the control diet. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was, thus, hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate than the control diet, slightly hyperproteic and, nevertheless, remarkably constant in its composition with respect to time. Cafeteria rats had a higher water intake than controls. All these trends were maintained despite the observed changes in the animals' tastes and their differential consumption of the ailments of the diet.

  2. The effect of iron and zinc dietary restriction of pregnant rats on physical growth of litters.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, M; Naghdi, N; Tahmasebi, S; Sheikh, M; Namvar Asl, N; Kazemnejad, A

    2009-06-01

    Evidence suggests that micronutrient deficiencies may be associated with problems in early growth. Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) deficiency (D) are prevalent during gestation in low-income countries. For pregnant dams, adequate amount of these micronutrients are needed in the diet to ensure the capacity for increased physical growth. In this study, the role of Fe and Zn dietary restriction of pregnant rats on physical growth of litters was investigated. Pregnant rats after to mating were divided to three groups. Control group fed a standard diet and a FeD group fed a diet deficient in Fe and a ZnD group fed a diet deficient in Zn. All the diets were exposed during the last third of pregnancy. The results showed serum Fe and Zn concentration after to exert dietary compared to before to exert dietary in FeD and ZnD groups was significant. There was a significant difference in the physical growth indexes (body weight, body length, tail length, and head length) between FeD and ZnD groups compared to the Control group, but a significant difference in head width and brain weight between FeD and ZnD groups compared to the Control group was not seen. The results of this study suggest that adequate Fe and Zn affect the physical growth of litters.

  3. Metabolic management of glioblastoma multiforme using standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Marcello, Norina; Pisanello, Anna; Servadei, Franco; Vaccaro, Salvatore; Mukherjee, Purna; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2010-04-22

    Management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been difficult using standard therapy (radiation with temozolomide chemotherapy). The ketogenic diet is used commonly to treat refractory epilepsy in children and, when administered in restricted amounts, can also target energy metabolism in brain tumors. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with progressive memory loss, chronic headaches, nausea, and a right hemisphere multi-centric tumor seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Following incomplete surgical resection, the patient was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme expressing hypermethylation of the MGMT gene promoter. Prior to initiation of the standard therapy, the patient conducted water-only therapeutic fasting and a restricted 4:1 (fat: carbohydrate + protein) ketogenic diet that delivered about 600 kcal/day. The patient also received the restricted ketogenic diet concomitantly during the standard treatment period. The diet was supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Steroid medication (dexamethasone) was removed during the course of the treatment. The patient was followed using MRI and positron emission tomography with fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG-PET). After two months treatment, the patient's body weight was reduced by about 20% and no discernable brain tumor tissue was detected using either FDG-PET or MRI imaging. Biomarker changes showed reduced levels of blood glucose and elevated levels of urinary ketones. MRI evidence of tumor recurrence was found 10 weeks after suspension of strict diet therapy. This is the first report of confirmed GBM treated with standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet. As rapid regression of GBM is rare in older patients following incomplete surgical resection and standard therapy alone, the response observed in this case could result in part from the action of the calorie restricted ketogenic diet. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of restricted ketogenic diets

  4. Restricted diets in children with reactions to milk and egg perceived by their parents.

    PubMed

    Eggesbø, M; Botten, G; Stigum, H

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which parents alter the diets of their children on the basis of perceived reactions. From a population-based sample of 2979 2-year old children with reactions to egg or milk perceived by their parents, one third had strict limitations on the intakes of these foods, representing 2.5% of the children in the cohort. In approximately 1 of 6 families the strict diets were initiated without consulting a doctor, and in a substantial proportion the restrictions were unwarranted. High maternal education level and irritability attributed to food were among the risk factors for unwarranted diets. On the other hand, many children, in whom an adverse reaction was verified, lacked appropriate diet restrictions. We conclude that the handling of adverse reactions to food frequently occurs outside the medical care system at the cost of correct diagnosis and appropriate diets.

  5. Sympathetic activity is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Shimomura, Y; Saitoh, S; Tokuyama, K; Takeuchi, H; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    Effects of dietary fats consisting of different fatty acids on sympathetic activity and body fat accumulation were studied in rats. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either beef tallow or safflower oil for 8 weeks. Carcass fat content was greater (P < .05) in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in rats fed the safflower oil diet. Norepinephrine (NE) turnover rate was significantly lower (P < .05) in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and pancreas in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in rats fed the safflower oil diet, resulting in a decreased (P < .05) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and an increased (P < .05) serum insulin concentration in the former. To confirm the effects of dietary fats on sympathetic activity in relation to body fat accumulation, rats were chemically sympathectomized. Sympathectomy abolished the differences in body fat accumulation, DIT, and serum insulin concentration between the two dietary groups. These results suggest that the beef tallow diet promotes body fat accumulation by reducing sympathetic activity as compared with intake of the safflower oil diet.

  6. Vildagliptin and caloric restriction for cardioprotection in pre-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tanajak, Pongpan; Pintana, Hiranya; Siri-Angkul, Natthaphat; Khamseekaew, Juthamas; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-02-01

    Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption causes cardiac dysfunction. Although calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be useful in obesity, we hypothesized that combined CR with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor provides greater efficacy than monotherapy in attenuating cardiac dysfunction and metabolic impairment in HFD-induced obese-insulin resistant rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups to be fed on either a normal diet (ND, n = 6) or a HFD (n = 24) for 12 weeks. Then, HFD rats were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) to receive just the vehicle, CR diet (60% of mean energy intake and changed to ND), vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day) or combined CR and vildagliptin for 4 weeks. Metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac mitochondrial function, left ventricular (LV) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 signaling pathway were determined. Rats on a HFD developed insulin and FGF21 resistance, oxidative stress, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired LV function. Rats on CR alone showed both decreased body weight and visceral fat accumulation, whereas vildagliptin did not alter these parameters. Rats in CR, vildagliptin and CR plus vildagliptin subgroups had improved insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress. However, vildagliptin improved heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac mitochondrial function and LV function better than the CR. Chronic HFD consumption leads to obese-insulin resistance and FGF21 resistance. Although CR is effective in improving metabolic regulation, vildagliptin provides greater efficacy in preventing cardiac dysfunction by improving anti-apoptosis and FGF21 signaling pathways and attenuating cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant rats.

  7. Diet-induced ketosis improves cognitive performance in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Eroku, Bernadette O; Tsipis, Constantinos P; Puchowicz, Michelle A; LaManna, Joseph C

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic insult and declines in behavioral function which may be due to attenuated adaptive/defense responses. We investigated if diet-induced ketosis would improve behavioral performance in the aged rats. Fischer 344 rats (3- and 22-month-old) were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diet for 3 weeks and then exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Cognitive function was measured using the T-maze and object recognition tests. Motor function was measured using the inclined-screen test. Results showed that KG diet significantly increased blood ketone levels in both young and old rats. In the aged rats, the KG diet improved cognitive performance under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; while motor performance remained unchanged. Capillary density and HIF-1alpha levels were elevated in the aged ketotic group independent of hypoxic challenge. These data suggest that diet-induced ketosis may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions.

  8. Vitamin E Restriction in the Diet Enhances Phagocytic Activation by Dichloroacetate and Trichloroacetate in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Ezdihar A.; Al-Dieri, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a Vitamin E-restricted diet on the induction of phagocytic activation by dichloro-acetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) was investigated. Groups of B6C3F1 male mice were either kept on standard diet (Std diet group) or diet that had the vitamin provided only by its natural ingredients (Low-E diet group). The animals in each diet group were administered 77 mg of DCA or TCA/ kg/day, or 5 ml/kg water (controls), by gavage, for 13 weeks. Thereafter, peritoneal lavage cells (PLC) were assayed for superoxide anion (SA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and myeloperoxidase (MPO), as well as for the activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). SA and TNFα production, as well as MPO, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased in the cells from the Low-E diet group treated with the compounds as compared with cells from hosts in the Std-diet group that received the corresponding treatments. The results indicate that consumption of a Vitamin E-restricted diet enhances the induction of phagocytic activation by DCA and TCA, a mechanism that was previously suggested to be an initial adaptive/protective response against the compounds long-term effects. PMID:22178223

  9. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

  10. Developmental programming of cardiovascular disease following intrauterine growth restriction: findings utilising a rat model of maternal protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T; Black, M Jane

    2014-12-29

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of "programming". The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype.

  11. [Adaptation of adipose tissue to weight-reduction energy-restricted diet in obese individuals].

    PubMed

    Štich, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and ultimately cardiovascular diseases. An important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders accompanying obesity is probably played by the alterations of adipose tissue characteristics: metabolic, endocrine and immune functions. The key component of obesity treatment, the weight-reduction energy-restricted diet, leads not only to the reduction of weight (specifically fat mass), but also to correction of obesity accompanying metabolic disorders. The mechanisms which mediate the metabolic effect of the weight-reduction energy-restricted diet, are unclear. It can be assumed that the weight-reduction diet "corrects" the impaired functions of the obese individuals adipose tissue and, subsequently, of the resulting metabolic disorders. The following text presents an overview of the changes of morphological and functional characteristics of adipose tissue that are induced by weight-reduction energy-restricted diets in obese individuals: the energy-restricted diet and the associated weight reduction cause a change in the size and differentiation of adipocytes, a change of metabolic functions, primarily of the regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis, change in the regulation of endocrine functions and, finally, they lead to the change in the immune function indicators, i.e. adipose tissue infiltration with immune cells and secretion of a spectrum of cytokines. The knowledge about the mechanisms of favourable metabolic effects of energy-restricted diets may lead to an advancement in non-pharmacological procedures of therapy for obesity and its complications, and, in the longer, term to the development of new therapeutic pharmacological procedures.Key words: energy-restricted diet - obesity - weight reduction - adipose tissue.

  12. Effect of pectin feeding on obesity development and duodenal alkaline phosphatase activity in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high-fat/high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Šefčíková, Z; Raček, L

    2016-06-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pectin feeding would affect the small intestinal function and whether these changes would lead to obesity prevention in rats fed with high-fat diet. Three groups of weaned male rats (ad lib. fed; rats fed with diet containing 15% w/w of citrus pectin; restrictedly pair-fed rats) were fed with either a standard diet (9.5% fat) or a high-fat diet (30% fat) for 10 days. Results Our results revealed that pectin feeding led to significant decreases in body weight, energy intake and fat pad weight in rats fed with the standard as well as high-fat diet. Moreover, compared to the restrictedly pair-fed rats, in both groups of rats fed with the diet containing pectin, significant decrease in duodenal alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was observed in histochemically stained cryostat sections. In contrast, despite their lower energy intake, restrictedly pair-fed rats showed similar fat pad deposition accompanied by unchanged values of AP activity in comparison to the controls. Conclusions Our findings indicate that daily pectin consumption could be beneficial in suppressing body weight gain and reducing probability of obesity risk in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

  13. Choline deprivation induces hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed low methionine diets.

    PubMed

    Setoue, Minoru; Ohuchi, Seiya; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2008-12-01

    To clarify the relationship between dietary choline level and plasma homocysteine concentration, the effects of choline deprivation on plasma homocysteine concentration and related variables were investigated in rats fed a standard (25%) casein (25C) diet or standard soybean protein (25S) diet. Using the 25S diet, the time-dependent effect of choline deprivation and the comparative effects of three kinds of lipotropes were also investigated. Feeding rats with the choline-deprived 25S diet for 10 d significantly increased plasma total homocysteine concentration to a level 2.68-times higher than that of the control group, whereas choline deprivation had no effect in rats fed the 25C diet. Increases in hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine and homocysteine concentrations, decreases in hepatic betaine concentration and the activity of cystathionine beta-synthase, but not betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, and fatty liver also occurred in rats fed the choline-deprived 25S diet. Plasma homocysteine concentration increased when rats were fed the choline-deprived 25S diet for only 3 d, and the increase persisted up to 20 d. The hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deprivation was effectively suppressed by betaine or methionine supplementation. Choline deprivation caused hyperhomocysteinemia also in rats fed a choline-deprived low (10%) casein diet. The results indicate that choline deprivation can easily induce prominent hyperhomocysteinemia when rats are fed relatively low methionine diets such as a standard soybean protein diet and low casein diet, possibly through the suppression of homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation. This hyperhomocysteinemia might be a useful model for investigating the role of betaine in the regulation of plasma homocysteine concentration.

  14. A low-protein diet during pregnancy prevents modifications in intercellular communication proteins in rat islets.

    PubMed

    Marçal-Pessoa, Ana Flávia; Bassi-Branco, Carmen Lucia; Salvatierra, Cristiana Dos Santos Barbosa; Stoppiglia, Luiz Fabrizio; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia Martins; de Lima Reis, Sílvia Regina; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; de Barros Reis, Marise Auxiliadora; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-16

    Gap junctions between β-cells participate in the precise regulation of insulin secretion. Adherens junctions and their associated proteins are required for the formation, function and structural maintenance of gap junctions. Increases in the number of the gap junctions between β-cells and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion are observed during pregnancy. In contrast, protein restriction produces structural and functional alterations that result in poor insulin secretion in response to glucose. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy affects the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in gap and adherens junctions in pancreatic islets. An isoenergetic low-protein diet (6% protein) was fed to non-pregnant or pregnant rats from day 1-15 of pregnancy, and rats fed an isocaloric normal-protein diet (17% protein) were used as controls. The low-protein diet reduced the levels of connexin 36 and β-catenin protein in pancreatic islets. In rats fed the control diet, pregnancy increased the levels of phospho-[Ser(279/282)]-connexin 43, and it decreased the levels of connexin 36, β-catenin and beta-actin mRNA as well as the levels of connexin 36 and β-catenin protein in islets. The low-protein diet during pregnancy did not alter these mRNA and protein levels, but avoided the increase of levels of phospho-[Ser(279/282)]-connexin 43 in islets. Insulin secretion in response to 8.3 mmol/L glucose was higher in pregnant rats than in non-pregnant rats, independently of the nutritional status. Short-term protein restriction during pregnancy prevented the Cx43 phosphorylation, but this event did not interfer in the insulin secretion.

  15. Functional plasticity of regenerated and intact taste receptors in adult rats unmasked by dietary sodium restriction.

    PubMed

    Hill, D L; Phillips, L M

    1994-05-01

    Unilateral chorda tympani nerve sectioning was combined with institution of a sodium-restricted diet in adult rats to determine the role that environment has on the functional properties of regenerating taste receptor cells. Rats receiving chorda tympani sectioning but no dietary manipulation (cut controls) and rats receiving only the dietary manipulation (diet controls) had normal responses to a concentration series of NaCl, sodium acetate (NaAc), and NH4Cl. However, responses from the regenerated nerve in NaCl-restricted rats (40-120 d postsectioning) to NaCl and NaAc were reduced by as much as 30% compared to controls, indicating that regenerating taste receptors are influenced by environmental (dietary) factors. Responses to NH4Cl were normal; therefore, the effect appears specific to sodium salts. Surprisingly, in the same rats, NaCl responses from the contralateral, intact chorda tympani were up to 40% greater than controls. Thus, in the same rat, there was over a twofold difference in sodium responses between the right and left chorda tympani nerves. A study of the time course of the functional alterations in the intact nerve revealed that responses to NaCl were extremely low immediately following sectioning (about 20% of the normal response), and then increased monotonically during the following 50 d until relative response magnitudes became supersensitive. This function occurred even when the cut chorda tympani was prevented from reinnervating lingual epithelia, demonstrating that events related to regeneration do not play a role in the functional properties of the contralateral side of the tongue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The effects of a high-energy diet on hippocampal-dependent discrimination performance and blood-brain barrier integrity differ for diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Terry L; Monnot, Andrew; Neal, Adelai U; Martin, Ashley A; Horton, J Josiah; Zheng, Wei

    2012-08-20

    Rats that consume high-energy (HE) diets (i.e., diets high in saturated fats and sugar) show impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (e.g., Kanoski and Davidson (2011) [1]). To further investigate this effect, we trained rats given restricted access to low-fat lab chow on hippocampal-dependent serial feature-negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. When training was completed, Group Chow received ad libitum lab chow. The remaining rats received ad libitum HE diet. Performance on both discrimination problems was tested following 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of HE diet exposure. FN, but not simple discrimination, was abolished initially for all rats, and then re-emerged for Group Chow. For rats fed HE diet, those that weighed the least and had the lowest amount of body fat (HE-diet resistant (HE-DR) rats), performed like Group Chow on both discrimination problems. However, HE diet-induced obese (HE-DIO) rats (i.e., rats that weighed the most weight and had the most body fat) performed like Group Chow on the simple discrimination problem, but were impaired throughout testing on the FN problem. Subsequent assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability revealed that concentrations of an exogenously administered dye were elevated in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum or prefrontal cortex for HE-DIO rats relative to the HE-DR and Chow groups. The results indicate that the adverse consequences of HE diet on hippocampal-dependent cognitive functioning are associated with detrimental effects on the BBB and that both of these outcomes vary with sensitivity to HE diet-induced increases in weight and adiposity.

  17. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability.

  18. Calorie restricted diet induces alternative pathways of lipid metabolism for support of proliferative processes in regenerating liver.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, A I; Menzianova, N C

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with quality and quantity lipid composition of blood serum and liver, DNA synthesis activity (incorporation of H3-thymidine) in liver in 24 h after partial hepatectomy (PH) in 22-month-old Wistar rats, maintained for 21 months on calorie restricted diet (CRD) and on standard diet ad libitum (SD). The contain of lipids in blood serum and activity of RA-label incorporation (14C-Na-acetate) in serum lipids in 24 h after PH were the same in CRD-fed and SD-fed animals. Quantitative and qualitative composition of lipids in microsomes of regenerating liver also was the same for both groups of rats. In regenerating liver of CRD-fed animals lipid contain in cytosol was 1,8-fold more, but pool of lipid droplets (LD) was 1.5-fold less than in regenerating liver of SD-fed animals. Activity of RA-label incorporation in lipids of microsomes, cytosol and LD pool of regenerating liver of CRD-fed animals was significantly higher, than in SD-fed ones. Activity of RA-label incorporation in lipid fractions and its distribution among cytosol lipids and LD pool lipids differed significantly between SD- and CRD-fed animals. Activity of DNA synthesis in regenerating liver of 22-month-old animals on CRD and SD was the same. It is supposed that calorie restriction induces alternative pathways of lipid metabolism to support proliferation processes in liver after PH.

  19. [Effects of linggui zhugan decoction combined calorie restriction on the insulin resistance of model rats and mechanisms research].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-yuan; Jin, Ming-hua; Ke, Bin; Li, Su-hua; Shen, Yong-zhi; Zhai, Jia-yu; Chen, Chun-yu; Qin, Jian

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of Linggui Zhugan Decoction (LZD) combined calorie restriction on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), the insulin resistance (IR), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) of IR model rats. Totally 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, the calorie restriction group, and the TCM + calorie restriction group, 12 in each group. Ordinary forage was given to those in the control group, and high fat diet was fed to those in the rest 3 groups for 12 weeks to establish the IR model. After successful modeling, rats in the control group and the model group were continually fed with the original farage for 4 days. The normal saline at the daily dose of 20 mL/kg was given to them by gastrogavage. The normal saline at the daily dose of 20 mL/kg was given to rats in the calorie restriction group by gastrogavage after 4-day calorie restriction. LZD at the daily dose of 20 mL/kg was given to rats in the TCM +calorie restriction group by gastrogavage after 4-day calorie restriction. The body weight, FPG, serum fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (IRI), and the protein expression of PPAR-y in the omental adipose tissue were compared. After 4-day calorie restriction, the body weight obviously decreased in the calorie restriction group and the TCM +calorie restriction group, when compared with the model group (P <0.01). There was no statistical difference between the former two groups (P >0.05). The FINS and IRI obviously decreased in the calorie restriction group (P <0.01, P <0.05). The FPG, FINS, and IRI significantly decreased in the TCM + calorie restriction group (P <0. 05, P <0.01). The protein expression of PPAR-gamma obviously decreased in the calorie restriction group and the TCM + calorie restriction group (P <0.01).The phlegm dampness state was alleviated, with more significant effects shown in the TCM + calorie restriction group. LZD combined calorie restriction could

  20. Diet restriction and ageing in the dog: major observations over two decades.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Dennis F; Larson, Brian T; Ballam, Joan M; Smith, Gail K; Biery, Darryl N; Evans, Richard H; Greeley, Elizabeth H; Segre, Mariangela; Stowe, Howard D; Kealy, Richard D

    2008-04-01

    This report reviews decade two of the lifetime diet restriction study of the dog. Labrador retrievers (n 48) were paired at age 6 weeks by sex and weight within each of seven litters, and assigned randomly within the pair to control-feeding (CF) or 25 % diet restriction (DR). Feeding began at age 8 weeks. The same diet was fed to all dogs; only the quantity differed. Major lifetime observations included 1.8 years longer median lifespan among diet-restricted dogs, with delayed onset of late life diseases, especially osteoarthritis. Long-term DR did not negatively affect skeletal maturation, structure or metabolism. Among all dogs, high static fat mass and declining lean body mass predicted death, most strongly at 1 year prior. Fat mass above 25 % was associated with increasing insulin resistance, which independently predicted lifespan and chronic diseases. Metabolizable energy requirement/lean body mass most accurately explained energy metabolism due to diet restriction; diet-restricted dogs required 17 % less energy to maintain each lean kilogram. Metabonomics-based urine metabolite trajectories reflected DR-related differences, suggesting that signals from gut microbiota may be involved in the DR longevity and health responses. Independent of feeding group, increased hazard of earlier death was associated with lower lymphoproliferative responses to phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen; lower total lymphocytes, T-cells, CD4 and CD8 cells; lower CD8 percentages and higher B-cell percentages. When diet group was taken into account, PWM responses and cell counts and percentages remained predictive of earlier death.

  1. Synaptic plasticity preserved with arachidonic acid diet in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Susumu; Nakazawa, Hiroe; Tokimasa, Takayuki; Akimoto, Kengo; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Toyoda-Ono, Yoshiko; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Okaichi, Hiroshige; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2003-08-01

    We examined whether synaptic plasticity was preserved in aged rats administered an arachidonic acid (AA) containing diet. Young male Fischer-344 rats (2 mo of age), and two groups of aged rats of the same strain (2 y of age) who consumed either a control diet or an AA ethyl ester-containing diet for at least 3 mo were used. In the Morris water maze task, aged rats on the AA diet had tendency to show better performance than aged rats on the control diet. Long-term potentiation induced by tetanic stimulation was recorded from a 300 microm thick hippocampal slice with a 36 multi-electrode-array positioned at the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The degree of potentiation after 1 h in aged rats on the AA diet was comparable as that of young controls. Phospholipid analysis revealed that AA and docosahexaenoic acid were the major fatty acids in the hippocampus in aged rats. There was a correlation between the behavioral measure and the changes in excitatory postsynaptic potential slope and between the physiologic measure and the total amount of AA in hippocampus.

  2. Dietary tryptophan restriction in rats triggers astrocyte cytoskeletal hypertrophy in hippocampus and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Vega-González, Arturo; García-Estrada, Joaquín; Escobar, Alfonso

    2009-02-06

    We have previously reported that dietary tryptophan (TRP) restriction in a rat crucial postnatal developmental stage induces depression-like behavior and alters dendritic spine density in CA1 pyramidal neurons and granule cells of the hippocampus. Due to astrocyte involvement in critical brain mechanisms, it seems worth to investigate possible adaptive changes in the glial population with TRP restriction. Experimental rats were fed with low TRP diet (20% of TRP level of the laboratory rat chow) from postnatal days 30-60. Antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a principal intermediate filament in astrocytes, was used to evaluate cytoskeletal hypertrophy and glial proliferation. Our results showed an increase in size and branching of GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dorsal hippocampus and amygdala, characteristics of an astrocytic activation. No significant differences were found regarding the number of GFAP-IR cells in both regions. These results indicate that dietary TRP restriction can induce astrocytic activation, hence, provide further evidences supporting the hypothesis that serotonin may also modulate glial morphology.

  3. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  4. Very low protein diet enhances inflammation, malnutrition, and vascular calcification in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Tatsumoto, Narihito; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kitazono, Takanari; Ooboshi, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies have shown that very low protein diet (VLPD) has negative effects on long-term survival. It remains unclear why VLPD induces premature death. The present study determined the underlying mechanism whereby VLPD exerts its harmful effects on uremic rats. Rats were divided into four groups and fed a normal diet or diets containing 0.3% adenine and low/normal protein with high/low phosphate. After 6 weeks, body weight, urinary biochemistry (creatinine and phosphate), serum biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, fibroblast growth factor 23, albumin, and fetuin-A), systemic inflammatory markers (serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), calcium content in the aorta, and serum calcium-phosphate precipitates were evaluated. Hepatic mRNA levels were also determined. Rats fed the diet containing 0.3% adenine developed severe azotemia. Rats fed VLPD developed malnutrition (decreases in body weight, serum albumin and fetuin-A levels, and urinary creatinine excretion) and systemic inflammation (increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) independent of phosphate status. VLPD decreased the serum fetuin-A level and hepatic fetuin-A synthesis and increased serum calcium-phosphate precipitates, a marker of calciprotein particle. A high-phosphate diet induced arterial medial calcification, which was enhanced by VLPD. Serum calcium-phosphate precipitate levels were correlated with the degree of inflammation, malnutrition, and aortic calcium content. Dietary phosphate restriction prevented VLPD-enhanced vascular calcification, but could not halt inflammation and malnutrition induced by VLPD. VLPD enhances inflammation, malnutrition, and vascular calcification in uremic rats, among which only vascular calcification is prevented by dietary phosphate restriction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Caloric Restriction and Formalin-Induced Inflammation: An Experimental Study in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Nozad, Aisan; Safari, Mir Bahram; Saboory, Ehsan; Derafshpoor, Leila; Mohseni Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Naseri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute and chronic inflammations are difficult to control. Using chemical anti-inflammatory medications along with their complications considerably limit their use. According to Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), there is an important relation between inflammation and Imtila (food and blood accumulation in the body); food reduction or its more modern equivalent Caloric Restriction (CR) may act against both Imtila and inflammation. Objectives: This experimental study aimed to investigate the effect of 30% reduction in daily calorie intake on inflammation in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 male rats (Rattus rattus) weighing 220 to 270 g were obtained. Then, the inflammation was induced by injecting formalin in their paws. Next, the rats were randomized by generating random numbers into two equal groups (9 + 9) putting on either normal diet (controls) or a similar diet with 30% reduction of calorie (cases). Paw volume changes were recorded twice per day by one observer in both groups using a standard plethysmometer for 8 consecutive days. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), complete blood count (erythrocyte, platelet, and white blood cell) and hemoglobin were compared between the groups. Results: Decline of both body weight and paw volume was significantly more prominent in the case than in the control rats within the study period (P < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). Paw volume decrease was more prominent after day 3. On day 8, serum CRP-positive (1 or 2 +) rats were more frequent in ad libitum fed group comparing with those received CR (33.3% vs. 11.1%). This difference, however, was insignificant (P = 0.58). At the same time, mean ESR was significantly higher in the control rats comparing with that in the case group (29.00 ± 2.89 h vs. 14.00 ± 1.55 h; P = 0.001). Other serum parameters were not significantly different between the two groups at endpoint. Conclusions: Rats fed with a 30% calorie-restricted

  6. Xerophthalmia and vitamin A deficiency in an autistic child with a restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Mimi; Watson, Stephanie

    2015-10-05

    We report the ocular and systemic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency in a child with a complicated medical history including autism and a restricted diet, living in a developed country. This child had significant vitamin A deficiency despite being under long-term medical care, yet the diagnosis was not considered until he had an ophthalmology review for visual deterioration.

  7. Exercise and a High Fat Diet Synergistically Increase the Pantothenic Acid Requirement in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that both exercise and dietary composition increase the utilization of, and thus the requirement for, certain water-soluble vitamins. However, there have been no studies evaluating the combined impacts of exercise and dietary composition on vitamin utilization. In this experiment, rats were fed a pantothenic acid (PaA)-restricted (0.004 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet containing 5% (ordinary amount of dietary fat) or 20% fat (high fat), and were forced to swim until exhaustion every other day for 22 d. PaA status was assessed by urinary excretion, which reflects body stores of water-soluble vitamins. The urinary excretion of PaA in rats fed a 5% fat diet was not affected by swimming (5% fat + non-swimming vs. 5% fat + swim; p>0.05). Excretion of PaA was decreased by the high-fat diet (5% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + non-swim; p<0.05) and synergistically decreased by exercise (20% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + swim; p<0.05). There was a significant interaction between exercise and a high-fat diet. Plasma PaA concentrations showed changes similar to those seen for urinary excretion. The experiment was then repeated using rats fed a PaA-sufficient (0.016 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet, and PaA excretion was again synergistically decreased by the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet synergistically increases the requirement for PaA.

  8. Maternal zinc restriction affects postnatal growth and glucose homeostasis in rat offspring differently depending upon adequacy of their nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Jou, Ming-Yu; Lönnerdal, Bo; Philipps, Anthony F

    2012-03-01

    We have previously investigated effects of moderate maternal zinc (Zn) restriction on growth and glucose homeostasis in offspring, but interaction between maternal Zn restriction and postnatal nutrition have not been studied. Weight and serum Zn were lower in ZnD-IN than in ZnC-IN rats at wk 3, but ZnD-AN and ZnD-EN rats had greater weights than respective controls and higher insulin-like growth factor-1 (ZnD-AN) and leptin levels (ZnD-EN). Subsequently, both ZnD-AN and ZnD-EN pups were insulin resistant, and had evidence of elevated serum leptin and depressed insulin receptor phosphorylation with gender-specific differences up to 15 weeks. Maternal Zn restriction interacted with postnatal nutritional status, resulting in divergent effects on weight gain and insulin resistance. Interaction between potential effects of fetal Zn restriction and food availability postnatally may be one factor responsible for later metabolic derangements. Rats were fed Zn restricted (ZnD, 7 μg/g) or control (ZnC, 25 μg/g) diets ad libitum from 3 wk pre-conception to 3 wk post-parturition. Postnatally, litters were culled to 13 (IN, inadequate nutrition), 7 (AN, adequate nutrition), and 4 (EN, excess nutrition) pups/dam, respectively, and nursed by their original mothers. Postweaning, pups were fed rodent diet ad libitum. Tests to assess insulin resistance were performed subsequently.

  9. Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975

  10. The effect of diet fat on rat adipocyte glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Ip, C; Tepperman, H M; De Witt, J; Tepperman, J

    1977-05-01

    Rats were fed either a high fat diet (67% of calories as lard) or high glucose diet (67% of calories as glucose) for 7-8 days. Basal and insulin stimulated net uptake of D glucose (D-L) and 2 deoxy D glucose uptake by free fat cells of fat rats were depressed. Net transport of D glucose (D-L) by purified adipocyte plasma membranes of fat red rats was also diminished. Incubation of fat cells from glucose fed rats with insulin before homogenization for membrane preparation increased net D glucose transport by subsequently purified membranes in two experiments to a greater extent than in similar preparations from rat fed rats. These experiments suggest that fat feeding modifies the plasma membranes of fat cells so that both glucose transport and the stimulatory effect of insulin on the process are decreased.

  11. Effects of Food Restriction on Expression of Place Conditioning and Biochemical Correlates in Rat Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Caroline; Rabinowitsch, Ariana; Lee, Wei Ting; Zheng, Danielle; Cabeza de Vaca, Soledad; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale When ad libitum fed rats undergo cocaine place preference conditioning (CPP) but are switched to food restriction for testing, CPP becomes resistant to extinction and correlates with phosphorylation of AMPA receptor GluA1 at Ser845 in nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. Objectives This study tested whether food restriction increases persistence of morphine CPP and conditioned place aversions (CPA) induced by LiCl and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Materials and methods Ad libitum fed rats were conditioned with morphine (6.0 mg/kg, i.p.), LiCl (50.0/75.0 mg/kg, i.p.), or naloxone (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) 22 hours post-morphine (20.0 mg/kg, s.c.). Half the subjects were then switched to food restriction. Daily testing resumed three weeks later and brains were harvested when one diet group met extinction criterion. Western analyses probed for pSer845-GluA1, pERK1 and pERK2 in NAc. Results Food restriction increased persistence of morphine CPP and preference scores correlated with pSer845-GluA1 in NAc core and shell. LiCl CPA was curtailed by food restriction, yet pSer845-GluA1 and pERK2 were elevated in NAc core of food restricted rats. Food restriction increased persistence of naloxone CPA, elevated pSer845-GluA1 in NAc core and shell, and aversion scores were negatively correlated with pERK1 and pERK2 in NAc core. Conclusions These results suggest that food restriction prolongs responsiveness to environmental contexts paired with subjective effects of both morphine and morphine withdrawal. A mechanistic scheme, attributing these effects to upregulation of pSer845-GluA1, but subject to override by CPA-specific, pERK2-mediated extinction learning, is explored to accommodate opposite effects of food restriction on LiCl and naloxone CPA. PMID:27376947

  12. Early-onset obesity and food restriction alter hepatocyte metabolism in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Nayra Thais D; Cruz, Gabriel Henrique P; Borrasca, Cristian L; Alves, Lucas de Paula S; de Godoy Gomes, Célia Regina; Ferreira de Godoi, Vilma Aparecida; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat Diaz

    2017-05-13

    Caloric restriction (CR) is suggested for overweight control. Systemic and liver glucose metabolism in the reduced-litter (RL) rat model under 30% CR was investigated. Newborn litters were organised in control (G9); RL with free diet (G3L); and RL with CR (G3R). Assessments were made at the age of 90 d. Higher liver glycogen content and changes in systemic glucose handling were found in the RL groups. Hepatocyte glucose metabolism was similar in groups G9 and G3L, but basal glucose production and glycogenolysis were higher, while gluconeogenesis and basal glycolysis were lower in the G3R. Urea production was lower in the RL groups. The altered glucose handling of the RL adult rats was not reversed by moderate (30%) CR. Hepatocyte glucose and nitrogen metabolism were changed by both early overfeeding and current feeding conditions. RL and CR alter systemic and liver glucose metabolism.

  13. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed.

  14. Puerarin affects bone biomarkers in the serum of rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juncao; Chen, Pingyang; Qi, Huaxue; Huang, Danhong

    2016-04-01

    To investigate serum bone biomarkers in rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in order to determine the effects of puerarin on bone metabolism. A rat model of IUGR was induced using a low protein diet during pregnancy. The offspring were given puerarin or an identical volume of saline via subcutaneous abdominal injection. All rats were studied at 1, 3, and 8 weeks of age. Serum biomarkers of bone formation, including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB Iigand (RANKL), as well as blood levels of calcium and phosphorus were measured. Serum BALP, OPG, IGF-1, and OC levels, as well as the OPG/RANKL ratio, were lower in the IUGR group compared with the control group at 1 week of age (P = 0.024, 0.011, 0.014, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively). At 3 weeks of age, the serum BALP and OC levels were higher in the protein-restricted group compared with the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). A comparison between the IUGR plus puerarin intervention group and the IUGR group revealed differences in the levels of BALP and IGF-1 at 3 weeks of age (P = 0.008 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, serum OPG and OC levels and the OPG/RANKL ratio were higher at 8 weeks of age (P = 0.044, 0.007, and 0.016, respectively). No differences in serum calcium and phosphorus levels were observed among the three groups. Our study demonstrates that the bone microenvironment of the fetus can be altered by a low protein maternal diet and that puerarin can reverse these effects. These results indicate that the nutritional environment plays an important role in early skeletal development and that the bone turnover of IUGR rats can be altered by puerarin treatment.

  15. Early retinal blood vessel growth in normal and growth restricted rat pups raised in oxygen and room air.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, C A; Wade, J; Gillespie, T; Aspinall, P; McIntosh, N; Fleck, B W

    2011-11-01

    Premature infants are born with incompletely vascularised retinas and are at a risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Rate of prenatal and postnatal body growth is important in the pathogenesis of ROP. The aim of this study was to develop a physiology-based rat model in order to study the effect of growth restriction and oxygen on early retinal vascular development. Rat mothers were fed either a normal (18% casein) or low (9% casein) protein diet (to cause pup growth restriction) from the last week of gestation. After birth, mother and pups were placed in either room air or a specialised oxygen chamber that delivered a rapidly fluctuating hyperoxic oxygen profile. The oxygen profile was based on that from a premature infant who developed severe ROP. On day 14, retinas were dissected, flat-mounted and stained using biotinylated lectin. Images were captured by confocal microscopy. The avascular areas of the retinas were measured and compared. Growth restricted rat pups had significantly larger retinal avascular areas than 'normally grown' rat pups (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.001). Growth restricted rat pups raised in fluctuating oxygen had significantly larger retinal avascular areas than growth restricted rat pups raised in room air (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.001). The authors have developed a novel model for ROP that involves inducing both intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction and also exposes neonatal rat pups to fluctuating oxygen. This physiology-based model can be used to study the effects of growth, nutrition and oxygen on early retinal vascular development.

  16. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  17. A maternal low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation in the rat impairs male reproductive development

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, E; Rodríguez-González, GL; Guzmán, C; García-Becerra, R; Boeck, L; Díaz, L; Menjivar, M; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, PW

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient restriction during pregnancy and lactation impairs growth and development. Recent studies demonstrate long-term programming of function of specific organ systems resulting from suboptimal environments during fetal life and development up to weaning. We determined effects of maternal protein restriction (50% control protein intake) during fetal development and/or lactation in rats on the reproductive system of male progeny. Rats were fed either a control 20% casein diet (C) or a restricted diet (R) of 10% casein during pregnancy. After delivery mothers received either C or R diet until weaning to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR and RC. We report findings in male offspring only. Maternal protein restriction increased maternal serum corticosterone, oestradiol and testosterone (T) concentrations at 19 days gestation. Pup birth weight was unchanged but ano-genital distance was increased by maternal protein restriction (P < 0.05). Testicular descent was delayed 4.4 days in RR, 2.1 days in CR and 2.2 days in RC and was not related to body weight. Body weight and testis weight were reduced in RR and CR groups at all ages with the exception of CR testis weight at 270 days postnatal age (PN). At 70 days PN luteinizing hormone and T concentrations were reduced in RR, CR and RC. mRNA for P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) was reduced in RR and CR at 21 days PN but was unchanged at 70 days PN. Fertility rate was reduced at 270 days PN in RC and sperm count in RR and RC. We conclude that maternal protein delays sexual maturation in male rats and that some effects only emerge in later life. PMID:15611025

  18. Influence of food restriction on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Tathiana Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the food-restricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in food-restricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk. PMID:22522763

  19. Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Howard D; Lawler, Dennis F; Kealy, Richard D

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (Cp), plasma ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and total peroxyl-radical trapping activity (TRAP), and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Data in this report are for the 6-y period of the experiment when the dogs were between 5 and 10 y of age. Diet restriction reduced RT, VE, Cu, and Cp. Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx. Female dogs had lower RP, VA, Cu, and Cp than male dogs. Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx. Treatment effects on serum RT and Cu suggest that these variables are not as regulated homeostatically by hepatic storage as in most other species. Although the antioxidant profiles did not elucidate how diet restriction contributes to longevity, they have the potential to enhance our understanding of canine clinical nutrition and to have practical applications in formulating canine diets.

  20. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  1. High calcium diet augments vascular potassium relaxation in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pörsti, I; Arvola, P; Wuorela, H; Vapaatalo, H

    1992-01-01

    The effects of increased dietary calcium on the development of hypertension and vascular smooth muscle responses were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Both hypertensive and normotensive animals were divided into two groups; the calcium content of the normal diet was 1.1% and that of the high calcium diet 3.1%. During the 12-week study, calcium supplementation significantly attenuated the increase in systolic blood pressure in the hypertensive rats but did not affect blood pressure in the normotensive rats. The contractile responses of endothelium-denuded mesenteric arterial rings to potassium chloride were similar in all study groups. The contractions to norepinephrine were not altered by the high calcium diet either, but smooth muscle sensitivity to this agonist was lower in the normotensive than in the hypertensive rats. Potassium relaxation was used to evaluate the activity of vascular smooth muscle Na+,K(+)-ATPase. The maximal rate of potassium relaxation was fastest in the normotensive groups but was also clearly faster in calcium-treated hypertensive rats when compared with hypertensive rats on a normal diet. Platelets were used as a cell model for the analysis of intracellular free calcium concentration, which was measured by the fluorescent indicator quin-2. Intracellular free calcium was significantly reduced in the hypertensive rats by calcium supplementation and was not affected in the normotensive rats. In conclusion, a reduction of intracellular free calcium concentration indicating improved calcium regulation and a concomitant alteration in vascular relaxation probably reflecting increased activity of smooth muscle Na+,K(+)-ATPase may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effect of a high calcium diet.

  2. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan) and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey). The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese) and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil) and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea). Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods) of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human) studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account. PMID:24069505

  3. Modified lingguizhugan decoction incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise ameliorates hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yao, Limei; Wei, Jingjing; Shi, Si; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong

    2017-02-28

    Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR), exercise incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR-Ex) and MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise group (HFD-DR-Ex-MLD). Treatments were conducted for 1 week after feeding high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The effects of treatments on high fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance in rats of MS were examined. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin and protein kinase B (PKB) in rats serum and liver were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After a week's intervention by dietary restriction, dietary restriction incorporated with exercise or MLD, compared with HFD rats, the relative weight of liver and fat, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, insulin, were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or 0.01). This treatment also inhibited abnormal increases of TNF-α, leptin and PKB in serum and liver. MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise treatment exhibit effects in alleviating high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance, which are possibly due to the down-regulation of TNF-α, leptin and PKB.

  4. Cysteine supplementation reverses methionine restriction effects on rat adiposity: significance of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Amany K; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Mattocks, Dwight A L; Plummer, Jason D; Smith, A David; Drevon, Christian A; Refsum, Helga; Perrone, Carmen E

    2011-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a key enzyme in fatty acid and energy metabolism, but little is known about its nutritional regulation. Dietary methionine restriction in rats decreases hepatic Scd1 mRNA and protein, increases energy expenditure, and decreases fat-pad mass/body-weight% (FM/BW%). In humans, plasma concentrations of the methionine product, cysteine, are associated with obesity. To determine which consequences of methionine-restriction are mediated by decreased cysteine availability, we monitored obesity-related variables in 4 dietary groups for 12 weeks: control-fed (CF), methionine-restricted (MR), MR supplemented with 0.5% l-cysteine (MR+Cys) and CF+Cys rats. MR lowered weight gain and FM/BW% despite higher food intake/weight than CF, and lowered serum cysteine. Hepatic Scd1 expression was decreased, with decreased serum SCD1 activity indices (calculated from serum fatty acid profile), decreased serum insulin, leptin and triglycerides, and higher adiponectin. Cysteine supplementation (MR+Cys) essentially reversed all these phenotypes and raised serum cysteine but not methionine to CF levels. Adding extra cysteine to control diet (CF+Cys) increased serum taurine but did not affect serum cysteine, lipids, proteins, or total weight gain. FM/BW% and serum leptin were modestly decreased. Our results indicate that anti-obesity effects of MR are caused by low cysteine and that dietary sulfur amino acid composition contributes to SCD1 regulation.

  5. Cysteine supplementation reverses methionine restriction effects on rat adiposity: significance of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase

    PubMed Central

    Elshorbagy, Amany K.; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Mattocks, Dwight A. L.; Plummer, Jason D.; Smith, A. David; Drevon, Christian A.; Refsum, Helga; Perrone, Carmen E.

    2011-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) is a key enzyme in fatty acid and energy metabolism, but little is known about its nutritional regulation. Dietary methionine restriction in rats decreases hepatic Scd1 mRNA and protein, increases energy expenditure, and decreases fat-pad mass/body-weight% (FM/BW%). In humans, plasma concentrations of the methionine product, cysteine, are associated with obesity. To determine which consequences of methionine-restriction are mediated by decreased cysteine availability, we monitored obesity-related variables in 4 dietary groups for 12 weeks: control-fed (CF), methionine-restricted (MR), MR supplemented with 0.5% l-cysteine (MR+Cys) and CF+Cys rats. MR lowered weight gain and FM/BW% despite higher food intake/weight than CF, and lowered serum cysteine. Hepatic Scd1 expression was decreased, with decreased serum SCD1 activity indices (calculated from serum fatty acid profile), decreased serum insulin, leptin and triglycerides, and higher adiponectin. Cysteine supplementation (MR+Cys) essentially reversed all these phenotypes and raised serum cysteine but not methionine to CF levels. Adding extra cysteine to control diet (CF+Cys) increased serum taurine but did not affect serum cysteine, lipids, proteins, or total weight gain. FM/BW% and serum leptin were modestly decreased. Our results indicate that anti-obesity effects of MR are caused by low cysteine and that dietary sulfur amino acid composition contributes to SCD1 regulation. PMID:20871132

  6. Improved glucose tolerance with lifetime diet restriction favorably affects disease and survival in dogs.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brian T; Lawler, Dennis F; Spitznagel, Edward L; Kealy, Richard D

    2003-09-01

    Labrador retrievers (42 of original 48) were used to assess the effects of lifetime diet restriction on glucose tolerance at ages 9-12 y. Restricted-fed (RF) dogs were fed 75% of the same diet consumed by control-fed (CF) pair-mates. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was done annually (maximal stimulation, nonsteady-state). Diet treatment, age, and interactions were fixed effects. Statistical procedures used included mixed-model, repeated-measures ANOVA; least-squares means; Tukey's multiple comparison; paired t tests; and Spearman rank correlations. Glucose k-value and half-life, and insulin sensitivity (total, and 9, 10, 11 y, and per lean mass) were higher (P < 0.05) in RF than in CF dogs. Late-phase insulin release [area under the curve (AUC) 30-120 min] was less (P < 0.05) in RF than in CR dogs. Early-phase insulin release (AUC 0-5 min), y 12 insulin sensitivity and insulinogenic index did not differ between RF and CF dogs. Insulin peak, delta and total AUC increased (P < 0.05) with age, whereas the glucose k-value and glucose half-life were not affected by age. Insulin sensitivity was negatively, and insulin AUC 30-120 min, peak and delta glucose were positively correlated with body weight, body condition score, fat mass, percentage of fat and abdominal fat/total tissue. Higher insulinogenic indices tended (P = 0.053) to be associated with greater median survival and dogs with higher insulin sensitivity were at lower (P < 0.05) risk of dying or receiving chronic disease treatment. Time to first osteoarthritis treatment or death was greater with lower basal glucose and higher insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05), but diet restriction explained most of this relationship's variation. Glucose disposal efficiency and insulin response were associated with increased quality and length of life in diet-restricted dogs.

  7. Energy restriction ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced cavernous tissue structural modifications in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Tomada, Inês; Fernandes, Dalila; Guimarães, João Tiago; Almeida, Henrique; Neves, Delminda

    2013-10-01

    High-fat (HF) diet regular intake along life highly contributes to vascular dysfunction and to an increment in prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and erectile dysfunction (ED), a surrogate symptom of occult vascular disease, in the elderly. However, little is known about the effects of energy restriction (ER) alone/or after an HF-feeding period. We show here that in male Sprague-Dawley rats, 16 months of HF-diet consumption led to an increase in body adiposity, blood pressure, lipidemia, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance and to hypoadiponectinemia, conditions that cluster in MetS. In addition, this treatment strongly favored collagen deposition in cavernous tissue and myocardium. Conversely, for the same time period, the ingestion of 75 % of ad libitum energy intake by controls (ER) extensively counteracted these outcomes. The impact of 6-month ER after 10-month HF period was also analyzed, and despite the decrease in body weight, adiposity, blood pressure, lipidemia, and C-reactive protein and improvement of insulin sensitivity, no differences were observed either in adiponectin blood levels or in retroperitoneal fat pad mass. Moreover, this treatment led to a reduction in cavernous tissue collagen deposition, but not in the myocardium, and evidenced differential mobilization of adipose tissue accretions. The data show the ability of HF diet to cause MetS and produce unwanted effects on myocardium and corpora vascular structure. They also indicate that these consequences are preventable upon ER diet starting early, but not later, in life.

  8. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders.

  9. A high fructose diet impairs spatial memory in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ross, A P; Bartness, T J; Mielke, J G; Parent, M B

    2009-10-01

    Over the past three decades there has been a substantial increase in the amount of fructose consumed by North Americans. Recent evidence from rodents indicates that hippocampal insulin signaling facilitates memory and excessive fructose consumption produces hippocampal insulin resistance. Based on this evidence, the present study tested the hypothesis that a high fructose diet would impair hippocampal-dependent memory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 61) were fed either a control (0% fructose) or high fructose diet (60% of calories). Food intake and body mass were measured regularly. After 19 weeks, the rats were given 3 days of training (8 trials/day) in a spatial version of the water maze task, and retention performance was probed 48 h later. The high fructose diet did not affect acquisition of the task, but did impair performance on the retention test. Specifically, rats fed a high fructose diet displayed significantly longer latencies to reach the area where the platform had been located, made significantly fewer approaches to that area, and spent significantly less time in the target quadrant than did control diet rats. There was no difference in swim speed between the two groups. The retention deficits correlated significantly with fructose-induced elevations of plasma triglyceride concentrations. Consequently, the impaired spatial water maze retention performance seen with the high fructose diet may have been attributable, at least in part, to fructose-induced increases in plasma triglycerides.

  10. Metabolic effects of chronic sleep restriction in rats.

    PubMed

    Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Fuller, Patrick M; Yokota, Shigefumi; Lu, Jun; Saper, Clifford B

    2012-11-01

    Chronic partial sleep loss is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans. We used rats with lesions in the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which spontaneously sleep about 30% less than intact rats, as an animal model to study the consequences of chronic partial sleep loss on energy metabolism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-365 g). We ablated the VLPO in rats using orexin-B-saporin and instrumented them with electrodes for sleep recordings. We monitored their food intake and body weight for the next 60 days and assessed their sleep-wake by 24-h EEG/EMG recordings on day 20 and day 50 post-surgery. On day 60, after blood samples were collected for metabolic profiling, the animals were euthanized and the brains were harvested for histological confirmation of the lesion site. VLPO-lesioned animals slept up to 40% less than sham-lesioned rats. However, they showed slower weight gain than sham-lesioned controls, despite having normal food intake. An increase in plasma ghrelin and a decrease in leptin levels were observed, whereas plasma insulin levels remained unaffected. As expected from leaner animals, plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein were reduced in VLPO-lesioned animals. Chronic partial sleep loss did not lead to obesity or metabolic syndrome in rats. This finding raises the question whether adverse metabolic outcomes associated with chronic partial sleep loss in humans may be due to factors other than short sleep, such as circadian disruption, inactivity, or diet during the additional waking hours.

  11. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing obesity may alleviate many medical complications including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has been suggested that obesity is contributed by the disruption of the circadian rhythms in addition to increased caloric intake. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day ma...

  12. Effect of low-calcium diet and grind diet on bone turnover of ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giselly-Parizoto; Leite, Deise-Silva; do Prado, Renata-Falchete; Silveira, Vanessa-Ávila-Sarmento; Carvalho, Yasmin-Rodarte

    2011-07-01

    The variety of methodologies used to investigate ovariectomized female rats shows different results, which makes a clinical application of these results difficult. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of masticatory effort reduction and of low-calcium diet on maxillary bone turnover of ovariectomized female rats. Eighty-four female rats were divided into four groups of 21 animals each as follows: SHAM--sham-operated; OVZ--ovariectomized and fed a standard commercial diet; LCD--fed a low calcium diet, and GCD--fed a grind commercial diet. The inferior first molars were extracted bilaterally 15 days after the ovariectomy, and the animals were euthanized 3, 5 and 8 weeks after ovaries removal. The maxillae were embedded in methylmetacrilate. The results were submitted to analysis of variance. The daily mineral apposition rate lowered with time and was not different between SHAM and OVZ groups. The trabecular bone volume of SHAM and OVZ animals was similar and decreased with time. The GCD animals presented the lowest means and the LCD the highest in comparison to the OVZ group. It was concluded that ovariectomy and a low calcium diet did not cause significant maxillary bone loss in the first molar region, and even in the absence of the antagonist tooth, they did not cause maxillary bone turnover. The grind commercial diet is a good alternative for the study of maxillary bone loss in ovariectomized female rats.

  13. Elimination of PBBs in rats. Effect of mineral oil and/or feed restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Bursian, S.J.; Underwood, M.S.; Wiggers, P.A.; Biondo, N.; Su, I.; Braselton, W.E.; Render, J.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Rats were fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) at 0.1 to 100.0 ppm for 14 d and then treated to hasten the removal of PBBs with 0, 5, or 10% mineral oil (MO) and/or 0, 15, 30, or 45% feed restriction (FR) for 21 d. PBB body burdens were determined at d 14 and expressed on a log-log basis by Y = 0.91x + 2.179 (r2 = 0.974), where x = log of PBB concentration in diet (ppm) and Y = log of PBB body burden (micrograms). After 21 d withdrawal, body burdens were expressed by the equation Y = 0.787x + 2.218 (r2 = 0.95). The most effective withdrawal treatment was 10% MO + 45% FR producing a reduction of body burdens inversely related to prior body burdens (69% at 0.1 ppm to 23% at 100 ppm). Body weights and fat content were significantly (p less than or equal to .05) reduced by feed restriction, with fat content only 39% of controls at 21 d off. Mortality averaged 0, 13.6, and 35.8% for rats fed 0, 5, or 10% MO, and 25, 15, 8.6, and 3.7% for rats feed restricted at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, respectively. Histopathology of the dead and moribund rats indicated that the clinical signs were not characteristic of PBB toxicity. In a second experiment, safflower oil at 3.5% or excess vitamins prevented the mortality and clinical signs associated with MO during withdrawal from 100 ppm PBBs. Based on these data and those in the literature, PBBs interfere with vitamin utilization.

  14. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Mukherjee, Purna; Kiebish, Michael A; Markis, William T; Mantis, John G; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2007-02-21

    Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children. Many current therapies for malignant brain tumors fail to provide long-term management because they ineffectively target tumor cells while negatively impacting the health and vitality of normal brain cells. In contrast to brain tumor cells, which lack metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose for growth and survival, normal brain cells can metabolize both glucose and ketone bodies for energy. This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal, a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A) and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG). Adult mice were implanted orthotopically with the malignant brain tumors and KetoCal was administered to the mice in either unrestricted amounts or in restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake according to the manufacturers recommendation for children with refractory epilepsy. The effects KetoCal on tumor growth, vascularity, and mouse survival were compared with that of an unrestricted high carbohydrate standard diet. KetoCal administered in restricted amounts significantly decreased the intracerebral growth of the CT-2A and U87-MG tumors by about 65% and 35%, respectively, and significantly enhanced health and survival relative to that of the control groups receiving the standard low fat/high carbohydrate diet. The restricted KetoCal diet reduced plasma glucose levels while elevating plasma ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate) levels. Tumor microvessel density was less in the calorically restricted KetoCal groups than in the calorically unrestricted control groups. Moreover, gene expression for the mitochondrial enzymes, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase, was lower in the tumors than in the contralateral normal

  15. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weihua; Mukherjee, Purna; Kiebish, Michael A; Markis, William T; Mantis, John G; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2007-01-01

    Background Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children. Many current therapies for malignant brain tumors fail to provide long-term management because they ineffectively target tumor cells while negatively impacting the health and vitality of normal brain cells. In contrast to brain tumor cells, which lack metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose for growth and survival, normal brain cells can metabolize both glucose and ketone bodies for energy. This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal®, a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A) and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG). Methods Adult mice were implanted orthotopically with the malignant brain tumors and KetoCal® was administered to the mice in either unrestricted amounts or in restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake according to the manufacturers recommendation for children with refractory epilepsy. The effects KetoCal® on tumor growth, vascularity, and mouse survival were compared with that of an unrestricted high carbohydrate standard diet. Results KetoCal® administered in restricted amounts significantly decreased the intracerebral growth of the CT-2A and U87-MG tumors by about 65% and 35%, respectively, and significantly enhanced health and survival relative to that of the control groups receiving the standard low fat/high carbohydrate diet. The restricted KetoCal® diet reduced plasma glucose levels while elevating plasma ketone body (β-hydroxybutyrate) levels. Tumor microvessel density was less in the calorically restricted KetoCal® groups than in the calorically unrestricted control groups. Moreover, gene expression for the mitochondrial enzymes, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase, was lower in the

  16. Effects of caloric restriction on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in adult rat bone.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly L; Rowland, Neil E; Krigbaum, John

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope analysis is a valuable technique for dietary estimation in ecological and archaeological research, yet many variables can potentially affect tissue stable isotope signatures. Controlled feeding studies across a range of species have consistently demonstrated impacts of caloric restriction on tissue stable isotope ratios, but most have focused on juvenile, fasting, and/or starving individuals, and most have utilized soft tissues despite the importance of bone for paleodietary analyses. The goal of this study was to determine whether temporally defined, moderate food restriction could affect stable carbon and/or nitrogen isotope ratios in adult mammalian bone - a tissue that arguably reflects long-term dietary signals. Adult rats fed a standard laboratory diet were restricted to 45% of ad libitum intakes for 3 or 6 months. Relevant anatomical and physiological parameters were measured to confirm that the restriction protocol resulted in significant nutritional stress and to provide independent data to facilitate interpretation of stable isotope ratios. Femoral bone δ(13)Ccollagen, δ(15)Ncollagen, and δ(13)Capatite values were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Calorie-restricted animals exhibited a small, yet significant enrichment in (15)Ncollagen compared with control animals, reflecting protein-calorie stress. While the δ(13)Ccollagen values did not differ, the δ(13)Capatite values revealed less enrichment in (13)C than in controls, reflecting catabolism of body fat. Independent anatomical and physiological data from these same individuals support these interpretations. Results indicate that moderate caloric restriction does not appreciably undermine broad interpretations of dietary signals in adult mammalian bone. Significant variability among individuals or groups, however, is best explained by marked differences in energy intake over variable timescales. An inverse relationship between the δ(13)Capatite and δ(15)Ncollagen

  17. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  18. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?

    PubMed

    Varady, K A

    2011-07-01

    Dietary restriction is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. The most common form of dietary restriction implemented is daily calorie restriction (CR), which involves reducing energy by 15-60% of usual caloric intake every day. Another form of dietary restriction employed is intermittent CR, which involves 24 h of ad libitum food consumption alternated with 24 h of complete or partial food restriction. Although both diets are effective for weight loss, it remains unknown whether one of these interventions produces superior changes in body weight and body composition when compared to the other. Accordingly, this review examines the effects of daily CR versus intermittent CR on weight loss, fat mass loss and lean mass retention in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal similar weight loss and fat mass loss with 3 to 12 weeks' intermittent CR (4-8%, 11-16%, respectively) and daily CR (5-8%, 10-20%, respectively). In contrast, less fat free mass was lost in response to intermittent CR versus daily CR. These findings suggest that these diets are equally as effective in decreasing body weight and fat mass, although intermittent CR may be more effective for the retention of lean mass.

  19. Effect of Diet on Metabolism of Laboratory Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, P. C.; Riskowski, G. L.; McKee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    In previous studies when rats were fed a processed, semipurified, extruded rodent food bar (RFB) developed for space science research, we noted a difference in the appearance of gastrointestinal tissue (GI); therefore the following study evaluated GI characteristics and growth and metabolic rates of rats fed chow (C) or RFB. Two hundred and twenty-four rats (78 g mean body weight) were randomly assigned to 28 cages and provided C or RFB. Each cage was considered the experimental unit and a 95 percent level of significance, indicated by ANOVA, was used for inference. After each 30-, 60-, and 90-day period, eight cages were shifted from the C to RFB diet and housing density was reduced by two rats per cage. The two rats removed from each cage were sacrificed and used for GI evaluation. Metabolic rates of the rats in each cage were determined by indirect calorimetry. No differences in body weight were detected at 0, 30, 60 or 90 days between C and RFB. Heat production (kcal/hr/kg), CO2 production (L/hr/kg) and O2 consumption (L/hr/kg) were different by light:dark and age with no effect of diet. Respiratory quotient was different by age with no effect of light:dark or diet. Rats on the C diet ate less food and drank more water than those on RFB. C rats produced more fecal and waste materials than the RFB. GI lengths increased with age but were less in RFB than C. GI full and empty weights increased with age but weighed less in RFB than C. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) numbers increased with age with no effect of diet. No differences in ileum-associated GALT area were detected between C and RFB. Switching C to RFB decreased GI length, GI full and empty weights, with no changes in GALT number or area. We concluded RFB decreased GI mass without affecting metabolic rate or general body growth.

  20. Clinical, echocardiographic, and neurohormonal effects of a sodium-restricted diet in dogs with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rush, J E; Freeman, L M; Brown, D J; Brewer, B P; Ross, J N; Markwell, P J

    2000-01-01

    The use of low-sodium diets in dogs with heart failure is common practice, but randomized, double-blind studies have not been conducted to examine the benefits or problems with this approach. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low-sodium diet on clinical, echocardiographic, and neurohormonal parameters in dogs with heart failure. Dogs with stable chronic heart failure were fed exclusively a low-sodium (LS) and a moderate-sodium (MS) diet for 4 weeks each in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. At days 0, 28, and 56, echocardiography and thoracic radiography were performed, and blood was analyzed for electrolytes and neurohormones. Fourteen dogs completed the study (9 with chronic valvular disease and 5 with dilated cardiomyopathy). Electrolyte abnormalities were common during the study, and serum sodium and chloride concentrations decreased significantly on the LS diet. Neurohormones did not change significantly between diet groups. Maximum left atrial (P = .05) and standard left atrial (P = .09) size decreased on the LS diet. For dogs with chronic valvular disease, vertebral heart score (P = .05), left ventricular internal dimension in diastole (P = .006) and systole (P = .02), standard left atrial dimension (P = .03), maximum left atrial dimension (P = .02), end-diastolic volume index (P = .02), and end-systolic volume index (P = .04) decreased significantly on the LS diet compared to the MS diet. Although analysis of these data suggests some benefits of a low-sodium diet, future studies with improved study design are needed to further evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of sodium restriction in dogs with heart failure.

  1. Reduced effectiveness of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is associated with increased serotonin clearance rate in food-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    France, Charles P; Li, Jun-Xu; Owens, William A; Koek, Wouter; Toney, Glenn M; Daws, Lynette C

    2009-07-01

    Efficacy of antidepressant drugs is often limited. One of the limiting factors may be diet. This study shows that the effect of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is diminished in rats by food restriction that decreased body weight by 8%. The primary target for escitalopram is the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. Using high-speed chronoamperometry to measure 5-HT clearance in vivo in rats fed the same food-restricted diet, the rate of 5-HT clearance from extracellular fluid in brain was dramatically increased. Increased 5-HT transporter function under conditions of dietary restriction might contribute to the decreased effect of escitalopram. These results suggest that diet plays an integral role in determining efficacy of antidepressant drugs, and might well generalize to other psychoactive drugs that impinge upon the 5-HT transporter.

  2. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  3. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a reduction in energy intake ameliorated the high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet with a 5% restriction of the intake. Energy restriction reduced body adiposity and body weight, but maintained growth similar to mice fed the AIN93G diet. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of metastases formed in lungs. Restricted feeding reduced the number of metastases by 23%, metastatic cross-sectional area by 32% and volume by 45% compared to the high-fat diet. The high-fat diet elevated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin), angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and insulin. Restricted feeding significantly reduced the high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and insulin. These results demonstrated that a reduction in diet intake by 5% reduced high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis, which may be associated with the mitigation of adiposity and down-regulation of cancer-promoting proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors. PMID:27582541

  4. Whey versus soy protein diets and renal status in rats.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Tassi, Mohamed; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Cristina; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Different dietary protein sources can promote different renal statuses. We examined the effects of whey protein (WP) and soy protein (SP) intake on plasma, urinary, and morphological renal parameters in rats. One hundred and twenty Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 2 experimental groups fed with either WP or SP diets over 12 weeks. These diets were based on commercial WP or SP isolates. The urinary calcium content was higher in the WP diet compared to the SP diet group (P<.001) whereas the urinary citrate level was lower (P<.001). The urinary pH was more acidic in the WP diet group compared to the SP diet group (P<.001); however, no differences were observed between the groups for any of the renal morphological parameters analyzed (all, P>.05) or other plasma renal markers such as albumin or urea concentrations. The increase of acid and urinary calcium and the lower urinary citrate level observed in the WP diet group could increase the incidence of nephrolithiasis compared to the SP diet group. Despite the WP showed poorer acid-base profile, no significant morphological renal changes were observed. These results suggest that the use of SP instead of WP appears to promote a more alkaline plasma and urinary profile, with their consequent renal advantages.

  5. PPAR mRNA Levels Are Modified by Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid Restriction and Energy Restriction in the Brain and Liver of Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Johnson, LuAnn; Idso, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Without dietary sources of n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) affects ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces n-3 LCPUFA concentrations in tissues of growing rats fed diets replete with and deficient in ALA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (23 d old) were provided AIN93G diets (4 wk) made with soybean oil (SO; ALA sufficient) or corn oil (CO; ALA deficient) providing 16% of energy as fat. For each dietary oil, ER rats were individually pair-fed 75% of another rat's ad libitum (AL) intake. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in brain regions, liver, and plasma were analyzed. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), uncoupling proteins (UCPs), and mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in the brain and liver. AL rats consuming CO had a 65% lower concentration of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) and a 10% lower DHA concentration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum than did the SO-AL group. ER did not alter cerebral n-3 LCPUFA status. Liver n-3 LCPUFA concentrations were reduced in rats fed CO compared with SO. ER reduced hepatic linoleic acid (18:2n-6), ALA, and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) regardless of oil. ER and n-3 FA deficiency had independent effects on the mRNA levels of Pparα, Pparβ/δ, and Pparγ in the liver, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. ER reduced Ucp3 mRNA by nearly 50% in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and liver, and Ucp5 mRNA was 30% lower in the cerebellum of rats receiving the CO diet. Small perturbations in PUFA concentration and ER modify the mRNA levels of Ppar and Ucp in the juvenile rat brain. More research is needed to identify the long-term physiologic and behavioral impacts of ER and PUFA restriction in the juvenile brain. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Daily exercise vs. caloric restriction for prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the OLETF rat model.

    PubMed

    Rector, R Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M; Morris, E Matthew; Borengasser, Sarah J; Laughlin, M Harold; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2011-05-01

    The maintenance of normal body weight either through dietary modification or being habitually more physically active is associated with reduced incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the means by which weight gain is prevented and potential mechanisms activated remain largely unstudied. Here, we sought to determine the effects of obesity prevention by daily exercise vs. caloric restriction on NAFLD in the hyperphagic, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. At 4 wk of age, male OLETF rats (n = 7-8/group) were randomized to groups of ad libitum fed, sedentary (OLETF-SED), voluntary wheel running exercise (OLETF-EX), or caloric restriction (OLETF-CR; 70% of SED) until 40 wk of age. Nonhyperphagic, control strain Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were kept in sedentary cage conditions for the duration of the study (LETO-SED). Both daily exercise and caloric restriction prevented obesity and the development of type 2 diabetes observed in the OLETF-SED rats, with glucose tolerance during a glucose tolerance test improved to a greater extent in the OLETF-EX animals (30-50% lower glucose and insulin areas under the curve, P < 0.05). Both daily exercise and caloric restriction also prevented excess hepatic triglyceride and diacylglycerol accumulation (P < 0.001), hepatocyte ballooning and nuclear displacement, and the increased perivenular fibrosis and collagen deposition that occurred in the obese OLETF-SED animals. However, despite similar hepatic phenotypes, OLETF-EX rats also exhibited increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, enhanced oxidative enzyme function and protein content, and further suppression of hepatic de novo lipogenesis proteins compared with OLETF-CR. Prevention of obesity by either daily exercise or caloric restriction attenuates NAFLD development in OLETF rats. However, daily exercise may offer additional health benefits on glucose homeostasis and hepatic mitochondrial function compared with

  7. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  8. Prolonged protein deprivation, but not food restriction, affects parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the dentate gyrus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Castro, João Paulo; Pereira, Pedro Alberto; Andrade, José Paulo

    2013-07-19

    Several studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of the hippocampal formation to malnutrition. In this study, we compared the effects of food restriction and protein malnutrition in the total number of neurons of the dentate gyrus and in the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons, which are related to the control of calcium homeostasis and fine tuning of the hippocampal circuits. Two month-old rats were randomly assigned to control, food-restricted and low-protein diet groups. After 6 months, 10 rats from the low-protein diet group were selected at random and fed with a normal protein diet for 2 months. The total number of granule and hilar cells was reduced in protein-deprived rats and the nutritional reestablishment with a normal protein diet did not recover neuron numbers. Protein deprivation increased the number of PV-IR interneurons in the granule cell layer and hilus, but their number returned to values similar to controls after nutritional rehabilitation. Food restriction did not affect the total number of neurons or the density of PV-IR interneurons in the dentate gyrus. These results support the view that protein deprivation may disturb calcium homeostasis, leading to neuronal death. The up-regulation of PV-IR cells may reflect a protective mechanism to counteract the calcium overload and protect the remaining neurons of the dentate gyrus. This imbalance in cell-ratio favoring GABAergic interneurons may justify some learning and memory impairments described in protein-deprived animals. This contrast between the results of food restriction and protein deprivation should be further analyzed in future studies.

  9. Calorie-restricted ketogenic diet increases thresholds to all patterns of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures: critical importance of electroclinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Emmanuel; François, Jennifer; Ferrandon, Arielle; Koning, Estelle; Nehlig, Astrid

    2008-02-01

    Thresholds to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizures were usually based only on clinical symptoms. Our purpose was to use electroclinical patterns to assess the efficacy of a ketogenic and/or calorie-restricted diet on PTZ-induced seizures. Forty 50-day-old rats were divided in four weight-matched groups and fed controlled diets: normocalorie carbohydrate (NC), hypocalorie carbohydrate (HC), normocalorie ketogenic (NK), and hypocalorie ketogenic (HK). After 21 days, blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels were determined and seizures were induced by continuous infusion of PTZ. The clinical and EEG thresholds to each seizure pattern were compared between the different groups. The electroclinical course of PTZ-induced seizures was similar in all groups. The HK group exhibited higher thresholds than the other ones for most clinical features: absence (p = 0.003), first overt myoclonia (p = 0.028), clonic seizure (p = 0.006), and for EEG features: first spike (p = 0.036), first spike-and-wave discharge (p = 0.014), subcontinuous spike-and-wave discharges (p = 0.005). NK, HC, and NC groups were not significantly different from each other. Blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels were not correlated with electroclinical seizure thresholds. After the clonic seizure, despite stopping PTZ infusion, a tonic seizure occurred in some animals, without significant difference regarding the diet. This approach permitted a precise study of the electroclinical course of PTZ-induced seizures. In addition to the usually studied first overt myoclonia, we clearly demonstrated the efficiency of a calorie restricted KD in elevating thresholds to most electroclinical seizure patterns. We confirmed the lack of efficiency of the KD to reduce seizure severity once the seizure has started.

  10. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  11. Effects of exposure to dietary chromium on tissue mineral contents in rats fed diets with fiber.

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Krzysik, Monika; Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets with fiber (cellulose and/or pectin) supplemented with chromium(III) on homeostasis of selected minerals in femurs, thigh muscles, livers, and kidneys of rats. For 6 weeks, male rats were fed experimental diets: a fiber-free diet (FF), a diet containing 5% cellulose (CEL), 5% pectin (PEC), or 2.5% cellulose and 2.5% pectin (CEL+PEC). These diets had 2.53 or 0.164 mg Cr/kg diet. The tissue levels of Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Cr were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Supplementing diets with Cr resulted in significantly higher Cr levels in the femurs of rats fed the CEL diet and significantly higher Cr and Fe levels in the rats fed the CEL+PEC diet compared to the rats fed FF diet. Muscle Ca content was significantly lower in the rats fed the CEL+PEC+Cr diet compared to the rats fed FF+Cr diet. The rats consuming the PEC+Cr diet had the highest liver Cr content. The highest kidney Zn content was observed in the rats fed diets containing Cr and one type of fiber. These results indicate that diets containing chromium at elevated dose and fiber have a significant effect on the mineral balance in rat tissues.

  12. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent. PMID:25895126

  13. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jessica L; McCay, Timothy S; Garneau, Danielle E

    2012-09-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards.

  14. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  15. Is it wise to restrict fat in the diets of children?

    PubMed

    Olson, R E

    2000-01-01

    The proponents of fat-restricted diets for children argue that low-fat diets given in childhood will prevent the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood, low-fat diets given a childhood will condition children to prefer low-fat diets in adulthood, and low-fat diets for children are safe. There is no evidence that low-fat diets in childhood will prevent atherosclerosis in adulthood. In fact, studies of migrating populations indicate that immigrants to the United States from Third World countries who consumed low-fat diets in childhood take on the character of their new environments, including higher serum cholesterol levels and more coronary disease. The prevalence of fatty streaks in childhood bears little relationship to the prevalence of atheromatous plaques in adulthood. In fact, girls have more aortic fatty streaks and higher serum cholesterol values in childhood than boys, but fewer plaques in adulthood and less coronary disease. From the PDAY study, it has also been learned that hypercholesterolemia in childhood enhances fatty streak formation, but not that of plaques. It now seems established from autopsy studies that the progression of atherosclerosis from fatty streaks to plaque is arrested in childhood and does not begin to a significant extent until after puberty in males and after menopause in females. So the oft-repeated statement that atherosclerosis begins in childhood is semantically true but very misleading. The particularly harmful form of atherosclerosis (the plaque) does not become significant until much beyond puberty. The effects of low-fat, low-cholesterol diets on serum lipids and lipoproteins are of a lesser magnitude in children than in adults. The 0.78 mmol/L decrease in LDL cholesterol in the intervention group from controls (change 1.5%) in the DISC study was biologically insignificant and reflects the tighter control of lipoprotein and cholesterol synthesis in children compared with adults. It must be remembered that the human body

  16. Refeeding after acute food restriction: differential reduction in preference for ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors in selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Dess, Nancy K; Chapman, Clinton D; Cousins, Laura A; Monroe, Derek C; Nguyen, Phuong

    2013-01-17

    Rats' voluntary ethanol intake varies with dispositional factors and energy status. The joint influences of these were of interest here. We previously reported that rats selectively bred for high voluntary saccharin intake (HiS) consume more ethanol and express more robust conditioning of preference for flavors paired with voluntarily consumed ethanol than do low-saccharin consuming counterparts (LoS). Three new experiments examined the effect of refeeding after an episode of food restriction on ethanol intake and on preference for ethanol-paired flavors in HiS and LoS rats. A 48-h episode of food restriction with wheel running reduced intake of and preference for 4% ethanol (Exp. 1a) and preference for an ethanol-paired flavor (Exp. 1b) during refeeding. Food restriction alone was sufficient to reduce the flavor preference (Exp. 2). Adding fat to the refeeding diet or extending the food restriction period exacerbated the effect (Exp. 3), yielding a frank aversion to ethanol-paired flavors in LoS rats. These studies indicate that rebound from negative energy balance shifts responses to ethanol-associated cues from preference toward aversion. Analyses of bodyweight changes and caloric intake during refeeding support this conclusion and further suggest that lower metabolic efficiency may be a marker for enhanced preference mutability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fetuin-A decrease induced by a low-protein diet enhances vascular calcification in uremic rats with hyperphosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Tatsumoto, Narihito; Noguchi, Hideko; Kitazono, Takanari; Ooboshi, Hiroaki

    2015-10-15

    Although dietary phosphate restriction is important for treating hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease, it remains unclear whether a low-protein diet (LPD), which contains low phosphate, has beneficial effects on malnutrition, inflammation, and vascular calcification. The effects of LPD on inflammation, malnutrition, and vascular calcification were therefore assessed in rats. Rats were fed a normal diet or diets containing 0.3% adenine and low/normal protein and low/high phosphate. After 6 wk, serum and urinary biochemical parameters, systemic inflammation, and vascular calcification were examined. The protective effect of fetuin-A and albumin were assessed in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Rats fed the diet containing 0.3% adenine developed severe azotemia. LPD in rats fed high phosphate induced malnutrition (decreases in body weight, food intake, serum albumin and fetuin-A levels, and urinary creatinine excretion) and systemic inflammation (increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α and urinary oxidative stress marker). LPD decreased the serum fetuin-A level and fetuin-A synthesis in the liver and increased serum calcium-phosphate precipitates. A high-phosphate diet increased aortic calcium content, which was enhanced by LPD. Reduced fetal calf serum in the medium of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells enhanced phosphate-induced formation of calcium-phosphate precipitates in the media and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells, both of which were prevented by fetuin-A administration. Our results suggest that phosphate restriction by restricting dietary protein promotes vascular calcification by lowering the systemic fetuin-A level and increasing serum calcium-phosphate precipitates and induces inflammation and malnutrition in uremic rats fed a high-phosphate diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Brain and behavioral perturbations in rats following Western diet access.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, Sara L; Davidson, Terry L; Lee, Tien-Jui; Kinzig, Kimberly P

    2015-10-01

    Energy dense "Western" diets (WD) are known to cause obesity as well as learning and memory impairments, blood-brain barrier damage, and psychological disturbances. Impaired glucose (GLUT1) and monocarboxylate (MCT1) transport may play a role in diet-induced dementia development. In contrast, ketogenic diets (KD) have been shown to be neuroprotective. We assessed the effect of 10, 40 and 90 days WD, KD and Chow maintenance on spontaneous alternation (SA) and vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors in male rats, then analyzed blood glucose, insulin, and ketone levels; and hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 mRNA. Compared to Chow and KD, rats fed WD had increased 90 day insulin levels. SA was decreased in WD rats at 10, but not 40 or 90 days. VTE was perturbed in WD-fed rats, particularly at 10 and 90 days, indicating hippocampal deficits. WD rats had lower hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 expression compared to Chow and KD, and KD rats had increased 90 day MCT1 expression compared to Chow and WD. These data suggest that WD reduces glucose and monocarboxylate transport at the hippocampus, which may result in learning and memory deficits. Further, KD consumption may be useful for MCT1 transporter recovery, which may benefit cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain and behavioral perturbations in rats following Western diet access

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave, Sara L.; Davidson, Terry L.; Lee, Tien-Jui; Kinzig, Kimberly P.

    2015-01-01

    Energy dense “Western” diets (WD) are known to cause obesity as well as learning and memory impairments, blood-brain barrier damage, and psychological disturbances. Impaired glucose (GLUT1) and monocarboxylate (MCT1) transport may play a role in diet-induced dementia development. In contrast, ketogenic diets (KD) have been shown to be neuroprotective. We assessed the effect of 10, 40 and 90 days WD, KD and Chow maintenance on spontaneous alternation (SA) and vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors in male rats, then analyzed blood glucose, insulin, and ketone levels; and hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 mRNA. Compared to Chow and KD, rats fed WD had increased 90 day insulin levels. SA was decreased in WD rats at 10, but not 40 or 90 days. VTE was perturbed in WD-fed rats, particularly at 10 and 90 days, indicating hippocampal deficits. WD rats had lower hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 expression compared to Chow and KD, and KD rats had increased 90 day MCT1 expression compared to Chow and WD. These data suggest that WD reduces glucose and monocarboxylate transport at the hippocampus, which may result in learning and memory deficits. Further, KD consumption may be useful for MCT1 transporter recovery, which may benefit cognition PMID:25862980

  20. Effect of selenium on rat growth, growth hormone and diet utilization.

    PubMed

    Ewan, R C

    1976-05-01

    Female rats were fed a selenium-deficient diet composed of Torula yeast, sucrose, vitamins (including tocopheryl acetate) and minerals from weaning and during breeding, gestation and lactation. The offspring were used to study the effects of selenium on growth, diet utilization and growth hormon status. The Torula yeast diet containing 200 IU dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate was fed alone or supplemented with 0.025 or 0.1 ppm of selenium as selenite. Rats fed the selenium-supplemented diets grew significently faster and consumed significantly more diet than rats fed the unsupplemented diet. Anterior pituitary weights were lower in selenium-deficient rats, but if expressed per unit of body weight, were similar to pituitary weight of selenium-supplemented animals. Total growth hormone in the anterior pituitary was reduced in selenium-deficient rats. A metabolism study indicated that rats allowed ad libitum access to supplemented diets consumed more diet and obtained more metabolizable energy from the diet than rats fed the deficient diet. It the intake of rats fed the supplemented diets was limited to that of rats allowed ad libitum access to deficient diet, growth of rats was similar. However, metabolizable energy content of the diet increased quadratically and nitrogen digestibility increased linearly as thelevel of selenium increased. Selenium deficiency reduced growth primarily by decreased diet consumption, but also reduced the utilization of energy and nitrogen.

  1. Caloric restriction promotes rapid expansion and long-lasting increase of Lactobacillus in the rat fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fraumene, Cristina; Manghina, Valeria; Cadoni, Erika; Marongiu, Fabio; Abbondio, Marcello; Serra, Monica; Palomba, Antonio; Tanca, Alessandro; Laconi, Ezio; Uzzau, Sergio

    2017-09-11

    Previous studies indicated that caloric restricted diet enables to lower significantly the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In experimental animal models, life-long lasting caloric restriction (CR) was demonstrated to induce changes of the intestinal microbiota composition, regardless of fat content and/or exercise. To explore the potential impact of short and long-term CR treatment on the gut microbiota, we conducted an analysis of fecal microbiota composition in young and adult Fisher 344 rats treated with a low fat feed under ad libitum (AL) or CR conditions (70%). We report here significant changes of the rat fecal microbiota that arise rapidly in young growing animals after short-term administration of a CR diet. In particular, Lactobacillus increased significantly after 8 weeks of CR treatment and its relative abundance was significantly higher in CR vs AL fed animals after 36 weeks of dietary intervention. Taken together, our data suggest that Lactobacillus intestinal colonization is hampered in AL fed young rats compared to CR fed ones, while health-promoting CR diet intervention enables the expansion of this genus rapidly and persistently up to adulthood.

  2. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Radhika V; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A; Nguyen, Amy D; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)-(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative to energy

  3. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  4. n-3 Fatty acids preserve muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Galmiche, Guillaume; Huneau, Jean-François; Mathé, Véronique; Mourot, Jacques; Simon, Noémie; Le Guillou, Céline; Hermier, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    In obese subjects, the loss of fat mass during energy restriction is often accompanied by a loss of muscle mass. The hypothesis that n-3 PUFA, which modulate protein homoeostasis via effects on insulin sensitivity, could contribute to maintain muscle mass during energy restriction was tested in rats fed a high-fat diet (4 weeks) rich in 18 : 1 n-9 (oleic acid, OLE-R), 18 : 3 n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA-R) or n-3 long-chain (LC-R) fatty acid and then energy restricted (8 weeks). A control group (OLE-ad libitum (AL)) was maintained with AL diet throughout the study. Rats were killed 10 min after an i.v. insulin injection. All energy-restricted rats lost weight and fat mass, but only the OLE-R group showed a significant muscle loss. The Gastrocnemius muscle was enriched with ALA in the ALA-R group and with LC-PUFA in the ALA-R and LC-R groups. The proteolytic ubiquitin-proteasome system was differentially affected by energy restriction, with MAFbx and muscle ring finger-1 mRNA levels being decreased in the LC-R group (-30 and -20 %, respectively). RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase and insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation levels increased in the LC-R group (+70 %), together with insulin receptor mRNA (+50 %). The ALA-R group showed the same overall activation pattern as the LC-R group, although to a lesser extent. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the loss of muscle mass associated with energy restriction, probably by an improvement in the insulin-signalling pathway activation, in relation to enrichment of plasma membranes in n-3 LC-PUFA.

  5. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (p<0.01) and both of them were less so after taurine was supplemented (p<0.01). 2) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that brain cortex structures were sparse IUGR rats, showing many scattered apoptotic cells, decreased numbers of synapses, lower glial cell proliferation, and fewer neurons, more sparsely arranged, while these factors were significantly improved with taurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (p<0.001). 4) The results of immunohistochemistry showed that antenatal taurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (p<0.001). It can be concluded that it IUGR has a significant detrimental influence on the development of fetal rat brains, and antenatal supplement of taurine can significantly improve the IUGR

  6. [Influence of protein-restricted diet on motor response fluctuations in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Hirata, H; Asanuma, M; Kondo, Y; Ogawa, N

    1992-09-01

    The clinical management of Parkinson's disease has been revolutionized by the introduction of levodopa therapy. It has significantly reduced disability and has extended life expectancies of patients with Parkinson's disease. However, motor response fluctuations frequently appear in patients after long-term treatment with levodopa. In this study, we investigated the effect of protein-restricted diet on fluctuations in eight patients with Parkinson's disease who had been receiving long-term levodopa treatment (mean 12.5 years). Two weeks of protein-restricted daytime diet (7.5 g total at breakfast and lunch) was followed by 12.5 g total at breakfast and lunch. At night, high-protein diet (40-50 g at dinner) was offered to the patients in order to maintain total daily protein intake at Japanese standard level. The medication schedule of levodopa and other antiparkinsonian drugs was not changed within 2 weeks after the study was began. Fluctuations were reduced in 7 of the 8 patients. But in only one patient (case 6), dyskinesia and general condition got worse and stopped this therapy. Body weight, serum protein and albumin levels did not change significantly for at least three month after the study was begun in every 6 patients who were examined. Homovanillic acid level of cerebrospinal fluid reduced in every 4 patients who were examined. We concluded that protein-restricted diet during the daytime offers a fascinating technique for the control of motor response fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing long-term levodopa treatment. But this therapy must be indicated carefully. Mechanism of this therapy may has something to do with improvement of dopamine metabolism in the brain.

  7. Following a calorie-restricted diet may help in reducing healthcare students' fat-phobia.

    PubMed

    Cotugna, Nancy; Mallick, Anum

    2010-06-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005/2006 show that 32.7% of US adults are overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), 34.3% are obese (BMI 30-39.9), and 5.9% are extremely obese (BMI >or= 40). For the first time, the number of obese American adults is greater than those who are merely overweight. Negative attitudes and fat phobia toward the overweight exist not only in the general population, but also among health professionals including dietitians and dietetics students. The purpose of this study was to determine if fat phobia might be reduced among future professionals by putting students on a calorie-restricted diet for a short period. Forty dietetics and health promotion students enrolled in a university obesity course completed the Fat Phobia Scale test before and after following a calorie restricted diet for 1 week (1,200 calories and 1,500 calories for women and men, respectively). Students also reflected their thoughts about following such a diet via brief journal entries. Results showed the change in fat phobias after following a calorie-restricted diet was significant. Many journal entries reflected a newfound respect for individuals struggling to lose weight and change in prior negative attitudes. Students reported that this experience would impact their future dealings with overweight/obese clients. It may be useful to incorporate this type of activity into the training of nutrition and other health professional students to increase sensitivity and reduce existing biases and negative attitudes toward overweight/obese clients.

  8. Age-related differences in norepinephrine kinetics: Effect of posture and sodium-restricted diet

    SciTech Connect

    Supiano, M.A.; Linares, O.A.; Smith, M.J.; Halter, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We used compartmental analysis to study the influence of age on the kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) distribution and metabolism. Plasma NE and (3H)NE levels were measured in 10 young (age 19-33 yr) and 13 elderly (age 62-73 yr) subjects in the basal supine position, during upright posture, and after 1 wk of a sodium-restricted diet. We found that the basal supine release rate of NE into the extravascular compartment, which is the site of endogenous NE release (NE2), was significantly increased in the elderly group (young, 9.6 +/- 0.5; elderly, 12.3 +/- 0.8 nmol.min-1.m-2; means +/- SE; P = 0.016), providing direct evidence for an age-related increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Although upright posture led to a greater increase in plasma NE in the young (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 2.36 +/- 0.16 nM) than in the elderly (1.31 +/- 0.11 to 2.56 +/- 0.31 nM; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.02), the increase in NE2 was similar between the young (9.6 +/- 0.6 to 16.2 +/- 1.5 nmol.min-1.m-2) and the elderly (11.6 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 2.4 nmol.min-1.m-2; posture effect, P = 0.001; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.15). Thus the increase in SNS tone resulting from upright posture was similar in young and elderly subjects. Plasma NE levels increased similarly in both groups after a sodium-restricted diet (diet effect, P = 0.001; age group-diet interaction, P = 0.23). However, NE2 did not increase significantly in either group (diet effect, P = 0.26), suggesting that SNS tone did not increase after a sodium-restricted diet. Compartmental analysis provides a description of age-related differences in NE kinetics, including an age-related increase in the extravascular NE release rate.

  9. Role of CYP2E1 and saturation kinetics in the bioactivation of thioacetamide: Effects of diet restriction and phenobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Chilakapati, Jaya; Korrapati, Midhun C.; Shankar, Kartik; Hill, Ronald A.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2007-02-15

    Thioacetamide (TA) undergoes saturation toxicokinetics in ad libitum (AL) fed rats. Diet restriction (DR) protects rats from lethal dose of TA despite increased bioactivation-mediated liver injury via CYP2E1 induction. While a low dose (50 mg TA/kg) produces 6-fold higher initial injury, a 12-fold higher dose produces delayed and mere 2.5-fold higher injury. The primary objective was to determine if this less-than-expected increase in injury is due to saturation toxicokinetics. Rats on AL and DR for 21 days received either 50 or 600 mg TA/kg i.p. T {sub 1/2} and AUCs for TA and TA-S-oxide were consistent with saturable kinetics. Covalent binding of {sup 14}C-TA-derived-radiolabel to liver macromolecules after low dose was 2-fold higher in DR than AL rats. However, following lethal dose, no differences were found between AL and DR. This lack of dose-dependent response appears to be due to saturation of bioactivation at the higher dose. The second objective was to investigate the effect of phenobarbital pretreatment (PB) on TA-initiated injury following a sub-lethal dose (500 mg/kg). PB induced CYP2B1/2 {approx} 350-fold, but did not increase covalent binding of {sup 14}C-TA, TA-induced liver injury and mortality, suggesting that CYP2B1/2 has no major role in TA bioactivation. The third objective was to investigate the role of CYP2E1 using cyp2e1 knockout mice (KO). Injury was assessed over time (0-48 h) in wild type (WT) and KO mice after LD{sub 100} dose (500 mg/kg) in WT. While WT mice exhibited robust injury which progressed to death, KO mice exhibited neither initiation nor progression of injury. These findings confirm that CYP2E1 is responsible for TA bioactivation.

  10. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  11. Iodine Deficiency and Hypothyroidism From Voluntary Diet Restrictions in the US: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Booms, Stephanie; Hill, Elizabeth; Kulhanek, Leah; Vredeveld, Jennifer; Gregg, Brigid

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States today, and this is largely due to the effectiveness of iodization in the general food supply. Recent trends among specific populations of children in the United States include adopting food restrictions, such casein-free and gluten-free diets. Although the effect of these types of diets on overall nutrition status and certain micronutrients has been studied in children with autism spectrum disorder, the effect of these limitations on iodine levels in children has not been assessed. We present here 2 cases of iodine deficiency resulting from severe food restriction and associated primary hypothyroidism. In 1 case a classic presentation with a goiter was seen. These children were able to discontinue thyroid hormone treatment once iodine levels were normalized. There were no adverse events or unanticipated outcomes. The occurrence of these cases of iodine deficiency in the United States points to the need for thyroid function testing in children with severe food restrictions, especially those who have limited exposure to dairy, baked goods, and table salt. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Synergistic interaction between caloric restriction and amphetamine in food-unrelated approach behavior of rats

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kristine L.; Vollrath-Smith, Fiori R.; Jafari, Mehrnoosh; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Approach behavior is regulated by the brain integrating information about environment and body state. Psychoactive drugs interact with this process. Objectives We examined the extent to which caloric (i.e., food) restriction, amphetamine and lithium interact in potentiating locomotor activity and responding reinforced by visual stimulus (VS), a reward unrelated to energy homeostasis. Methods Rats either had ad-libitum access to food or received daily rations that maintained 85-90% of their original body weights. Leverpressing turned on a cue light for 1 sec and turned off house light for 5 sec. Amphetamine and lithium were administered through intraperitoneal injections and diet, respectively. Results Food-restriction or amphetamine (1 mg/kg) alone had little effect on VS-reinforced responding; however, the combination of the two conditions markedly potentiated VS-reinforced responding (4-fold). Food restriction lasting 7 days or longer was needed to augment amphetamine’s effect on VS-reinforced responding. Amphetamine (0.3 – 3 mg/kg) potentiated locomotor activity similarly between food-restricted and ad-libitum groups. Repeated injections of amphetamine sensitized locomotor activity, but not VS-reinforced responding. In addition, while chronic lithium treatments (0.2% lithium carbonate chow) reduced VS-reinforced responding, chronic lithium further augmented amphetamine-potentiated VS-reinforced responding. Conclusions Food-restriction interacts with psychoactive drugs to potentiate goal-directed responding unrelated to food-seeking in a much more powerful manner than previously thought. The novel finding that lithium can augment a psychostimulant effect of amphetamine suggests caution when combining lithium and psychostimulant drugs in clinical settings. PMID:24101157

  13. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Luchtman, Dirk W; Chee, Melissa J S; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L; Baracos, Vickie E; Colmers, William F

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks' refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint.

  14. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Luchtman, Dirk W.; Chee, Melissa J. S.; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Colmers, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks’ refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint. PMID:26444289

  15. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    PubMed

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases.

  16. Waking and sleeping in the rat made obese through a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Luppi, Marco; Cerri, Matteo; Martelli, Davide; Tupone, Domenico; Del Vecchio, Flavia; Di Cristoforo, Alessia; Perez, Emanuele; Zamboni, Giovanni; Amici, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Sleep restriction leads to metabolism dysregulation and to weight gain, which is apparently the consequence of an excessive caloric intake. On the other hand, obesity is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness in humans and promotes sleep in different rodent models of obesity. Since no consistent data on the wake-sleep (WS) pattern in diet-induced obesity rats are available, in the present study the effects on the WS cycle of the prolonged delivery of a high-fat hypercaloric (HC) diet leading to obesity were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The main findings are that animals kept under a HC diet for either four or eight weeks showed an overall decrease of time spent in wakefulness (Wake) and a clear Wake fragmentation when compared to animals kept under a normocaloric diet. The development of obesity was also accompanied with the occurrence of a larger daily amount of REM sleep (REMS). However, the capacity of HC animals to respond to a "Continuous darkness" exposure condition (obtained by extending the Dark period of the Light-Dark cycle to the following Light period) with an increase of Sequential REMS was dampened. The results of the present study indicate that if, on one hand, sleep curtailment promotes an excess of energy accumulation; on the other hand an over-exceeding energy accumulation depresses Wake. Thus, processes underlying energy homeostasis possibly interact with those underlying WS behavior, in order to optimize energy storage.

  17. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  18. Analysis of energy expenditure in diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Assaad, Houssein; Yao, Kang; Tekwe, Carmen D.; Feng, Shuo; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zhou, Lan; Carroll, Raymond J.; Meininger, Cynthia J.; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    Development of obesity in animals is affected by energy intake, dietary composition, and metabolism. Useful models for studying this metabolic problem are Sprague-Dawley rats fed low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets beginning at 28 days of age. Through experimental design, their dietary intakes of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals per kg body weight (BW) do not differ in order to eliminate confounding factors in data interpretation. The 24-h energy expenditure of rats is measured using indirect calorimetry. A regression model is constructed to accurately predict BW gain based on diet, initial BW gain, and the principal component scores of respiratory quotient and heat production. Time-course data on metabolism (including energy expenditure) are analyzed using a mixed effect model that fits both fixed and random effects. Cluster analysis is employed to classify rats as normal-weight or obese. HF-fed rats are heavier than LF-fed rats, but rates of their heat production per kg non-fat mass do not differ. We conclude that metabolic conversion of dietary lipids into body fat primarily contributes to obesity in HF-fed rats. PMID:24896330

  19. Acute effects of different diet compositions on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese individuals during caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cecilia C.L.; Adochio, Rebecca L.; Leitner, J. Wayne; Abeyta, Ian M.; Draznin, Boris; Cornier, Marc-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective The cellular effects of restricting fat versus carbohydrate during a low-calorie diet are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine acute effects of energy and macronutrient restriction on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obesity. Materials/Methods Eighteen obese individuals without diabetes underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and skeletal muscle biopsy after: (a) 5 days of eucaloric diet (30% fat, 50% carbohydrate), and (b) 5 days of a 30% calorie-restricted diet, either low fat/high carbohydrate (LF/HC: 20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) or high-fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC: 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate). Results Weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity were similar between groups after eucaloric diet. Weight loss was similar between groups after hypocaloric diet, 1.3 ± 1.3 kg (p<0.0001 compared with eucaloric). Whole-body insulin sensitivity was unchanged after calorie restriction and similar between groups. However, ex vivo skeletal muscle insulin signalling differed depending on macronutrient composition of calorie-restricted diet. Skeletal muscle of the LF/HC group had increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, decreased insulin-stimulated Ser 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1, and increased IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase activity. Conversely, insulin stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylated IRS-1 was absent and serine 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 was increased on HF/LC, with blunting of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activity. Conclusion Acute caloric restriction with a LF/HC diet alters skeletal muscle insulin signalling in a way that improves insulin sensitivity, while acute caloric restriction with a HF/LC diet induces changes compatible with insulin resistance. In both cases, ex vivo changes in skeletal muscle insulin signalling appear prior to changes in whole body insulin sensitivity. PMID:23174405

  20. Short-term preoperative dietary restriction is neuroprotective in a rat focal stroke model.

    PubMed

    Varendi, Kärt; Airavaara, Mikko; Anttila, Jenni; Vose, Sarah; Planken, Anu; Saarma, Mart; Mitchell, James R; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a major complication of cardiovascular surgery, resulting in over 100,000 deaths and over a million postoperative encephalopathies annually in the US and Europe. While mitigating damage from stroke after it occurs has proven elusive, opportunities to reduce the incidence and/or severity of stroke prior to surgery in at-risk individuals remain largely unexplored. We tested the potential of short-term preoperative dietary restriction to provide neuroprotection in rat models of focal stroke. Rats were preconditioned with either three days of water-only fasting or six days of a protein free diet prior to induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using two different methods, resulting in either a severe focal stroke to forebrain and midbrain, or a mild focal stroke localized to cortex only. Infarct volume, functional recovery and molecular markers of damage and protection were assessed up to two weeks after reperfusion. Preoperative fasting for 3 days reduced infarct volume after severe focal stroke. Neuroprotection was associated with modulation of innate immunity, including elevation of circulating neutrophil chemoattractant C-X-C motif ligand 1 prior to ischemia and suppression of striatal pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor α, its receptor and downstream effector intercellular adhesion molecule-1 after reperfusion. Similarly, preoperative dietary protein restriction for 6 days reduced ischemic injury and improved functional recovery in a milder cortical infarction model. Our results suggest that short-term dietary restriction regimens may provide simple and translatable approaches to reduce perioperative stroke severity in high-risk elective vascular surgery.

  1. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces adiposity and inflammatory cytokine production in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythms contributes to obesity. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day may reset the circadian rhythms and reduce obesity and resulting complications. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity...

  2. Food restriction enhances oxidative status in aging rats with neuroprotective effects on myenteric neuron populations in the proximal colon.

    PubMed

    Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Santi Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Cirilo, Carla Possani; Zapater, Mariana Cristina Umada; Vicentini, Fernando Augusto; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Bracht, Adelar; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2014-03-01

    Food restriction may slow the aging process by increasing the levels of antioxidant defenses and reducing cell death. We evaluated the effects of food restriction on oxidative and nutritional status, myenteric cell populations, and the colonic muscle layer in aging rats. Wistar rats were distributed into control groups (7, 12, and 23months of age) and subjected to food restriction (50% of normal diet) beginning at 7months of age. The animals were sacrificed, and blood was collected to evaluate its components and markers of oxidative status, including thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity. The proximal colon was collected to evaluate HuC/D and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive and -negative myenteric neurons, S-100 glial cells, and the muscle layer. Age negatively affected oxidative status in the animals, which also increased the levels of total cholesterol, protein, and globulins and increased the thickness of the muscle layer. Aging also reduced the number and hypertrophied glial cell bodies, HuC/D neurons, and nNOS-negative and -positive neurons. An improvement was observed in oxidative status and the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides with food restriction, which also provided neuroprotection of the intrinsic innervation. However, food restriction accentuated the loss of enteric glia and caused hypertrophy in the muscle layer at 23months. Food restriction improved oxidative and nutritional status in rats and protected HuC/D neurons and nNOS-negative and -positive neurons against neuronal loss. Nevertheless, food restriction caused morphoquantitative changes in glial cell populations, with possible interference with colonic neuromuscular control.

  3. Diet-induced obesity alters memory consolidation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zanini, P; Arbo, B D; Niches, G; Czarnabay, D; Benetti, F; Ribeiro, M F; Cecconello, A L

    2017-10-15

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which is caused by an energy imbalance between consumed and expended calories. Obesity leads to an inflammatory response that may result in peripheral and central metabolic changes, including insulin and leptin resistance. Insulin and leptin resistance have been associated with metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions. Obesity and some neurodegenerative diseases that lead to dementia affect mainly women. However, the effects of diet-induced obesity on memory consolidation in female rats are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a hypercaloric diet on the object recognition memory of female rats and on possible related metabolic changes. The animals submitted to the hypercaloric diet presented a higher food intake in grams and in calories, resulting in increased weight gain and liposomatic index in comparison with the animals exposed to the control diet. These animals presented a memory deficit in the object recognition test and increased serum levels of glucose and leptin. However, no significant differences were found in the serum levels of insulin, TNF-α and IL-1β, in the index of insulin resistance (HOMA), in the hippocampal levels of insulin, TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as on Akt expression or activation in the hippocampus. Our findings indicate that adult female rats submitted to a hypercaloric diet present memory consolidation impairment, which could be associated with diet-induced weight gain and leptin resistance, even without the development of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adverse effects of a high-glucose diet on body weight and plasma calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels in calcium-deficient growing rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, S A; Boass, A; Toverud, S U

    1989-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dietary calcium would lead to greater impairment of body weight gain and calcium homeostasis if rats are fed a diet with a high glucose content compared with our standard diet in which the carbohydrate is supplied by whole wheat flour. Groups of female rats at 21 days of age were given either of two equivalent calcium-deficient diets with carbohydrate supplied either by glucose (LCaG) or by wheat flour (LCaW). Control rats were fed the wheat-flour diet containing 0.4% calcium. Since previous studies indicated divergent effects of glucose-based and flour-based diets on body weight in vitamin D-deficient rats, we designed a parallel study with vitamin D-deprived rats. Compared with rats fed the LCaW diet, the rats fed the LCaG diet had inferior body weight gain and more severe hypocalcemia (1-2 mg/ml lower) over a 40-day period, and no significant elevation of the plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 level at 61 days of age. Rats fed the LCaW diet maintained a 3-fold elevation of plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 relative to the level of control rats fed the 0.4% calcium diet. The dry weight and percent ash of tibias were similarly reduced in the two calcium-restricted groups compared to the control group. Among the vitamin D-deprived rats, those fed the glucose diet had poorer weight gain than those fed the wheat flour diet. However, both groups had similarly depressed serum calcium level, tibia ash content and 1,25(OH)2D3 level. Thus, a glucose diet combined with calcium restriction or vitamin D deprivation appears to accentuate the impairment of body weight gain and, when combined with calcium restriction, it also accentuates the impairment of calcium homeostasis and interferes with the adaptive increase in plasma 1,25(OH)2D3.

  5. Pre-Existing Differences and Diet-Induced Alterations in Striatal Dopamine Systems of Obesity-Prone Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Nelson, Andrew D.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Interactions between pre-existing differences in mesolimbic function and neuroadaptations induced by consumption of fatty, sugary foods are thought to contribute to human obesity. This study examined basal and cocaine-induced changes in striatal neurotransmitter levels without diet manipulation and D2/D3 dopamine receptor-mediated transmission prior to and after consumption of “junk-foods” in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Microdialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine basal and cocaine-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in real time with cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Sensitivity to the D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was examined before and after restricted junk-food exposure. Selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats were used. Results Cocaine-induced locomotion was greater in obesity-prone rats versus obesity-resistant rats prior to diet manipulation. Basal and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. Obesity-prone rats were more sensitive to the D2 receptor-mediated effects of quinpirole, and junk-food produced modest alterations in quinpirole sensitivity in obesity-resistant rats. Conclusions These data show that mesolimbic systems differ prior to diet manipulation in susceptible versus resistant rats, and that consumption of fatty, sugary foods produce different neuroadaptations in these populations. These differences may contribute to enhanced food craving and an inability to limit food intake in susceptible individuals. PMID:26847484

  6. Pre-existing differences and diet-induced alterations in striatal dopamine systems of obesity-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Vollbrecht, Peter J; Mabrouk, Omar S; Nelson, Andrew D; Kennedy, Robert T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between pre-existing differences in mesolimbic function and neuroadaptations induced by consumption of fatty, sugary foods are thought to contribute to human obesity. This study examined basal and cocaine-induced changes in striatal neurotransmitter levels without diet manipulation and D2 /D3 dopamine receptor-mediated transmission prior to and after consumption of "junk-foods" in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Microdialysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine basal and cocaine-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels in real time with cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Sensitivity to the D2 /D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole was examined before and after restricted junk-food exposure. Selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats were used. Cocaine-induced locomotion was greater in obesity-prone rats versus obesity-resistant rats prior to diet manipulation. Basal and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. Obesity-prone rats were more sensitive to the D2 receptor-mediated effects of quinpirole, and junk-food produced modest alterations in quinpirole sensitivity in obesity-resistant rats. These data show that mesolimbic systems differ prior to diet manipulation in susceptible versus resistant rats, and that consumption of fatty, sugary foods produce different neuroadaptations in these populations. These differences may contribute to enhanced food craving and an inability to limit food intake in susceptible individuals. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  7. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Kimani, S; Moterroso, V; Morales, P; Wagner, J; Kipruto, S; Bukachi, F; Maitai, C; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2014-04-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~80× faster in the nervous system (14 ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ~2× relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a "multiple hit" by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC.

  8. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, S.; Moterroso, V.; Morales, P.; Wagner, J.; Kipruto, S.; Bukachi, F.; Maitai, C.; Tshala-Katumbay, D.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5 mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50 mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~ 80X faster in the nervous system (14 milliseconds to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In macaca fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ~ 2X relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a “multiple hit” by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. PMID:24500607

  9. Life extension by diet restriction and N-acetyl-L-cysteine in genetically heterogeneous mice.

    PubMed

    Flurkey, Kevin; Astle, Clinton M; Harrison, David E

    2010-12-01

    We used a heterogeneous stock of mice-UM-HET3, the first generation offspring of CByB6F1/J and C3D2F1/J parents-to test effects of six antiaging treatments on life span. In the first report of diet restriction in a structured, segregating heterogeneous population, we observed essentially the same increases in mean and maximum life span as found in CByB6F1/J hybrid positive controls. We also report results of treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine started at 7 months, and aspirin, nitroflurbiprofen, 4-hydroxy phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, all started at 16-18 months. Only male UM-HET3 mice receiving N-acetyl-L-cysteine had significantly increased life span, and this may have been due to treatment-related inadvertent diet restriction. The other agents had no significant effects on life span. The use of UM-HET3 mice helps assure that these results are not the result of unresponsiveness of a single genotype but that they more broadly represent laboratory mice.

  10. Life Extension by Diet Restriction and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine in Genetically Heterogeneous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Flurkey, Kevin; Astle, Clinton M.

    2010-01-01

    We used a heterogeneous stock of mice—UM-HET3, the first generation offspring of CByB6F1/J and C3D2F1/J parents—to test effects of six antiaging treatments on life span. In the first report of diet restriction in a structured, segregating heterogeneous population, we observed essentially the same increases in mean and maximum life span as found in CByB6F1/J hybrid positive controls. We also report results of treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine started at 7 months, and aspirin, nitroflurbiprofen, 4-hydroxy phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, all started at 16–18 months. Only male UM-HET3 mice receiving N-acetyl-L-cysteine had significantly increased life span, and this may have been due to treatment-related inadvertent diet restriction. The other agents had no significant effects on life span. The use of UM-HET3 mice helps assure that these results are not the result of unresponsiveness of a single genotype but that they more broadly represent laboratory mice. PMID:20819793

  11. Diet restriction in mice causes differential tissue responses in total reducing power and antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Dubnov, G; Kohen, R; Berry, E M

    2000-02-01

    Diet restriction (DR) has been shown to extend the life spans of various laboratory animals, the mechanism may involve a decrease in oxidative stress. When determining if the total tissue defense has been altered, it is important to observe the overall direct antioxidant capacity, which consists of low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) and enzymes. To determine DR induced changes in total reducing power and overall direct antioxidant capacity of various mouse tissues. Young female Sabra mice were fed a 60% food restricted diet for 40 days (DR group). Organs of the DR group and of ad libitum (AL) fed controls were then dissected and examined. A cyclic voltammetry method was used to quantify the total reducing power, which correlates with the overall LMWA activity. Specific LMWA were identified by HPLC-ECD. Superoxide dismutase activity and H2O2 degrading ability were measured in order to include the enzymatic antioxidant component. Short-term DR caused alterations in the total reducing power of various mouse tissues, indicating changes in the total scavenging ability of these tissues. Overall direct antioxidant capacity of heart, kidney and muscle was enhanced; liver and small intestine deteriorated; brain did not differ between DR and AL groups; lung and spleen exhibited a mixed response. We have shown for the first time that DR causes changes in the total reducing power of different mouse tissues, thus, affecting the overall direct antioxidant capacity. These findings support the suggestion that there may be a biological regulation of the antioxidant system.

  12. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  13. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  14. Endocrine pancreas development: effects of metabolic and intergenerational programming caused by a protein-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; Pinheiro-Mulder, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated an association between low birth weight and the later development of type 2 diabetes. This association could be a result of the programming process that affects pancreatic beta-cell development due to poor fetal nutrition. This mechanism may not be limited to the first generation. In rodents, endocrine cells of the pancreas are derived from cells of the endodermal dorsal and ventral anlage that migrate and gather in clusters in a process termed isletogenesis. Islet development occurs relatively late in gestation, and islets undergo substantial remodeling immediately after birth under the regulation of a transcription factor network. Furthermore, the offspring of mice fed a protein-restricted diet exhibit a reduced pancreatic beta-cell mass at birth, lower vascularization, increased apoptosis rate, and changes in glucose metabolism in later life. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships are unclear, it has been hypothesized that in utero nutritional conditions affect epigenetic patterns of gene transcription that persist throughout life and subsequent generations. We aimed to review the process of the formation of the endocrine pancreas in rodents, the consequences of a protein-restricted diet on offspring, and the transgenerational effects of this insult on the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Food restriction modulates. beta. -adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.S. Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital, San Antonio, TX )

    1988-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. {beta}-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in {beta}-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase.

  16. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  17. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer’s oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Results Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Conclusions Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting

  18. Effect of caloric restriction on myenteric neuroplasticity in the rat duodenum during aging.

    PubMed

    da Silva Porto, Gisele; Bertaglia Pereira, Joice Naiara; Tibúrcio, Vanessa Graciele; Stabille, Sandra Regina; Garcia de Faria, Haroldo; de Melo Germano, Ricardo; de Britto Mari, Renata

    2012-05-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on myenteric neurons in the duodenum of Wistar rats during aging. Thirty rats were divided into three groups: the C group (six-month-old animals that were fed a normal diet from weaning until six months of age), the SR group (18-month-old animals that were fed a normal diet from weaning until 18 months of age) and the CR group (18-month-old animals that were fed a 30% CR diet after six months of age). After 12 months, the animals were euthanized. Whole-mount preparations of the duodenums were either stained with Giemsa or underwent NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry to determine the general myenteric neuron population and the nitrergic neuron subpopulation (NADPH-d+), respectively. The NADPH-d-negative (NADPH-d-) neuron population was estimated based on the difference between the Giemsa-stained and NADPH-d+ neurons. The neurons were counted, and the cell body areas were measured. Aging was associated with neuronal loss in the SR group, which was minimized by caloric restriction in the CR group. The density (mm(2)) of the Giemsa-stained neurons was higher in the SR group (79.09 ± 6.25) than in the CR (92.37 ± 11.6) and C (111.68 ± 15.26) groups. The density of the NADPH-d+ neurons was higher in the SR group (44.90 ± 5.88) than in the C (35.75 ± 1.6) and RC (39.14 ± 7.02) groups. The density of NADPH-d- neurons was higher in the CR (49.73 ± 12.08) and C (75.64 ± 17.05) groups than in the SR group (33.82 ± 4.5). In the C group, 32% and 68% of the Giemsa-stained myenteric neurons were NADPH-d+ or NADPH-d-, respectively. With aging (SR group), the percentage of nitrergic neurons (56.77%) increased, whereas the percentage of NADPH-d- neurons (43.22%) decreased. In the CR group, the change in the percentage of nitrergic (42.37%) and NADPH-d- (57.62%) neurons was lower. As NADPH-d- neurons will be mostly cholinergic neurons, CR appears to reduce the loss of cholinergic neurons during

  19. Mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status disruption in brainstem of weaned rats: Immediate response to maternal protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diorginis José Soares; da Silva Pedroza, Anderson Apolônio; Braz, Glauber Ruda Feitoza; da Silva-Filho, Reginaldo Correia; Lima, Talitta Arruda; Fernandes, Mariana Pinheiro; Doi, Sonia Q; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction has been postulated as an important mechanism associated to a number of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. One of the hypotheses is that this is caused by the metabolic challenge generated by the mismatch between prenatal predicted and postnatal reality. Perinatal low-protein diet produces several effects that are manifested in the adult animal, including altered sympathetic tone, increased arterial blood pressure and oxidative stress in the brainstem. The majority of the studies related to nutritional programming postulates that the increased risk levels for non-communicable diseases are associated with the incompatibility between prenatal and postnatal environment. However, little is known about the immediate effects of maternal protein restriction on the offspring's brainstem. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that a maternal low-protein diet causes tissue damage immediately after exposure to the nutritional insult that can be assessed in the brainstem of weaned offspring. In this regard, a series of assays was conducted to measure the mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress biomarkers in the brainstem, which is the brain structure responsible for the autonomic cardiovascular control. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with normoprotein (NP; 17% casein) or low-protein (LP; 8% casein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation periods. At weaning, the male offsprings were euthanized and the brainstem was quickly removed to assess the mitochondria function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane electric potential (ΔΨm), oxidative biomarkers, antioxidant defense and redox status. Our data demonstrated that perinatal LP diet induces an immediate mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the protein restriction induced a marked increase in ROS production, with a decrease in antioxidant defense and redox status. Altogether, our findings suggest that LP-fed animals may be at

  20. Blood pressure and its regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats bred on the lowest sodium diet for normal growth.

    PubMed

    Takishita, S; Fukiyama, K; Eto, T; Kawazoe, N; Kimura, Y; Tomita, Y; Tsumagari, T; Onishi, K

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary sodium restriction from conception to adulthood on blood pressure and its regulatory mechanisms, male offspring were derived from inbreeding in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a diet containing sodium of 175 mumol/g food (control) or 22 mumol/g (low sodium), which is the least sodium content for normal growth. While urinary sodium excretion was markedly less, the low sodium diet did not inhibit body growth and failed to blunt the development of hypertension. Neither plasma catecholamine concentration nor depressor response to hexamethonium was different between the two groups at any age examined (8, 12, and 20 weeks). Plasma renin concentration was not elevated, whereas urinary excretion of aldosterone was increased at any age in the low sodium group compared with that in the control group. Other sets of rats were fed a diet containing sodium of 175 mumol/g plus mefruside (a diuretic) of 0.001% in the same manner as in the other two groups. Urinary sodium excretion per creatinine was higher than in the other groups. The diuretic treatment inhibited body growth and suppressed adult blood pressure. While the sympathetic function was not affected, both plasma renin concentration and urinary excretion of aldosterone were elevated. These results indicate that dietary sodium restriction with the least sodium for normal growth from conception cannot blunt either the sympathetic nervous function or the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Aldosterone appears to play an important role in maintaining sodium homeostasis under the dietary sodium restriction.

  1. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Właszczuk, Adam; Gendosz, Daria; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Kapustka, Bartosz; Łączyński, Mariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat-content diet with insufficiency of carbohydrates that induces ketogenesis. Besides its anticonvulsant properties, many studies have shown its neuroprotective effect in central nervous system, but its influence on peripheral nervous system has not been studied yet. We examined the influence of KD on regeneration of peripheral nerves in adult rats. Fifty one rats were divided into three experimental (n = 15) and one control (n = 6) groups. Right sciatic nerve was crushed and animals were kept on standard (ST group) or ketogenic diet, the latter was introduced 3 weeks before (KDB group) or on the day of surgery (KDA group). Functional (CatWalk) tests were performed once a week, and morphometric (fiber density, axon diameter, and myelin thickness) analysis of the nerves was made after 6 weeks. Body weight and blood ketone bodies level were estimated at the beginning and the end of experiment. Functional analysis showed no differences between groups. Morphometric evaluation showed most similarities to the healthy (uncrushed) nerves in KDB group. Nerves in ST group differed mostly from all other groups. Ketone bodies were elevated in both KD groups, while post-surgery animals' body weight was lower as compared to ST group. Regeneration of sciatic nerves was improved in KD - preconditioned rats. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of KD on peripheral nerves.

  2. Effects of Simulated Hypogravity and Diet on Estrous Cycling in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental factors can disrupt ovulatory cycles. The study objective was to determine the effect of diet and simulated hypogravity on rat estrous cycles. Age 50 d Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to he fed either a purified or chow diet. Only normal cycling rats were used. Experimental rats (n=9-10/group) were kept as ambulatory controls (AC) or subjected to 40 d simulated hypogravity using a disuse atrophy hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. There was no effect on estrous cycles of AC fed either diet. At day 18, HLS rats fed either diet, had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus. HLS rats fed purified diet also had reduced time in estrus. Plasma estradiol was reduced in HLS rats fed purified diet but there was no effect on progesterone. This may have occurred because blood was collected from rats in estrus. Urinary progesterone collected during initial HLS was elevated in rats fed purified diet. In AC, corticosterone was elevated in chow vs purified diet fed rats. Differences were particularly striking following the application of a stressor with HLS/chow-fed rats displaying an enhanced stress response. Results emphasize the importance of diet selection when measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints. HLS is a useful model for investigating the effects of environment on reproduction and providing insight about the impact extreme environment such as spaceflight on female reproductive health.

  3. Effects of Simulated Hypogravity and Diet on Estrous Cycling in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental factors can disrupt ovulatory cycles. The study objective was to determine the effect of diet and simulated hypogravity on rat estrous cycles. Age 50 d Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to he fed either a purified or chow diet. Only normal cycling rats were used. Experimental rats (n=9-10/group) were kept as ambulatory controls (AC) or subjected to 40 d simulated hypogravity using a disuse atrophy hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. There was no effect on estrous cycles of AC fed either diet. At day 18, HLS rats fed either diet, had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus. HLS rats fed purified diet also had reduced time in estrus. Plasma estradiol was reduced in HLS rats fed purified diet but there was no effect on progesterone. This may have occurred because blood was collected from rats in estrus. Urinary progesterone collected during initial HLS was elevated in rats fed purified diet. In AC, corticosterone was elevated in chow vs purified diet fed rats. Differences were particularly striking following the application of a stressor with HLS/chow-fed rats displaying an enhanced stress response. Results emphasize the importance of diet selection when measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints. HLS is a useful model for investigating the effects of environment on reproduction and providing insight about the impact extreme environment such as spaceflight on female reproductive health.

  4. Effect of a Low Iodine Diet vs. Restricted Iodine Diet on Postsurgical Preparation for Radioiodine Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chi Young; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Jin; Chang, Hang Seok; Park, Cheong Soo; Chung, Woong Youn

    2015-07-01

    The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy.

  5. Effect of a Low Iodine Diet vs. Restricted Iodine Diet on Postsurgical Preparation for Radioiodine Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi Young; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Jin; Chang, Hang Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. Materials and Methods The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. Results This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. Conclusion A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy. PMID:26069126

  6. The ketogenic diet upregulates expression of the gene encoding the key ketogenic enzyme mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim E; Eagles, Douglas A; Sato, Hitoshi

    2002-04-01

    The ketogenic diet is a clinically and experimentally effective anti-epileptic treatment whose molecular mechanism(s) of action remain to be elucidated. As a first step in defining its effects on regulation of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis at the genetic level, we have administered to rats: (1) a calorie-restricted ketogenic diet (KCR); (2) a calorie-restricted normal diet (NCR); or (3) a normal diet ad libitum (NAL). We have used RNase protection to co-assay diet-induced changes in abundance of the mRNA encoding the critical enzyme of ketogenesis from acetyl-CoA namely mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mHS) in liver and brain, together with mRNAs encoding three other key enzymes of fatty acid oxidation. We demonstrate that NCR-fed rats exhibit a significant 2-fold increase in liver mHS mRNA compared to NAL-fed rats, and that KCR-fed rats exhibit a significant 2-fold increase in both liver and brain mHS mRNA compared to NAL-fed rats. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the effect of a ketogenic diet on gene expression in brain, and suggest possible anti-epileptic mechanisms for future investigation.

  7. Disability is associated with nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Mollaoğlu, Mukadder; Kayataş, Mansur

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions and its relation with the level of disability in patients on chronic hemodialysis (CH). The study design was a descriptive survey. The data were obtained from 186 patients in hemodialysis centers in Turkey. Descriptive statistics including mean scores, standard deviations and frequencies, and correlations analysis and logistic regression were conducted. Data were collected by using a personal information form, the Dialysis Diet and Fluid and Brief Disability Questionnaire. A great majority of hemodialysis patients showed nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions. In total, 124 patients (66.7 %) reported mild to very severe nonadherence to diet, and 128 patients (68.8 %) reported mild to very severe nonadherence to fluid restrictions. Most of the patients with CH (69.9 %) experienced disability. The results of this study showed that nonadherence was more common among older age, females, low-educated patients and those with higher levels of disability. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions was high in hemodialysis patients. The significant predictors for diet and fluid nonadherence were: older age, high interdialytic weight gain, and severe disability. Medical professionals must be aware of nonadherence and related factors and assist patients in developing strategies to prevent and respond to this.

  8. Alterations of selected iron management parameters and activity in food-restricted female Wistar rats (animal anorexia models).

    PubMed

    Wojciak, Rafal W

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of food-restricted diets (anorexia models) on iron management and activity of rats. 48 rats were divided into 6 groups: 1 control (K) and 5 testing groups (K/2, GI, GII, GIII, GIV). K was fed ad libitum. K/2 received half the portion of the diet of K. The other groups received 100% of the diet eaten by K, but with different models of food restriction: GI-1 day on, 1 day starvation; GII-2 days on, 2 days starvation; GIII-3 days on, 3 days starvation; and GIV-4 days on, 4 days starvation. As a result, all testing groups ate half of the diet consumed by the control group. The concentrations of iron in selected tissues, ferritin, and selected iron management parameters in blood were examined, as well as the animals' activities associated with food craving. The animal anorexia models used in this study had a significant influence on the blood concentrations of hemoglobin (p < 0.01), hematocrit (p < 0.05), RBC (p < 0.05), iron levels in liver (p < 0.05), kidney (p < 0.001), and heart (p < 0.05), the serum ferritin concentration (p < 0.001) and the rats activity (p < 0.001); whereas there was no influence on the other parameters. Generally, the statistically negative effects of starvation models on iron management parameters and activity of animals were observed. However, these effects were dependent on the model of anorexia more than on the quantity of food intake. The negative effect of food deprivation on iron deficiency and rat activities were observed in all groups; however, the strongest effect was noticed in those animals subject to chronic starvation. Acute deprivations caused the reduction of activity in the rats, however, chronic starvation caused an increase in the activity of the first phase of the experiment, followed by a decline in the subsequent phase. It is possible that stress and frustration as well as depression may be caused by insufficient food intake, and as a result, by iron deficiency in a diet

  9. PTH improves titanium implant fixation more than pamidronate or renutrition in osteopenic rats chronically fed a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Dayer, R; Brennan, T C; Rizzoli, R; Ammann, P

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH), pamidronate, or renutrition on osseointegration of titanium implants in the proximal tibia of rats subject to prolonged low-protein diets. PTH improved mechanical fixation, microarchitecture, and increased pull-out strength. Pamidronate or renutrition had lesser effects. PTH can thus improve implant osseointegration in protein-malnourished rats. Protein malnutrition impairs implant osseointegration in rats. PTH and pamidronate prevent deleterious effects of protein restriction introduced just prior to implantation. Whether these treatments improve osseointegration after chronic protein deprivation, i.e., in osteopenic bone at time of implantation, is unknown. We evaluated effects of PTH, pamidronate, or renutrition on resistance to pull-out of titanium rods implanted into the rat tibiae following isocaloric low-protein intake. Forty-one adult female rats received normal or isocaloric low-protein diets. Six weeks later, implants were surgically inserted into proximal tibiae. Following implantation, rats on low-protein diets were treated with PTH (1-34), pamidronate, saline vehicle, or normal protein diets, for another 8 weeks. Tibiae were removed for micro-computerised tomographic morphometry and evaluation of pull-out strength. Pull-out strength decreased in rats on isocaloric low-protein diets compared with normal protein group (-33.4%). PTH increased pull-out strength in low-protein group, even compared to controls from the normal protein group. PTH and pamidronate increased bone volume/tissue volume, bone-to-implant contact, and trabecular thickness, whilst trabecular separation was reduced, with a shift to more plate-like bone surrounding the implants. PTH reversed the deleterious effects of long-term protein undernutrition on mechanical fixation and bone microarchitecture and improved implant osseointegration more than pamidronate or renutrition, likely through changes to structure model index.

  10. Food restriction-induced augmentation of heroin seeking in female rats: manipulations of ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Sedki, Firas; Gardner Gregory, James; Luminare, Adriana; D'Cunha, Tracey M; Shalev, Uri

    2015-10-01

    Food restriction augments heroin seeking in chronically food-restricted male rats under withdrawal, an effect not yet examined in female rats. Importantly, women and female rats possess an increased vulnerability to drugs of abuse, which may be mediated by fluctuations in ovarian hormones. We investigated the role of estradiol and progesterone in augmented heroin seeking in chronically food-restricted female rats, under withdrawal. Female rats self-administered heroin for 10-12 days and were then allowed unrestricted (sated) or restricted access to food (FDR; ∼10 % reduction in body weight) for 14 days. On day 14, rats underwent a heroin-seeking test. Exp. 1: Rats underwent ovariectomy or sham surgery and were treated with a low dose of estradiol (5.0 % in cholesterol; subcutaneous capsule). Exp. 2: Rats underwent ovariectomy and were administered with a high dose of estradiol (0.5 mg/kg; subcutaneous) for 8 days before testing. Exp. 3: Progesterone injections (2.0 mg/kg; subcutaneous) were administered 24 h and 2 h before testing. Food restriction resulted in augmented heroin seeking, compared to sated controls. While ovariectomy had no effect, estradiol replacement attenuated the food restriction effect. Injections of progesterone had no effect on heroin seeking in either the sated or FDR groups. The effect of food restriction on heroin seeking in female rats under withdrawal is as robust as previously found in males. Interestingly, estradiol replacement, but not progesterone, attenuates the food restriction effect in the ovariectomized rats, possibly due to its anorexic properties.

  11. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  12. Proton leak and hydrogen peroxide production in liver mitochondria from energy-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jon J; Hagopian, Kevork; Kenny, Teresa M; Koomson, Edward K; Bevilacqua, Lisa; Weindruch, Richard; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Energy restriction (ER), without malnutrition, is the only environmental intervention that consistently increases maximum life span in laboratory rodents. One theory proposes that a reduction in energy expenditure and reactive oxygen species production is the mechanism responsible for this action of ER. To further test this theory, proton leak, H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyls were measured in mitochondria from FBNF1 rats fed either a control or 40% ER diet (onset at 6 mo of age). Liver mitochondria were isolated at 7 and 12 mo of age. Liver weight decreased 25 and 36% at 1 and 6 mo of ER, respectively (P < 0.05). ER resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in percent total polyunsaturates, n-6 polyunsaturates, and total unsaturates (6 mo only) in mitochondrial lipids. These changes, however, were not associated with significant alterations in mitochondrial function. State 4 respiration and membrane potential were not different (P > 0.05) between groups at either assessment period. Similarly, proton leak kinetics were not different between control and ER animals. Top-down metabolic control analysis and its extension, elasticity analysis, were used at the 6-mo assessment and revealed no difference in control of the oxidative phosphorylation system between control and ER rats. H2O2 production with either succinate or pyruvate/malate substrates was also not different (P > 0.05) between groups at either time point. In conclusion, ER did not alter proton leak or H2O2 production at this age or stage of restriction in liver.

  13. Differential effects of maternal hypoxia or nutrient restriction on carotid and femoral vascular function in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah J; Campbell, Morag E; McMillen, I Caroline; Davidge, Sandra T

    2005-02-01

    In response to reduced oxygen or nutrient supply, the fetus may redistribute cardiac output to conserve brain and heart growth, at the expense of the peripheral tissues; however, it is not known whether alterations in vascular function are maintained after birth or whether reduced fetal oxygen versus nutrient supply produces distinct effects. Using a pressure myograph, we examined isolated carotid and femoral artery responses to phenylephrine and endothelin-1 in neonatal rats, after either reduced maternal oxygen or global nutrient restriction during late gestation. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control (n = 10), hypoxia (12% O2, n = 9), or nutrient restriction (NR, 40% of control diet, n = 7) protocol and treated from day 15-21 of pregnancy. Pups were collected 3-12 h after birth. Neonatal weights (P < 0.001) and relative liver weights (P < 0.001) were lower in hypoxia and nutrient restriction treatments compared with control, while relative heart weights were greater in the hypoxia than in the control or nutrient restriction groups (P < 0.01). Constriction to phenylephrine was reduced in carotid arteries from the hypoxia and nutrient restriction groups compared with control (P < 0.001), while the femoral artery response was greater in hypoxia-treated neonates compared with control or nutrient-restricted neonates (P < 0.01). Only the hypoxia reduced carotid responses to endothelin-1, while no differences were observed in the endothelin-1 responses in femoral arteries. Maternal hypoxia and maternal nutrient restriction produced distinct effects on heart growth and neonatal vascular function, suggesting that regional changes in cardiovascular function after poor fetal growth are dependent on the nature of the insult in utero.

  14. Carbon disulfide: a semiochemical mediating socially-induced diet choice in rats.

    PubMed

    Galef, B G; Mason, J R; Preti, G; Bean, N J

    1988-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed the presence of both carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) on rat breath. Behavioral experiments indicated that rats exposed to an unfamiliar diet moistened with CS2, like rats exposed to an unfamiliar diet placed on the fur of an anesthetized rat, subsequently exhibited enhanced preference for the unfamiliar diet. Rats in experimental groups: (a) interacted for 30 min with a wad of cotton batting powdered with one of two unfamiliar foods (either Diet A or Diet B) and moistened with a dilute, aqueous CS2 solution, (b) ate Diets A and B in succession and finally, (c) were injected with LiCl. In a subsequent choice between Diets A and B, these rats exhibited a preference for whichever of the foods had been present on the cotton batting during (a). Rats in control groups were treated identically to those in experimental groups, except that the diet-coated cotton batting to which they were exposed was moistened with distilled water rather then CS2 solution. Rats in control groups were not affected in their later diet choice by the food present on the cotton batting during (a). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that CS2 is a semiochemical that mediates social influence on diet selection in rats.

  15. The effect of sodium restricted diet on plasma visfatin levels in hypertensive patients with visceral obesity.

    PubMed

    Rotkegel, Sylwia; Chudek, Jerzy; Spiechowicz-Zaton, Urszula; Ficek, Rafal; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies revealed contradictory data concerning the influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system activation on visfatin release. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the effect of dietary sodium restriction with RAA system activation on visfatin level in hypertensive and normotensive patients with visceral obesity. The study included 24 hypertensive patients with visceral obesity (12 women) and 22 normotensive subjects with visceral obesity (11 women) constituting the control group. Plasma renin activity, plasma insulin, aldosterone and visfatin levels were determined twice, on normal-salt diet after 6-8 h in recumbent position and the second time after 3 days of dietary sodium restriction and upright position for 2 h. Dietary compliance was controlled by 24 h natriuresis measurement. Hypertensive patients had significantly higher plasma visfatin level than the control group [11.0 (8.5-13.5) vs. 6.8 (6.0-7.6) ng/ml, p=0.003]. Dietary sodium restriction and upright position caused significant increase in PRA and plasma aldosterone level in both groups. While, plasma visfatin level remained unaffected. In the combined group plasma visfatin levels correlated with BMI (r=0.398), waist circumference (r=0.391), glucose (r=0.328), insulin (r=0.663), HOMA-IR (r=0.698), triglycerides (r=0.500) and CRP (r=0.546) but not with percentage of fat mass, percentage of trunk fat, and blood pressure values. 1) Increased plasma visfatin concentration may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with visceral obesity. 2) RAA system activation by dietary sodium restriction and upright position has no effect on plasma visfatin levels in subjects with visceral obesity. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  17. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Sisley, Stephanie; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimulate diet intake during late pregnancy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet from Day 1 of pregnancy. On Day 21, 0.5 μg ghrelin was given into the third ventricle (ICV). Diet and water intake at 30, 60, and 120 min after ICV injection was measured. Hypothalami were dissected and analyzed for expression of genes related to appetite regulation (Npy, Agrp, Pomc and Cart) and phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC proteins (downstream proteins of ghrelin receptor activation). Results include: In response to ICV injection of ghrelin, (1) diet intake was significantly lower in LP compared to CT rats; (2) water intake was not affected in LP rats; (3) expression of Npy and Agrp, but not Pomc and Cart, were higher in the hypothalamus of LP compared to CT rats; (4) the abundance of phosphorylated AMPK and the ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK, but not the abundance of total AMPK, were lower in LP compared to CT rats; (5) the abundance of phosphorylated ACC, but not total ACC, was lower in LP rats. These findings suggest that blunted ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus of pregnant rats fed a LP diet leads to reduced diet intake and exacerbates gestational protein insufficiency.

  18. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  19. Alteration of masticatory function by diet change induces stress responses in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirohito; Tanaka, Maki; Kawanishi, Katsuya; Koshino, Hisashi; Hirai, Toshihiro; Fujii, Hirotada; Takeda, Hidekatsu; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The occlusion-mastication system has extradigestive functions; however, whether liquid feeding evokes stress responses remains unclear. In this study, reactions to low masticatory performance were analyzed using a diet-alteration model in Wistar rats. Seven days after the diet of the rats was changed from solid to liquid, serum epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were found to be elevated by 205% and 158% compared to baseline values, respectively. Superoxide production by peritoneal neutrophils was higher in rats fed with a liquid diet than in those fed with a solid diet. Serum superoxide dismutase activity (i.e. the potential to eradicate serum superoxide) was lower in rats fed with liquid than in those fed with a solid diet, indicating that the former experienced oxidative stress. Conversely, the oxidative stress was removed following reversion of the liquid diet to solid diet. These results suggest that liquid diet mastication can cause mental stress, including an oxidative stress response.

  20. Modulation of body fluids and angiotensin II receptors in a rat model of intra-uterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Sophie; Sicotte, Benoit; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michèle

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that sodium restriction during pregnancy reduces plasma volume expansion and promotes intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) in rats while it activates the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). In the present study, we proceeded to determine whether expression of the two angiotensin II (ANGII) receptor subtypes (AT1 and AT2) change in relation to maternal water–electrolyte homeostasis and fetal growth. To this end, pregnant (gestation day 15) and non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups fed either normal, or Na+-restricted diets for 7 days. At the end of the treatment period, plasma aldosterone and renin activity as well as plasma and urine electrolytes were measured. Determinations for AT1 and AT2 mRNA and protein were made by RNase protection assay and photoaffinity labelling, respectively, using a number of tissues implicated in volume regulation and fetal growth. In non-pregnant rats, Na+ restriction decreases Na+ excretion without altering plasma volume, plasma Na+ concentration or the expression of AT1 and AT2 mRNA or protein in the tissues examined. In normally fed pregnant rats when compared to non-pregnant controls, AT1 mRNA increases in the hypothalamus as well as pituitary and declines in uterine arteries, while AT1 protein decreases in the kidney and AT2 mRNA declines in the adrenal cortex. In pregnant rats, Na+ restriction induces a decrease in plasma Na+, an increase in plasma urea, as well as a decline in renal urea and creatinine clearance rates. Protein levels for both AT1 and AT2 in the pituitary and AT2 mRNA in the adrenal cortex are lower in the Na+-restricted pregnant group when compared to normally fed pregnant animals. Na+ restriction also induces a decrease in AT1 protein in the placenta. In conclusion, these results suggest that pregnancy may increase sensitivity to Na+ depletion by the tissue-specific modulation of ANGII receptors. Finally, these receptors may be implicated

  1. A tryptophan-rich protein diet efficiently restores sleep after food deprivation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Minet-Ringuet, J; Le Ruyet, P M; Tomé, D; Even, P C

    2004-07-09

    Sleep depends on the quantity and quality of the diet. Several studies have shown that food deprivation results in a reduction in sleep duration. It has also been demonstrated that in the newborn, the supply of certain essential amino acids improves sleep through their action on the synthesis of specific neurotransmitters. The aim of the present study was to test if the quantity and/or quality of dietary protein could improve the recovery of sleep during re-feeding after caloric deprivation. Sleep parameters were compared in rats fed ad libitum, food restricted during 4 days, or reefed isocalorically after food restriction with three dietary regimens varying in terms of the amount (14% versus 30%) or quality (milk protein or alpha-lactalbumin) of protein. The results showed that sleep recovery, in particular slow-wave sleep, was improved in rats re-fed with alpha-lactalbumin. This result confirms the close relationship between feeding and sleep and suggest that alpha-lactabumin could be used to improve sleep in adult submitted to nutritional disturbances such as food restriction, shift work, Ramadan.

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying lifespan and age-related effects of dietary restriction and the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Cesar L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2016-11-22

    Aging constitutes the central risk factor for major diseases including many forms of cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. The aging process is characterized by both global and tissue-specific changes in gene expression across taxonomically diverse species. While aging has historically been thought to entail cell-autonomous, even stochastic changes, recent evidence suggests that modulation of this process can be hierarchal, wherein manipulations of nutrient-sensing neurons (e.g., in the hypothalamus) produce peripheral effects that may modulate the aging process itself. The most robust intervention extending lifespan, plausibly impinging on the aging process, involves different modalities of dietary restriction (DR). Lifespan extension by DR is associated with broad protection against diseases (natural and engineered). Here we review potential epigenetic processes that may link lifespan to age-related diseases, particularly in the context of DR and (other) ketogenic diets, focusing on brain and hypothalamic mechanisms.

  3. The Effect of Protein Restriction in the In Vitro Metabolism of Albendazole in Rats.

    PubMed

    Belaz, Kátia Roberta A; de O Cardoso, Josiane; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; Oliveira, Regina V

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an in vitro investigation of the effect of protein restriction on the metabolism of albendazole (ABZ). This study was conducted using liver microsomal fractions obtained from Wistar rats. For the quantitative analysis, a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography (2D HPLC) method was fully validated for the determination of the ABZ metabolites: albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone and albendazole 2-aminesulfone. The target compounds were directly extracted using a C8-RAM-BSA column (5.0x0.46 cm i.d.) and analyzed on a chromatographic chiral column containing amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (150x4.6 mm i.d.). The in vitro biotransformation results showed that the protein restriction influenced the oxidative metabolism of ABZ. The production of R-(+)-ABZ-SO (1309 nmol/L) and S-(-)-ABZ-SO (1456 nmol/L) was higher in the control animals than in the animals fed with a diet containing 6% protein, which produced 778.7 nmol/L and 709.5 nmol/L for R-(+) and S-(-)-ABZ-SO enantiomers, respectively. These results were statistically inspected by Student´s t test and the results showed a significant difference between the two means (p<0.05). Moreover, the production of ABZ-SO enantiomers was enantioselective where the S-(-)-ABZ-SO was formed in greater amounts than the R-(+)-ABZ-SO in control animals (p=0.0231). However, the enantioselectivity was not observed when the in vitro biotransformation of ABZ was conducted using the microsomal fractions obtained from protein restriction animals (p>0.05). Furthermore, animal nutritional condition could affect the pattern of ABZ sulphoxidation indicating that the protein nutrition affect primarily the formation of R-(+)-ABZSO and S-(-)-ABZ-SO enantiomers.

  4. A low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids plays a more protective role against oxidative stress of rat kidney tissue with 5/6 nephrectomy than a low-protein diet alone.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Jianxiang; Dong, Zheyi; Hua, Can; Hu, Huimin; Mei, Changlin

    2010-02-01

    Dietary protein restriction is one major therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and ketoacids have been evaluated in CKD patients during restricted-protein diets. The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of a low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids (LPD+KA) and a low-protein diet alone (LPD) in halting the development of renal lesions in CKD. 5/6 Nephrectomy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, and fed with either 22 % protein (normal-protein diet; NPD), 6 % protein (LPD) or 5 % protein plus 1 % ketoacids (LPD+KA) for 24 weeks. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. Each 5/6 nephrectomy group included fifteen rats and the control group included twelve rats. Proteinuria, decreased renal function, glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were found in the remnant kidneys of the NPD group. Protein restriction ameliorated these changes, and the effect was more obvious in the LPD+KA group after 5/6 nephrectomy. Lower body weight and serum albumin levels were found in the LPD group, indicating protein malnutrition. Lipid and protein oxidative products were significantly increased in the LPD group compared with the LPD+KA group. These findings indicate that a LPD supplemented with ketoacids is more effective than a LPD alone in protecting the function of remnant kidneys from progressive injury, which may be mediated by ketoacids ameliorating protein malnutrition and oxidative stress injury in remnant kidney tissue.

  5. Appetite regulation is independent of the changes in ghrelin levels in pregnant rats fed low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren T; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gestational protein restriction causes hypertension in the adult offspring. Very little is known about the food intake regulation and ghrelin signaling in pregnant dams fed a low-protein (LP) diet. We hypothesized that diet intake and ghrelin signaling are altered in pregnant rats fed the low-protein diet. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a control (CT) or LP diet from Day 3 of pregnancy. Diet intake and body weight were monitored daily. Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and appetite-related genes in the hypothalamus was analyzed by real-time PCR. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin were measured by ELISA. Main results include: (1) Daily diet intake was greater in the LP group than in the CT group in early pregnancy, but substantially lower in late pregnancy; (2) Daily gain in body weight was substantially lower in the LP group in late pregnancy; (3) Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and plasma total ghrelin levels were increased in LP group in late pregnancy; (4) Plasma active ghrelin levels were elevated in the LP group at mid-late pregnancy, but growth hormone and leptin levels were uncorrelated with active ghrelin in late pregnancy; and (5) Hypothalamic expression of ghrelin-stimulated genes in LP rats was unassociated with the changes in both plasma ghrelin levels and the diet intake. Taken together, the appetite in LP rats is greater in early pregnancy but reduced at late pregnancy, possibly due to ghrelin insensitivity in appetite regulation. PMID:25907788

  6. Appetite regulation is independent of the changes in ghrelin levels in pregnant rats fed low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren T; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-04-01

    Gestational protein restriction causes hypertension in the adult offspring. Very little is known about the food intake regulation and ghrelin signaling in pregnant dams fed a low-protein (LP) diet. We hypothesized that diet intake and ghrelin signaling are altered in pregnant rats fed the low-protein diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CT) or LP diet from Day 3 of pregnancy. Diet intake and body weight were monitored daily. Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and appetite-related genes in the hypothalamus was analyzed by real-time PCR. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin were measured by ELISA. Main results include: (1) Daily diet intake was greater in the LP group than in the CT group in early pregnancy, but substantially lower in late pregnancy; (2) Daily gain in body weight was substantially lower in the LP group in late pregnancy; (3) Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and plasma total ghrelin levels were increased in LP group in late pregnancy; (4) Plasma active ghrelin levels were elevated in the LP group at mid-late pregnancy, but growth hormone and leptin levels were uncorrelated with active ghrelin in late pregnancy; and (5) Hypothalamic expression of ghrelin-stimulated genes in LP rats was unassociated with the changes in both plasma ghrelin levels and the diet intake. Taken together, the appetite in LP rats is greater in early pregnancy but reduced at late pregnancy, possibly due to ghrelin insensitivity in appetite regulation. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  7. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

    2010-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs. PMID:22254073

  8. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao; Yi, Weijie; Zhang, Piwei; Wu, Nannan; Yan, Qiaoqiao; Yang, Hui; Tian, Chong; Xiang, Siyun; Du, Miying; Getachew Assefa, Eskedar; Zuo, Xuezhi; Ying, Chenjiang

    2017-05-14

    Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR) or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD), DR, high-fat diet (HFD), and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw)/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA)-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG) elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  9. The effects of coprophagy in the adult rat on rate of passage of digesta and on digestibility of food fed ad libitum and in restricted amounts.

    PubMed

    Williams, V J; Senior, W

    1985-09-01

    The rate of passage of digesta and the digestibility of a nonpurified diet were studied in adult female rats prevented from coprophagy on alternate weeks by confinement to their normal feeding tunnels in metabolism cages. In food-restricted rats a decrease in the time for the first appearance in the feces of a digesta marker was noted when prevention of coprophagy was followed by permitting rats to feed on their feces while being maintained on a restricted food intake, as compared to control rats permitted coprophagy throughout. The prevention of coprophagy had no effect on the rate of passage of digesta along the small intestine. The prevention of coprophagy had no effect on the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, energy or protein when the rats were fed ad libitum. However, when rats had lost 20% or more of their body weight by restricted feeding, digestibility of the measured constituents of the food offered in restricted amounts increased, but this effect was abolished when coprophagy was prevented.

  10. Effect of diet on triolein absorption in weanling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, C.A.; Brannon, P.M.; Wells, M.A.; Morrill, M.; Koldovsky, O. )

    1990-01-01

    To determine the effect of altered dietary fat intake on the rate of fat absorption in the intact animal, we fed male weanling rats either a high fat-low carbohydrate (HF-LC) (calories: 67% fat, 10% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or low fat-high carbohydrate (LF-HC) (calories: 10% fat, 67% carbohydrate, 20% protein) diet for 8 days. Absorption of ({sup 14}C)triolein was estimated by determining (1) {sup 14}CO{sub 2} expiration in breath, (2) intestinal triglyceride output using Triton WR-1339, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, and (3) quantitating the disappearance of labeled triolein from the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the activity of pancreatic lipase and amylase confirmed the adaptation to altered fat and carbohydrate intake. Animals fed the HF-LC diet exhibited approximately twofold greater triolein disappearance, oxidation, and intestinal triglyceride output compared with animals fed LF-HC. There was also a highly significant linear relationship between {sup 14}CO{sub 2} excretion and intestinal triglyceride output in both diet groups. These data show that high dietary fat content markedly enhances in vivo fat absorption in the weanling rat.

  11. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Cristiana S B; Reis, Sílvia R L; Pessoa, Ana F M; De Souza, Letícia M I; Stoppiglia, Luiz F; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise A B; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Colodel, Edson M; Arantes, Vanessa C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6%) for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC) protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2) was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry.

  12. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  13. Additive effect of diets and training on total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in rats.

    PubMed

    El Elj, N; Lac, G; Alya, B; Lasram, M; Zaouali, M; Tabka, Z; Kammoun, A; Gharbi, N; El Fezaa, S

    2010-09-01

    Although it is known that circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are influenced by both physical exercise and dietary intake separately, there is little information regarding the additive effect of diets and training on IGF-1 regulation. To test this, we examined the combined effect of 30 days of two different diets (high-protein and high-carbohydrate) and exercise training on total IGF-1. The study was carried out with four groups of rats; the sedentary group with standard diet (SS) (control group), standard diet with exercise (SE), high-protein diet with exercise (PE) and high-carbohydrate diet with exercise (CE). Serum IGF-1, insulin, corticosterone were analyzed. IGF-1 concentrations were decreased by exercise training (p<0.001) and only with protein diet (p<0.05). Physical training, with and without diet, decreased body weight and food intake (p<0.01) and increased corticosterone levels (p<0.05). Carbohydrate diet did not cause major hormonal and metabolic alterations. The main result of this study was the decreased levels of IGF-1 in spite of high-protein diet, which is known to enhance IGF-1 secretion, and the little changes with carbohydrate diet. This may be related to the negative energy balance as a result of the catabolic state induced by exercise training and decreased calorie intake in protein diet. Thus, it can be concluded that the caloric restriction, regardless of dietary composition, decreased IGF-1 secretion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheim, Loanda Maria G; Oliveira, Elisângela A; Arantes, Vanessa C; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora B; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena G; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2009-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC group. Conclusion Protein

  15. Effects of diet and insulin on dopamine transporter activity and expression in rat caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and midbrain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kymry T; Woods, Catherine; Zhen, Juan; Antonio, Tamara; Carr, Kenneth D; Reith, Maarten E A

    2017-03-01

    Food restriction (FR) and obesogenic (OB) diets are known to alter brain dopamine transmission and exert opposite modulatory effects on behavioral responsiveness to psychostimulant drugs of abuse. Mechanisms underlying these diet effects are not fully understood. In this study, we examined diet effects on expression and function of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in caudate-putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and midbrain regions. Dopamine (DA) uptake by CPu, NAc or midbrain synapto(neuro)somes was measured in vitro with rotating disk electrode voltammetry or with [(3) H]DA uptake and was found to correlate with DAT surface expression, assessed by maximal [(3) H](-)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane binding and surface biotinylation assays. FR and OB diets were both found to decrease DAT activity in CPu with a corresponding decrease in surface expression but had no effects in the NAc and midbrain. Diet treatments also affected sensitivity to insulin-induced enhancement of DA uptake, with FR producing an increase in CPu and NAc, likely mediated by an observed increase in insulin receptor expression, and OB producing a decrease in NAc. The increased expression of insulin receptor in NAc of FR rats was accompanied by increased DA D2 receptor expression, and the decreased DAT expression and function in CPu of OB rats was accompanied by decreased DA D2 receptor expression. These results are discussed as partial mechanistic underpinnings of diet-induced adaptations that contribute to altered behavioral sensitivity to psychostimulants that target the DAT.

  16. Effects of methyl-deficient diets on methionine and homocysteine metabolism in the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Fiona A; Holtrop, Grietje; Calder, A Graham; Anderson, Susan E; Lobley, Gerald E; Rees, William D

    2012-06-15

    Although the importance of methyl metabolism in fetal development is well recognized, there is limited information on the dynamics of methionine flow through maternal and fetal tissues and on how this is related to circulating total homocysteine concentrations. Rates of homocysteine remethylation in maternal and fetal tissues on days 11, 19, and 21 of gestation were measured in pregnant rats fed diets with limiting or surplus amounts of folic acid and choline at two levels of methionine and then infused with L-[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)-methyl]methionine. The rate of homocysteine remethylation was highest in maternal liver and declined as gestation progressed. Diets deficient in folic acid and choline reduced the production of methionine from homocysteine in maternal liver only in the animals fed a methionine-limited diet. Throughout gestation, the pancreas exported homocysteine for methylation within other tissues. Little or no methionine cycle activity was detected in the placenta at days 19 and 21 of gestation, but, during this period, fetal tissues, especially the liver, synthesized methionine from homocysteine. Greater enrichment of homocysteine in maternal plasma than placenta, even in animals fed the most-deficient diets, shows that the placenta did not contribute homocysteine to maternal plasma. Methionine synthesis from homocysteine in fetal tissues was maintained or increased when the dams were fed folate- and choline-deficient methionine-restricted diets. This study shows that methyl-deficient diets decrease the remethylation of homocysteine within maternal tissues but that these rates are protected to some extent within fetal tissues.

  17. Responses of brown adipose tissue to diet-induced obesity, exercise, dietary restriction and ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Nikki; Durrant, Jessica R; Bailey, David; Yoon, Lawrence; Jordan, Holly; Barton, Joanna; Brown, Roger H; Clifton, Lisa; Milliken, Tula; Harrington, Wallace; Kimbrough, Carie; Faber, Catherine A; Cariello, Neal; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2013-07-01

    Drug-induced weight loss in humans has been associated with undesirable side effects not present in weight loss from lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction or exercise). To investigate the mechanistic differences of weight loss by drug-induced and lifestyle interventions, we examined the gene expression (mRNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary restriction) for 7 days. Exercise and DR mice lost more body weight than controls and both ephedrine and exercise reduced percent body fat. All treatments reduced BAT and liver lipid accumulation (i.e., cytoplasmic lipids in brown adipocytes and hepatocytes) and increased oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/h) compared with controls. Mitochondrial biogenesis/function-related genes (TFAM, NRF1 and GABPA) were up-regulated in the BAT of all groups. UCP-1 was up-regulated in exercise and ephedrine groups, whereas MFSD2A was up-regulated in ephedrine and DR groups. PGC-1α up-regulation was observed in exercise and DR groups but not in ephedrine group. In all experimental groups, except for ephedrine, fatty acid transport and metabolism genes were up-regulated, but the magnitude of change was higher in the DR group. PRKAA1 was up-regulated in all groups but not significantly in the ephedrine group. ADRß3 was slightly up-regulated in the DR group only, whereas ESRRA remained unchanged in all groups. Although our data suggest a common pathway of BAT activation elicited by ephedrine treatment, exercise or DR, mRNA changes were indicative of additional nutrient-sensing pathways in exercise and DR.

  18. A high carbohydrate diet induces insulin resistance through decreased glucose utilization in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Min; Park, Chun Hee; Wha, Jun Dong; Choi, Soo Bong

    2004-06-01

    Recent research has reported that high sugar diets increase insulin resistance, without abdominal obesity, in male, but not female Wistar rats. Whether a high sucrose (SU) diet increased insulin resistance in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was determined. Female Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 273 +/- 20 g, had either an ovariectomy or a sham operation (sham). OVX and sham rats were divided into two groups: one group had a 68 En% SU diet and the other a 68 En% starch (ST) diet for 8 weeks. The body weight was higher in the OVX than the sham rats, regardless of dietary carbohydrate subtype. The fasting serum glucose levels did not differ according to diet and ovariectomy. However, the fasting serum insulin levels were higher in the OVX than the sham rats, and in the OVX rats, a high SU diet increased the serum insulin levels more than a high ST diet. The whole body glucose disposal rates, which referred to the state of insulin sensitivity, were lower in the OVX rats fed both the high SU and ST diets, compared to sham rats. Glycogen deposits in the soleus and quadriceps muscles were lower in the OVX rats fed high SU and ST diets than in sham rats. The glucose transporter 4 content and fraction velocity of glycogen synthase in muscles showed similar glucose disposal rates. However, the triacylglycerol content in the muscles were higher in the OVX rats with a high SU diet than those with a high ST diet. These results suggested that an OVX increased the weight gain due to higher food intakes, regardless of dietary carbohydrate subtypes. OVX-induced obesity may be involved in the induction of insulin resistance from an increased triacylglycerol content, decreased glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscles, regardless of dietary carbohydrate subtypes.

  19. A High Carbohydrate Diet Induces Insulin Resistance Through Decreased Glucose Utilization in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Min; Park, Chun Hee; Wha, Jun Dong; Choi, Soo Bong

    2004-01-01

    Background Recent research has reported that high sugar diets increase insulin resistance, without abdominal obesity, in male, but not female Wister rats. Whether a high sucrose (SU) diet increased insulin resistance in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was determined. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats, weighing 273±20 g, had either an ovariectomy or a sham operation (sham). OVX and sham rats were divided into two groups: one group had a 68 En% SU diet and the other a 68 En% starch (ST) diet for 8 weeks. Results The body weight was higher in the OVX than the sham rats, regardless of dietary carbohydrate subtype. The fasting serum glucose levels did not differ according to diet and ovariectomy. However, the fasting serum insulin levels were higher in the OVX than the sham rats, and in the OVX rats, a high SU diet increased the serum insulin levels more than a high ST diet. The whole body glucose disposal rates, which referred to the state of insulin sensitivity, were lower in the OVX rats fed both the high SU and ST diets, compared to sham rats. Glycogen deposits in the soleus and quadriceps muscles were lower in the OVX rats fed high SU and ST diets than in sham rats. The glucose transporter 4 content and fraction velocity of glycogen synthase in muscles showed similar glucose disposal rates. However, the triacylglycerol content in the muscles were higher in the OVX rats with a high SU diet than those with a high ST diet. Conclusion These results suggested that an OVX increased the weight gain due to higher food intakes, regardless of dietary carbohydrate subtypes. OVX-induced obesity may be involved in the induction of insulin resistance from an increased triacylglycerol content, decreased glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscles, regardless of dietary carbohydrate subtypes. PMID:15366638

  20. Body composition, muscle and fat pad changes following two levels of dietary restriction and/or exercise training in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ballor, D L; Tommerup, L J; Smith, D B; Thomas, D P

    1990-08-01

    This study examined the effects of exercise training on conservation of lean mass during moderate and severe dietary restriction in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Eight rats each (48 total) were assigned to one of three levels of dietary restriction (ad lib., AL; moderate, MR; severe, SR) and to one of two activity levels (cage-confined, CC; or treadmill exercised, E) for a 10-week period. Post-intervention, the AL-E (91 percent), MR-CC (84 percent), MR-E (86 percent), SR-CC (66 percent) and SR-E (68 percent) groups all weighed less than the AL-CC group (427 +/- 4.3 g). Exercise training resulted in conservation of lean mass (protein + water + ash) at the moderate but not severe levels of dietary restriction. Further examination showed that this was mostly water since no between-group differences existed at any given diet level for protein or ash mass. Exercise training did elicit conservation of left ventricular heart muscle mass at both the moderate and severe levels of dietary restriction. In contrast, gastrocnemius muscle mass was conserved or maintained only at the moderate dietary restriction level. Thus, the level of dietary restriction appears to affect the ability of exercise training to elicit conservation of both total lean mass and the mass of individual muscles during diet-induced body mass reduction.

  1. Adipose tissue and vascular phenotypic modulation by voluntary physical activity and dietary restriction in obese insulin-resistant OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Jacqueline M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Lansford, Kasey A; Thorne, Pamela K; Bayless, David S; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Padilla, Jaume

    2014-04-15

    Adipose tissue (AT)-derived cytokines are proposed to contribute to obesity-associated vascular insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary physical activity and diet restriction-induced maintenance of body weight would both result in decreased AT inflammation and concomitant improvements in insulin-stimulated vascular relaxation in the hyperphagic, obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat. Rats (aged 12 wk) were randomly assigned to sedentary (SED; n = 10), wheel running (WR; n = 10), or diet restriction (DR; n = 10; fed 70% of SED) for 8 wk. WR and DR rats exhibited markedly lower adiposity (7.1 ± 0.4 and 15.7 ± 1.1% body fat, respectively) relative to SED (27 ± 1.2% body fat), as well as improved blood lipid profiles and systemic markers of insulin resistance. Reduced adiposity in both WR and DR was associated with decreased AT mRNA expression of inflammatory genes (e.g., MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) and markers of immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD8, CD11c, and F4/80). The extent of these effects were most pronounced in visceral AT compared with subcutaneous and periaortic AT. Markers of inflammation in brown AT were upregulated with WR but not DR. In periaortic AT, WR- and DR-induced reductions in expression and secretion of cytokines were accompanied with a more atheroprotective gene expression profile in the adjacent aortic wall. WR, but not DR, resulted in greater insulin-stimulated relaxation in the aorta; an effect that was, in part, mediated by a decrease in insulin-induced endothelin-1 activation in WR aorta. Collectively, we show in OLETF rats that lower adiposity leads to less AT and aortic inflammation, as well as an exercise-specific improvement in insulin-stimulated vasorelaxation.

  2. Adipose tissue and vascular phenotypic modulation by voluntary physical activity and dietary restriction in obese insulin-resistant OLETF rats

    PubMed Central

    Crissey, Jacqueline M.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Lansford, Kasey A.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Bayless, David S.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Rector, R. Scott; Thyfault, John P.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT)-derived cytokines are proposed to contribute to obesity-associated vascular insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary physical activity and diet restriction-induced maintenance of body weight would both result in decreased AT inflammation and concomitant improvements in insulin-stimulated vascular relaxation in the hyperphagic, obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat. Rats (aged 12 wk) were randomly assigned to sedentary (SED; n = 10), wheel running (WR; n = 10), or diet restriction (DR; n = 10; fed 70% of SED) for 8 wk. WR and DR rats exhibited markedly lower adiposity (7.1 ± 0.4 and 15.7 ± 1.1% body fat, respectively) relative to SED (27 ± 1.2% body fat), as well as improved blood lipid profiles and systemic markers of insulin resistance. Reduced adiposity in both WR and DR was associated with decreased AT mRNA expression of inflammatory genes (e.g., MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) and markers of immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD8, CD11c, and F4/80). The extent of these effects were most pronounced in visceral AT compared with subcutaneous and periaortic AT. Markers of inflammation in brown AT were upregulated with WR but not DR. In periaortic AT, WR- and DR-induced reductions in expression and secretion of cytokines were accompanied with a more atheroprotective gene expression profile in the adjacent aortic wall. WR, but not DR, resulted in greater insulin-stimulated relaxation in the aorta; an effect that was, in part, mediated by a decrease in insulin-induced endothelin-1 activation in WR aorta. Collectively, we show in OLETF rats that lower adiposity leads to less AT and aortic inflammation, as well as an exercise-specific improvement in insulin-stimulated vasorelaxation. PMID:24523340

  3. Comparison of the effects of maternal protein malnutrition and intrauterine growth restriction on redox state of central nervous system in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Tatli, Mehmet; Guzel, Aslan; Kizil, Goksel; Kavak, Vatan; Yavuz, Murat; Kizil, Murat

    2007-07-02

    Both maternal protein malnutrition and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have deleterious effects on brain development, but a comparison of these effects has not been previously reported. The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the effects of both factors on the oxidative status of the central nervous system (CNS), including the spinal cord, in offspring rats. We evaluated various parameters of oxidative status and antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT) in different regions of the CNS from 60-day-old rats subjected to prenatal and postnatal protein restrictions [middle protein restriction 12%, severe protein restriction (SPR) 4%] or IUGR produced by uterine artery ligation. Furthermore, we compared these study groups to each other and to control rats fed an isocaloric 24% protein diet. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Both protein restrictions and IUGR altered various parameters of oxidative status. In all evaluated structures, protein restrictions resulted in increases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances level and index of lipid peroxidation (P<0.001), and in decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities (P<0.005). IUGR also increased lipid peroxidation levels in the blood samples (P<0.04) and protein oxidative damage in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex (P<0.005); however, no effects were detected on the spinal cord. The greatest decrease in CAT activity was in the cerebellum of rats fed with SPR diet (P<0.001). This study suggests that not only severe but also middle protein malnutrition have deleterious effects on CNS structures, including the spinal cord. Protein restriction has a greater effect on the redox state of the CNS than IUGR.

  4. Genome-Wide Methylation and Gene Expression Changes in Newborn Rats following Maternal Protein Restriction and Reversal by Folic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Stupka, Elia; Clark, Adrian J. L.; Langley-Evans, Simon

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence from human and animal studies demonstrates that the maternal diet during pregnancy can programme physiological and metabolic functions in the developing fetus, effectively determining susceptibility to later disease. The mechanistic basis of such programming is unclear but may involve resetting of epigenetic marks and fetal gene expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the livers of newborn rats exposed to maternal protein restriction. On day one postnatally, there were 618 differentially expressed genes and 1183 differentially methylated regions (FDR 5%). The functional analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant effect on DNA repair/cycle/maintenance functions and of lipid, amino acid metabolism and circadian functions. Enrichment for known biological functions was found to be associated with differentially methylated regions. Moreover, these epigenetically altered regions overlapped genetic loci associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Both expression changes and DNA methylation changes were largely reversed by supplementing the protein restricted diet with folic acid. Although the epigenetic and gene expression signatures appeared to underpin largely different biological processes, the gene expression profile of DNA methyl transferases was altered, providing a potential link between the two molecular signatures. The data showed that maternal protein restriction is associated with widespread differential gene expression and DNA methylation across the genome, and that folic acid is able to reset both molecular signatures. PMID:24391732

  5. Ketogenic diet does not disturb neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in rats.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Joakim; Kondziella, Daniel; Thorlin, Torleif; Asztely, Fredrik

    2008-08-06

    The ketogenic diet, a high-fat diet, is a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of refractory epilepsy, especially in children. However, there are concerns that a high-fat diet may influence the normal development of the central nervous system and cognition. In this study we investigated the influence of ketogenic diet on adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Rats were provided with either a high-fat diet (80% fat) or a standard rat diet (5% fat) ad libitum for 4 weeks. In both female and male rats, the amounts of bromodeoxyuridine immunoreactive cells in the dentate gyrus were the same in the different groups. Our results suggest that the ketogenic diet does not disturb the neurogenesis in the rat dentate gyrus.

  6. Improvement in metabolic parameters in obese subjects after 16 weeks on a Brazilian-staple calorie-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Caio E. G.; da Silva, Fábio V. P.; Casulari, Luiz A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The standard pattern of Brazilian food consumption is based on the combination of rice and beans served together in the main meals. This study assessed the effects of Brazilian-staple calorie-restricted (BS-diet) dietary advice, with brown rice and beans, on metabolic parameters, body composition, and food intake in overweight/obese subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS Twentyseven subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional-type calorie-restricted diet (CT-diet) (n = 13) or a BS-diet (n = 14). Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition parameters, and food intake were measured before and after 16 weeks. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used for comparison of differences from baseline and unpaired t-tests/Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparison of differences between the groups. RESULTS After 16 weeks, both groups showed reductions in weight and waist circumference (P < 0.02), and the BS-diet group showed a decrease in body fat (P = 0.0001), and significant improvement in glucose metabolism (fasting plasma glucose, glucose and insulin areas under the curve, Cederholm index, and HOMA2-%β) (P ≤ 0.04) and lipid profile (cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-c, VLDL-c, and cholesterol/HDL-c ratio) (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, the BS-diet group showed significant improvement in HOMA2-%β, compared to the CT-diet group (P = 0.03). The BS-diet group also showed a significant reduction in energy, lipids, carbohydrate, and cholesterol intake (P ≤ 0.04) and an increase in fiber intake (P ≤ 0.001), while the CT-diet group showed a significant reduction in intake of energy, macronutrients, PUFA, and cholesterol (P ≤ 0.002). CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate the benefits of the BS-diet on metabolic parameters in obese subjects. PMID:25110561

  7. Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?

    PubMed

    Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2010-03-30

    While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance.

  8. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Neuronal-glial interactions in rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Melø, Torun Margareta; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the adult brain. However, during periods of fasting and consumption of a high fat, low carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet, ketone bodies become major brain fuels. The present study was conducted to investigate how the ketogenic diet influences neuronal-glial interactions in amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. Rats were kept on a standard or ketogenic diet. After 21 days all animals received an injection of [1-(13)C]glucose plus [1,2-(13)C]acetate, the preferential substrates of neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Extracts from cerebral cortex and plasma were analyzed by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC. Increased amounts of valine, leucine and isoleucine and a decreased amount of glutamate were found in the brains of rats receiving the ketogenic diet. Glycolysis was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, evidenced by the reduced amounts of [3-(13)C]alanine and [3-(13)C]lactate. Additionally, neuronal oxidative metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, since amounts of [4-(13)C]glutamate and [4-(13)C]glutamine were lower than those of controls. Although the amount of glutamate from [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased, this was not the case for GABA, indicating that relatively more [4-(13)C]glutamate is converted to GABA. Astrocytic metabolism was increased in response to ketosis, shown by increased amounts of [4,5-(13)C]glutamine, [4,5-(13)C]glutamate, [1,2-(13)C]GABA and [3,4-(13)C]-/[1,2-(13)C]aspartate derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The pyruvate carboxylation over dehydrogenation ratio for glutamine was increased in the ketotic animals compared to controls, giving further indication of increased astrocytic metabolism. Interestingly, pyruvate recycling was higher in glutamine than in glutamate in both groups of animals. An increase in this pathway was detected in glutamate in response to ketosis. The decreased glycolysis and oxidative

  10. Effects of low fat and babassu fat diets on nutritional status in obstructive cholestasis in young rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Analícia Rocha; Coelho, Kunie Labuki Rabello; Coelho, Cláudio Antonio Rabello

    2008-01-01

    To test the effects of a low fat diet compared with a babassu fat diet on nutritional status in obstructive cholestasis in young rats. We submitted 40 rats in 4 groups of 10 animals each from P21 (21st postnatal day) to P49 to two of the following treatments: bile duct ligation or sham operation and low fat diet (corn oil supplying 4.5% of the total amount of energy) or babassu fat diet (this fat supplying 32.7% and corn oil supplying 1.7% of the total amount of energy). Weight gain from P25 to P49 every 4 days was measured. The Verhulst's growth function was fitted to these values of weight gain. Growth velocity and acceleration at each moment were estimated using the same equation. Total food and energy intake from P21 to P49, energy utilization rate (EUR) from P25 to P49 and fat absorption rate (FAR) and nitrogen balance (NB) from P42 to P49 were measured. Two Way ANOVA and the S.N.K. test for multiple paired comparisons were employed to study the effects of cholestasis and those of the diets and their interaction (p<0.05) on those variables. In cholestatic animals, a higher growth velocity at P45, a higher growth acceleration at P41 and P45, a greater EUR, a greater FAR and a greater NB, were found with the low fat diet as compared with the babassu fat diet. A low fat diet lessens the growth restriction brought about by cholestasis and allows for an improved dietary energy utilization and a better protein balance than the babassu fat diet.

  11. Transketolase activities and body weight changes in rats on low protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ette, S I

    1984-01-01

    Transketolase activity was studied in rats fed a peasant diet containing 5.9% protein, carbohydrate diets (sucrose, glucose, lactose and starch, each containing 5.0% protein) and a normal diet which contained 21% protein. The activity of the enzyme in red cell hemolysate was independent of the protein content of these diets. However, rats fed a low protein diet had significantly higher hepatic transketolase activity than those fed the normal diet. The hepatic transketolase activity was highest in rats fed a diet containing 4 mg thiamine/kg diet. Further dietary increase in the levels of this vitamin did not cause any further increase in the level of activity of the enzyme, thus suggesting that excess dietary thiamine may have a minimal effect on the activity of this enzyme.

  12. Lean rats gained more body weight from a high-fructooligosaccharide diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoting; Yingyi, Gu; Chen, Long; Lijuan, Gao; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2015-07-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are believed to be beneficial to the host growth and its gut health. This article is intended to investigate the different influences of a high-fructooligosaccharide (FOS) diet on the growth and gut microbiota of lean and obese rats. Diet-induced lean and obese rats were fed a high-FOS diet for 8 weeks. Rats' body weight (BW) and feed intake were recorded weekly, and their gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the lean rats gained more BW than the obese ones from the high-FOS diet. In the meanwhile, the gut microbiota in both lean and obese rats was altered by this diet. The abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the lean rats, while no significant alteration in Firmicutes was observed in all rats after the consumption of a high-FOS diet. In conclusion, this study first reported that the lean rats gained more body weight from a high-FOS diet than the obese ones, and the increase of Bacteroidetes might help rats harvest more energy from the high-FOS diet.

  13. Ketogenic diet does not impair spatial ability controlled by the hippocampus in male rats.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yuji; Furuta, Miyako; Kakehashi, Chiaki; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2015-10-05

    A ketogenic diet was recently shown to reduce glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles, decreasing glutamate transmission. We questioned whether a ketogenic diet affects hippocampal function, as glutamate transmission is critically involved in visuospatial ability. In the present study, male Wistar rats were maintained on a ketogenic diet containing 10% protein and 90% fat with complements for 3 weeks to change their energy expenditure from glucose-dependent to fat-dependent. Control rats were fed a diet containing 10% protein, 10% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. The fat-dependent energy expenditure induced by the ketogenic diet led to decreased body weight and increased blood ketone production, though the rats in the two groups consumed the same number of calories. The ketogenic diet did not alter food preferences for the control or high-fat diet containing 10% protein, 45% fat, and 45% carbohydrates. Anxiety in the open field was not altered by ingestion the ketogenic diet. However, rats fed the ketogenic diet performed better in the Y-maze test than rats fed the control diet. No difference was observed between the two groups in the Morris water maze test. Finally, Western blot revealed that the hippocampal expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) was significantly increased in mice fed a ketogenic diet. These results suggest that hippocampal function is not impaired by a ketogenic diet and we speculate that the fat-dependent energy expenditure does not impair visuospatial ability.

  14. Long–Term Effects of Energy-Restricted Diets Differing in Glycemic Load on Metabolic Adaptation and Body Composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A randomized controlled trial of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets with food provided for 6 months and self-administered for 6 additional months at 30% caloric restriction (CR) was performed in 29 overweight adults (mean+/-SD, age 35+/-5y; BMI 27.5+/-1.5 kg/m2). Total energy e...

  15. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS) and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF) diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences. PMID:21736742

  16. Intrauterine growth restriction increases the preference for palatable foods and affects sensitivity to food rewards in male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Alves, Márcio Bonesso; Reis, Tatiane Madeira; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-08-27

    Clinical evidence suggests that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can cause persistent changes in the preference for palatable foods. In this study, we compared food preferences, the response to food rewards, and the role of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in feeding behavior, between IUGR and control rats. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to a control group (standard chow ad libitum) or a 50% food restriction (FR) group, which received 50% of the control dams׳ habitual intake. These diets were provided from gestation day 10 to the 21st day of lactation. Within 24h of birth, pups were cross-fostered and divided into four groups: Adlib/Adlib, FR/Adlib, FR/FR, Adlib/FR. Standard chow consumption was compared between all groups. Food preferences, conditioned place preference to a palatable diet, and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens were analyzed and compared between the two groups of interest: Adlib/Adlib (control) and FR/Adlib (exposed to growth restriction during the fetal period only). IUGR adult rats had a stronger preference for palatable foods, but showed less conditioned place preference to a palatable diet than controls. D2 receptors levels were lower in IUGR rats. At baseline, TH and pTH levels were higher in FR/Adlib than control males. Measurements taken after exposure to sweet foods revealed higher levels of TH and pTH in FR/Adlib than control females. These data showed that IUGR rats exhibited a preference for palatable foods, potentially due to alterations in their mesolimbic reward pathway. Additionally, the changes observed in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of IUGR rats proved to be sex-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 1618. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of prior or concurrent food restriction on amylin-induced changes in body weight and body composition in high-fat-fed female rats.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jonathan D; Hughes, Heather; Coffey, Todd; Maier, Holly; Trevaskis, James L; Anderson, Christen M

    2007-10-01

    Amylin infusion reduces food intake and slows body weight gain in rodents. In obese male rats, amylin (but not pair feeding) caused a preferential reduction of fat mass with protein preservation despite equal body weight loss in amylin-treated (fed ad libitum) and pair-fed rats. In the present study, the effect of prior or concurrent food restriction on the ability of amylin to cause weight loss was evaluated. Retired female breeder rats were maintained on a high-fat diet (40% fat) for 9 wk. Prior to drug treatment, rats were either fed ad libitum or food restricted for 10 days to lose 5% of their starting body weight. They were then subdivided into treatment groups that received either vehicle or amylin (100 microgxkg(-1)xday(-1) via subcutaneous minipump) and placed under either a restricted or ad libitum feeding schedule (for a total of 8 treatment arms). Amylin 1) significantly reduced body weight compared with vehicle under all treatment conditions, except in always restricted animals, 2) significantly decreased percent body fat in all groups, and 3) preserved lean mass in all groups. These results indicate that amylin's anorexigenic and fat-specific weight loss properties can be extended to a variety of nutritive states in female rats.

  18. Calorie restriction improves cognitive decline via up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: tropomyosin-related kinase B in hippocampus ofobesity-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Nagayama, Tomomi; Isegawa, Kengo; Katsuki, Masato; Takesue, Ko; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    In metabolic syndrome (MetS), previous studies have suggested that cognitive decline is worsened. Among the factors associated with cognition, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus causes cognitive decline. We previously reported that exercise training with calorie restriction yielded protection against cognitive decline via BDNF in the hippocampus of hypertensive rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not calorie restriction results in protection against cognitive decline via BDNF and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampus of MetS model rats. We divided dietary-induced obesity-prone and hypertensive rats (OP), as metabolic syndrome model rats, into three groups, fed with a high fat diet (HF), treated with calorie restriction (CR) plus vehicle, and treated with CR and ANA-12 (a TrkB antagonist) (CR+A). After treatment for 28 days, body weight, insulin, fasting blood glucose, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus were significantly lower, and BDNF expression in the hippocampus was significantly higher in CR and CR+A than in HF. Cognitive performance determined by the Morris water maze test was significantly higher in CR than in HF, whereas the benefit was attenuated in CR+A. In conclusion, calorie restriction protects against cognitive decline via up-regulation of BDNF/TrkB through an antioxidant effect in the hippocampus of dietary-induced obesity rats.

  19. Effect of restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Lichuan; Li, Zi; Qin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the restricted protein diet (low or very low protein diet) supplemented with keto analogues in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CBM and CENTRAL databases were searched and reviewed up to April 2015. Clinical trials were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Seven random control trials, one cross-over trial and one non-randomized concurrent control trial were selected and included in this study according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The changes of eGFR, BUN, Scr, albumin, PTH, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus and nutrition indexes (BMI, lean body mass and mid-arm muscular circumference) before and after treatment were analyzed. The meta-analysis results indicated that, comparing with normal protein diet, low protein diet (LPD) or very low protein diet (vLPD) supplemented with keto analogues (s(v)LPD) could significantly prevent the deterioration of eGFR (P < 0.001), hyperparathyroidism (P = 0.04), hypertension (P < 0.01) and hyperphosphatemia (P < 0.001). No differences in BUN, Scr, Albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, hemoglobin, calcium and nutrition indexes were observed between different protein intake groups. Restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues (s(v)LPD) could delay the progression of CKD effectively without causing malnutrition.

  20. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    PubMed Central

    Iranloye, Bolanle O.; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Morakinyo, Ayodele O.; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control) received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet) and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet). All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were determined. RESULTS: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats. PMID:24672168

  1. A low-salt diet increases the expression of renal sirtuin 1 through activation of the ghrelin receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao-Yu; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is renoprotective; however, details regarding its distribution and functions in the kidney remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Sirt1 was mainly expressed in the tubulointerstitial cells of normal rat kidneys and was co-localized with aquaporin 2, indicating it may be involved in water/salt regulation. Renal Sirt1 expression increased in the non-glomerular cytoplasmic portion of the kidney after a 24-h fast, but no significant changes in Sirt1 expression occurred after water loading (50 mL/kg) or 24-h water deprivation. After consuming a low-salt (0.075%) or 60% calorie restriction diet for 7 days, Sirt1 expression in the rat kidney was significantly increased, whereas a high-salt (8%) diet did not change the level of Sirt1 expression. The low-salt diet also increased Sirt1 expression in the heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. The increased Sirt1 that was observed in rats on a low-salt diet was associated with increased ghrelin expression in the distal nephron, with both molecules exhibiting similar distribution patterns. An in vitro experiment suggested that ghrelin increases Sirt1 expression in cortical collecting duct cells by activating ghrelin receptors. Our study indicates that this ‘ghrelin-Sirt1 system’ may participate in regulating sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:27600292

  2. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    PubMed

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Long-term high animal protein diet reduces body weight gain and insulin secretion in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Yiling; Ma, Lichuan; Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Yinyin; Li, Minglong

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a high protein diet on insulin secretion and glucose metabolism have been quite controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term isocaloric high animal protein intake on insulin secretion in diet-induced obese rats. After the experimental period (24 weeks), the high-fat diet-induced obese rats that were fed isocaloric high-protein diets (HP) had lower body weight gain (P < 0.01) and lower visceral fat (P < 0.05) than normal protein (NP) rats. Fasting plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was also reduced significantly (P < 0.05), as well as serum insulin levels at 5 min and 10 min by intravenous insulin releasing test. In addition, insulin mRNA and pancreatic duodenal homeodomain-1 (PDX-1), GLP-1 protein expression were both markedly lower in HP rats (P < 0.05), while PDX-1 mRNA in HP rats had no difference from NP rats. These results suggest that long-term isocaloric high animal protein intake reduces the acute insulin response in obese rats and the decrease of insulin is associated with both reduced weight gain and inhibition of PDX-1 expression. GLP-1 might be a negative feedback for the balance of energy metabolism secondary to changes of body weight and visceral fat. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-10-15

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P.; Moran, Timothy H.; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference. PMID:25791204

  6. Dietary Egg Yolk Supplementation Improves Low-Protein-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats.

    PubMed

    Erami, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yasutake; Kawamura, Sayaka; Miyago, Motonori; Sawazaki, Ai; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients and contains different bioactive substances. In the present study, we studied the benefits of egg yolk in preventing low-protein-diet-induced fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed the following diets, which were based on the AIN-76 formula, for 2 wk: an adequate-protein diet containing 20% casein (C), a low-protein diet containing 5% casein (LP-C), a low-protein diet supplemented with 12.5% egg yolk (LP-EY), and a low-protein diet supplemented with 4.1% egg yolk oil (LP-EYO). The low-protein diets were adjusted to contain 4.13% protein and 4.7% lipids. The LP-C diet resulted in a greater increase in the liver trigriceride (TG) and the vacuolation and a greater decrease in the serum TG and free fatty acid (FFA) than did the C diet. These deviations in the serum and liver TG, serum FFA levels and the liver histopathology were corrected in rats fed the LP-EY diet but not in those fed the LP-EYO diet. Compared to rats fed the LP-C diet, although the activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes (fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme) decreased in rats fed both of the LP-EY and LP-EYO diets, the level of the microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) increased only in rats fed the LP-EY diet. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary egg yolk supplementation decreases the LP diet-induced accumulation of TG in the liver by increasing transport of TG in the liver, and egg yolk oil alone is not sufficient enough to bring about these benefits.

  7. Energy-restricted, high-protein diets more effectively impact cardiometabolic profile in overweight and obese women than lower-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Marco-Benedí, Victoria; Perez-Calahorra, Sofía; Bea, Ana M; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Lamiquiz-Moneo, Itziar; de Castro-Orós, Isabel; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    High-protein energy-restricted diets have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss in overweight and obesity. However, the protein percentage that achieves optimal efficacy and acceptability remains unknown. We sought to assess the effects of three energy-reduced diets with different percentages of calories from protein (20%, 27%, and 35%) on weight loss and lipids. Secondary outcomes included diet acceptability and compliance. Six-month, randomized study included women aged 18-80 years with BMI of 27.5-45 kg/m(2) and who were not taking lipid-lowering drugs. We randomly assigned 91 women to one of three calorie-reduced diets with: protein, 20%, 27%, or 35% (80% from animal protein); carbohydrates, 50%, 43%, or 35%; fat, 30%. Dietary intervention involved individual visits with a nutritionist every 2 weeks during the first 3 months. We performed a follow-up visit at 6 months. Eighty women aged 44.0 ± 9.08 years with BMI of 37.7 ± 3.39 kg/m(2) completed the study. At 3 months, weight loss was -8.16 ± 4.18 kg, -9.66 ± 5.28 kg, and -10.7 ± 4.28 kg in the 20%, 27%, and 35%-protein groups, respectively (P = 0.16). These figures slightly and homogeneously increased at 6 months. Around 65% of women following 35%-protein diet lost ≥10% of body weight vs. ∼33% in 20%-protein group (P = 0.023). Significant decreases occurred in fat mass, lipids and insulin resistance, especially in the 35%-protein group (P < 0.05 vs. 20% protein). This improvement was not fully explained by weight loss. Triglyceride change was negatively correlated with animal-protein intake. All groups provided similar responses to an acceptance, palatability, and satisfaction questionnaire. An energy-restricted diet with 35% protein, mostly of animal origin, more effectively impacts cardiometabolic profile than an energy-restricted diet with lower protein content although no clear benefit between diets in terms of overall weight loss was observed. The high

  8. Maternal dietary carbohydrate restriction and mild-to-moderate exercise during pregnancy modify aspects of fetal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Cobrin, M; Koski, K G

    1995-06-01

    To determine whether acute bouts of exercise during pregnancy would predispose the fetus to increased risk if maternal dietary carbohydrate were restricted, untrained pregnant rats were randomly assigned to a 0% (low), 12% (moderate) or 60% (high) glucose diet, and either rested or exercised daily for 20 min from d 16 to term on a rodent treadmill at a mild (15.5 m/min) or moderate (24.3 m/min) intensity. A 3 x 3 nested factorial model with and without food intake as a covariate was employed. Both greater exercise intensity and the lower levels of dietary carbohydrate independently decreased term maternal liver and plantaris glycogen concentrations and increased plasma lactate concentrations. However, significant differences due to exercise disappeared (except for plasma lactate) with food intake controlled for in the model, indicating that energy deficits modulated these exercise effects. In contrast, for the offspring, when food intake was controlled for, a restricted level of maternal dietary carbohydrate significantly lowered fetal weight, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and liver glycogen concentrations measured at term. Exercise alone did not reduce mean fetal weight if nested weights within a litter were used in the statistical analysis. Mild to moderate maternal exercise lowered only fetal plasma glucose concentrations and only if maternal food intake was not controlled for. These results indicate that acute exercise during pregnancy can have detrimental effects on fetal development only if dietary glucose is severely restricted. Otherwise, adequate glucose and energy in the maternal diet in untrained pregnant rats during repeated bouts of acute exercise seem to protect the fetus.

  9. Carbohydrate-restricted versus low-glycemic-index diets for the treatment of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard J; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2009-03-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRD) and diets comprised of foods with a low glycemic index (low-GI) are postulated to improve insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, potentially preventing the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this article, recent findings concerning the effects of CRD and low-GI diets on measures associated with the metabolic syndrome and T2DM are discussed. An important problem that is encountered when trying to compare the effects of these different diets is the heterogeneity of carbohydrate consumption (8-40% of total kcal) used in interventions examining the effects of CRD. In contrast, there is a consensus definition for low-GI foods. However, since both quantity and type of carbohydrate powerfully affect metabolic outcomes, this review emphasizes that control of these factors in future studies will be important for determining the efficacy of either dietary approach in preventing the development of T2DM.

  10. Influence of high and low protein intakes on age-related bone loss in rats submitted to adequate or restricted energy conditions.

    PubMed

    Mardon, Julie; Habauzit, Véronique; Trzeciakiewicz, Anna; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Mercier, Sylvie; Tressol, Jean-Claude; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Demigné, Christian; Coxam, Véronique

    2008-05-01

    Low energy and protein intake has been suggested to contribute to the increased incidence of osteoporosis in the elderly. The impact of dietary protein on bone health is still a matter of debate. Therefore, we examined the effect of the modulation of protein intake under adequate or deficient energy conditions on bone status in 16-month-old male rats. The animals were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 10/group). Control animals were fed a diet providing either a normal-protein content (13%, C-NP) or a high-protein content (26%) (C-HP). The other groups received a 40% protein/energy-restricted diet (PER-NP and PER-HP) or a normal protein/energy-restricted diet (ER-NP and ER-HP). After 5 months of the experiment, protein intake (13% or 26%) did not modulate calcium retention or bone status in those rats, although a low-grade metabolic acidosis was induced with the HP diet. Both restrictions (PER and ER) decreased femoral bone mineral density and fracture load. Plasma osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were lowered, suggesting a decrease in bone turnover in the PER and ER groups. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I levels were also lowered by dietary restrictions, together with calcium retention. Adequate protein intake in the ER condition did not elicit any bone-sparing effect compared to PER rats. In conclusion, both energy and protein deficiencies may contribute to age-related bone loss. This study highlights the importance of sustaining adequate energy and protein provision to preserve skeletal integrity in the elderly.

  11. Synergistic effects of prenatal hypoxia and postnatal high-fat diet in the development of cardiovascular pathology in young rats.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Morton, Jude S; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T

    2012-08-15

    We have previously shown that adult offspring exposed to a prenatal hypoxic insult leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are more susceptible to cardiovascular pathologies. Our objectives were to evaluate the interaction between hypoxia-induced IUGR and postnatal diet in the early development of cardiovascular pathologies. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether the postnatal administration of resveratrol could prevent the development of cardiovascular disorders associated with hypoxia-induced IUGR. On day 15 of pregnancy, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to hypoxia (11.5% oxygen), to induce IUGR, or normal oxygen (control) groups. For study A, male offspring (3 wk of age) were randomly assigned a low-fat (LF, <10% fat) or a high-fat (HF, 45% fat) diet. For study B, offspring were randomized to either HF or HF+resveratrol diets. After 9 wk, cardiac and vascular functions were evaluated. Prenatal hypoxia and HF diet were associated with an increased myocardial susceptibility to ischemia. Blood pressure, in vivo cardiac function, and ex vivo vascular function were not different among experimental groups; however, hypoxia-induced IUGR offspring had lower resting heart rates. Our results suggest that prenatal insults can enhance the susceptibility to a second hit such as myocardial ischemia, and that this phenomenon is exacerbated, in the early stages of life by nutritional stressors such as a HF diet. Supplementing HF diets with resveratrol improved cardiac tolerance to ischemia in offspring born IUGR but not in controls. Thus we conclude that the additive effect of prenatal (hypoxia-induced IUGR) and postnatal (HF diet) factors can lead to the earlier development of cardiovascular pathology in rats, and postnatal resveratrol supplementation prevented the deleterious cardiovascular effects of HF diet in offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia.

  12. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, B Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Marsh, Jeremy; Mukherjee, Purna

    2009-09-01

    Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are largely unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration (the Warburg effect), malignant brain cancer can be managed through changes in metabolic environment. In contrast to malignant brain tumors that are mostly dependent on glycolysis for energy, normal neurons and glia readily transition to ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate) for energy in vivo when glucose levels are reduced. The transition from glucose to ketone bodies as a major energy source is an evolutionary conserved adaptation to food deprivation that permits the survival of normal cells during extreme shifts in nutritional environment. Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and less metabolically flexible tumor cells. This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Issues of implementation and use protocols are discussed.

  13. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on the hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and gluconeogenic enzymes in early intrauterine growth-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kaiju; Chen, Pingyang; Li, Suping; Li, Wen; He, Mingfeng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Juncao

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and gluconeogenic enzymes in intrauterine growth-restricted rats to dietary L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation during the lactation period early in life. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (CON), an intrauterine growth restriction group (IUGR) and an L-Arg group (LA). The pregnant rats in the CON group were fed a 21% protein diet, and those in the IUGR and LA groups were fed a 10% low protein diet, and all rats were fed a 21% protein diet after delivery. Water was available ad libitum to the pregnant rats during the 21-day lactation period, and the water provided to the LA group included 200 mg/kg/day L-Arg. Blood glucose, serum insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), PI3K and protein kinase B (PKB) protein expression, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) mRNA expression in the offspring rats were measured postnatally at 1, 3 and 8 weeks. No significant difference in blood glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were identified at any time point among the three groups. PI3K and PKB expression was lower in the IUGR group offspring compared with that in the CON group offspring, but both were increased by dietary L-Arg supplementation. PEPCK mRNA and G-6-Pase mRNA expression levels in the offspring of the IUGR group were higher compared with those in the CON group but were downregulated following L-Arg supplementation. These results suggest that dietary L-Arg supplementation during the early lactation period promoted catch-up growth and reversed abnormalities in hepatic insulin signaling and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in IUGR offspring rats.

  14. Ketogenic diet does not change NKCC1 and KCC2 expression in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lira, Gisela; Mendoza-Torreblanca, Julieta Griselda; Granados-Rojas, Leticia

    2011-09-01

    In control rats, we examined the effects of ketogenic diet on NKCC1 and KCC2 expression levels in hippocampus. Neither the number of NKCC1 immunoreactive cells nor the intensity of labeling of KCC2 was found to modify in hippocampus of the rats after ketogenic diet treatment. These results indicate that ketogenic diet by itself does not modify the expression of these cation chloride cotransporters.

  15. [Arterial blood pressure and high calcium diet in normal and mineralcorticoid (DOCA and sodium chloride hypertensive rats].

    PubMed

    Pernot, F; Berthelot, A; Gairard, A

    1978-01-01

    High calcium diet induces an hypertension lasting one week in normal rats. In mineralocorticoid treated rats (DOCA + NaCl), the same diet prevents for 10 weeks the increase of arterial blood pressure. Parathyroid activity (estimated by urinary cAMP) is decreased after the high calcium diet. These results confirm the role of the parathyroid glands in mineralocorticoid hypertension in the rat.

  16. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  17. Dietary restriction of mice on a high-fat diet induces substrate efficiency and improves metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Duivenvoorde, Loes P M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Keijer, Jaap

    2011-08-01

    High energy intake and, specifically, high dietary fat intake challenge the mammalian metabolism and correlate with many metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. However, dietary restriction (DR) is known to prevent the development of metabolic disorders. The current western diets are highly enriched in fat, and it is as yet unclear whether DR on a certain high-fat (HF) diet elicits similar beneficial effects on health. In this research, we report that HF-DR improves metabolic health of mice compared with mice receiving the same diet on an ad libitum basis (HF-AL). Already after five weeks of restriction, the serum levels of cholesterol and leptin were significantly decreased in HF-DR mice, whereas their glucose sensitivity and serum adiponectin levels were increased. The body weight and measured serum parameters remained stable in the following 7 weeks of restriction, implying metabolic adaptation. To understand the molecular events associated with this adaptation, we analyzed gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) with whole genome microarrays. HF-DR strongly influenced gene expression in WAT; in total, 8643 genes were differentially expressed between both groups of mice, with a major role for genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial functioning. This was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and substantiated by increase in mitochondrial density in WAT of HF-DR mice. These results provide new insights in the metabolic flexibility of dietary restricted animals and suggest the development of substrate efficiency.

  18. Diet composition exacerbates or attenuates soman toxicity in rats: implied metabolic control of nerve agent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Myers, Todd M; Langston, Jeffrey L

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the role of diet composition on nerve agent toxicity, rats were fed four distinct diets ad libitum for 28 d prior to challenge with 110 μg/kg (1.0 LD(50), sc) soman. The four diets used were a standard rodent diet, a choline-enriched diet, a glucose-enriched diet, and a ketogenic diet. Body weight was recorded throughout the study. Toxic signs and survival were evaluated at key times for up to 72 h following soman exposure. Additionally, acquisition of discriminated shuttlebox avoidance performance was characterized beginning 24h after soman challenge and across the next 8 d (six behavioral sessions). Prior to exposure, body weight was highest in the standard diet group and lowest in the ketogenic diet group. Upon exposure, differences in soman toxicity as a function of diet became apparent within the first hour, with mortality in the glucose-enriched diet group reaching 80% and exceeding all other groups (in which mortality ranged from 0 to 6%). At 72 h after exposure, mortality was 100% in the glucose-enriched diet group, and survival approximated 50% in the standard and choline-enriched diet groups, but equaled 87% in the ketogenic diet group. Body weight loss was significantly reduced in the ketogenic and choline-enriched diet groups, relative to the standard diet group. At 1 and 4h after exposure, rats in the ketogenic diet group had significantly lower toxic sign scores than all other groups. The ketogenic diet group performed significantly better than the standard diet group on two measures of active avoidance performance. The exacerbated soman toxicity observed in the glucose-enriched diet group coupled with the attenuated soman toxicity observed in the ketogenic diet group implicates glucose availability in the toxic effects of soman. This increased glucose availability may enhance acetylcholine synthesis and/or utilization, thereby exacerbating peripheral and central soman toxicity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy prevents drinking-induced reduction in plasma corticosterone in water-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, Michelle M; Yoder, J Marina; Engeland, William C

    2009-05-01

    Dehydrated rats exhibit a rapid inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after rehydration. Drinking activates vagal afferents that project to neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). We hypothesized that when dehydrated rats drink, vagal afferents stimulate NTS neurons initiating inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Experiments assessed NTS activity by measuring Fos expression. Rats were water restricted for 1 or 6 d, limiting access to water to 30 min/d in the morning. Drinking after single or repeated restriction increased Fos, demonstrating increased NTS activity. We next examined the contribution of the vagus by comparing hormonal responses after total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or sham surgery. Water restriction for 6 d increased plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), ACTH, and adrenal and plasma corticosterone in both groups. In sham rats, drinking reduced plasma AVP, ACTH, adrenal and plasma corticosterone by 7.5 min. In total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy rats, whereas drinking reduced plasma AVP, ACTH, and adrenal corticosterone, drinking did not reduce plasma corticosterone. To identify the source of vagal activity, hormonal responses to restriction-induced drinking were measured after common hepatic branch vagotomy (HBV). Although pituitary hormonal responses were not affected by HBV, the adrenal and plasma corticosterone responses to water restriction were reduced; in addition, drinking in HBV rats decreased adrenal corticosterone without changing plasma corticosterone. These data indicate that an intact vagus is necessary to reduce plasma corticosterone when water-restricted rats drink and that the common hepatic vagal branch contributes to the response. These findings implicate the vagus in augmenting rapid removal of circulating corticosterone during relief from stress.

  20. Effect of food restriction on reproductive-related genes and reproductive hormones in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H H; Khalil, W K B; Shousha, W G; El-Sayed, E S M; Eskander, E F; Selim, R E

    2012-11-01

    A number of factors involved in the control of energy balance and metabolism act as modulators of gonadal axis. Ghrelin, a peptide secreted from the stomach and hypothalamus, has emerged as an orexigenic food intake controlling signal acting upon hypothalamus. Recently, the potential reproductive role of ghrelin has received great attention. This study was designed to investigate the influence of food restriction and consequent metabolic hormone (ghrelin) on the level and gene expression of female reproductive hormones in adult rats. To study the effect of chronic food restriction on ghrelin level in adult female rats and its relation to female reproductive hormones, 32 adult female Sprague Dawley rats divided into 4 groups: Group I (control group) comprised 8 rats fed ad libitum for 30 days, Group II, III and IV (food-restricted groups for 10, 20 and 30 days respectively) each consisted of 8 rats fed 50% of ad libitum intake determined by the amount of food consumed by the control group. Mean body weight of food restricted rats was observed to decrease during the period of the experiment. Food restriction produced significant increase of serum ghrelin with significant decrease of both gastric and hypothalamic ghrelin accompanied with significant increase in its gene expression in stomach and hypothalamus. Estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels showed significant decrease correlated with down-regulation of gonadotropins, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdc2), cyclin B and kisspeptin (Kiss1) genes in food restricted rats compared with control group. Ghrelin could be one of the hormones responsible for the suppression of female reproductive axis in case of negative energy balance. Thus, ghrelin may operate as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of ovarian function. Overall, ghrelin may represent an additional link between body weight homeostasis and reproductive function.

  1. Effects of phosphorus-restricted diet and phosphate-binding therapy on outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, Domenico; Bellasi, Antonio; Pota, Andrea; Russo, Luigi; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis, possibly through phosphorus-dependent vascular calcification. Although a phosphorus-restricted diet reduces serum phosphorus, it is unlikely that it reduces vascular calcification progression in CKD. This study evaluated whether a combined strategy of phosphorus-restricted diet and phosphate-binding therapy can reduce the risk of all-cause mortality and/or dialysis initiation by attenuating coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression in non-dialysis CKD patients. This was a post hoc analysis of a subgroup of patients from a study that evaluated the impact of two phosphorus binder regimens on hard outcomes in CKD. Patients (n = 113) with stage 3-4 CKD and evidence of CAC on a phosphorus-restricted diet were randomized to receive either calcium carbonate or sevelamer added to their phosphorus-restricted diet. End-points were death for any cause and initiation of dialysis. Patients were monitored to the first event or to conclusion of the 36-month follow-up. Overall, treatment with calcium carbonate was associated with increased CAC progression and occurrence of all-cause mortality, dialysis initiation, and the composite end-point. After adjustment for confounders, sevelamer use was the only independent predictive factor of reduced risk of each endpoint but only if CAC progression was either absent or moderate. Accelerated progression (annual CAC increase >75th percentile of the study cohort) increased the risk of all-cause mortality and composite end-point (p = 0.01) independently of the use of sevelamer. A significant reduction in all-cause mortality, dialysis initiation, and composite end-point risk was achieved by combining phosphorus-restricted diet and sevelamer in non-dialysis CKD patients with absent or moderate but not accelerated CAC progression. Future studies should investigate the role of serum phosphorus, the usefulness of a phosphorus-restricted

  2. Diet-induced hyperphagia in the rat is influenced by sex and exercise.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Lisa A; Moore, Shelley R

    2004-11-01

    Caloric intake is increased in rats fed a diet containing greater fat or sugar than that found in laboratory chow. Because such diet-induced hyperphagia has been studied primarily in sedentary male rats, our goal here was to investigate the effects of sex and exercise on caloric intake of a diet (chow supplemented with sweet milk) chosen for its ability to stimulate hyperphagia. Rats were housed individually in cages that provided access to running wheels, and daily caloric intake of chow alone and then chow plus sweet milk was monitored during sedentary and active conditions. In sedentary rats, chow intake was greater in males compared with females. Wheel running produced similar decreases in chow intake in both sexes. Availability of the chow plus milk diet increased caloric intake compared with that observed in chow-fed rats. This diet-induced hyperphagia was significantly greater in sedentary females (35.7 +/- 3.1% increase) relative to sedentary males (9.1 +/- 2.2% increase). In addition, 35% of sedentary females consuming the chow plus milk diet developed estrous cycle disruptions. Wheel running decreased intake of the chow plus milk diet in both sexes. In active males, diet-induced hyperphagia was abolished; caloric intake was reduced to that observed during chow feeding. In active female rats, diet-induced hyperphagia was attenuated but not abolished; caloric intake of the chow plus milk diet remained greater than that observed during chow feeding. We conclude that female rats are more vulnerable than male rats to this form of diet-induced hyperphagia.

  3. Moringa oleifera-rich diet and T-cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Attakpa, E S; Chabi, N W; Bertin, G A; Ategbo, J-M; Seri, B; Khan, N A

    2017-04-12

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose fruits, roots and leaves have been advocated for traditional medicinal uses. The physico-chemical analysis shows that, Moringa contains more dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than saturated fatty acids (SFA). The consumption of an experimental diet enriched with Moringa oleifera extracts lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as compared to rats fed an unsupplemented control diet. Anti-CD3-stimulated T-cell proliferation was diminished in both strains of rats fed the Moringa oleifera. The experimental diet lowered secretion of interleukin-2 in SHR, but not in WKY rats compared with rats fed the control diet. Studies of platelets from patients with primary hypertension and from SHR support the notion that the concentration of intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)]i is modified in both clinical and experimental hypertension. We observed that the basal, [Ca(2+)]i was lower in T cells of SHR than in those of WKY rats fed the control diet. Feeding the diet with Moringa oleifera extracts to WKY rats did not alter basal [Ca(2+)]i in T cells but increased basal [Ca(2+)]i in SHR. Our study clearly demonstrated that Moringa oleifera exerts antihypertensive effects by inhibiting the secretion of IL-2 and modulates T-cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

  4. Cystitis, Pyelonephritis, and Urolithiasis in Rats Accidentally Fed a Diet Deficient in Vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Munday, John S; McKinnon, Hilary; Aberdein, Danielle; Collett, Mark G; Parton, Kathleen; Thompson, Keith G

    2009-01-01

    Female Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 100; age, 3 wk) were fed diets that included a vitamin premix and either albumin or milk powder. Rats fed the albumin diet gained weight more slowly than did the other group. Between 19 and 28 wk of being fed the albumin diet, 12 rats died of bacterial cystitis and pyelonephritis. In addition, 2 more rats from the same dietary group developed peritonitis after ovariohysterectomy. Examination of the 44 rats fed the albumin diet that completed the 34-wk experiment revealed pyelonephritis in 68%, cystitis in 66%, urolithiasis in 27%, and nephrolithiasis in 5%. Squamous metaplasia of the transitional epithelium was present in all 44 rats, although other epithelia were histologically normal. Vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed after analyses of blood and liver samples. Analysis of the vitamin premix revealed approximately 25% of the expected amount of vitamin A. Because the milk powder contained sufficient vitamin A, deficiency did not occur in rats fed the milk powder diet. The major consequences of vitamin A deficiency in the rats were squamous metaplasia, bacterial infection, and calculus formation within the urinary tract. This report illustrates the importance of careful formulation and storage of vitamin premixes used in experimental diets. Vitamin A deficiency should be considered in rats with decreased weight gain and urinary tract disease even if ocular lesions are not present. PMID:19930829

  5. Neuropsychological Studies on Adolescents with Phenylketonuria Returned to Phenylalanine-Restricted Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, J. T. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated neuropsychological effects of high or low phenylalanine diets on nine phenylketonuric (PKU) adolescents who had been on unrestricted diets for 2 to 11 years. Results found that PKU adolescents on unrestricted diets have a neuropsychological deficit which can be partly reversed by returning to dietary phenylalanine restricted…

  6. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  7. Simvastatin increases liver branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in rats fed with low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Knapik-Czajka, Malgorzata

    2014-11-05

    The rate-limiting step in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) disposal is catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). BCKDH activity is regulated mainly by a reversible dephosphorylation (activation)/phosphorylation (inactivation) cycle catalyzed by a specific phosphatase (BDP) and kinase (BDK). Current catalytic activity of BCKDH, described as BCKDH activity state, and thus also BCAAs catabolic rate depend directly on the portion of BCKDH occurring in its active dephosphorylated form. Liver BCKDH activity state alters in response to different nutritional factors. Feeding rats a low-protein diet decreases BCKDH activity. It has been previously shown that lipid lowering drugs, fibrates upregulate liver BCKDH activity and stimulate BCAAs catabolism, especially under the condition of dietary protein deprivation. Effect of statins on liver BCKDH activity has not been studied yet. The present study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effect of simvastatin on liver BCKDH activity, as well as E1, E2 and BDP and BDK mRNA levels in rats fed with either a standard (23% protein) or a low protein (8% protein) diet. For 14 days, simvastatin (80 mg/kg b wt/day) or the vehicle (0.3% methylcellulose) were administrated orally by gavage to the treated and control groups, respectively. The actual BCKDH and total BCKDH activities were assayed spectrophotometrically prior to and following incubation with lambda phosphatase, respectively. The mRNA levels of the selected genes were quantified by means of a semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In rats fed with the low protein diet simvastatin administration reversed physiological adaptation of liver BCKDH to protein restriction and increased liver BCKDH activity state by 39% (p<0.05). Changes in BCKDH activity did not correspond to any changes in mRNA levels for BCKDH catalytic and regulatory enzymes. On the contrary, in rats fed with standard diet liver BCKDH activity state did not alter substantially

  8. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (P<0·05), but no significant alteration in BW was found in obese rats. The average content of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (P<0·01), and bacteria from phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were both increased largely (P<0·01); however, the bacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet.

  9. Changes in the Total Fecal Bacterial Population in Individual Horses Maintained on a Restricted Diet Over 6 Weeks.

    PubMed

    Dougal, Kirsty; Harris, Patricia A; Girdwood, Susan E; Creevey, Christopher J; Curtis, Gemma C; Barfoot, Clare F; Argo, Caroline M; Newbold, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Twelve mature (aged 5-16 years) horses and ponies of mixed breed and type were fed restricted (1.25% BM Dry matter) quantities of one of two fiber based diets formulated to be iso-caloric. Diet 1 comprised of 0.8% body mass (BM) of chaff based complete feed plus 0.45% BM low energy grass hay (the same hay used for both diets). Diet 2 comprised 0.1% BM of a nutrient balancer plus 1.15% BM grass hay. Fecal samples were collected at week 10 and week 16. DNA was extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA were 454-pyrosequenced to investigate the bacterial microbiome of the horse. The two most abundant phyla found in both diets and sampling periods were the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. There was a clear reduction in Bacteroidetes with a concordant increase in Firmicutes over time. There was a limited degree of stability within the bacterial community of the hindgut of horses, with 65% of bacteria retained, over a 6 week period whilst on a uniform diet. The presence of a core community defined by being present in all samples (each animal/diet combination) included in the study and being present at 0.1% relative abundance (or greater) was identified. In total 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified that fit the definition of core making up 21-28% of the total sequences recovered. As with total population the most abundant phyla were the Bacteroidetes followed by the Firmicutes, however there was no obvious shift in phyla due to period. Indeed, when the relative abundance of OTUs was examined across diets and periods there was no significant effect of diet or period alone or in combination on the relative abundance of the core OTUs.

  10. Altered lipid metabolism in rat offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet containing soy protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi; Won, Sae Bom; Kwon, Young Hye

    2017-04-01

    Substantial studies have reported that maternal protein restriction may induce later development of cardiovascular disease in offspring by impairing antioxidant system and lipid metabolism. Because a unique amino acid composition of soy protein isolate has been shown to provide health benefits, including hypolipidemic effects, we investigated effects of maternal low-protein diet composed of low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed 20% or 10% SPI diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. On postnatal day 21, male offspring and their dams were studied. Maternal consumption of low-protein diet composed of SPI did not induce hepatic oxidative stress in offspring. Although serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in dams were not different between groups, serum triacylglycerol levels were lower in offspring of dams fed a 10% SPI diet (10% SPI group) compared to offspring of dams fed a 20% SPI diet (20% SPI group). Maternal protein restriction also reduced serum HDL/total cholesterol levels. The mRNA levels of apolipoprotein A1, which is required for HDL formation, were lower in 10% SPI group compared to 20% SPI group and were positively correlated with serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Although maternal consumption of low-protein diet containing SPI did not induce oxidative stress and hypertriglyceridemia, the present study indicates that it may disturb cholesterol metabolism of rat offspring on postnatal day 21. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of maternal diet composed of soy protein isolate on later development of cardiovascular disease in offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Histopathological changes in rat pancreas and skeletal muscle associated with high fat diet induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ickin Gulen, M; Guven Bagla, A; Yavuz, O; Hismiogullari, A A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a high fat diet on the development of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and secretion have been widely investigated. We investigated the effects of a high fat diet on the pancreas and skeletal muscle of normal rats to explore diet-induced insulin resistance mechanisms. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: a control group fed standard chow, a group fed a 45% fat diet and a group fed a 60% fat diet for 3 weeks to measure acute effects; an additional three groups were fed the same diet regimens for 8 weeks to measure chronic effects. The morphological effects of the two high fat diets were examined by light microscopy. Insulin in pancreatic islets was detected using immunohistochemistry. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and insulin staining intensity in islets increased significantly with acute administration of high fat diets, whereas staining intensity decreased with chronic administration of the 45% fat diet. Islet areas increased significantly with chronic administration. High fat diet administration led to islet degeneration, interlobular adipocyte accumulation and vacuolization in the pancreatic tissue, as well as degeneration and lipid droplet accumulation in the skeletal muscle tissue. Vacuolization in the pancreas and lipid droplets in skeletal muscle tissue increased significantly with chronic high fat diet administration. We suggest that the glucolipotoxic effects of high fat diet administration depend on the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid content in the diet and to the total fat content of the diet.

  12. Improved Leptin Sensitivity as a Potential Candidate Responsible for the Spontaneous Food Restriction of the Lou/C Rat

    PubMed Central

    Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Poher, Anne-Laure; Caillon, Aurélie; Somm, Emmanuel; Vallet, Philippe; Charnay, Yves; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    The Lou/C rat, an inbred strain of Wistar origin, was described as a model of resistance to age- and diet-induced obesity. Although such a resistance involves many metabolic parameters described in our previous studies, Lou/C rats also exhibit a spontaneous food restriction due to decreased food consumption during the nocturnal period. We then attempted to delineate the leptin sensitivity and mechanisms implicated in this strain, using different protocols of acute central and peripheral leptin administration. A first analysis of the meal patterns revealed that Lou/C rats eat smaller meals, without any change in meal number compared to age-matched Wistar animals. Although the expression of the recognized leptin transporters (leptin receptors and megalin) measured in the choroid plexus was normal in Lou/C rats, the decreased triglyceridemia observed in these animals is compatible with an increased leptin transport across the blood brain barrier. Improved hypothalamic leptin signaling in Lou/C rats was also suggested by the higher pSTAT3/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) ratio observed following acute peripheral leptin administration, as well as by the lower hypothalamic mRNA expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), known to downregulate leptin signaling. To conclude, spontaneous hypophagia of Lou/C rats appears to be related to improved leptin sensitivity. The main mechanism underlying such a phenomenon consists in improved leptin signaling through the Ob-Rb leptin receptor isoform, which seems to consequently lead to overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). PMID:24039946

  13. [Effect of chronic high-fat diet on predation behavior in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhao; Jia, Yan; Cao, Shuhui; Chen, Yaru; Duan, Liting; Li, Changqi

    2014-12-01

    To observe the eff ect and mechanism of chronic high-fat diet on predation behavior in rats. Ten female SD rats with 4-week-old were randomly divided into a normal control group (NC group, n=5) and a chronic high-fat diet group (HF group, n=5). The rats in the NC group received the regular diet while rats in the HF group were fed with high-fat diet. Fift een weeks later, the predation behavior of rats was evaluated by open fi eld test and food foraging tests. At the end of experiments, the rats were killed and brain tissues were collected for evaluation of c-Fos protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex by immunohistochemical assay. Th e predation behavior of rats in the HF group was signifi cantly impaired in the competitive or non-competitive food foraging test compared with the control rats (P< 0.001). Th e c-fos protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex of rats from the HF group was signifi cantly decreased (P< 0.001). Long time high-fat diet can aff ect the predation behavior of rats, which is related to dysfunction of neuron in anterior cingulate cortex.

  14. Food restriction or sleep deprivation: which exerts a greater influence on the sexual behaviour of male rats?

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Andersen, Monica L; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Tufik, Sergio

    2009-09-14

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of food restriction (FR) and paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD), either alone or in combination, on sexual behaviours (mount, intromission and ejaculation) in adult male rats. Diet restriction began at weaning with 6g/day of food, and the amount of food was increased by 1g/week until it reached 15g/day amount (in adulthood). During adulthood, rats under FR and those fed ad libitum were either subjected to PSD for 96h or maintained in home-cage groups. The results indicated that both FR and ad libitum sleep-deprived groups showed a significant decrease in performance and motivation to initiate sexual behaviour, reflected by the increase in mount and intromission latencies and decreased copulatory rate. FR associated with PSD reversed the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on the number of ejaculations and inter-copulatory interval. Testosterone concentrations decreased after sleep deprivation, regardless of food availability; while progesterone was significantly higher in the FR-PSD group only. In light of the limited understanding of the link between secretion patterns and neural-hormonal control of food availability related to sexual behaviour, our data indicate that sleep loss affects sexual responses, and FR was able to restore some of the sexual parameters investigated.

  15. Arginine-deficient diets alter plasma and tissue amino acids in young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gross, K L; Hartman, W J; Ronnenberg, A; Prior, R L

    1991-10-01

    Blood and urine metabolites were measured in two experiments for young (2-mo-old) and aged (20-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats fed arginine-devoid diets made isonitrogenous to a control 1.12% arginine diet by adding alanine or glycine. Diet, fed for 7 or 13 d, had little effect on urinary or plasma ammonia and urea. Urinary orotate excretion was more than 40-fold higher in rats fed the arginine-deficient diets (P less than 0.01) in both experiments. Source of nonessential N (alanine or glycine) in the arginine-deficient diets did not alter orotic acid excretion or plasma or urine ammonia or urea. Changes in plasma arginine, alanine and glycine concentrations reflected the levels of these amino acids in the diet. Tissue ornithine levels reflected dietary arginine level, but tissue citrulline was unaffected by dietary arginine. Glutamate and glutamine were greater in the plasma and liver of rats fed arginine-deficient diets. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were positively correlated with urinary orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.05) and ornithine and arginine were negatively correlated with orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.01). Increased tissue glutamine may be related to the greater orotate excretion in rats fed arginine-devoid diets. The metabolic responses to dietary arginine deficiency were similar in young and aged rats. In general, concentrations of amino acids in plasma, liver and spleen were higher in aged rats.

  16. Effects of obestatin on feeding and body weight after standard or cafeteria diet in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; Leone, Sheila; Orlando, Giustino; Recinella, Lucia; Ferrante, Claudio; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Di Nisio, Chiara; Di Michele, Pierpaolo; Vacca, Michele

    2009-07-01

    Obestatin is a gastric derived 23 amino acid peptide, which has shown anorectic effects in a number of experimental paradigms after both peripheral and central administration. On the other hand, several researchers were not able to confirm these data. Since all previous experiments have been performed in animals fed a standard laboratory diet, we studied obestatin effects in male Wistar rats fed both a standard laboratory chow (STD) diet (3.5% fat, 63% carbohydrate, 14% protein, 19.5% other components without caloric value; 3.20 kcal/g) and a highly palatable cafeteria-style (CAF) diet (30% fat, 56% carbohydrate, 14% protein; 4.20 kcal/g). Vehicle or obestatin (10, 50 or 100 nmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally daily for 12 days. In STD diet rats, obestatin decreased daily caloric intake and body weight gain compared to vehicle treated rats. The anorectic and weight reducing effects of obestatin treatment were evidenced since day 6 and day 8 of treatment, respectively, and were consistent through the end of treatment. On the other hand, in CAF diet rats, obestatin treatment did not modify either daily caloric intake or body weight gain. In CAF diet rats, the percentage intake from standard food was decreased, balanced by an increase in cafeteria food intake. Obestatin treatment affected neither water consumption nor the intake of any specific food within the cafeteria diet. In conclusion, obestatin decreases caloric intake and body weight gain, but only in rats fed a STD diet.

  17. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Nutrient Analysis, Growth, and Organ Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    A diet (KSC-25) to be sterilized by irradiation was formulated to contain 66% moisture and to provide the required nutrients for growing rats. Analyses of the irradiated dry diet provided data to evaluate its nutrient content. The diet was evaluated for its ability to supply all nutrients, including water, required by immature rats. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the high-moisture diet with or without access to a water bottle. Rats (n = 16) fed an irradiated purified diet in a meal form with access to a water bottle were the control animals. Feed efficiency, food and water consumption, and growth rate data were collected during the 28-day study. Organ weights were collected on day 28. The test diet met or exceeded the National Research Council (NRC) estimated nutritional requirements for immature laboratory rats. The 66% moisture KSC-25 diet provided all nutrients, including water, required by weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats for growth equivalent to the established purified diet.

  18. Abnormal endogenous amino acid release in brain slices from vitamin B-6 restricted neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Guilarte, T R

    1991-01-02

    The basal and potassium-evoked efflux of glutamate, glycine, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was measured in brain slices from vitamin B-6 restricted and sufficient 14-day-old rats. The results indicate a reduced level of basal glutamate, taurine, and GABA efflux in hippocampal slices and taurine and GABA in cortical slices from vitamin B-6 restricted animals. In the presence of depolarizing potassium concentrations, there was a reduced level of GABA efflux in hippocampal and cortical slices, and a marked reduction in the release of glutamate in cortical slices from B-6 restricted rats. The abnormalities in the secretion process of these neuroactive amino acids may be related to the neurological sequelae associated with neonatal vitamin B-6 restriction.

  19. Brain beta-adrenergic receptor binding in rats with obesity induced by a beef tallow diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Suzuki, M

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that compared with safflower oil diet, feeding a beef tallow diet leads to a greater accumulation of body fat by reducing sympathetic activities. The present study examined the effects of dietary fats consisting of different fatty acids on alpha1- and beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were meal-fed isoenergetic diets based on safflower oil (rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) or beef tallow (rich in saturated fatty acids) for 8 weeks. Binding affinities of the beta-adrenergic receptor in the hypothalamus and cortex were significantly lower in the beef tallow diet group, but those of the alpha1-receptor did not differ between the two groups. The polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio and fluidities of plasma membranes in the hypothalamus and cortex were lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the safflower oil diet group. These results suggest that the beef tallow diet decreases membrane fluidity by altering the fatty acid composition of plasma membranes in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of rat. Consequently, beta-adrenergic receptor binding affinities in the brain were lower in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in rats fed the safflower oil diet. We recognized that there is possible link between the membrane fluidity and the changes in affinity of beta-adrenoceptors in rat brain.

  20. Effect of a Brazilian regional basic diet on the prevalence of caries in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, J T; Couto, G B L; Vasconcelos, M M V B; Melo, M M D C; Guedes, R C A; Cordeiro, M A C

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a regional basic diet (RBD) on the prevalence of caries in the molar teeth of rats of both sexes aged 23 days. The animals were divided into six groups of 10 rats each receiving the following diets for 30 and 60 days after weaning: RBD, a cariogenic diet, and a commercial diet. The prevalence and penetration of caries in the molar teeth of the rats was then analyzed. The RBD produced caries in 37.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 days, and in 83.4% of animals fed 60 days, while the cariogenic diet produced caries in 72.5% and 77.5% of the teeth of animals fed 30 and 60 days, respectively. Rats fed the RBD for 30 days had caries in the enamel in 38% of their teeth, 48% had superficial dentin caries, and 7.5% moderate dentin caries. The effect of the RBD did not differ significantly from that of the cariogenic diet in terms of the presence of caries in rats fed 60 days. The penetration depth of the caries produced by the RBD was the same as that produced by the cariogenic diet. Our results show that the RBD has the same cariogenic potential as the cariogenic diet. Since the RBD is the only option for the low-income population, there should be a study of how to compensate for the cariogenicity of this diet.

  1. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-05-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups.

  2. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).

  3. Canola oil rich in oleic acid improves diastolic heart function in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Raj, Pema; Louis, Xavier Lieben; Perera, Danielle; Yamanagedara, Prasanga; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Netticadan, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. It directly affects heart structure and function and contributes to heart failure. Diet is a major factor involved in the development of obesity along with genetic factors. We examined the effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oils on cardiac structure and function in the diet-induced rodent model of obesity (DIO). Obese prone (OP) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HF; 55% of kcal) for 12 weeks; Sprague-Dawley rats fed commercial chow served as control. Echocardiography was performed to assess the cardiac structure and function in all rats at 12 weeks. OP rats fed the HF diet showed significant impairment in diastolic function compared to control rats. The HF diet containing high oleic canola oil significantly improved diastolic function of OP rats compared to the HF diet with lard. In conclusion, canola oil rich in oleic acid, when incorporated into an HF diet, prevents the development of diastolic dysfunction in DIO rats.

  4. Nociception and locomotor activity are increased in ketogenic diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Denize R; Gamaro, Giovana D; Araújo, Emeli; Bassani, Marcio G; Perry, Marcos Luiz Santos; Dalmaz, Carla; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2005-03-16

    Ketogenic diets have been used to treat epilepsy in children for almost 80 years. However, there are only few studies concerning behavioral effects of these diets, besides their efficacy in treating seizure disorders induced by kainic acid or pentylenetetrazol in rats. Here, rats were fed with a ketogenic diet and locomotion, anxiety and nociception were investigated after 10 weeks. Male Wistar rats were weight matched and divided into two groups: control rats, that received regular laboratory ration, and KD rats, that received ketogenic diet (70% fat, 24% protein and no carbohydrate). Behavioral tests were applied after 10-12 weeks of treatment, and included tests to evaluate exploration (habituation to the open field), anxiety (plus-maze), and nociception (tail-flick measurement). Performance of the animals in the open field revealed a significant difference in the number of crossings, suggesting a higher locomotor activity in animals fed with a ketogenic diet. No differences in anxiety were observed, as evaluated by the plus-maze test. Nociception was measured by the latency in the tail-flick test, and ketogenic rats presented a hypernociceptive response. Yet, these animals responded to a stressor with the classic analgesia, similarly to the controls. The response of ketogenic diet fed rats to the stressor, however, was more prolonged. Exposure to a ketogenic diet may induce higher locomotor activity, together with a hypernociceptive state in the animals, possibly as a result of some alteration in the neural systems involved in the modulation of these behaviors.

  5. Effect of hyperprotidic diet associated or not with hypercalcic diet on calcium oxalate stone formation in rat.

    PubMed

    Sakly, R; Bardaoui, M; Neffati, F; Moussa, A; Zakhama, A; Najjar, M F; Hammami, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether protein, administered alone or simultaneously with a hypercalcic diet, was able to aggravate calcium oxalate stone formation in rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 8 rats each and assigned a calcium oxalate lithogenic diet added to their drinking water for 3 weeks. One group, used as reference, received a standard diet prepared in our laboratory. The second was assigned the same diet but supplemented with 7.5 g animal proteins/100 g diet. The third received a diet containing 500 mg calcium more than the standard group. The diet given to the last group was supplemented with calcium and protein at the same doses indicated previously. One day before the end of treatment, each animal was placed in a metabolic cage to collect 24-hour urine samples and determine urinary creatinine, urea, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, uric acid, citric acid and oxalate levels. Immediately thereafter, aortic blood was collected to determine the same parameters as in urine. The kidneys were also removed to determine calcium oxalate deposits. Our results showed an increased 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate and uric acid and decreased urinary citric acid excretion only in groups that received protein supplementation. At the same time, calcium oxalate deposits were found significantly higher in hyperprotidic diets than reference or calcium-supplemented groups. According to these findings, glomerular filtration, fractional excretion of urea and reabsorption of water, calcium and magnesium were found significantly lower in hyperprotidic diets compared to other groups. These results demonstrate that proteins could seriously aggravate calcium oxalate stones and cause renal disturbances.

  6. High-fat diet-induced obesity Rat model: a comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Cláudia; Meireles, Manuela; Norberto, Sónia; Leite, Joana; Freitas, Joana; Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the past decades, obesity and associated metabolic complications have reached epidemic proportions. For the study of these pathologies, a number of animal models have been developed. However, a direct comparison between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) Rat as models of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity has not been adequately evaluated so far. Wistar and SD rats were assigned for 2 experimental groups for 17 weeks: standard (St) and high-fat (HF) diet groups. To assess some of the features of the metabolic syndrome, oral glucose tolerance tests, systolic blood pressure measurements and blood biochemical analysis were performed throughout the study. The gut microbiota composition of the animals of each group was evaluated at the end of the study by real-time PCR. HF diet increased weight gain, body fat mass, mesenteric adipocyte's size, adiponectin and leptin plasma levels and decreased oral glucose tolerance in both Wistar and SD rats. However, the majority of these effects were more pronounced or earlier detected in Wistar rats. The gut microbiota of SD rats was less abundant in Bacteroides and Prevotella but richer in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus comparatively to the gut microbiota of Wistar rats. Nevertheless, the modulation of the gut microbiota by HF diet was similar in both strains, except for Clostridium leptum that was only reduced in Wistar rats fed with HF diet. In conclusion, both Wistar and SD Rat can be used as models of HF diet-induced obesity although the metabolic effects caused by HF diet seemed to be more pronounced in Wistar Rat. Differences in the gut microbial ecology may account for the worsened metabolic scenario observed in Wistar Rat. PMID:27144092

  7. Effect of high calcium diet on cadmium-induced hypertension in rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, K S

    1992-04-01

    Effect of high calcium diet on the formation of hypertension induced by chronic cadmium chloride (CdCl2) treatment was investigated in Wistar rats. Intraperitoneal injection of CdCl2 solution (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day) into female rats for two weeks resulted in an elevation of mean blood pressure. Bilateral adrenalectomy failed to prevent the CdCl2-induced hypertension. However, elevation of blood pressure from CdCl2 was not be found in rats on high calcium diet (4% Wt/Wt). Administration of high calcium diet influenced neither the blood pressure nor body weight of normal rats. My results suggest that high calcium diet may prevent the development of CdCl2-induced hypertension in rats.

  8. Diet high in fructose leads to an overexpression of lipocalin-2 in rat fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Xu, Min; Seyhan, Hatice Ali; Ahmad, Shakil; Mihm, Sabine; Ramadori, Giuliano; Schultze, Frank Christian

    2014-02-21

    To explore lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) expression and its possible role and mechanism(s) of production in rat models of diet-inducible fatty liver. Fatty liver was triggered in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either with liquid Lieber-DeCarli (LDC) or LDC + 70% cal fructose (L-HFr) diet for 4 or 8 wk. Chow-nourished animals served as controls. Hepatic expression of LCN-2 and other metabolic and inflammatory mediators was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Serum LCN-2, fasting leptin, and lipid profile were evaluated via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Radioimmunoassay, and colorimetric assays, respectively. The localization of LCN-2 in the liver was detected by using immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, HE stain was used to evaluate hepatic fat degeneration and inflammation. Both LDC-fed and L-HFr-fed rat histologically featured fatty liver. In the liver, mRNA transcriptions of Mcp-1, a2-m, Il-8 and Glut5 were increased in the L-HFr group at both time points (P < 0.001), while the transcription of Tlr4, Inos, and Tnf-α was significantly up-regulated at week 4. Interestingly, hepatic Lcn-2 expression was 90-fold at week 4 and 507-fold at week 8 higher in L-HFr-subjected rats vs control (P < 0.001). In contrast to HDL-cholesterol, systemic levels of LCN-2, fasting leptin and triglycerides were elevated in the L-HFr regimen (P < 0.001). Moreover, protein expression of hepatic LCN-2, CD14, phospho-MAPK, caspase-9, cytochrome c and 4-hydroxynonenal was increased in the L-HFr group. Conversely, the hepatic expression of PGC-1α (a mitochondrial-biogenic protein) was reduced in the L-HFr category at week 8. The localization of LCN-2 in the liver was predominantly restricted to MPO⁺ granulocytes. Fructose diet up-regulates hepatic LCN-2 expression, which correlates with the increased indicators of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The LCN-2 may be involved in liver protection.

  9. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Caloric restriction stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons through neuropeptide Y and ghrelin receptors activation

    PubMed Central

    Carmo-Silva, Sara; Botelho, Mariana; de Almeida, Luís Pereira; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is an anti-aging intervention known to extend lifespan in several experimental models, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy. Caloric restriction increases neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and plasma ghrelin, a peripheral gut hormone that acts in hypothalamus to modulate energy homeostasis. NPY and ghrelin have been shown to be neuroprotective in different brain areas and to induce several physiological modifications similar to those induced by caloric restriction. However, the effect of NPY and ghrelin in autophagy in cortical neurons is currently not known. Using a cell culture of rat cortical neurons we investigate the involvement of NPY and ghrelin in caloric restriction-induced autophagy. We observed that a caloric restriction mimetic cell culture medium stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons and NPY or ghrelin receptor antagonists blocked this effect. On the other hand, exogenous NPY or ghrelin stimulate autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Moreover, NPY mediates the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Since autophagy impairment occurs in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, NPY and ghrelin synergistic effect on autophagy stimulation may suggest a new strategy to delay aging process. PMID:27441412

  11. Effect of a high-fat diet on diabetic mother rats and their offspring through three generations.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Ritsuko; Seki, Koji; Nara, Misa; Murakami, Masami; Kohama, Tomoko

    2007-08-01

    Pregnant diabetic Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet starting at the first gestational day. The effect of the high-fat diet on the growth of the female, her offspring, and the offspring's offspring was studied. Pregnant rats (first generation) were divided into the Diabetic streptozotocin-induced group and the control group. Diabetic streptozotocin-induced rats and control rats were fed either a control diet (5% fat in diet) or high-fat diet (32% fat in diet), and observed up to the third generation. In each generation, after weaning, the pups were fed the respective diet. The fat content was mainly animal lard. Diabetic rats fed the high-fat diet were infertile, and the pregnant first-generation and diabetic rats fed the control diet had a stillbirth rate of 27.5 +/- 22.0% (mean +/- SE). In the first generation, the diabetic rats fed the control diet had a significantly lower body weight increase during the pregnancy than the control rats fed the control diet. The second-generation diabetic rats fed the control diet had a high blood glucose level at birth, and their triglyceride level was higher than that in the other two groups. The third-generation diabetic rats fed the control diet had a triglyceride level higher than that of control rats. Delivery was most difficult in diabetic rats fed the high-fat diet. Pups of diabetic rats fed the control diet had growth retardation and increased blood glucose levels. We conclude that when the mother rat had diabetes, the next generation was also affected.

  12. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

  13. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

  14. Decreased urea synthesis in cafeteria-diet-induced obesity in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, T; Viña, J R; Viña, J; Cabo, J

    1985-01-01

    Feeding rats with a cafeteria diet resulted in increases in total body weight and in epididymal-adipose-tissue weight. Those rats excreted significantly less N than did controls. The amount of N ingested by cafeteria-diet-fed rats was kept equal to that of controls. This decrease in N excretion is explained by a decrease in urinary excretion of urea. This may be due to the following facts. The rate of synthesis of urea from precursors by isolated hepatocytes from cafeteria-diet-fed rats was lower than in controls. In cafeteria-diet-fed rats the activities of all the enzymes of the urea cycle are decreased. The major percentage decreases are those of carbamoylphosphate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.16) and of argininosuccinate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.5), the enzymes probably involved in the regulation of the overall rate of the cycle. When rats are switched to normal chow diet, the enzyme activities return to normal values. The uptake of amino acids by liver of cafeteria-diet-fed rats is lower than in controls. These results contrast with those obtained previously by using other models of obesity in rat (i.e. genetic or hypothalamic), in which N excretion was increased. PMID:4062872

  15. The effect of abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet on lateral abdominal muscles thickness of overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Rostami, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The role of transabdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) on core stability has been shown previously. Energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training are commonly used by overweight and obese people to reduce their weight. In this study we investigated the impact of 12 weeks concurrent energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training on the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles of 19 obese and overweight women employing ultrasonography in resting and drawing-in maneuvers. The results showed significant increase of the muscle thicknesses during drawing-in maneuver after 12 weeks intervention. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that 12 weeks concurrent abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet in addition to weight loss lead to improvement of transabdominal muscles thickness in obese and overweight people. Considering the role of these muscles in core stability, using this therapeutic protocol in obese people, particularly in those who have weakness of these muscles might be helpful. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attenuated allergic responses to house dust mite antigen in feed-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, W; Kari, F W; Selgrade, M K; Gilmour, M I

    2000-12-01

    Caloric restriction has been shown to alter a broad range of immunological end points in both experimental animals and humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term moderate feed restriction (25% reduction) on allergic immune responses in Brown Norway rats. After 3 weeks of acclimation to their feed regimens, rats were sensitized and 2 weeks later challenged with house dust mite (HDM) antigen via intratracheal instillation. Feed restriction resulted in lower levels of antigen-specific IgE in serum and reduced antigen specific lymphoproliferative activity in pulmonary lymph nodes. Feed restriction also attenuated pulmonary inflammation, as evidenced by lower levels of lactate dehydrogenase and total protein, decreased infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils, and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha] in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, feed restriction decreased TNF-[alpha] secretion in serum and decreased mRNA expression of TNF-[alpha] and interleukin-6 in pulmonary lymph nodes. We conclude that feed restriction strongly dampened the allergic immune responses to HDM in rats and that this attenuation was associated with decreased expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  17. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    AlSharari, Shakir D; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  18. Influence of diet palatability on noradrenergic feeding response in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Toris, J A

    1981-07-01

    Adult male rats which displayed a reliable feeding response to intrahypothalamic injections of norepinephrine (NE) on a chow diet were subsequently tested on one of three diets: an unpalatable quinine-adulterated meal, a palatable fat-adulterated meal, or a "neutral" unadulterated meal. The quinine diet completely blocked the NE feeding response, while the fat diet produced a small and unreliable reduction in the feeding response. When food deprived all groups increased their food intake, although the fat diet group tended to overeat, and the quinine diet group tended to undereat relative to the unadulterated diet group. The failure of the palatable fat diet to potentiate the NE feeding response does not support the hypothesis that this response mimics the ventromedial hypothalamic hyperphagia syndrome. The blocking effect of the quinine diet on NE feeding is consistent with other evidence which suggests that NE mediated the eating behavior induced by glucoprivation.

  19. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  20. Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, K. P.; Nielsen, S. S.; Smart, D. J.; Mitchell, C. A.; Belury, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.

  1. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  2. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  3. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  4. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  5. Effect of an advanced glycation end product-restricted diet and exercise on metabolic parameters in adult overweight men.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Rodríguez-Soto, Juana María Dolores; Uribarri, Jaime; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco José; Cai, Weijingi; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effect of a low advanced glycation end product (AGEs) diet, exercise, and a combination of both on circulating AGE levels as well as on plasma lipids and anthropometric parameters. Forty-three overweight or obese men (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m(2)), 30 to 55 y, participated in a 12-wk study and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: low AGE diet, exercise with habitual food intake, or exercise plus low AGE diet. Exercise was for 45 min at 65% to 75% of their maximum heart rate three times a week. We measured somatometric variables (BMI and waist circumference), blood glucose, lipids, and serum AGEs (N(ε)-[Carboxymethyl]Lysine [CML] and methylglyoxal [MG]) at baseline and at 12 wk. Exercise alone was associated with decreased somatometric variables; the low AGE diet had the same effects and decreased serum CML and MG and when combined with exercise reproduced all these effects, but also decreased triacylglycerols and increased high-density lipoprotein. Correlation analysis showed that both changes of CML and MG correlated with changes in dietary AGEs (P < 0.020 and P < 0.038, respectively); change in maximum oxygen consumption correlated inversely with change in weight and triacylglycerols. Regression analyses, including change in dietary AGEs and in dietary calories, showed that change in dietary AGEs was the independent determinant of change in CML (P < 0.020) and MG (P < 0.038). An AGE-restricted diet reduces serum AGE and indices of body fat. The addition of exercise to the restricted diet has the same effects but also improves lipid profile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Salt restriction inhibits renal growth and stabilizes injury in rats with established renal disease.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, L D; Benstein, J A; Tolbert, E; Feiner, H D

    1996-03-01

    Salt restriction inhibits renal growth and stabilizes injury in rats with established renal disease. Male Munich-Wistar rats that underwent right nephrectomy and segmental infarction of two thirds of the left kidney were fed standard chow for 4 wk and then randomly assigned to ingest standard or low-salt chow for an additional 4 wk. Four wk after ablation, rats had systemic hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular sclerosis. The prevalence of sclerosis, protein excretion rate, and glomerular volume increased between the fourth and eighth week in rats that were fed standard chow, however, in rats that were fed low-salt chow, the increase in glomerular volume and development of further glomerular sclerosis was prevented whereas the protein excretion rate actually declined. Micropuncture studies performed 8 wk after ablation revealed that the glomerular hydraulic pressure was elevated in remnant kidneys and was not affected by salt restriction. This study demonstrates that dietary salt restriction can prevent further glomerular injury and reduce proteinuria even when instituted in rats with established renal disease. These findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that glomerular hypertrophy promotes injury in this model of hypertension and progressive renal disease.

  7. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  8. Impaired alveolarization and intra-uterine growth restriction in rats: a postnatal genome-wide analysis.

    PubMed

    Zana-Taieb, E; Pham, H; Franco-Montoya, M L; Jacques, S; Letourneur, F; Baud, O; Jarreau, P H; Vaiman, D

    2015-02-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) dramatically increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm babies, a disease characterized by arrested alveolarization and abnormal microvascular angiogenesis. We have previously described a rodent low protein diet (LPD) model of IUGR inducing impaired alveolarization, but failed to demonstrate any modification of the classical factors involved in lung development. We performed a genome-wide microarray analysis in 120 rat pups with LPD-induced IUGR and their controls, at three key time points of the alveolarization process: postnatal day 4 (P4): start of alveolarization; P10: peak of the alveolarization process and P21: end of the alveolarization process. Results were analysed using Arraymining, DAVID and KEGG software and validated by qRT-PCR and western blots. Considering a cut-off of 2:1 as significant, 67 transcripts at P4, 102 transcripts at P10 and 451 transcripts at P21 were up-regulated, and 89 transcripts at P4, 25 transcripts at P10 and 585 transcripts at P21 were down-regulated. Automatic functional classification identified three main modified pathways, 'cell adhesion molecules', 'cardiac muscle contraction' and 'peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor' (PPAR). Protein analysis confirmed involvement of the PPAR pathway, with an increase of FABP4, an activator of this pathway, at P4 and an increase of adiponectin at P21. Other data also suggest involvement of the PPAR pathway in impaired alveolarization. Our results show that deregulation of the PPAR pathway may be an important component of the mechanism inducing impaired alveolarization observed in IUGR. The complete dataset is available as GEO profiles on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database ( www.ncbi.nih.gov/geo/, GEO Accession No. GSE56956). Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Ribeiro, Carla; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the aerobic capacity, through the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) protocol, of rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition and recovered with a fructose-rich diet. Pregnant adult Wistar rats that were fed a balanced (17% protein) diet or a low-protein (6% protein) diet were used. After birth, the offspring were distributed into groups according to diet until 60 days of age: balanced (B), balanced diet during the whole experimental period; balanced-fructose (BF), balanced diet until birth and fructose-rich diet (60% fructose) until 60 days; low protein-balanced (LB), low-protein diet until birth and balanced diet until 60 days; and low protein-fructose (LF), low protein diet until birth and fructose-rich diet until 60 days. It was verified that the fructose-rich diet reduced body growth, mainly in the BF group. There was no difference among the groups in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 7.5+/-0.5%; BF, 7.4+/-0.6%; LB, 7.7+/-0.4%; and LF, 7.7+/-0.6% relative to body weight). However, the BF group presented higher blood lactate concentrations (4.8+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1)) at 25 min in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 3.2+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); LB, 3.4+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); and LF, 3.2+/-1.0 mmol.L(-1)). Taken together, these results indicate that the ability of young rats to perform exercise was not altered by intrauterine malnutrition or a fructose-rich diet, although the high fructose intake after the balanced diet in utero increased blood lactate during swimming exercises in rats.

  10. Effect of sucrose and fructose macronutrient diets on feeding behavior of rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, A Y; Thibault, L

    1995-12-01

    Different carbohydrate sources in animal diets can affect feeding behavior. The absence of a diet standard, thus, has the potential to introduce a confounding factor into experiments. The main objective of this study, therefore, was to determine if the choice of either sucrose or fructose as the pure carbohydrate in a carbohydrate diet ration would affect feeding behavior in rats. It was found that during the light and dark phases: 1) fructose-fed rats selected significantly less energy from carbohydrate than sucrose fed rats, 2) fructose-fed rats selected more protein and lipid energy than sucrose fed rats, and 3) the total caloric intakes of the two groups were not significantly different. Differing postingestive effects of sucrose and fructose with subsequent compensatory intake may explain these results. Two different carbohydrate sources resulted in different macronutrient selection patterns, thus demonstrating the importance of the nature of dietary carbohydrate in the regulation of feeding behavior in rats.

  11. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-06-01

    To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats.

  12. Diet-induced obesity and diet-resistant rats: differences in the rewarding and anorectic effects of D-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Marta; Steardo, Luca; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a leading public health problem worldwide. Multiple lines of evidence associate deficits in the brain reward circuit with obesity. Whether alterations in brain reward sensitivity precede or are a consequence of obesity is unknown. This study aimed to investigate both innate and obesity-induced differences in the sensitivity to the effects of an indirect dopaminergic agonist. Rats genetically prone to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and their counterpart diet-resistant (DR) were fed a chow diet, and their response to D-amphetamine on intracranial self-stimulation and food intake were assessed. The same variables were then evaluated after exposing the rats to a high-fat diet, after DIO rats selectively developed obesity. Finally, gene expression levels of dopamine receptors 1 and 2 as well as tyrosine hydroxylase were measured in reward-related brain regions. In a pre-obesity state, DIO rats showed innate decreased sensitivity to the reward-enhancing and anorectic effects of D-amphetamine, as compared to DR rats. In a diet-induced obese state, the insensitivity to the potentiating effects of D-amphetamine on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) threshold persisted and became more marked in DIO rats, while the anorectic effects were comparable between genotypes. Finally, innate and obesity-induced differences in the gene expression of dopamine receptors were observed. Our results demonstrate that brain reward deficits antedate the development of obesity and worsen after obesity is fully developed, suggesting that these alterations represent vulnerability factors for its development. Moreover, our data suggests that the reward-enhancing and anorectic effects of D-amphetamine are dissociable in the context of obesity.

  13. Perinatal growth restriction decreases diuretic action of furosemide in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Barent N.; Pearson, Jacob; Mahmood, Tahir; Nguyen, Duc; Thornburg, Kent; Cherala, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal growth restriction programs higher risk for chronic disease during adulthood via morphological and physiological changes in organ systems. Perinatal growth restriction is highly correlated with a decreased nephron number, altered renal function and subsequent hypertension. We hypothesize that such renal maladaptations result in altered pharmacologic patterns for life. Maternal protein restriction during gestation and lactation was used to induce perinatal growth restriction in the current study. The diuretic response of furosemide (2mg/kg single i.p dose) in perinatally growth restricted rats during adulthood was investigated. Diuresis, natriuresis and renal excretion of furosemide were significantly reduced relative to controls, indicative of decreased efficacy. While a modest 12% decrease in diuresis was observed in males, females experienced 26% reduction. It is important to note that the baseline urine output and natriuresis was similar between treatment groups. The in vitro renal and hepatic metabolism of furosemide, the in vivo urinary excretion of the metabolite, and the expression of renal drug transporters was unaltered. Creatinine clearance was significantly reduced by 15% and 19% in perinatally growth restricted male and female rats, respectively. Further evidence of renal insufficiency was suggested by decreased uric acid clearance. Renal protein expression of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, a pharmacodynamic target, was unaltered. In summary, perinatal growth restriction could permanently imprint pharmacokinetic processes affecting drug response. PMID:24508521

  14. Null effect of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    PubMed

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Haryu, Todd M; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Chronic dietary restriction inhibits carcinogenesis in several sites in laboratory animals. To determine the effects of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis, prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate (50 mg/day; 21 days); testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg/day; 3 days); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU; 30 mg/kg; single dose]; and testosterone (subcutaneous implants of 2 pellets containing 40 mg each). Dietary restriction (0% [ad libitum control], 15%, or 30%) was initiated 2 wk post-MNU, and continued until study termination at 12 mo. Dietary restriction induced a rapid suppression of body weight gain but conferred no protection against prostate carcinogenesis. 74% of carcinogen-treated ad libitum controls developed accessory sex gland cancers, versus cancer incidences of 64% and 72% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%, respectively. Similarly, 44% of dietary controls developed cancers limited to the dorsolateral/prostate, versus incidences of 45% and 53% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that prostate carcinogenesis can be prevented by reducing caloric intake. Reducing mean body weight by up to 25% through chronic dietary restriction has no effect on the induction of prostate cancers in the Wistar-Unilever rat model.

  15. Influence of long-term food restriction on sleep pattern in male rats.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Tathiana A F; Andersen, Monica L; Papale, Ligia A; Antunes, Isabela B; Tufik, Sergio

    2005-09-28

    The present purpose was to determine the effects of different schedules of long-term food restriction (FR) applied to rats from weaning to the 8th week. Rats were distributed into FR and ad libitum groups at weaning and fed at 7 am, at 7 pm, and finally, restricted rats fed ad libitum. The restricted rats started with 6 g/day and the food was increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g/day by adulthood. The rats were implanted with electrodes to record electrocorticogram/eletromyogram signals. Their wake-sleep cycles were monitored over 3 consecutive days (72 h of recording). The FR group fed at 7 am showed an increase in awake time, and decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) during the three light periods compared with the control recordings whereas in the dark periods, these sleep parameters were the opposite. The restricted group fed in the evening showed no statistical significances at diurnal periods; however, a significant decrease was observed in the dark recordings for awake time, but the SWS and PS were increased in relation to controls. The analysis of the 24-h period demonstrated that both FR groups presented increase in SWS time. After being FR, the rats were fed ad libitum and their sleep was monitored for 3 additional days. During the first dark recording, the decrease in awake time and increase in SWS were still present; however, as ad libitum food continued, these sleep parameters returned to control values, reestablishing the normal sleep pattern. These results suggest that dietary restriction, regardless to the feeding schedule, caused increase in total sleep time, during the active period.

  16. A procedure to study the effect of prolonged food restriction on heroin seeking in abstinent rats.

    PubMed

    Sedki, Firas; D'Cunha, Tracey; Shalev, Uri

    2013-11-11

    In human drug addicts, exposure to drug-associated cues or environments that were previously associated with drug taking can trigger relapse during abstinence. Moreover, various environmental challenges can exacerbate this effect, as well as increase ongoing drug intake. The procedure we describe here highlights the impact of a common environmental challenge, food restriction, on drug craving that is expressed as an augmentation of drug seeking in abstinent rats. Rats are implanted with chronic intravenous i.v. catheters, and then trained to press a lever for i.v. heroin over a period of 10-12 days. Following the heroin self-administration phase the rats are removed from the operant conditioning chambers and housed in the animal care facility for a period of at least 14 days. While one group is maintained under unrestricted access to food (sated group), a second group (FDR group) is exposed to a mild food restriction regimen that results in their body weights maintained at 90% of their nonrestricted body weight. On day 14 of food restriction the rats are transferred back to the drug-training environment, and a drug-seeking test is run under extinction conditions (i.e. lever presses do not result in heroin delivery). The procedure presented here results in a highly robust augmentation of heroin seeking on test day in the food restricted rats. In addition, compared to the acute food deprivation manipulations we have used before, the current procedure is a more clinically relevant model for the impact of caloric restriction on drug seeking. Moreover, it might be closer to the human condition as the rats are not required to go through an extinction-training phase before the drug-seeking test, which is an integral component of the popular reinstatement procedure.

  17. Leptin signal transduction underlies the differential metabolic response of LEW and WKY rats to cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Micaelo, N; González-Abuín, N; Ardévol, A; Pinent, M; Petretto, E; Behmoaras, J; Blay, M

    2016-01-01

    Although the effect of genetic background on obesity-related phenotypes is well established, the main objective of this study is to determine the phenotypic responses to cafeteria diet (CAF) of two genetically distinct inbred rat strains and give insight into the molecular mechanisms that might be underlying. Lewis (LEW) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed with either a standard or a CAF diet. The effects of the diet and the strain in the body weight gain, food intake, respiratory quotient, biochemical parameters in plasma as well as in the expression of genes that regulate leptin signalling were determined. Whereas CAF diet promoted weight gain in LEW and WKY rats, as consequence of increased energy intake, metabolic management of this energy surplus was significantly affected by genetic background. LEW and WKY showed a different metabolic profile, LEW rats showed hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high FFA levels, ketogenesis, high adiposity index and inflammation, but WKY did not. Leptin signalling, and specifically the LepRb-mediated regulation of STAT3 activation and Socs3 gene expression in the hypothalamus were inversely modulated by the CAF diet in LEW (upregulated) and WKY rats (downregulated). In the present study, we show evidence of gene-environment interactions in obesity exerted by differential phenotypic responses to CAF diet between LEW and WKY rats. Specifically, we found the leptin-signalling pathway as a divergent point between the strain-specific adaptations to diet. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Soy protein diet increases skilled forelimb reaching function after stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheatwood, Joseph L; Burnet, Derek; Butteiger, Dustie N; Banz, William J

    2011-01-20

    Stroke is a leading cause of lasting disability. Dietary strategies aimed at increasing post-stroke outcomes are lifestyle alterations which could be easily implemented by people at risk of occlusive stroke. Soy diets have been demonstrated to provide some benefits in the short term following stroke, but longer time periods have not been studied. Further, carefully defined diets containing soy protein isolates have not been investigated. In the current study, male Long Evans Hooded rats were fed semi-purified diets containing either sodium caseinate or soy protein isolate. Rats were trained to perform the skilled forelimb reaching task and subsequently underwent unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to induce a stroke lesion. After stroke, rats remained on the same diet and were tested daily for a period of 8 weeks to observe their performance on the skilled forelimb reaching task. In the first week following stroke, rats receiving the soy protein-containing diet (SP) demonstrated less severe reaching deficits than rats fed the Na caseinate-containing diet (CAS) (p<0.05). These results suggest that a soy protein-based diet provides significant protection from neurological damage following MCAO stroke in rats.

  19. Fresh garlic amelioration of high-fat-diet induced fatty liver in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Aisha; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of fresh garlic on high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver changes. The experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from October to November 2008, and comprised adult albino rats weighing 200-240g each. The rats were divided into 5 groups according to dietary regimen for eight weeks each. Group A received control diet; Group B received high saturated fat diet; Group C received high unsaturated fat diet; Group D received high saturated fat diet with fresh garlic; and Group E received high unsaturated fat diet with garlic for 8 weeks. Liver tissue slides were stained with Oil red-O and haematoxylin and Periodic acid-Schiff-haematoxylin. The 50 rats in the study were divided into five groups of 10(20%) each. There was marked deposition of fat in hepatocyte along with marked decrease in glycogen content in liver of rats in Groups B and C, with Group B showing more marked changes. The changes in fat and glycogen content were reversed and ameliorated close to Group A in rats belonging to Groups D and E. Fresh garlic minimised the high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver changes in rats.

  20. Effect of a low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids on skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in rats with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Wang, Jialin; Gu, Lijie; Bao, Jinfang; Yin, Jun; Tang, Zhihuan; Wang, Ling; Yuan, Weijie

    2013-01-01

    A low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids maintains nutritional status in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The activation of autophagy has been shown in the skeletal muscle of diabetic and uremic rats. This study aimed to determine whether a low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids improves muscle atrophy and decreases the increased autophagy observed in rats with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. In this study, 24-week-old Goto-Kakizaki male rats were randomly divided into groups that received either a normal protein diet (NPD group), a low-protein diet (LPD group) or a low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids (LPD+KA group) for 24 weeks. Age- and weight-matched Wistar rats served as control animals and received a normal protein diet (control group). We found that protein restriction attenuated proteinuria and decreased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Compared with the NPD and LPD groups, the LPD+KA group showed a delay in body weight loss, an attenuation in soleus muscle mass loss and a decrease of the mean cross-sectional area of soleus muscle fibers. The mRNA and protein expression of autophagy-related genes, such as Beclin-1, LC3B, Bnip3, p62 and Cathepsin L, were increased in the soleus muscle of GK rats fed with NPD compared to Wistar rats. Importantly, LPD resulted in a slight reduction in the expression of autophagy-related genes; however, these differences were not statistically significant. In addition, LPD+KA abolished the upregulation of autophagy-related gene expression. Furthermore, the activation of autophagy in the NPD and LPD groups was confirmed by the appearance of autophagosomes or autolysosomes using electron microscopy, when compared with the Control and LPD+KA groups. Our results showed that LPD+KA abolished the activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle and decreased muscle loss in rats with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Long-term modification of the excretion of prostaglandin E(2) by fetal exposure to a maternal low protein diet in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R C; Jackson, A A; Langley-Evans, S C

    1999-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal undernutrition in both humans and animals is associated with long-term changes in the structure, physiological functions and metabolism of key tissues and organs. This phenomenon, termed programming, is implicated in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease. Using an established rat model of hypertension programmed by prenatal protein restriction, assessment was made of the long-term influence of maternal diet upon prostaglandin metabolism. Pregnant rats were fed isoenergetic diets containing 18% casein (control) or 9% casein (low protein) from conception until littering. The offspring of these pregnancies were studied at day 20 of gestation, full-term gestation and at 4, 7 or 12 weeks postnatal age. Prostaglandin E(2) concentrations in plasma were similar in control and low-protein diet-exposed rats at 4 weeks of age. Urinary prostaglandin E(2) excretion was, however, significantly increased by prenatal undernutrition in rats at both 4 and 12 weeks postnatal age. The principal enzyme of prostaglandin E(2) degradation, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) exhibited significantly lower activity in the kidneys of 4-week-old rats exposed to a maternal low-protein diet. This effect was transient and absent by 12 weeks postnatal age. There was also some evidence of an altered developmental profile of PGDH activity in the lungs of low-protein diet-exposed rats. These data are consistent with the long-term programming effects of the maternal diet upon renal prostaglandin metabolism. In the rat, increased local prostaglandin E(2) concentrations associated with impaired degradation may contribute to increased renovascular resistance and hypertension.

  2. Catabolic effects of gastric bypass in a diet-induced obese rat model.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, Ana; Kirchner, Henriette; Meguid, Michael M

    2006-07-01

    In the USA, 8-10 million people are morbidly obese, which is associated with a high frequency of comorbidities. The most effective treatment is surgery. Of around 180,000 bariatric operations performed in 2005, 80% were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, consisting of a small gastric pouch to minimize food intake and a Roux-en-Y of distal small bowel bypassing the upper gastrointestinal tract. The precise mechanisms whereby Roux-en-Y gastric bypass achieves sustained weight loss remain unknown. To gain insight into the catabolic events of sustained weight loss we developed a diet-induced obese Roux-en-Y gastric bypass rat model. We review our rat model data from the novel viewpoint of the catabolic state, comparing it with the limited human data available and the catabolic events occurring in cancer anorexia/cachexia syndrome. Current data suggest the involvement of mechanisms other than restrictive and malabsorptive factors of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, classically thought of as the mechanisms responsible for weight loss. Based on available data, gastrointestinal hormones and cytokines play a key role in reducing food intake and regulating energy homeostasis. Because of the cross talk between peripheral modulators and the hypothalamus, a critical role for their interaction in the outcome of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is emerging. In our Roux-en-Y gastric bypass rat model many of the changes in gastrointestinal hormones, adipokines and cytokines as well as in hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters resemble the changes observed in the anorexia/cachexia rat model, suggesting that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass triggers a catabolic state responsible for loss of appetite and prolonged body weight reduction.

  3. Intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet attenuates alcohol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil; Van Cleef, Arriel; Davis, Jon F

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats. Rats received chow (controls) or extended intermittent access (24h twice a week; Int-HFD) to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet for six weeks. Standard rodent chow was available ad-libitum to all groups and food intake was measured. Following HFD exposure, 20.0% ethanol, 2.0% sucrose intake and endocrine peptide levels were evaluated. Anxiety-like behavior was measured using a light-dark (LD) box apparatus. Rats in the Int-HFD group displayed a binge-like pattern of feeding (alternations between caloric overconsumption and voluntary caloric restriction). Surprisingly, alcohol intake was significantly attenuated in the Int-HFD group whereas sugar consumption was unaffected. Plasma acyl-ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in the Int-HFD group, whereas glucagon-like peptide-1 levels did not change. Moreover, rats in the Int-HFD group spent more time in the light side of the LD box compared to controls, indicating that binge-like feeding induced anxiolytic effects. Collectively, these data suggest that intermittent access to HFD attenuates alcohol intake through reducing anxiety-like behavior, a process potentially controlled by elevated plasma ghrelin levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Ying; Liu, Hu; Ma, Li-Juan; Xu, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-20

    Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes, which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats, which were fed different diets. Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular, high-fat, or low-fat diets) for 6 months. The rats were randomly divided into six groups. They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10), nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n = 14), nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n = 14), smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10), smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n = 14), and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n = 14). A full 2 3 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods. Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air. Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group, serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t = 6.932, 11.026; all P < 0.001). BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r = -0.751, P = 0.012). Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6, t = 4.196, 3.480; P < 0.01, P = 0.001; TNF-α, t

  5. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  6. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-07-01

    The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de

  7. Low-carbohydrate diet and oxidative stress in diabetic and nondiabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kamuren, Zipporah T; Sanders, Ruth; Watkins, John B

    2006-01-01

    Hyperglycemia of diabetes has been implicated in increased tissue oxidative stress, with consequent development of secondary complications. Thus, stabilizing glucose levels near normal levels is of utmost importance. Because diet influences glycemic control, this study investigated whether a low-carbohydrate (5.5%) diet confers beneficial effects on the oxidative status of the heart, kidney, and liver in diabetes. Male and female normal and diabetic rats were fed standard chow (63% carbohydrates) or low-carbohydrate diet for 30 days. Elevated glucose, HbA(1c), and alanine and aspartate aminotransferases in diabetic animals were reduced or normalized by the low-carbohydrate diet. While diabetes increased cardiac activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase, low-carbohydrate diet normalized cardiac glutathione peroxidase activity in diabetic animals, and reduced catalase activity in females. Diabetic rats fed low-carbohydrate diet had altered activities of renal glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, but increased renal glutathione peroxidase activity in diabetic animals was not corrected by the test diet. In the liver, diabetes was associated with a decrease in catalase activity and glutathione levels and an increase in glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activities. Decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation were noted in diet-treated diabetic rats. Overall, the low-carbohydrate diet helped stabilize hyperglycemia and did not produce overtly negative effects in tissues of normal or diabetic rats. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Relationship between parotid amylase secretion and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1999-12-01

    The relationship between parotid amylase secretion and the osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet was investigated. In sham-operated rats fed a pelleted diet, amylase activity in the parotid glands decreased, amylase activity in the plasma increased, and there was strong amylase activity in the gastric contents. As a result, both reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents increased. In parotid duct-ligated rats, the feeding of a pelleted diet affected neither parotid nor plasma amylase activity and there was little amylase activity in the gastric contents; this resulted in decreased starch digestion. The amylase activity in the gastric contents of rats fed a liquid diet was lower than that of rats fed the pelleted diet. Both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were lower than those of rats fed the pelleted diet. However, both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were higher than those in the liquid diet itself. A small quantity of parotid amylase seems to effectively digest a large part of the starch in the stomaches of rats fed the liquid diet. These findings suggest that amylase secreted from parotid glands increases osmolality in the gastric contents via the production of reducing sugars from starch in rats when fed either pelleted or liquid diets.

  9. Chronic hyperinsulinemia contributes to insulin resistance under dietary restriction in association with altered lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Morita, Ippei; Tanimoto, Keiichi; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Naya, Noriyuki; Fujieda, Kumiko; Iwasaki, Takanori; Yukioka, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is widely thought to be a compensatory response to insulin resistance, whereas its potentially causal role in the progression of insulin resistance remains to be established. Here, we aimed to examine whether hyperinsulinemia could affect the progression of insulin resistance in Zucker fatty diabetic (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats at 8 wk of age were fed a diet ad libitum (AL) or dietary restriction (DR) of either 15 or 30% from AL feeding over 6 wk. Insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. ZDF rats in the AL group progressively developed hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia by 10 wk of age, and then plasma insulin rapidly declined to nearly normal levels by 12 wk of age. Compared with AL group, DR groups showed delayed onset of hyperglycemia and persistent hyperinsulinemia, leading to weight gain and raised plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids by 14 wk of age. Notably, insulin sensitivity was significantly reduced in the DR group rather than the AL group and inversely correlated with plasma levels of insulin and triglyceride but not glucose. Moreover, enhanced lipid deposition and upregulation of genes involved in lipogenesis were detected in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues of the DR group rather than the AL group. Alternatively, continuous hyperinsulinemia induced by insulin pellet implantation produced a decrease in insulin sensitivity in ZDF rats. These results suggest that chronic hyperinsulinemia may lead to the progression of insulin resistance under DR conditions in association with altered lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues in ZDF rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to protein diets and energy restriction: a randomized control trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite some beneficial effects on bone, high protein diets are conventionally considered a primary dietary risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture due to the acid load associated with protein catabolism. To test the hypothesis that high dietary protein diets do not negatively affect calcium ...

  11. Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36 h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS.

  12. Decrease in Circulating Fatty Acids Is Associated with Islet Dysfunction in Chronically Sleep-Restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Shanshan; Wu, Yangyang; Sun, Peng; Lin, Haiyan; Zhu, Yunxia; Han, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sleep restriction-induced environmental stress is associated with abnormal metabolism, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the possible lipid and glucose metabolism patterns in chronically sleep-restricted rat. Without changes in food intake, body weight was decreased and energy expenditure was increased in sleep-restricted rats. The effects of chronic sleep disturbance on metabolites in serum were examined using 1H NMR metabolomics and GC-FID/MS analysis. Six metabolites (lipoproteins, triglycerides, isoleucine, valine, choline, and phosphorylcholine) exhibited significant alteration, and all the fatty acid components were decreased, which suggested fatty acid metabolism was impaired after sleep loss. Moreover, increased blood glucose, reduced serum insulin, decreased glucose tolerance, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of islets were also observed in sleep-restricted rats. The islet function of insulin secretion could be partially restored by increasing dietary fat to sleep-disturbed rats suggested that a reduction in circulating fatty acids was related to islet dysfunction under sleep deficiency-induced environmental stress. This study provides a new perspective on the relationship between insufficient sleep and lipid/glucose metabolism, which offers insights into the role of stressful challenges in a healthy lifestyle. PMID:27983645

  13. Central and peripheral effects of chronic food restriction and weight restoration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kinzig, Kimberly P; Hargrave, Sara L; Tao, Erin E

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that some endocrine consequences of long-term caloric restriction persist after weight restoration in human subjects. Here we evaluate effects of chronic food restriction in rats that were restricted to 70% of control kcal for 4 wk and subsequently weight restored. Measures were taken from rats at 80% (chronically restricted; CR), 90% (partially weight restored; PR), 100% (fully weight restored; FR), and after 4 wk at 100% body weight of controls (extended weight restored; ER). Plasma insulin and leptin were decreased, and ghrelin was increased in CR compared with controls. Leptin and ghrelin normalized with weight restoration at PR, FR, and ER; however, baseline insulin was not normalized until the ER state. Hypothalamic mRNA expression levels for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) revealed significantly less POMC mRNA expression in CR and PR rats, and significantly less arcuate NPY mRNA in PR and FR. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus, CR, PR, and FR rats had significantly increased NPY expression that was not normalized until the ER state. In response to a test meal, insulin and ghrelin release patterns were altered through the FR stage, and ghrelin remained affected at ER. Collectively, these data demonstrate that mere weight restoration is not sufficient to normalize hypothalamic gene expression levels and endocrine responses to a meal, and that meal-related ghrelin responses persist despite weight restoration for up to 4 wk.

  14. Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Megan C.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2016-01-01

    The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.05). Control animals, whether maintained throughout the study on AIN-93M, or continued on HFS rather than reverting back to AIN-93M, did not differ from each other in body weight or adiposity. Overall, the HF diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones). The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation. PMID:26784224

  15. Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2016-01-14

    The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.05). Control animals, whether maintained throughout the study on AIN-93M, or continued on HFS rather than reverting back to AIN-93M, did not differ from each other in body weight or adiposity. Overall, the HF diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones). The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation.

  16. The snacking rat as model of human obesity: effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on meal patterns.

    PubMed

    la Fleur, S E; Luijendijk, M C M; van der Zwaal, E M; Brans, M A D; Adan, R A H

    2014-05-01

    Rats subjected to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet persistently overeat, exhibit increased food-motivated behavior and become overtly obese. Conversely, several studies using a non-choice (nc) high-energy diet showed only an initial increase in food intake with unaltered or reduced food-motivated behavior. This raises the question of the importance of choice in the persistence of hyperphagia in rats on a fcHFHS diet. Meal patterns, food intake and body weight gain were studied in male Wistar rats on free-choice diets with fat and/or sugar and in rats on nc diets with fat and sugar (custom made with ingredients similar to the fcHFHS diet). Rats on a ncHFHS diet initially overconsumed, but reduced intake thereafter, whereas rats on a fcHFHS diet remained hyperphagic. Because half of the sugar intake in the fcHFHS group occurred during the inactive period, we next determined whether sugar intake during the light phase was a necessary requirement for hyperphagia, by restricting access to liquid sugar to either the light or dark period with unlimited access to fat and chow. Results showed that hyperphagia occurred irrespective of the timing of sugar intake. Meal pattern analysis revealed consumption of larger but fewer meals in the ncHFHS group, as well as the fcHF group. Interestingly, meal number was increased in all rats drinking liquid sugar (whether on a fcHFHS or a fcHS diet), whereas a compensatory decrease in meal size was only observed in the fcHS group, but not the fcHFHS group. We hereby show the importance of choice in the observation of fcHFHS diet-induced hyperphagia, which results in increases in meal number due to sugar drinking without any compensatory decrease in meal size. We thus provide a novel dietary model in rats that mimics important features of human overconsumption that have been ignored in rodent models of obesity.

  17. A high-fat diet inhibits the progression of diabetes mellitus in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yukihito; Ohta, Takeshi; Sasase, Tomohiko; Morinaga, Hisayo; Hata, Takahiro; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Katusda, Yoshiaki; Masuyama, Taku; Shinohara, Masami; Kakutani, Makoto; Matsushita, Mutsuyoshi

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that rats and mice, when fed a high-fat diet, develop obesity associated with abnormal glycolipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of a high-fat diet on a diabetic rat model, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT), which develops diabetes due to decreased insulin production and secretion with age. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would accelerate the induction of diabetes in this model. The SDT rats were divided into 2 groups, which were fed a high-fat diet or standard diet for 16 weeks. The group fed a high-fat diet developed obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia until 16 weeks of age. Before 16 weeks of age, hyperglycemia accompanied by hypoinsulinemia developed in the group on a standard diet, but serum glucose levels were comparable in both groups. After 16 weeks of age, the group on a standard diet showed an increase in serum glucose levels and a decrease in serum insulin levels. Unexpectedly, in the group on the high-fat diet, we observed a suppressed of the progression of hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia. Histopathological observation revealed more pancreatic beta cells in the group on the high-fat diet. This study suggests that feeding SDT rats a high-fat diet induces obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, but not hyperglycemia, until 16 weeks of age. Thereafter, age-dependent progress of hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia was delayed by a high-fat diet. The hyperfunction of pancreatic beta cells induced by a high-fat diet before the onset of hyperglycemia appears to suppress development of hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  19. Hypercholesterolemic diet applied to rat dams protects their offspring against cognitive deficits. Simulated neonatal anoxia model.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Iwo

    2004-09-30

    There is accumulating data suggesting a neuroprotective activity of cholesterol, especially in stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a protective activity of this lipid in simulated neonatal anoxia was investigated. Rats were subjected to high cholesterol by feeding their dams with a diet enriched with cholesterol. Half of these rats were subjected to anoxia. One and a half months later, the rats were tested for their ability to acquire a spatial memory, one group on the linear maze and the other on the Morris water maze. After these assessments, the level of total plasma cholesterol was measured. Rats from dams subjected to neonatal anoxia on standard diet performed worse than control rats in both types of behavioral experiments, whereas anoxic rats from dams were housed on hypercholesterolemic diet performed as control animals. It suggests that dietetic cholesterol applied by their dams protected rats against cognitive deficits elicited by neonatal anoxia. Furthermore, offspring of anoxic rats housed on standard diet had elevated levels of blood cholesterol in relation to control animals. Generally, anoxia affected the concentration of this lipid much stronger than hypercholesterolemic diet of their dams. It might mean that the anoxia-related rise of cholesterol could be involved in physiological phenomenon being an adaptive response to neurotoxic processes. This concept is discussed in relation to pathological mechanisms in AD. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  20. The expression of growth-arrest genes in the liver and kidney of the protein-restricted rat fetus.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Christopher A; Lilley, Christina; Cruickshank, Morven; McKinnon, Caroline; Hay, Susan M; Rees, William D

    2005-07-01

    During fetal life, there are periods of rapid cell proliferation, which are uniquely sensitive to nutritional perturbation. Feeding the pregnant rat a protein-restricted diet alters the growth trajectory of major fetal organs such as the kidney. By day 21 of gestation, the ratio of kidney weight to total body weight is reduced in the fetuses of dams fed a protein-deficient diet. In contrast, the ratio of fetal liver weight to total body weight is unchanged. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this disproportionate change in organ growth in the low-protein group, cell proliferation and differentiation have been assessed in the liver and kidney. The steady-state levels of mRNA for the growth-arrest and DNA-damage gene gadd153/CHOP-10, CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins alpha and beta were unaffected by maternal diet in both fetal liver and kidney. The mRNA for alpha-fetoprotein, albumin and hepatic glucokinase were unchanged in the liver, suggesting that maternal protein deficiency does not alter the state of differentiation. The steady-state levels of the mRNA coding for the cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors (p15(INK4a), p19(INK4d), p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) were unchanged in the fetal livers but were significantly increased in the kidneys of fetuses from dams fed the low-protein diet. These results show that the asymmetrical growth of the kidney is associated with increases in mRNA for the Cip/Kip cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and that these may reflect specific lesions in organ development.

  1. Maternal flaxseed diet during lactation changes adrenal function in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2015-10-14

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been a focus of interest in the field of functional foods because of its potential health benefits. However, we hypothesised that maternal flaxseed intake during lactation could induce several metabolic dysfunctions in adult offspring. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the adrenal function of adult offspring whose dams were supplemented with whole flaxseed during lactation. At birth, lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: rats from dams fed the flaxseed diet (FLAX) with 25% of flaxseed and controls dams. Pups received standard diet after weaning and male offspring were killed at age 180 days old to collect blood and tissues. We evaluated body weight and food intake during development, corticosteronaemia, adrenal catecholamine content, hepatic cholesterol, TAG and glycogen contents, and the protein expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and adrenaline β2 receptor at postnatal day 180 (PN180). After weaning, pups from the FLAX group had a higher body weight (+10 %) and food intake (+10%). At PN180, the FLAX offspring exhibited higher serum corticosterone (+48%) and lower adrenal catecholamine ( - 23%) contents, lower glycogen ( - 30%), higher cholesterol (4-fold increase) and TAG (3-fold-increase) contents in the liver, and higher 11β-HSD1 (+62%) protein expression. Although the protein expression of hypothalamic CRH was unaffected, the FLAX offspring had lower protein expression of pituitary ACTH ( - 34%). Therefore, induction of hypercorticosteronaemia by dietary flaxseed during lactation may be due to an increased hepatic activation of 11β-HSD1 and suppression of ACTH. The changes in the liver fat content of the FLAX group are suggestive of steatosis, in which hypercorticosteronaemia may play an important role. Thus, it is recommended that lactating women restrict the intake of flaxseed during

  2. Effects of dry matter intake restriction on diet digestion, energy partitioning, phosphorus retention, and ruminal fermentation by beef steers.

    PubMed

    Clark, J H; Olson, K C; Schmidt, T B; Linville, M L; Alkire, D O; Meyer, D L; Rentfrow, G K; Carr, C C; Berg, E P

    2007-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of DMI restriction on diet digestion, ruminal fermentation, ME intake, and P retention by beef steers. In Exp. 1, twelve Angus x steers (average initial BW = 450 +/- 18 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at intake levels corresponding approximately to 100% (ad libitum, AL), 90% (IR90), or 80% (IR80) of ad libitum DMI. In Exp. 2, twelve crossbred steers (average initial BW = 445 +/- 56 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at AL or IR80. All diets delivered similar total NE, MP, Ca, and P per day. During both experiments, fecal DM output by IR80 was less (P /= 0.20) among treatments during both experiments, whereas P retention was similar (P >/= 0.46) among treatments during Exp. 1. Total VFA and the molar proportion of acetate of AL were greater (P restricting DMI while holding NE, ruminally degradable protein, and MP intakes constant decreased fecal DM output and changed ruminal fermentation patterns in finishing steers. Improvements in performance associated with programmed-feeding regimens of the type studied here do not appear to be related to changes in diet digestion or ME intake.

  3. Differential effects of hypercaloric choice diets on insulin sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; Eggels, Leslie; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    We showed previously that rats on a free-choice high-fat, high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet become rapidly obese and develop glucose intolerance within a week. Interestingly, neither rats on a free-choice high-fat diet (fcHF), although equally obese and hyperphagic, nor rats on a free-choice high-sugar (fcHS) diet consuming more sugar water, develop glucose intolerance. Here, we investigate whether changes in insulin sensitivity contribute to the observed glucose intolerance and whether this is related to consumption of saturated fat and/or sugar water. Rats received either a fcHFHS, fcHF, fcHS or chow diet for one week. We performed a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with stable isotope dilution to measure endogenous glucose production (EGP; hepatic insulin sensitivity) and glucose disappearance (Rd; peripheral insulin sensitivity). Rats on all free-choice diets were hyperphagic, but only fcHFHS-fed rats showed significantly increased adiposity. EGP suppression by hyperinsulinemia in fcHF-fed and fcHFHS-fed rats was significantly decreased compared with chow-fed rats. One week fcHFHS diet also significantly decreased Rd. Neither EGP suppression nor Rd was affected in fcHS-fed rats. Our results imply that, short-term fat feeding impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity, whereas short-term consumption of both saturated fat and sugar water impaired hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. The latter likely contributed to glucose intolerance observed previously. In contrast, overconsumption of only sugar water affected insulin sensitivity slightly, but not significantly, in spite of similar adiposity as fcHF-fed rats and higher sugar intake compared with fcHFHS-fed rats. These data imply that the palatable component consumed plays a role in the development of site-specific insulin sensitivity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Protective effect of Caralluma fimbriata against high-fat diet induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Gujjala, Sudhakara; Putakala, Mallaiah; Gangarapu, Venkatanarayana; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Ramaswamy, Rajendran; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2016-10-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) promotes the oxidative stress formation, which in turn has hazardous effects on reproductive system and fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Caralluma fimbriata on high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in the testis of rat. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control (C), Control treated with CFE (C+ CFE), High fat diet fed (HFD), High fat diet fed treated with CFE (HFD+CFE) and High fat diet fed treated with Metformin (HFD+Met). CFE was orally administered (200mg/kg body weight) for 90days to groups-C+CFE and HFD+CFE rats. The effects of HF-diet on the reproductive organs were determined by measuring relative and absolute testes and epididymal fat pads weights. Regarding testes antioxidant status, high-fat fed rats showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, polyol pathway enzymes and lower GSH levels and lower activities of antioxidants, while CFE treatment prevented all these observed abnormalities. The present study clearly indicates that CFE offers a significant protection against HF-diet induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

  5. Morphological effects of autoclaved diet on the myenteric neurons of rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalez, Patrícia O; Clebis, Naianne K; Mari, Renata B; Gagliardo, Karina M; Stabille, Sandra R; Faria, Haroldo G; Liberti, Edson A; Jr, José Roberto Kfoury

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of autoclaved diet on the jejunum neurons of the myenteric plexus of rats during their growth. METHODS: The experimental groups were made up of rats going through weaning whose mothers received either an autoclaved or a non-autoclaved diet during gestation and lactation, and rats that were fed the same diet as their mothers during the post-weaning period. In order to measure the neurons’ body profile and to quantify the number of neurons per area, preparations were stained by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase method. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in rats’ body weight or in the number of neurons regardless of the diet used (P > 0.05). There was a decrease in the jejunum-ileum length in rats treated with an autoclaved diet (P < 0.05). An increase in the neuronal cross-sectional area was seen in rats that had received the autoclaved diet, an effect that was significant for animals undergoing weaning. In addition, all observed factors showed significant differences when related to the age of the animals. CONCLUSION: The autoclaved diet did not alter the quantity of neurons, but increased their cell body area, suggesting changes similar to those observed in protein deficiency. PMID:22147981

  6. Sorbitol accumulation in male and female rats consuming starch or fructose diets with or without copper

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M.; Beal, T. )

    1989-02-09

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the sex of the rats, tissue sorbitol accumulation and copper deficiency in rats consuming dietary fructose. Rats were provided with a diet containing either 62.7% fructose or starch, and either 6.0 or 0.6 {mu}g copper/g for three weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of all rats consuming the copper-deficient diets was about 40% of copper sufficient rats. Hepatic, renal and thymic sorbitol concentrations were significantly elevated in males consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups regardless of the sex of the rat. Hepatic, renal the thymic fructose concentrations were significantly higher in rats eating fructose as compared to female rats. Hepatic glucose concentration was higher in males and females consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups. Renal glucose concentration was elevated in males as compared to females. These results demonstrate that the pathology and complications of copper deficiency in the male rat consuming fructose closely parallel aberration in tissue sorbitol accumulation.

  7. How important are seabirds in the diet of black rats on islands with a superpredator?

    PubMed

    Hervías, Sandra; Ceia, Filipe R; Pipa, Tânia; Nogales, Manuel; de Ybáñez, Rocío Ruiz; Ramos, Jaime A

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of introduced black rats (Rattus rattus) on Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) in a multi-invaded insular ecosystem where rats are mesopredators. We hypothesized that black rats should have little impact on Cory's shearwaters in the presence of cats as superpredators. Stomach contents and stable isotope analysis (SIA) in tissues of black rats were analyzed to assess the trophic ecology and the importance of Cory's shearwater in their diet. We also studied the isotopic signature in tissues of house mouse (Mus domesticus) to confirm previous data showing no predation of this species on Cory's shearwaters. For both rodent species, temporal variation in diet composition in response to the availability of seabird prey was evaluated, and short- and long-term consistency in diet was tested using different tissues from the same individual. For black rats a Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) was applied to determine the relative contribution of each prey to the individual diet. SIA of mouse tissues varied between the Cory's shearwater breeding and non-breeding periods. However, no significant differences were found in diet and SIA for black rats. In contrast, individuals of both species showed a strong consistency in diet which apparently benefited their body condition index. Although black rats supplement their diet with Cory's shearwater eggs and chicks (8.3% in stomach contents and 10.6% in the SIAR model), their current impact on the Cory's shearwater population appears to be small, probably due to several factors including the small size of the rat population and a high level of rat predation by cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Madero, Magdalena; Arriaga, Julio C; Jalal, Diana; Rivard, Christopher; McFann, Kim; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Vázquez, Armando; Ruiz, Arturo; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jimenez, Carlos Roncal; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    One of the proposed causes of obesity and metabolic syndrome is the excessive intake of products containing added sugars, in particular, fructose. Although the ability of excessive intake of fructose to induce metabolic syndrome is mounting, to date, no study has addressed whether a diet specifically lowering fructose but not total carbohydrates can reduce features of metabolic syndrome. A total of 131 patients were randomized to compare the short-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets-a low-fructose diet vs a moderate natural fructose diet-on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters. Patients were randomized to receive 1500, 1800, or 2000 cal diets according to sex, age, and height. Because natural fructose might be differently absorbed compared with fructose from added sugars, we randomized obese subjects to either a low-fructose diet (<20 g/d) or a moderate-fructose diet with natural fruit supplements (50-70 g/d) and compared the effects of both diets on the primary outcome of weight loss in a 6-week follow-up period. Blood pressure, lipid profile, serum glucose, insulin resistance, uric acid, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and quality of life scores were included as secondary outcomes. One hundred two (78%) of the 131 participants were women, mean age was 38.8 ± 8.8 years, and the mean body mass index was 32.4 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). Each intervention diet was associated with significant weight loss compared with baseline. Weight loss was higher in the moderate natural fructose group (4.19 ± 0.30 kg) than the low-fructose group (2.83 ± 0.29 kg) (P = .0016). Compared with baseline, each intervention diet was associated with significant improvement in secondary outcomes. Reduction of energy and added fructose intake may represent an important therapeutic target to reduce the frequency of obesity and diabetes. For weight loss achievement, an energy-restricted moderate natural fructose diet was superior to a low-fructose diet. Copyright © 2011

  9. Caloric restriction improves diabetes-induced cognitive deficits by attenuating neurogranin-associated calcium signaling in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwajin; Kang, Heeyoung; Heo, Rok Won; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Yi, Chin-Ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Won-Ho; Kang, Sang Soo; Roh, Gu Seob

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes-induced cognitive decline has been recognized in human patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and mouse model of obesity, but the underlying mechanisms or therapeutic targets are not clearly identified. We investigated the effect of caloric restriction on diabetes-induced memory deficits and searched a molecular mechanism of caloric restriction-mediated neuroprotection. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 40 weeks and RNA-seq analysis was performed in the hippocampus of high-fat diet-fed mice. To investigate caloric restriction effect on differential expression of genes, mice were fed high-fat diet for 20 weeks and continued on high-fat diet or subjected to caloric restriction (2 g/day) for 12 weeks. High-fat diet-fed mice exhibited insulin resistance, glial activation, blood-brain barrier leakage, and memory deficits, in that we identified neurogranin, a down-regulated gene in high-fat diet-fed mice using RNA-seq analysis; neurogranin regulates Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent synaptic function. Caloric restriction increased insulin sensitivity, reduced high-fat diet-induced blood-brain barrier leakage and glial activation, and improved memory deficit. Furthermore, caloric restriction reversed high-fat diet-induced expression of neurogranin and the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and calpain as well as the downstream effectors. Our results suggest that neurogranin is an important factor of high-fat diet-induced memory deficits on which caloric restriction has a therapeutic effect by regulating neurogranin-associated calcium signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. [Establishment of a rat model of low calcium diet related hyperoxaluria].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Guo, Hong-qian; Sun, Xi-zhao; Sun, Ze-yu; Lu, De-sheng

    2012-04-01

    To establish a rat model of low calcium diet related hyperoxaluria and explore its features. By means of randomized blocks design, totally 24 SD male rats were divided into low calcium diet group, medium calcium diet group, and high calcium diet group. Each group was sequentially fed on different calcium diets for 3 days. The urinary volume within 24 hours was recorded, the consistency of urinary oxalate by high-efficiency liquid chromatography, and the consistency of urine creatinine by automatic biochemical analyzer. The consistency was corrected to the output of urinary oxalate of rats in 24 hours, and the results were evaluated by repeated measurement of variance analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. The output of urinary oxalate of rats in 24 hours varied with time (F=7.893, P0.05). The output of urinary oxalate of rats in 24 hours varied with group division (F=3.565, P<0.05). The output of urinary oxalate in 24 hours in three groups on the third day was significantly higher than that on the first day (P<0.05). By controlling the calcium intake, we successfully established the model of low calcium diet related hyperoxaluria in rat.

  11. Increased plasma triglyceride secretion in EFA-deficient rats fed diets with or without saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Williams, M A; Tinoco, J; Hincenbergs, I; Thomas, B

    1989-05-01

    Metabolic responses to essential fatty acid-deficiency in rats include an increased rate of triglyceride secretion into the plasma, a large reduction in the HDL1 plasma lipoprotein concentration, and increased concentrations of liver triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters. Because of differences in the types of EFA-deficient diets used, it is not clear whether these responses were solely due to the absence of EFA from the diet or whether saturated fat, or differences in acyl group chain length in this fat, might be responsible. Therefore, we fed rats diets differing only in amounts and kinds of fat, and measured triacylglycerol secretion rates and liver concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, for comparison with our earlier measurements of plasma high density lipoprotein subpopulations in rats fed exactly the same diets. The purified diets contained either no fat, 5% by weight hydrogenated coconut oil, 5% hydrogenated cottonseed oil, or each of these three diets supplemented with 1% safflower oil, or 5% corn oil. We also fed some rats a nonpurified stock diet for comparison with literature reports. The present results indicate that the metabolic responses to essential fatty acid deficiency described above are definitely due to essential fatty acid-deficiency and not to the presence or chain length of acyl groups in saturated fat in the diet.

  12. Nutritional correlates and dynamics of diabetes in the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus): a novel model for diet-induced type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and related chronic diseases, among them non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus, are on the rise in the United States and throughout the world. Animal models that respond to environmental stressors, such as diet, are useful for investigating the outcome and development of these related diseases. Objective Within this context, growth and energy relationships were characterized in the Nile rat, an exotic African rodent, as a potential animal model for diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome. Methods Compiled data from several studies established the relationship between age, body weight gain (including abdominal adiposity), food and water consumption, and blood glucose levels as determinants of diabetes in male and female Nile rats. Glucose Tolerance Testing, insulin, HbA1c, blood pressure measurements and plasma lipids further characterized the diabetes in relation to criteria of the Metabolic Syndrome, while diet modification with high-fat, low-fiber or food restriction attempted to modulate the disease. Results The Nile rat fed lab chow demonstrates signs of the Metabolic Syndrome that evolve into diet-induced non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperinsulinemia with rising blood glucose (insulin resistance), abdominal adiposity, and impaired glucose clearance that precedes increased food and water intake, as well as elevated HbA1c, marked elevation in plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, microalbuminuria, and hypertension. Males are more prone than females with rapid progression to diabetes depending on the challenge diet. In males diabetes segregated into early-onset and late-onset groups, the former related to more rapid growth and greater growth efficiency for the calories consumed. Interestingly, no correlation was found between blood glucose and body mass index (overall adiposity) in older male Nile rats in long term studies, whereas blood glucose

  13. Influence of fatty acid diets on gene expression in rat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Medvedovic, M; Gear, R; Freudenberg, J M; Schneider, J; Bornschein, R; Yan, M; Mistry, M J; Hendrix, H; Karyala, S; Halbleib, D; Heffelfinger, S; Clegg, D J; Anderson, M W

    2009-06-10

    This study examines the impact of dietary fatty acids on regulation of gene expression in mammary epithelial cells before and during puberty. Diets primarily consisted of n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower), saturated acids (butter), and the reference AIN-93G diet (soy oil). The dietary regimen mimics the repetitive nature of fatty acid exposure in Western diets. Diet-induced changes in gene expression were examined in laser capture microdissected mammary ductal epithelial cells at day of weaning and end of puberty. PCNA immunohistochemistry analysis compared proliferation rates between diets. Genes differentially expressed between each test diets and the reference diet were significantly enriched by cell cycle genes. Some of these genes were involved in activation of the cell cycle pathway or the G2/M check point pathway. Although there were some differences in the level of differential expression, all diets showed qualitatively the same pattern of differential expression compared to the reference diet. Cluster analysis identified an expanded set of cell cycle as well as immunity and sterol metabolism related clusters of differentially expressed genes. Fatty acid-enriched diets significantly upregulated proliferation above normal physiological levels during puberty. Higher cellular proliferation during puberty caused by enriched fatty acid diets poses a potential increase risk of mammary cancer in later life. The human homologs of 27 of 62 cell cycle rat genes are included in a human breast cancer cluster of 45 cell cycle genes, further emphasizing the importance of our findings in the rat model.

  14. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  15. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: comparison of aged and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Emin; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Ozbek, Mustafa; Somay, Adnan

    2013-09-26

    Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR) on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS) expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7) and aged (24 mo, n = 7) male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14) fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrificed and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  16. Vascular dysfunction in the offspring of AT1 receptor antibody-positive pregnant rats during high-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Su-Li; Xiong, Hai-Yan; DU, Yun-Hui; Quan, Lin; Yang, Jie; Ma, Xiu-Rui; Liu, Hui-Rong

    2011-04-25

    Antibody against the angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1-Ab) could disturb placental development. The placenta is the key organ between mother and fetus. Placental damage will seriously impair fetal growth and development in utero, leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Based on the fetal origins of adult disease (FOAD) hypothesis, IUGR could increase a propensity to develop adult onset cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study was designed to determine whether vascular function has changed in the adult offspring of AT1-Ab positive pregnant rats. Twenty four female rats (8-week-old, AT1-Ab negative) were randomly divided into two groups, immunized and vehicle groups. Immunized group received active immunization to establish AT1-Ab-positive model, while vehicle group was subjected to Freund's adjuvant without antigen. After 8 weeks of immunization, the antibody titers in sera from the female rats were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then all the female rats were mated with normal Wistar male rats and became pregnant. Immunized/vehicle group offspring rats (I offspring/V offspring) were raised to 40-week-old under standard chow feeding. Then the two groups' offspring rats were given a high-salt diet for 12 weeks (4% NaCl in chow feeding). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured dynamically by noninvasive blood pressure system. The vascular ring experiment was performed to detect vascular function and reactivity. As detected by ELISA, the titers of antibody peaked at the 8th week (OD values: 2.75 ± 0.08 vs 0.33 ± 0.01, P < 0.01 vs vehicle group at the same time point). There was no significant difference of SBP between the two groups' offspring rats during the high-salt diet (P > 0.05). Isolated thoracic aortic rings of I offspring had significantly decreased constriction under norepinephrine treatment (P < 0.01 vs V offspring) and significantly decreased dilation under acetylcholine treatment (P < 0.05 vs V offspring). These

  17. Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, W P; Dollé, M E T; Reiling, E; Jaarsma, D; Payan-Gomez, C; Bombardieri, C R; Wu, H; Roks, A J M; Botter, S M; van der Eerden, B C; Youssef, S A; Kuiper, R V; Nagarajah, B; van Oostrom, C T; Brandt, R M C; Barnhoorn, S; Imholz, S; Pennings, J L A; de Bruin, A; Gyenis, Á; Pothof, J; Vijg, J; van Steeg, H; Hoeijmakers, J H J

    2016-09-15

    Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1(∆/-)) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing response induced by dietary restriction (also known as caloric restriction). Here we report that a dietary restriction of 30% tripled the median and maximal remaining lifespans of these progeroid mice, strongly retarding numerous aspects of accelerated ageing. Mice undergoing dietary restriction retained 50% more neurons and maintained full motor function far beyond the lifespan of mice fed ad libitum. Other DNA-repair-deficient, progeroid Xpg(-/-) (also known as Ercc5(-/-)) mice, a model of Cockayne syndrome, responded similarly. The dietary restriction response in Ercc1(∆/-) mice closely resembled the effects of dietary restriction in wild-type animals. Notably, liver tissue from Ercc1(∆/-) mice fed ad libitum showed preferential extinction of the expression of long genes, a phenomenon we also observed in several tissues ageing normally. This is consistent with the accumulation of stochastic, transcription-blocking lesions that affect long genes more than short ones. Dietary restriction largely prevented this declining transcriptional output and reduced the number of γH2AX DNA damage foci, indicating that dietary restriction preserves genome function by alleviating DNA damage. Our findings establish the Ercc1(∆/-) mouse as a powerful model organism for health-sustaining interventions, reveal potential for reducing endogenous DNA damage, facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of dietary restriction and sugg