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Sample records for dietary energy level

  1. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts.

    PubMed

    Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Jang, J C; Chung, W L; Jeong, J H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (p<0.05) at d 21 of lactation and body weight gain during lactation (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the chemical compositions of colostrum and milk. Therefore, these results indicated that high-energy diets influenced the bodyweight and backfat thickness of sows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other

  2. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. S.; Jung, S. W.; Jang, J. C.; Chung, W. L.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (p<0.05) at d 21 of lactation and body weight gain during lactation (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the chemical compositions of colostrum and milk. Therefore, these results indicated that high-energy diets influenced the bodyweight and backfat thickness of sows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other

  3. Dietary fiber for dogs: I. Effects of graded levels of dietary beet pulp on nutrient intake, digestibility, metabolizable energy and digesta mean retention time.

    PubMed

    Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Corbin, J E; Hamilton, A K; Serbe, K A; Lewis, S M; Hirakawa, D A

    1990-12-01

    The optimal level of beet pulp (BP) inclusion in a meat-based dog diet and the effects of graded levels of dietary BP on fecal excretion responses and mean retention time of marked fiber in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog were evaluated using 30 female English Pointers assigned to isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 or 12.5% BP (DM basis). Beet pulp replaced portions of dietary cornstarch. Digestibilities of DM and OM decreased by an average of 6% when comparing diets containing BP to the control diet, and quadratic and cubic responses were noted in digestibilities of fiber constituents (lower values at the 7.5 and 10.0% levels, higher values at the 2.5, 5.0 and 12.5% levels). Digestible energy (DE) and ME intakes (kcal/d) were not affected by treatment, but when expressed as a percentage of GE, values decreased (4.8% for DE; 6.2% for ME) linearly with increasing BP levels. Wet weight of feces increased (from 117 to 374 g/d) linearly as percentage of dietary BP increased. Frequency of defecation was higher (P less than .05) for dogs fed the diet containing 12.5% BP than for dogs fed the other diets (5.2 vs mean value of 2.8/24 h). Mean retention time of marked fiber decreased linearly (high value of 23.4 h for the 2.5% BP treatment, low value of 13.0 h for the 10.0% BP treatment) with increased level of BP. Beet pulp levels up to 7.5% of diet DM appear acceptable as a dietary fiber source in a meat-based canine diet.

  4. Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingqiang; Ma, Shen; Dong, Shuanglin

    2006-09-01

    A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 °C, 27°C and 32°C) and dietary carbohydrate ( CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietary CBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15% CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47% CBH, and those with 41.00% CBH had the lowest value.

  5. Effects of dietary protein level on growth and utilization of protein and energy by juvenile mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Abbas; Khalid, Jamil; Rukhsana, Akhtar; Lin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating water system to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization, hepatosomatic index and liver lipid deposition of juvenile red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (average initial wet weight 8.0 ± 0.39 g and total length 3.14 ± 0.3 cm). In the experiment, six fishmeal-based diets were formulated to contain various protein levels (20% to 45% in 5% increments), with dietary energy ranging from 2210.7kJ lOOg to 2250.2kJlOOg dry matter. The protein to energy ratios of diets ranged from 8.58 mg protein kJ-1 to 20.03 mg protein kJ-1. Diets were fed for 90d to triplicate groups of fish stocked in 0.128m3 seawater tanks, 25 individuals each. The daily ration of 2% wet body weight was offered to the fish thrice a day. The fish at the end of the study had more than ten-fold (77.0g) increase in weight compared to the initial (8.0g). Fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein produced significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain of 77.2g and 76.5g, and specific growth rate (SGR) of 2.65% and 2.62% than those of 67.0 g and 68.3g, and 2.49% and 2.51% of the other diets. The broken-line regression of SGR against dietary protein level yielded an optimum dietary protein requirement of 42.6% (Y=-1.6295 + 0.1114 X 2,P<0.05). Survival remained 100% among groups. Feed conversion ratio decreased from 0.45 for fish fed 20% dietary protein to 0.35 for fish fed 45% dietary protein. Nitrogen intake increased with an increase in dietary protein, which in turn resulted in an increase in nitrogen gain of fish whole body. Fish fed 40% and 45% protein diets showed higher (P<0.05) nitrogen gain (0.27g and 0.26g) than those (0.23g and 025g) fed all other diets. Gross energy intake (GEI) in fish fed 45% protein was lower (600.67kJ) than that (607.97 kJ) of 40% protein diet, though the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05); GEI ranging from 677.31 kJ to 663.20 kJ at remaining four diets (20% to 35% protein

  6. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1β signaling might be of value in terms of controlling

  7. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source.

  8. Effects of dietary energy source and level and injection of tilmicosin phosphate on immune function in lipopolysaccharide-challenged beef steers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four Angus x Hereford crossbred steers (247 ± 2.4 kg BW) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effect of energy source and level with or without antibiotic administration on measures of immune function. Steers were offered 1 of 3 dietary treatments: a 70% concentrate diet ad...

  9. Effects of feeding different dietary protein and energy levels on the performance of 12-15-month-old buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Muhammad Aasif; Tauqir, Nasir A; Ahmad, Fayyaz; Nisa, Mahr U; Sarwar, Muhammad; Tipu, Murtaza A; Tipu, Muhammad A

    2011-03-01

    The study investigated the performance response of different dietary protein and energy levels of Nili-Ravi buffalo calves. Sixty buffalo calves of 12-15 months of age and similar body weight (140 ± 14 kg) were divided in to 12 groups, five animals in each group, according to 4 × 3 factorial arrangements. Twelve rations were formulated containing four levels of crude protein (CP; 10.5%, 12.20%, 13.80%, and 15.55%) each with three levels (1.72, 2.11, and 2.5 Mcal/Kg) of metabolizable energy (ME). Experiment lasted for 100 days; first 10 days were given for dietary adaptation. Daily feed consumption in calves fed all experimental diets were statistically significant (p<0.05) across all treatments. Higher feed intake was observed in buffalo calves fed diets containing 12.20% and 13.85% CP with 2.11 Mcal/kg ME. Results of dry matter (DM) digestion were significantly different (p<0.05) across all treatments. There was a quadratic (p<0.05) response of DM digestibility for levels of dietary protein while, curvilinear (p<0.05) trend with respect to dietary energy levels. Daily weight gain of buffalo calves did not show any treatment effect. The outcome of the present study indicate that 12-15-month-old buffalo calves perform adequately well when fed on diets containing 12.2% CP and 2.10 ME Mcal/Kg. PMID:21107907

  10. Effect of precalving and postcalving dietary energy level on performance and blood metabolite concentrations of dairy cows throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Law, R A; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J; Wylie, A R G; Ingvarsten, K L; Hameleers, A; McCoy, M A; Mayne, C S; Ferris, C

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the level of energy intake (high E and low E) offered before and after calving on body condition score at calving, production performance, and energy status in the first 250 d of lactation were evaluated in a 2 × 2 factorial design experiment involving 80 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals (40 primiparous and 40 multiparous). From d 80 until d 21 precalving, primiparous animals were offered either high or low pasture allowances. Thereafter, these animals were housed and had ad libitum access to a high energy density diet (high E) or restricted access [6 kg of dry matter (DM) per d] to a low energy density diet (low E), respectively, until calving. From d 100 until d 42 precalving, multiparous animals were offered either ad libitum or restricted (10 kg of DM/d) access to a late lactation diet, and thereafter, had ad libitum access to a high E diet or restricted access (7 kg of DM complete diet/d) to a low E diet, respectively, until calving. The forage to concentrate (F:C) ratios (DM basis) of these high E and low E diets [d 42 (d 21 in primiparous animals) until calving] were 64:36 and 83:17, respectively. Cows offered high E and low E precalving diets were allocated to either a high E or low E postcalving diet [F:C ratio (DM basis) of 30:70 and 70:30, respectively] and remained on these diets until d 250 of lactation. Multiparous animals offered a high E diet precalving had a significantly higher body condition score at calving than those offered the low E diet precalving. This effect was not evident in primiparous animals. Precalving diet had no significant effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the last 3 wk precalving in primi- or multiparous animals. Primiparous animals offered a high E diet precalving had significantly higher postcalving plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acid, suggesting greater mobilization of body reserves. Primi- and multiparous animals offered a high E diet postcalving had a significantly

  11. Digestion of carbohydrates and utilization of energy in sows fed diets with contrasting levels and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2008-09-01

    Three experimental diets were used to investigate the digestion of carbohydrates and utilization of energy in sows fed diets with different levels and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber (DF). The low-fiber diet (LF; DF, 16%; soluble DF, 4.8%) was based on wheat and barley. The high-fiber 1 diet (HF1; DF, 41%; soluble DF, 11%) was based on wheat and barley supplemented with the coproducts: sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, and pectin residue, and the high-fiber 2 diet (HF2; DF, 44%; soluble DF, 7.3%) was based on wheat and barley supplemented with approximately 1/3 of the coproducts used in diet HF1 and 2/3 of brewers spent grain, seed residue, and pea hull (1:1:1, respectively). The diets were studied in 2 series of experiments. In Exp. 1, the digestibility and ileal and fecal flow of nutrients were studied in 6 ileal-cannulated sows placed in metabolic cages designed as a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, energy metabolism was measured in respiration chambers using 6 sows in a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. The DF level influenced the ileal flow of most nutrients, in particular carbohydrates, which increased from 190 g/d when feeding the LF diet to 538 to 539 g/d when feeding the HF diets; this was also reflected in the digestibility of OM and carbohydrates (P < 0.05). The ranking of total excretion of fecal materials was HF2 > > HF1 > LF, which also was reflected in the digestibility of OM, protein, and carbohydrates. Feeding HF diets resulted in greater CH(4) production, which was related to the amount of carbohydrates (r = 0.79) and OM (r = 0.72) fermented in the large intestine, but with no difference in heat production (12.2 to 13.1 MJ/kg of DM). Retained energy (MJ/kg of DM) was decreased when feeding HF1 compared with LF and negative when feeding HF2. Feeding sows HF1 reduced the activity of animals (5.1 h/24 h) compared with LF (6.1 h/24 h; P = 0.045).

  12. The influence of dietary fibre source and level on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility and energy metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H; Zhao, X Q; Knudsen, K E; Eggum, B O

    1996-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide detailed information about the effect of fibre source (pea fibre, wheat bran or oat bran) at inclusion levels of 0, 187 and 375 g/kg diet on the development of the digestive tract, nutrient digestibility and energy and protein metabolism in broiler chickens. Heat production was measured using open-air-circuit respiration chambers. Diets with increasing levels of pea fibre decreased the DM in droppings and increased excreta output (2.5-fold) relative to DM intake. Adaptation to increased dietary fibre levels included increases in the size of the digestive system, with pea fibre exerting a stronger impact than wheat bran or oat bran. The length of the intestine, and particularly the length and weight of the caecum, increased with the fibre level. The digestibility of all nutrients also decreased with increasing fibre level. The decrease in the digestibility in relation to NSP for the three fibre sources was bigger for oat bran (0.0020 per g dietary NSP) than for pea fibre and wheat bran (0.0014 and 0.0016 per g dietary NSP) indicating that the cell walls in oat bran (aleurone and subaleurone) had a significant negative effect on the digestibility of cellular nutrients, i.e. protein and fat. The degradation of the NSP constituents was far lower in chickens than found in other animal species such as pigs and rats, thus supporting the view that chickens do not ferment fibre polymers to a great extent. Excretion of organic acids (mainly lactic acid and acetic acid) accounted for up to 2% of metabolizable energy (ME) intake with the highest excretion for the high-fibre diets. H2 excretion was related to the amount of NSP degraded and indicated higher microbial fermentation with increasing fibre levels. The chickens' feed intake responded to a great extent to dietary ME concentration but expressed in terms of metabolic body size (W0.75) ME intake was depressed at the high fibre levels. Dietary NSP was able to explain between 86

  13. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased.

  14. Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic

    PubMed Central

    Perween, Shahla; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Chandramoni; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Dey, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding dietary level of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for 56 days on 540 1-day-old chicks, which were individually weighed and distributed into nine groups having 60 birds in each. Each group was further subdivided into triplicates having 20 birds in each. Nine different experimental rations were formulated with three levels of protein, viz., 17%, 19%, and 21%; each with three levels of energy (2600, 2800, and 3000 kcal metabolizable energy [ME]/kg), respectively. Group T8 serves as control fed with 21% protein and 2800 kcal energy as per Project Directorate of Poultry, Hyderabad given requirement. Feed consumption, live weight gain, body weight change, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed every week. All the birds were vaccinated following standard protocol. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test have been performed to assess the immunity potential of birds due to dietary effect, and serum samples were subjected to HI test at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Finally, economics of broiler production was calculated on the cost of feed per kg live weight gain. Results: This study revealed that the effect of feeding different levels of energy and protein on growth parameters such as body weight gain and FCR was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) containing 19% and 21% crude protein with 3000 kcal ME/kg in Vanaraja birds. There was a gradual increase in antibody titer against New castle disease virus as the level of protein and energy increase. It is speculated that the better body weight gain corroborate health and antibody titer. Moreover, the better immune response recorded in the study might be due to better nutrient utilization and its extension toward the better immune response. Higher energy with medium protein diet positively

  15. Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic

    PubMed Central

    Perween, Shahla; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Chandramoni; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Dey, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding dietary level of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for 56 days on 540 1-day-old chicks, which were individually weighed and distributed into nine groups having 60 birds in each. Each group was further subdivided into triplicates having 20 birds in each. Nine different experimental rations were formulated with three levels of protein, viz., 17%, 19%, and 21%; each with three levels of energy (2600, 2800, and 3000 kcal metabolizable energy [ME]/kg), respectively. Group T8 serves as control fed with 21% protein and 2800 kcal energy as per Project Directorate of Poultry, Hyderabad given requirement. Feed consumption, live weight gain, body weight change, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed every week. All the birds were vaccinated following standard protocol. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test have been performed to assess the immunity potential of birds due to dietary effect, and serum samples were subjected to HI test at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Finally, economics of broiler production was calculated on the cost of feed per kg live weight gain. Results: This study revealed that the effect of feeding different levels of energy and protein on growth parameters such as body weight gain and FCR was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) containing 19% and 21% crude protein with 3000 kcal ME/kg in Vanaraja birds. There was a gradual increase in antibody titer against New castle disease virus as the level of protein and energy increase. It is speculated that the better body weight gain corroborate health and antibody titer. Moreover, the better immune response recorded in the study might be due to better nutrient utilization and its extension toward the better immune response. Higher energy with medium protein diet positively

  16. Effects of dietary energy source and level and injection of tilmicosin phosphate on immune function in lipopolysaccharide-challenged beef steers.

    PubMed

    Reuter, R R; Carroll, J A; Dailey, J W; Cook, B J; Galyean, M L

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-four Angus x Hereford crossbred steers (247 kg BW; SE = 2.4 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effect of energy source and level with or without antibiotic administration on measures of immune function. Steers were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments: a 70% concentrate diet ad libitum (70AL), a 30% concentrate diet ad libitum (30AL), and a 70% concentrate diet offered in an amount calculated to provide NE(g) intake equal to the 30AL treatment (70RES). Half the steers in each dietary treatment received a s.c. injection of tilmicosin phosphate (ANTI; 1 mL/30 kg of BW); the other half received an equal volume of saline s.c. (SAL). Steers were offered the treatment diets for 28 d before and were administered the ANTI or SAL injections 2 d before indwelling catheters were placed in the jugular vein and 2.0 microg/kg of BW of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered i.v. Blood serum was collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 6 h and at 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h relative to the LPS challenge. Increased energy intake (70AL) increased (P < or = 0.04) DMI, ADG, and rectal temperature (RT) after the challenge compared with the 70RES treatment. The 30AL treatment increased the maximum concentrations and area under the response curve of the proinflammatory cytokines (PIC) interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6 (P < or = 0.05) compared with the average of the 70AL and 70RES treatments. Decreased energy intake (70RES vs. 70AL) increased IL-6 (P < or = 0.003) but did not significantly increase interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P > or = 0.14) after LPS administration. Tilmicosin administration decreased the time to attain maximal RT (P = 0.01) by 1 h without altering the peak RT (P = 0.85), and tilmicosin interacted with energy intake to increase prechallenge PIC in 70RES vs. 70AL (P < or = 0.05). Results indicate that increased PIC response, presumably resulting from a combination of decreased energy

  17. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). PMID:24666690

  18. Can self-reported dieting and dietary restraint identify underreporters of energy intake in dietary surveys?

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Siervo, Mario; Jebb, Susan A

    2006-10-01

    Underreporting is endemic in most dietary studies and ways to reliably identify individuals who may underreport energy intake are needed. Whether questions on self-reported dieting and dietary restraint, in addition to weight status, would identify individuals who may underreport energy intakes was examined in a United Kingdom representative survey. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the 7-day dietary record of 668 men and 826 women. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level and to calculate estimated energy requirements from published equations. Underreporting was calculated as estimated energy requirements minus energy intake with adjustment for daily variation. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire assessed dietary restraint. Underreporting was higher in men and women reporting current dieting than nondieters (P<0.001) and higher in high-restrained (P<0.001) than low-restrained. When stratified by body mass index category, in men these associations were only significant in the overweight (P<0.001). Dieting was associated with greater underreporting in both lean (P<0.01) and overweight women (P<0.001). Underreporting was higher in lean high-restrained women than low-restrained (P=0.02), but similar in overweight women regardless of restraint score. Questions to assess dietary restraint and current dieting may be useful tools to identify and evaluate underreporting at an individual level in dietary surveys.

  19. Level of dietary protein does not impact whole body protein turnover during an exercise induced energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: This study examined the effect of a high protein diet on whole body protein turnover during an exercise-induced energy deficit. A sustained energy deficit induced by energy intake restriction increases protein catabolism which can cause lean-body mass loss. A high-protein diet has be...

  20. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  1. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K.; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  2. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  3. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    PubMed Central

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of

  4. Dietary(sensory)variety and energy balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults is currently 68%, compared with about 47% in the early 1970s. Many dietary factors have been proposed to contribute to the US obesity epidemic, including the percentage of energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and protein; glycemic index; fruit a...

  5. Dietary protein source and level alters growth in neon tetras.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional studies for aquarium fish like the neon tetra are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45 and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or ...

  6. [Is it possible to decrease cholesterol levels with dietary supplements?].

    PubMed

    Rodondi, Pierre-Yves; Degoumois, Florence; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Patients often use dietary supplements for cardiovascular prevention. An US study showed that 75% of patients with cardiovascular disease used dietary supplements. Red yeast rice, phytosterols and fibers can significantly decrease LDL. The level of monacolin in red yeast rice can vary between products and toxins can sometimes be found. Prospective studies showed that fibers could decrease cardiovascular risk. Others substances, like guggul, soy and artichoke leaf extracts, did not show a clear benefit for cardiovascular prevention. Measurements of cholesterol levels can help the physician to discuss with his patient about the effects of some dietary supplements.

  7. [Is it possible to decrease cholesterol levels with dietary supplements?].

    PubMed

    Rodondi, Pierre-Yves; Degoumois, Florence; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Patients often use dietary supplements for cardiovascular prevention. An US study showed that 75% of patients with cardiovascular disease used dietary supplements. Red yeast rice, phytosterols and fibers can significantly decrease LDL. The level of monacolin in red yeast rice can vary between products and toxins can sometimes be found. Prospective studies showed that fibers could decrease cardiovascular risk. Others substances, like guggul, soy and artichoke leaf extracts, did not show a clear benefit for cardiovascular prevention. Measurements of cholesterol levels can help the physician to discuss with his patient about the effects of some dietary supplements. PMID:27089602

  8. Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901

  9. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  10. The relationship between dietary lipids and serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Ali R; Nabipour, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in humans, particularly in postmenopausal women. Inflammation has been shown to play a basic role in the development of CVD. In light of the involvement of adipocytokines and dietary lipids in the induction of inflammation in CVD, this study was conducted to investigate the potential relationship between dietary lipids and two well-known adipocytokines, visfatin and adiponectin. A total of 374 postmenopausal women were randomly selected from 13 geographical clusters in Bushehr port. Serum visfatin and adiponectin were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay technique and current dietary intake was recorded with a food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day recall. Each food and beverage was analyzed for macro- and micronutrient content. Bivariate correlation analysis showed a correlation between serum visfatin level and dietary SFA, n-6 PUFA and cholesterol intake. In multiple regression analyses, serum visfatin levels showed a significant positive correlation with dietary SFA (β=0.06, p=0.01), PUFA (β=0.02, p=0.02) and cholesterol (β=0.005, p=0.002) after controlling for age, diabetes, total energy intake and BMI. There was no significant relationship between dietary MUFA intake and serum visfatin level. No significant correlations were found between age- and BMI-adjusted adiponectin and dietary SFA, MUFA or n-6 PUFA intake (p>0.05). We found a positive relationship between dietary SFA, PUFA and cholesterol with serum visfatin level in postmenopausal women, and conclude that the postmenopause-induced inflammatory responses may be modulated at least in part by dietary modification.

  11. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57 d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29 d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28 d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) μU/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) μU/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively

  12. Dietary and hormonal interrelationships in premenopausal women: evidence for a relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Shultz, T D; Wilcox, R B; Spuehler, J M; Howie, B J

    1987-12-01

    To investigate possible differences in tissue exposures to reproductive hormones and to determine hormone-nutrient interrelationships, we studied 10 vegetarian and 10 nonvegetarian premenopausal Seventh-day Adventist women. Over 3 d in each of three consecutive menstrual cycles, we collected diet records, fasting midluteal phase blood, and 24-h urine samples. During each study period, we measured plasma and urinary estrogens, plasma free and protein bound-estradiol-17 beta, the binding capacity of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androgens, progesterone, and prolactin levels. The omnivores consumed significantly more protein, total and saturated fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids, and cholesterol than did the vegetarians. Hormonal status and binding capacity of SHBG were similar in both groups. However, for nonvegetarians, prolactin levels were positively correlated with dietary energy, protein, total and saturated fatty acids, and oleic acid. Further study delineating the effects of specific dietary nutrients on the basal level of prolactin secretion is warranted.

  13. Dietary cholecalciferol and calcium levels in a Western-style defined rodent diet alter energy metabolism and inflammatory responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Bastie, Claire C; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Ting-Wen A; Dhima, Elena; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2012-05-01

    Male and female C57Bl6 mice were fed a control AIN76A diet, a new Western-style diet (NWD1) reflecting dietary patterns linked to elevated colon cancer incidence (higher fat, lower cholecalciferol, calcium, methyl donors, fiber), or NWD1 with elevated cholecalciferol and calcium (NWD2) from weaning. After 24 wk, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] decreased by >80% in the NWD1 group compared with controls, but with no alteration in serum calcium or bone mineral density. The decreased serum 25(OH)D was prevented in the NWD2 group. After 32 wk, the NWD1 group compared with controls reduced overall energy expenditure by 15% without altering food consumption or physical activity and induced glucose intolerance, phenotypes associated with metabolic syndrome. These responses were unexpectedly exacerbated in the NWD2 group, further shifting mice toward greater fatty acid storage rather than oxidation compared with both control and NWD1 groups, but there was no change in physical activity, causing significant weight gain due to increased fat mass. The NWD1 group also exhibited inflammatory responses compared with controls, including macrophage-associated crown-like structures in epididymal adipose tissue and increased serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and of its targets, MCP-1 and Rantes, which were prevented or greatly mitigated in the NWD2 group. However, there was also elevated lipid storage in the liver and steatosis not seen in the control and NWD1 groups. Thus, elevating cholecalciferol and calcium in a Western-style diet can reduce inflammation associated with risk for colon tumor development, but interaction of nutrients in this diet can compromise liver function when fed long term.

  14. Dietary fat level and alcohol-induced pancreatic injury

    SciTech Connect

    Towner, S.J.; Inomata, T.; Largman, C.; French, S.W.

    1986-03-01

    Effects of dietary fat levels on alcohol-induced pancreatic injury were studied in a rat model which achieves sustained blood alcohol levels and maximal nutritional control. A diet containing 5, 25, or 35% of fat (corn oil; % total calories) and either ethanol or isocaloric dextrose were intragastrically infused in male Wistar rats for 30-120 days. Following intoxication, the pancreatic pathology was examined light-microscopically. None of pair-fed controls showed abnormal pancreas histology. These results indicate potentiation of alcohol-induced pancreatic injury. Particularly higher incidence of chronic interstitial pancreatitis with increased dietary fat.

  15. Growth and body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits of developing gilts fed different dietary lysine and metabolizable energy levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to manipulate the lean:fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and ME content to replacement gilts housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (approximately 260 d of age) to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments. Crossbred ...

  16. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  17. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  18. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  19. Validity of Energy Intake Reports in Relation to Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shaneshin, Mahboubeh; Jessri, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    The role of under- and overreporting of energy intake in determining the dietary patterns is yet unclear, especially in the Middle Eastern countries. This study identifies the prevalence of misreporting among Tehranian women aged 18-45 years and to compare the dietary intake patterns of plausible and all energy reporters. Dietary intakes and anthropometric data were collected. FitMate™ metabolic analyzer and Goldberg equation were used in determining the under/overreporting of energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be overweight and older compared to plausible reporters. Three dietary patterns emerged for all reporters, and two were identified for plausible reporters. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was not similar to using all reporters. The proportion of underreporters was 59.3% in the mixture cluster, 30.4% in the unhealthy cluster, and 35.3% in the healthy cluster (p<0.05). Underreporting of energy intake is not uniformly distributed among dietary pattern clusters and tends to be less severe among subjects in the unhealthy cluster. Our data suggested that misreporting of energy intake might affect the dietary pattern analysis. PMID:24847591

  20. Dietary fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake and endogenous hormone levels in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2010-10-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P<0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women.

  1. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, M M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity.

  2. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Aljumaah, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity. PMID:27175130

  3. Dietary levels of acrylamide affect rat cardiomyocyte properties.

    PubMed

    Walters, Brandan; Hariharan, Venkatesh; Huang, Hayden

    2014-09-01

    The toxic effects of acrylamide on cytoskeletal integrity and ion channel balance is well-established in many cell types, but there has been little examination regarding the effects of acrylamide on primary cardiomyocytes, despite the importance of such components in their function. Furthermore, acrylamide toxicity is generally examined using concentrations higher than those found in vivo under starch-rich diets. Accordingly, we sought to characterize the dose-dependent effects of acrylamide on various properties, including cell morphology, contraction patterns, and junctional connexin 43 staining, in primary cardiomyocytes. We show that several days exposure to 1-100 μM acrylamide resulted in altered morphology, irregular contraction patterns, and an increase in the amount of immunoreactive signal for connexin 43 at cell junctions. We conclude that dietary levels of acrylamide may alter cellular function with prolonged exposure, in primary cardiomyocytes.

  4. Regression analysis to predict growth performance from dietary net energy in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nitikanchana, S; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; White, B J

    2015-06-01

    Data from 41 trials with multiple energy levels (285 observations) were used in a meta-analysis to predict growth performance based on dietary NE concentration. Nutrient and energy concentrations in all diets were estimated using the NRC ingredient library. Predictor variables examined for best fit models using Akaike information criteria included linear and quadratic terms of NE, BW, CP, standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, fat, ash, and their interactions. The initial best fit models included interactions between NE and CP or SID Lys. After removal of the observations that fed SID Lys below the suggested requirement, these terms were no longer significant. Including dietary fat in the model with NE and BW significantly improved the G:F prediction model, indicating that NE may underestimate the influence of fat on G:F. The meta-analysis indicated that, as long as diets are adequate for other nutrients (i.e., Lys), dietary NE is adequate to predict changes in ADG across different dietary ingredients and conditions. The analysis indicates that ADG increases with increasing dietary NE and BW but decreases when BW is above 87 kg. The G:F ratio improves with increasing dietary NE and fat but decreases with increasing BW. The regression equations were then evaluated by comparing the actual and predicted performance of 543 finishing pigs in 2 trials fed 5 dietary treatments, included 3 different levels of NE by adding wheat middlings, soybean hulls, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 8 to 9% oil), or choice white grease (CWG) to a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Diets were 1) 30% DDGS, 20% wheat middlings, and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 2) 20% wheat middlings and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 3) a corn-soybean meal diet (medium energy); 4) diet 2 supplemented with 3.7% CWG to equalize the NE level to diet 3 (medium energy); and 5) a corn-soybean meal diet with 3.7% CWG (high energy). Only small differences were observed

  5. Cellular Energy Depletion Resets Whole-Body Energy by Promoting Coactivator Mediated Dietary Fuel Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Atul R.; Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Saha, Pradip; Louet, Jean-Francois; Salazar, Christina; Song, Junghun; Jeong, Jaewook; Finegold, Milton; Viollet, Benoit; DeMayo, Franco; Chan, Lawrence; Moore, David D.; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary All organisms have devised strategies to counteract energy depletion in order to promote fitness for survival. We show here that cellular energy depletion puts into play a surprising strategy that leads to absorption of exogenous fuel for energy repletion. We found that the energy depletion sensing kinase AMPK, binds, phosphorylates, and activates the transcriptional coactivator SRC-2, which in a liver-specific manner, promotes absorption of dietary fat from the gut. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of SRC-2 results in intestinal fat malabsorption and attenuated entry of fat into the blood stream. This defect can be attributed to AMPK and SRC-2 mediated transcriptional regulation of hepatic bile-acid secretion into the gut, as it can be completely rescued by replenishing intestinal BA, or by genetically restoring the levels of hepatic Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP). Our results position the hepatic AMPK-SRC-2 axis as an energy rheostat which upon cellular energy depletion resets whole-body energy by promoting absorption of dietary fuel. PMID:21195347

  6. Effects of energy deficit, dietary protein, and feeding on intracellular regulators of skeletal muscle proteolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and associated gene expression in normal-23 weight adults consuming varying levels of dietary protein during short-term energy deficit. 24 Using a randomized-bock design, 32 men and 7 women were assigned to diets providing protein 25 at 0.8 (RDA), 1...

  7. Estimating under-reporting of energy intake in dietary surveys using an individualised method.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Kirsten L; Coward, Andy; Jebb, Susan A

    2007-06-01

    Under-reporting (UR) of energy intake (EI) by self-reported dietary methods is well-documented but the methods used to estimate UR in population-based studies commonly assume a sedentary lifestyle. We compared estimated UR using individualised estimates of energy requirements with a population cut-off based on minimum energy needs. UR was estimated for 1551 adults aged 19-64 years enrolled in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Physical activity diaries and 7 d weighed dietary records were completed concurrently. Mean daily EI (kJ/d) was calculated from the dietary records. Reported physical activity was used to assign each subject's activity level, and then to calculate estimated energy requirements (EER) from published equations. UR was calculated both as EER - EI with an adjustment for daily EER and EI variation, and also by a population method. By the individual method UR was approximately 27 % of energy needs in men and 29 % in women, with 75 % of men and 77 % of women classified as under-reporters; by the population method 80 and 88 % were classified as under-reporters respectively. When subjects who reported their eating being affected by dieting or illness during dietary recording were excluded, UR was 25 % of energy needs in both sexes. UR was higher in overweight and obese men and women compared with their lean counterparts (P < 0.001). UR of EI must be considered in dietary surveys. The EER method allows UR to be quantified and takes into account an individual's activity level. Measures of physical activity and questions to identify under-eating during dietary recording may help to evaluate secular trends in UR. PMID:17433123

  8. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  9. Dietary fat type and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, M C; Jones, P J

    1998-08-01

    To investigate whether dietary fat source and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin levels and its association of leptin with insulin action, rats were fed diets containing either fish, safflower oil, or beef tallow (20% wt/wt) for 10 weeks. Groups of rats consumed each diet ad libitum or at 85% or 70% of ad libitum energy intake in a design that held fat intake constant. Graded levels of energy restriction caused body weight to decrease (P < 0.001) differently according to the dietary fat provided. Plasma leptin concentrations were 60% higher (P < 0.05) in the groups fed fish oil and safflower oil ad libitum compared with those in the beef tallow group, despite smaller perirenal fat mass and fat cell size in the fish oil-fed animals. Energy restriction resulted in a 62% decrease (P < 0.05) in leptin levels in fish oil- and safflower oil-fed rats, whereas no changes were observed in beef tallow-fed animals. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the fish oil group fed ad libitum compared with those in the two other diet groups. These data demonstrate a hyperleptinemic effect in animals consuming diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid, which can be normalized to the level of saturated fat consumption by mild energy restriction. Thus, dietary fatty acid composition, independent of adipose tissue mass, is an important determinant of circulating leptin level in diet-induced obesity.

  10. Dietary-induced variations in urinary taurine levels of college women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D E; Vivian, V M

    1977-04-01

    Dietary-induced variations in the urinary taurine excretion of healthy college women were investigated. Data were collected in three metabolic studies in which nutritionally adequate diets of constant composition were fed. Variables included isonitrogenous natural food and semi-purified diets; taurine, cystine and meat supplements; and kind and amount of dietary fat. Observed urinary taurine levels were low and ranges were narrower than those reported by other investigators. The low taurine excretion at the completion of the studies was considered evidence that urinary taurine levels in humans is related to the level of body taurine as well as to the level of dietary taurine. Urinary taurine excretion was shown to be related to dietary taurine intake rather than protein (nitrogen) intake. A relationship between kind of dietary fat and taurine excretion is suggested.

  11. Effects of Dietary Glucose on Serum Estrogen Levels and Onset of Puberty in Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangfang; Zhu, Yujing; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic signals and the state of energy reserves have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of reproductive function. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary glucose levels on puberty onset in gilts. Weight-matched, landrace gilts (n = 36) 162±3 days old, weighing about 71.05±4.53 kg, were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups of 12 gilts each. The trial lasted until the onset of puberty. Gilts in each group were supplied with diets containing different levels of glucose as follows: i) starch group (SG) was free of glucose, contained 64% corn derived starch; ii) low-dose group (LDG) contained 19.2% glucose and 44.8% corn derived starch; iii) high-dose group (HDG) contained 30% glucose and 30% corn derived starch. Results indicated: i) The growth performance of gilts were not affected by the addition of glucose, but the age of puberty onset was advanced significantly (p<0.05); ii) Compared with the SG, the concentration of insulin significantly increased before puberty in HDG (p<0.05); iii) There was no difference in serum progesterone (P) levels amongst the different feed groups, however, levels of estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were significantly higher at puberty onset in HDG (p<0.05). Overall, our findings indicate that glucose supplementation significantly advances puberty onset, which can have practical purposes for commercial breeding. PMID:26954130

  12. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer.

  13. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  14. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens.

  15. Dietary Reference Intakes for the macronutrients and energy: considerations for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Zello, Gordon A

    2006-02-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are the North American reference standards for nutrients in the diets of healthy individuals. The macronutrient DRI report includes the standards for energy, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate and fiber, and protein and amino acids. Equations used to identify the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) were also developed based on individual characteristics including levels of physical activity. The DRIs for the macronutrients are presented as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs), as well as Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs), and were arrived at by considering both nutrient inadequacies and excesses. In addition, recommendations are made that would reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as setting intake limits for added sugar; reducing cholesterol, saturated, and trans fatty acids consumption; and increasing levels of physical activity. As healthy individuals include those engaged in various levels of physical activity, the DRIs should apply to the athlete and address their macronutrient and energy needs. This paper summarizes the macronutrient DRI report as applied to the adult, with discussion of the dietary needs of those engaged in various levels of physical activity, including the athlete.

  16. Effects of Dietary Protein Levels for Gestating Gilts on Reproductive Performance, Blood Metabolites and Milk Composition

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y. D.; Jang, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Oh, H. K.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary CP levels in gestation under equal lysine content on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition of gilts. A total of 25 gilts (F1, Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments at breeding in a completely randomized design, and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different CP levels (11%, 13%, 15%, or 17%) at 2.0 kg/d throughout the gestation. Body weight of gilts at 24 h postpartum tended to increase linearly (p = 0.09) as dietary CP level increased. In lactation, backfat thickness, ADFI, litter size and weaning to estrus interval (WEI) did not differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in litter and piglet weight at 21 d of lactation (p<0.05) and weight gain of litter (p<0.01) and piglet (p<0.05) throughout the lactation as dietary CP level increased. Plasma urea nitrogen levels of gilts in gestation and at 24 h postpartum were linearly elevated as dietary CP level increased (p<0.05). Free fatty acid (FFA) levels in plasma of gestating gilts increased as dietary CP level increased up to 15%, and then decreased with quadratic effects (15 d, p<0.01; 90 d, p<0.05), and a quadratic trend (70 d, p = 0.06). There were no differences in plasma FFA, glucose levels and milk composition in lactation. These results indicate that increasing dietary CP level under equal lysine content in gestation increases BW of gilts and litter performance but does not affect litter size and milk composition. Feeding over 13% CP diet for gestating gilts could be recommended to improve litter growth. PMID:25049930

  17. The effect of dietary intervention on serum lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cater, Nilo B; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2002-06-01

    Dietary therapy is the cornerstone of lipid management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key strategies are the reduction of intake of saturated fat, trans unsaturated fat and cholesterol, and the reduction of energy intake to promote weight loss. This approach will produce significant improvements in the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. According to both the American Diabetes Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the primary target of therapy is the serum LDL cholesterol level, with the secondary targets being non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. The recently updated guidelines of the NCEP place new emphasis on increasing soluble fiber intake to 10 to 25 g/d and adding foods fortified with plant stanols/sterols (2 g/d) as options to enhance the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of diet.

  18. Influence of physical activity and dietary restraint on resting energy expenditure in young nonobese females.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, E T; Viers, H F; Detzer, M

    1991-03-01

    An understanding of the physiological and behavioral determinants of resting energy requirements is important to nutritional considerations in females. We examined the influence of endurance training and self-reported dietary restraint on resting metabolic rate and fasting plasma hormones in 44 nonobese females characterized for body composition, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max), and daily energy intake. To examine the association of metabolic rate and dietary restraint with hormonal status, fasting plasma levels of insulin, glucose, and thyroid hormones (total and free fractions of thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were determined. In univariate analysis, resting metabolic rate (kcal.min-1) was positively related to VO2 max (L.min-1) (r = 0.54; p less than 0.01). This relationship, however, was partially dependent on body size, since fat-free mass was also related to resting metabolic rate (r = 0.42; p less than 0.01) and VO2 max (L.min-1) (r = 0.75; p less than 0.01). After controlling for fat-free weight using partial correlation analysis, the relation between RMR and VO2 max was weaker but controlling for fat-free weight using partial correlation analysis, the relation between RMR and VO2 max was weaker but still significant (partial r = 0.38; p less than 0.05). On the other hand, high levels of dietary restraint were associated with higher levels of body fat (r = 0.31; p less than 0.05) and a lower resting metabolic rate (r = -0.29; p = 0.07). These associations persisted after control for differences in fat-free mass. Total energy intake as well as total and free levels of triiodothyronine were not related to resting metabolic rate or level of dietary restraint.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2059897

  19. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  20. Praziquantel form, dietary application method and dietary inclusion level affect palatability and efficacy against monogenean parasites in yellowtail kingfish.

    PubMed

    Partridge, G J; Michael, R J; Thuillier, L

    2014-05-13

    The bitterness of racemic praziquantel (PZQ) currently constrains its use as an in-feed treatment against monogenean flukes in finfish aquaculture. In an effort to increase the palatability of diets containing racemic PZQ for yellowtail kingfish, the palatability and efficacy of 2 forms of racemic PZQ (powder or powder within microcapsules) against natural infestations of skin and gill flukes were compared using 2 different dietary application methods (incorporated within the pellet mash prior to extrusion or surface-coated after extrusion) at active dietary inclusion levels of 8, 16 and 25 g kg-1 in large (3.5-4 kg) yellowtail kingfish. There was no clear benefit of incorporating PZQ into diets prior to extrusion. PZQ microcapsules improved the palatability of PZQ-containing diets but did not completely mask the bitter flavour. At the lowest active dietary inclusion level of 8 g kg-1, ingestion of the diet containing PZQ microcapsules was equal to the control and significantly better than that containing PZQ powder. At an inclusion level of 16 g kg-1, ingestion of the PZQ microcapsule diet was significantly better than that containing the same inclusion of PZQ powder but significantly lower than the control. Consumption of the diet containing 25 g kg-1 of PZQ microcapsules was poor. All fish consuming medicated feeds had a significant reduction in flukes relative to control fish; however, efficacy data and blood serum analysis suggested that diets containing PZQ microcapsules had lower bioavailability than those containing PZQ powder.

  1. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  2. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.

  3. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  4. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  5. Dietary composition and physiologic adaptations to energy restriction

    PubMed Central

    Agus, Michael SD; Swain, Janis F; Larson, Courtney L; Eckert, Elizabeth A; Ludwig, David S

    2010-01-01

    Background The concept of a body weight set point, determined predominantly by genetic mechanisms, has been proposed to explain the poor long-term results of conventional energy-restricted diets in the treatment of obesity. Objective The objective of this study was to examine whether dietary composition affects hormonal and metabolic adaptations to energy restriction. Design A randomized, crossover design was used to compare the effects of a high-glycemic-index (high-GI) and a low-glycemic-index (low-GI) energy-restricted diet. The macronutrient composition of the high-GI diet was (as percent of energy) 67% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 18% fat and that of the low-GI diet was 43% carbohydrate, 27% protein, and 30% fat; the diets had similar total energy, energy density, and fiber contents. The subjects, 10 moderately overweight young men, were studied for 9 d on 2 separate occasions. On days −1 to 0, they consumed self-selected foods ad libitum. On days 1–6, they received an energy-restricted high- or low-GI diet. On days 7–8, the high-or low-GI diets were consumed ad libitum. Results Serum leptin decreased to a lesser extent from day 0 to day 6 with the high-GI diet than with the low-GI diet. Resting energy expenditure declined by 10.5% during the high-GI diet but by only 4.6% during the low-GI diet (7.38 ± 0.39 and 7.78 ± 0.36 MJ/d, respectively, on days 5–6; P = 0.04). Nitrogen balance tended to be more negative, and energy intake from snacks on days 7–8 was greater, with the high-GI than the low-GI diet. Conclusion Diets with identical energy contents can have different effects on leptin concentrations, energy expenditure, voluntary food intake, and nitrogen balance, suggesting that the physiologic adaptations to energy restriction can be modified by dietary composition. PMID:10731495

  6. Dietary carbohydrates enhance lactase/phlorizin hydrolase gene expression at a transcription level in rat jejunum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Kishi, K; Igawa, M; Takase, S; Goda, T

    1998-04-01

    We have previously shown that dietary sucrose stimulates the lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) mRNA accumulation along with a rise in lactase activity in rat jejunum [Goda, Yasutake, Suzuki, Takase and Koldovský (1995) Am. J. Physiol. 268, G1066-G1073]. To elucidate the mechanisms whereby dietary carbohydrates enhance the LPH mRNA expression, 7-week-old rats that had been fed a low-carbohydrate diet (5.5% of energy as starch) were given diets containing various monosaccharides or sucrose for 12h. Among carbohydrates examined, fructose, sucrose, galactose and glycerol elicited an increase in LPH mRNA accumulation along with a rise in lactase activity in the jejunum. By contrast, glucose and alpha-methylglucoside were unable to elicit a significant increase in LPH mRNA levels. To explore a transcriptional mechanism for the carbohydrate-induced increases in LPH mRNA levels, we employed two techniques currently available to estimate transcriptional rate, i.e. RNA protection assays of pre-mRNA using an intron probe, and nuclear run-on assays. Both assays revealed that fructose elicited an increase in transcription of the LPH gene, and that the transcription of LPH was influenced only slightly, if at all, by glucose intake. These results suggest that certain monosaccharides such as fructose or their metabolite(s) are capable of enhancing LPH mRNA levels in the small intestine, and that transcriptional control might play a major role in the carbohydrate-induced increase of LPH mRNA expression.

  7. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  8. The effect of dietary lysine levels on performance and meat yields of White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Adams, R L; Hester, P Y; Stadelman, W J

    1983-04-01

    Four trials were conducted to determine the effects of dietary lysine levels ranging from .70 to 1.00% on performance and yield of different carcass components of male and female White Pekin ducks. Dietary lysine had no significant effect on weights or feed efficiencies at market age of 48 or 49 days; however, significant differences were obtained with yields of component parts for the males in Trial 2 and the females in Trial 3. In these trials, overall meat yields were significantly better for males fed levels of lysine between .80 and .95% and for females fed a lysine level of .90%.

  9. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  10. Effects of Corticosterone and Dietary Energy on Immune Function of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy. PMID:25803644

  11. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998). Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK) and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases. PMID:21645325

  12. Transient decrements in mood during energy deficit are independent of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block desi...

  13. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  14. Effects of decreased dietary roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2014-01-01

    The optimal roughage concentration required in feedlot diets changes continuously for many reasons such as source, availability, price, and interaction with other ingredients in the diet. Wet distillers grains and solubles (WDGS) are common in finishing diets and they contain relatively high amounts of fiber compared with other grains they replace. Therefore, concentration of roughage could be altered when WDGS are included in feedlot diets. There has been very little data published regarding the effects of roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in beef steers. Therefore, the effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing 25% WDGS were evaluated in 8 steers (BW = 362 ± 3.71 kg) using a replicated Latin square. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and period and random effects of square and steer within square were included in the model. Diets consisted of 25% WDGS and the balance being DRC and coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH) replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of dietary dry matter. As a proportion of GE intake, fecal energy loss increased linearly (P = 0.02), and DE decreased linearly (P = 0.02) as dietary level of AH increased. Methane energy loss, as a proportion of GE intake, increased linearly (P < 0.01) and ME decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as dietary concentration of AH increased. Heat production tended (P = 0.10) to decrease reaching a minimum of 10% AH and increased from 10 to 14% AH inclusion. Moreover, as a proportion of GE intake, retained energy (RE) decreased (P < 0.01) as AH level increased in the diet. Reasons for the decrease in RE are 1) the increase in fecal energy loss that is associated with decreased ruminal digestibility of NDF when AH replaced DRC and the shift in ruminal VFA produced, 2) the decreased energy available for animal retention when NDF increased linearly as AH increased in the diet, and 3) the methane and heat

  15. Effects of decreased dietary roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2014-01-01

    The optimal roughage concentration required in feedlot diets changes continuously for many reasons such as source, availability, price, and interaction with other ingredients in the diet. Wet distillers grains and solubles (WDGS) are common in finishing diets and they contain relatively high amounts of fiber compared with other grains they replace. Therefore, concentration of roughage could be altered when WDGS are included in feedlot diets. There has been very little data published regarding the effects of roughage concentration on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in beef steers. Therefore, the effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing 25% WDGS were evaluated in 8 steers (BW = 362 ± 3.71 kg) using a replicated Latin square. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and period and random effects of square and steer within square were included in the model. Diets consisted of 25% WDGS and the balance being DRC and coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH) replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of dietary dry matter. As a proportion of GE intake, fecal energy loss increased linearly (P = 0.02), and DE decreased linearly (P = 0.02) as dietary level of AH increased. Methane energy loss, as a proportion of GE intake, increased linearly (P < 0.01) and ME decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as dietary concentration of AH increased. Heat production tended (P = 0.10) to decrease reaching a minimum of 10% AH and increased from 10 to 14% AH inclusion. Moreover, as a proportion of GE intake, retained energy (RE) decreased (P < 0.01) as AH level increased in the diet. Reasons for the decrease in RE are 1) the increase in fecal energy loss that is associated with decreased ruminal digestibility of NDF when AH replaced DRC and the shift in ruminal VFA produced, 2) the decreased energy available for animal retention when NDF increased linearly as AH increased in the diet, and 3) the methane and heat

  16. Dietary protein intake, energy deficit, and nitrogen balance in normal-weight adults: a randomized controlled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consuming protein at levels higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) may be metabolically advantageous for overweight and obese individuals attempting weight loss. However, the dose-response characteristics that define the optimal level of dietary protein necessary to sustain measures of...

  17. Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. )

    1992-01-01

    The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

  18. Dietary composition affect levels of trace elements in the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects require small amounts of dietary minerals because of the roles minerals serve as antioxidants, enzyme co-factors and as constituents of metalloproteins. We measured the levels of ten trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) in the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris rea...

  19. Dietary Predictors of Maternal Prenatal Blood Mercury Levels in the ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Lowery, Tony; Jones, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very high levels of prenatal maternal mercury have adverse effects on the developing fetal brain. It has been suggested that all possible sources of mercury should be avoided. However, although seafood is a known source of mercury, little is known about other dietary components that contribute to the overall levels of blood mercury. Objective: Our goal was to quantify the contribution of components of maternal diet to prenatal blood mercury level. Methods: Whole blood samples and information on diet and sociodemographic factors were collected from pregnant women (n = 4,484) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The blood samples were assayed for total mercury using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry. Linear regression was used to estimate the relative contributions of 103 dietary variables and 6 sociodemographic characteristics to whole blood total mercury levels (TBM; untransformed and log-transformed) based on R2 values. Results: We estimated that maternal diet accounted for 19.8% of the total variation in ln-TBM, with 44% of diet-associated variability (8.75% of the total variation) associated with seafood consumption (white fish, oily fish, and shellfish). Other dietary components positively associated with TBM included wine and herbal teas, and components with significant negative associations included white bread, meat pies or pasties, and french fries. Conclusions: Although seafood is a source of dietary mercury, seafood appeared to explain a relatively small proportion of the variation in TBM in our UK study population. Our findings require confirmation, but suggest that limiting seafood intake during pregnancy may have a limited impact on prenatal blood mercury levels. Citation: Golding J, Steer CD, Hibbeln JR, Emmett PM, Lowery T, Jones R. 2013. Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1214

  20. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Patricia M; Wright, Alan J; Veltien, Andor; van Asten, Jack J A; Tack, Cees J; Jones, John G; Heerschap, Arend

    2014-05-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced hepatic triglyceride (HTG) accumulation can be attributed to both DNL stimulation and dietary lipid absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose diet on HTG and ATP content and the contributions of dietary lipids and DNL to HTG. Measurements were performed in vivo in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and novel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches. Abdominal adipose tissue volume and intramyocellular lipid levels were comparable between 8-wk fructose- and glucose-fed mice. HTG levels were ∼1.5-fold higher in fructose-fed than in glucose-fed mice (P<0.05). Metabolic flux analysis by (13)C and (2)H MRS showed that this was not due to dietary lipid absorption, but due to DNL stimulation. The contribution of oral lipids to HTG was, after 5 h, 1.60 ± 0.23% for fructose and 2.16 ± 0.35% for glucose diets (P=0.26), whereas that of DNL was higher in fructose than in glucose diets (2.55±0.51 vs.1.13±0.24%, P=0.01). Hepatic energy status, assessed by (31)P MRS, was similar for fructose- and glucose-fed mice. Fructose-induced HTG accumulation is better explained by DNL and not by dietary lipid uptake, while not compromising ATP homeostasis.

  1. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  2. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  3. Dietary magnesium restriction reduces amygdala-hypothalamic GluN1 receptor complex levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Maryam; Whittle, Nigel; Miklósi, András G; Kotlowski, Caroline; Kotlowsky, Caroline; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Berger, Johannes; Bennett, Keiryn L; Singewald, Nicolas; Lubec, Gert

    2015-07-01

    Reduced daily intake of magnesium (Mg(2+)) is suggested to contribute to depression. Indeed, preclinical studies show dietary magnesium restriction (MgR) elicits enhanced depression-like behaviour establishing a causal relationship. Amongst other mechanisms, Mg(2+) gates the activity of N-methyl-D-asparte (NMDA) receptors; however, it is not known whether reduced dietary Mg(2+) intake can indeed affect brain NMDA receptor complexes. Thus, the aim of the current study was to reveal whether MgR induces changes in brain NMDA receptor subunit composition that would indicate altered NMDA receptor regulation. The results revealed that enhanced depression-like behaviour elicited by MgR was associated with reduced amygdala-hypothalamic protein levels of GluN1-containing NMDA complexes. No change in GluN1 mRNA levels was observed indicating posttranslational changes were induced by dietary Mg(2+) restriction. To reveal possible protein interaction partners, GluN1 immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays were carried out revealing the expected GluN1 subunit association with GluN2A, GluN2B, but also novel interactions with GluA1, GluA2 in addition to known downstream signalling proteins. Chronic paroxetine treatment in MgR mice normalized enhanced depression-like behaviour, but did not alter protein levels of GluN1-containing NMDA receptors, indicating targets downstream of the NMDA receptor. Collectively, present data demonstrate that dietary MgR alters brain levels of GluN1-containing NMDA receptor complexes, containing GluN2A, GluN2B, AMPA receptors GluA1, GluA2 and several protein kinases. These data indicate that the modulation of dietary Mg(2+) intake may alter the function and signalling of this receptor complex indicating its involvement in the enhanced depression-like behaviour elicited by MgR.

  4. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    PubMed

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  5. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  6. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  7. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:25678749

  8. Peripartum responses of dairy cows to prepartal feeding level and dietary fatty acid source.

    PubMed

    Hayirli, A; Keisler, D H; Doepel, L; Petit, Hélène

    2011-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding level and oilseed supplementation during the close-up dry period on energy balance (EB), hepatic lipidosis, metabolic status, and productivity in early lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein cows were blocked according to parity and expected calving date and then assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial allocation with 2 feeding levels: ad libitum (AL) or 30% feed restriction (FR), and 3 dietary fatty acid sources: canola seed, linola seed, or flaxseed at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM), to enrich the rations with oleic, linoleic, or linolenic acids, respectively during the last 4 wk of gestation. After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet. Cows fed AL lost less body weight (-2.9 vs. -6.0%) and body condition score (+0.67 vs. -2.30%), and consequently were in more positive EB (+4.6 vs. -0.3 Mcal) during the prepartum period than cows subjected to FR. Postpartum, FR cows lost less body weight (-9.7 vs. -12.4%) and experienced less severe negative EB (-4.5 vs. -7.0 Mcal) than AL cows. Cows fed AL had higher plasma insulin (6.8 vs. 4.4 μIU/mL) and lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations (436 vs. 570 mEq/mL) during the close-up period than cows subjected to FR. Cows fed AL tended to have lower liver glycogen content in early lactation than cows subjected to FR (4.4 vs. 2.9 % of DM) [corrected], but had similar triglyceride content (13.1 ± 1.2 μg/g of DM). Fatty acid source did not influence response variables. In conclusion, eliminating intake depression by FR during the close-up period had positive carryover effects on EB and metabolic status during early lactation, but feeding linoleic and linolenic acids via unprotected oilseeds only had negligible effects on peripartum responses.

  9. Dietary Leucine - An Environmental Modifier of Insulin Resistance Acting on Multiple Levels of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Macotela, Yazmin; Emanuelli, Brice; Bång, Anneli M.; Espinoza, Daniel O.; Boucher, Jeremie; Beebe, Kirk; Gall, Walter; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor—leucine—can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues and at multiple levels of metabolism. Mice were placed on a normal or high fat diet (HFD). Dietary leucine was doubled by addition to the drinking water. mRNA, protein and complete metabolomic profiles were assessed in the major insulin sensitive tissues and serum, and correlated with changes in glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling. After 8 weeks on HFD, mice developed obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation, as well as alterations in metabolomic profile of amino acid metabolites, TCA cycle intermediates, glucose and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated with a decrease in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in inflammation in adipose tissue. These changes occurred despite an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase indicating enhanced activation of mTOR, a phenomenon normally associated with insulin resistance. These data indicate that modest changes in a single environmental/nutrient factor can modify multiple metabolic and signaling pathways and modify HFD induced metabolic syndrome by acting at a systemic level on multiple tissues. These data also suggest that increasing dietary leucine may provide an adjunct in the management of obesity-related insulin resistance. PMID:21731668

  10. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  11. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  12. Elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts demonstrate energy and dietary intake deficiencies during periods of intense training.

    PubMed

    Michopoulou, Eleni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Kambas, Antonios; Leontsini, Diamanda; Michalopoulou, Maria; Tournis, Symeon; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2011-11-01

    This study determined dietary intake and energy balance of elite premenarcheal rhythmic gymnasts during their preseason training. Forty rhythmic gymnasts and 40 sedentary age-matched females (10-12 yrs) participated in the study. Anthropometric profile and skeletal ages were determined. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed to estimate daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, and resting metabolic rate. Groups demonstrated comparable height, bone age, pubertal development, resting metabolic rate. Gymnasts had lower body mass, BMI, body fat than age-matched controls. Although groups demonstrated comparable daily energy intake, gymnasts exhibited a higher daily energy expenditure resulting in a daily energy deficit. Gymnasts also had higher carbohydrate intake but lower fat and calcium intake. Both groups were below the recommended dietary allowances for fiber, water, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin intake. Gymnasts may need to raise their daily energy intake to avoid the energy deficit during periods of intense training. PMID:22109784

  13. Hypercholesterolemia screening. Does knowledge of blood cholesterol level affect dietary fat intake?

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, M.; Godin, G.; Vézina, L.; Maziade, J.; Desharnais, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowing blood cholesterol test results influences people's intention to lower their dietary fat intake and to assess changes in diet after 3 months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. SETTING: Two hospital-based family medicine centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 patients aged 18 to 65, without prior knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels, were recruited. Seventy did not appear for their appointments, and 37 did not meet study criteria, leaving 419 participants. From that group, 391 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients submitted to cholesterol screening were randomly assigned to one of two groups, completing the study questionnaires either before (control group) or after (experimental group) being informed of their screening test results. All participants were called 3 months after transmission of test results to assess their dietary fat intake at that time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in intention to adopt a low-fat diet reported between the experimental and control groups and differences in dietary fat intake modification after 3 months between patients with normal and abnormal blood cholesterol test results. RESULTS: Knowledge of test results influenced patients' intentions to adopt low-fat diets (F1,417 = 5.4, P = .02). Patients reported lower mean dietary fat intake after 3 months than at baseline (P < .0001). The reduction was greater in patients with abnormal screening results (F2,388 = 3.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Being informed of personal blood cholesterol levels effects an immediate change in eating habits that translates into reduced dietary fat intake. PMID:9640523

  14. Fate of dietary cadmium at two intake levels in the odonate nymph, Aeshna canadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.A.; Lasenby, D.C.; Evans, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    While it is known that Cadmium (Cd) is concentrated from the water to the tissues of aquatic biota through respiration and surface adsorption, the role of food in the uptake of Cd is not well understood, and current evidence is contradictory. In study the flux of dietary Cd through aquatic invertebrates, it has been repeatedly noted that the Cd concentration of faecal pellets is much greater than that of the food source. This seems to indicate that the majority of dietary Cd is subsequently egested, and that food is therefore not an important source of Cd accumulation. In the present study the authors monitored the flux of dietary Cd using the mass balance technique with the dragonfly nymph (Aeshna canadensis). The use of a predatory test organism eliminates the problem of the predator selecting food of high C4 concentration, as the animals are fed discrete, quantifiable prey items of known metal concentration. Faeces of predatory invertebrates are generally excreted in the form of compact pellets facilitating chemicals analysis of determination of metal egestion. Nymphs were first fed rations of a Cd concentration typical of prey items found in relatively unpolluted waters, and were then exposed to a Cd-enriched diet to determine if a change in metal flux and body accumulation occurred at elevated levels of dietary intake.

  15. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  16. Comparison of estimated energy intake using Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-determined energy expenditure in children

    PubMed Central

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Hjorth, Mads F.; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Brockhoff, Per B.; Andersen, Lene F.; Tetens, Inge; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) project carried out a school meal study to assess the impact of a New Nordic Diet (NND). The random controlled trial involved 834 children aged 8–11 in nine local authority schools in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children) to collect data from the children. Objective To compare the energy intake (EI) of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy expenditure (TEE) as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore an accelerometer for two periods of seven consecutive days: at baseline, when they ate their usual packed lunches and at intervention when they were served the NND. EI was estimated using WebDASC, and TEE was calculated from accelerometer-derived activity energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and diet-induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods of collecting dietary data and proved both effective and acceptable with children aged 8–11, even with perhaps less familiar foods of the NND. Conclusions WebDASC is a useful method that provided a reasonably accurate measure of EI at group level when compared to TEE derived from accelerometer-determined physical activity in children. WebDASC will benefit future research in this area. PMID:24358037

  17. Dietary Fatty Acid Metabolism is Affected More by Lipid Level than Source in Senegalese Sole Juveniles: Interactions for Optimal Dietary Formulation.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Estévez, Alicia; Bellot, Olga; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gisbert, Enric; Morais, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of dietary lipid level and source on lipid absorption and metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Juvenile fish were fed 4 experimental diets containing either 100 % fish oil (FO) or 25 % FO and 75 % vegetable oil (VO; rapeseed, linseed and soybean oils) at two lipid levels (~8 or ~18 %). Effects were assessed on fish performance, body proximate composition and lipid accumulation, activity of hepatic lipogenic and fatty acid oxidative enzymes and, finally, on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in liver and intestine, and to intestinal absorption, both pre- and postprandially. Increased dietary lipid level had no major effects on growth and feeding performance (FCR), although fish fed FO had marginally better growth. Nevertheless, diets induced significant changes in lipid accumulation and metabolism. Hepatic lipid deposits were higher in fish fed VO, associated to increased hepatic ATP citrate lyase activity and up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) mRNA levels post-prandially. However, lipid level had a larger effect on gene expression of metabolic (lipogenesis and β-oxidation) genes than lipid source, mostly at fasting. High dietary lipid level down-regulated fatty acid synthase expression in liver and intestine, and increased cpt1 mRNA in liver. Large lipid accumulations were observed in the enterocytes of fish fed high lipid diets. This was possibly a result of a poor capacity to adapt to high dietary lipid level, as most genes involved in intestinal absorption were not regulated in response to the diet.

  18. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity.

  19. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  20. Dietary energy density is associated with increased intake in free-living humans.

    PubMed

    de Castro, John M

    2004-02-01

    Dietary energy density markedly influences the daily dietary intake of humans. The present study examined the relation of energy density to dietary intake and body size in 371 male and 581 female adults. The subjects were free-living and provided a detailed record of their everyday food and drink intake in 7-d food diaries. The reported diets were analyzed for the relation of energy density to body size and to per-meal, daily, and weekly dietary intake. High energy density was associated with greater (P < 0.001) total intake, especially of fat, when intake was correlated with energy density (r = 0.26, P < 0.001) and when the daily intake of individual participants was correlated with their daily dietary density (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). These results occurred regardless of sex, low reporting, or the inclusion of drinks in the energy density calculations. High energy density was also associated with a high rate of intake (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and large meal sizes (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). However, energy density was not correlated with body size, height, weight, or body mass index. High energy density appears to be related to greater overall intake in the short-term, but there may be compensation over the long term, with no net effect on body size. PMID:14747669

  1. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-10-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150-200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products.

  2. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-01-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150–200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products. PMID:25293539

  3. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective ...

  4. The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (< 6% dietary energy), either by reducing the total fat content of the diet or by exchanging saturated fat with unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL

  5. Dietary protein level and ruminal degradability for mohair production in Angora goats.

    PubMed

    Sahlu, T; Fernandez, J M; Lu, C D; Manning, R

    1992-05-01

    Twenty-eight Angora goat doelings (average BW 22.1 kg) were used in a 150-d study to examine the effects of dietary CP level and degradability on mohair fiber production. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was instituted using conventional, solvent-extracted soybean meal (high degradability) or expelled, heat-treated soybean meal (low degradability) incorporated into low- (12%) or high- (19%) CP diets. Grease and clean mohair weights were greater (P less than .05) in goats fed the diets containing 19% CP. Mohair fiber diameter was not affected (P greater than .10) by dietary CP level. Clean mohair weight tended (P less than .08) to be higher in the goats fed diets containing expelled, heat-treated soybean meal. Body weight gains were not affected (P greater than .10) by CP level or degradability, whereas DMI increased (P less than .01) with increasing CP level. Ruminal fluid pH and total VFA concentrations were not affected (P greater than .10) by diet. Ruminal ammonia N concentration increased (P less than .05) as CP level in the diet increased, and postprandial changes in concentrations were less noticeable in the group fed expelled, heat-treated soybean meal. Plasma urea N (P less than .001) and total protein (P less than .01) concentration increased as dietary CP level increased. Plasma glucose was elevated (P less than .001) 2 h after feeding in the goats fed conventional, solvent-extracted soybean meal, whereas glucagon concentrations were greater at 0 and 4 h in the group fed expelled, heat-treated soybean meal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526921

  6. Dietary intakes and plasma organochlorine contaminant levels among Great Lakes fish eaters.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Sheeshka, Judy; Murkin, Elaine J; Kearney, Jill; Scott, Fran; Ferron, Lilliane A; Weber, Jean-Phillippe

    2002-01-01

    Nutritional intakes and contaminant burdens should be assessed jointly in individuals who are at high risk of environmental exposures to contaminants through food. In this study, the authors used shore surveys and community contacts to recruit 91 individuals who frequently consumed Great Lakes fish. These individuals provided dietary intake information and fasting blood samples for lipid and contaminant analyses. Participants ate an annual median of 88 meals of Great Lakes fish. Asian-Canadians consumed more total fish meals (i.e., Great Lakes, non-Great Lakes, and other) (medians = 213.0 females, 223.0 males) than Euro-Canadians (medians = 131.0 females, 137.5 males). The higher total fish consumption by Asian-Canadians was associated with a lower percentage of energy derived from fat, higher protein and iron intakes, and higher plasma concentrations of omega-3 essential fatty acids (e.g., median docosahexaenoic acid levels [microgram/l] in Asian-Canadian females = 5.48, males = 4.38; in Euro-Canadian females = 2.93, males = 2.27). Plasma organochlorine contaminant lipid weight concentrations varied by country of origin and by gender (e.g., median total polychlorinated biphenyls [microgram/kg] in Asian-Canadian females = 490.6, males = 729.0; in Euro-Canadian females = 339.6, males = 355.5). Age was the most consistent predictor (+ve) of contaminant concentrations, followed by years spent in Canada (for Asian-Canadians). Associations with sport fish consumption variables were less consistent than for the aforementioned predictors. Given both the health benefits and potential risks of fish consumption, policies that address diverse ethnocultural groups should support continued consumption of sport fish, but from less-contaminated sources than are currently used.

  7. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species.

    PubMed

    Schrama, J W; Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Heinsbroek, L T N; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (k(gDE)). Furthermore, literature data on k(gDE) across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient composition. A total of twelve groups of fish were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two diets ('fat' v. 'starch') and two feeding levels ('low' v. 'high'). In the 'fat'-diet, 125 g fish oil and in the 'starch'-diet 300 g maize starch were added to 875 g of an identical basal mixture. Fish were fed restrictively one of two ration levels ('low' or 'high') for estimating k(gDE). Nutrient digestibility, N and energy balances were measured. For estimating k(gDE), data of the present study were combined with previous data of Nile tilapia fed similar diets to satiation. The type of NPE affected k(gDE) (0.561 and 0.663 with the 'starch' and 'fat'-diets, respectively; P < 0.001). Across fish species, literature values of k(gDE) range from 0.31 to 0.82. Variability in k(gDE) was related to dietary macronutrient composition, the trophic level of the fish species and the composition of growth (fat:protein gain ratio). The across-species comparison suggested that the relationships of k(gDE) with trophic level and with growth composition were predominantly induced by dietary macronutrient composition. Reported k(gDE) values increased linearly with increasing dietary fat content and decreasing dietary carbohydrate content. In contrast, k(gDE) related curvilinearly to dietary crude protein content. In conclusion, energy utilisation for growth is influenced by dietary macronutrient composition.

  8. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  9. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.

  10. Perfluorinated compounds: levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E

    2013-11-15

    The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA.

  11. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  12. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting. PMID:27231732

  13. Dietary energy balance modulates ovarian cancer progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-08-15

    A high energy balance, or caloric excess, accounts as a tumor promoting factor, while a negative energy balance via caloric restriction, has been shown to delay cancer progression. The effect of energy balance on ovarian cancer progression was investigated in an isogeneic immunocompetent mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer kept on a regimen of regular diet, high energy diet (HED) and calorie restricted diet (CRD), prior to inoculating the animals intraperitoneally with the mouse ovarian surface epithelial ID8 cancer cells. Tumor evaluation revealed that mice group on HED displayed the most extensive tumor formation with the highest tumor score at all organ sites (diaphragm, peritoneum, bowel, liver, kidney, spleen), accompanied with increased levels of insulin, leptin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), VEGF and interleukin 6 (IL-6). On the other hand, the mice group on CRD exhibited the least tumor burden associated with a significant reduction in levels of insulin, IGF-1, leptin, MCP-1, VEGF and IL-6. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tumors from HED mice showed higher activation of Akt and mTOR with decreased adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 activation, while tumors from the CRD group exhibited the reverse profile. In conclusion, ovarian cancer growth and metastasis occurred more aggressively under HED conditions and was significantly curtailed under CRD. The suggested mechanism involves modulated secretion of growth factors, cytokines and altered regulation of AMPK and SIRT1 that converges on mTOR inhibition. While the role of a high energy state in ovarian cancer has not been confirnmed in the literature, the current findings support investigating the potential impact of diet modulation as adjunct to other anticancer therapies and as possible individualized treatment strategy of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  14. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus).

    PubMed

    Saha, Debashis; Gupta, Radhe Shyam; Singh Baghel, Ramesh Pratap; Khare, Ankur

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg), milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw) and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Ether extract (EE), Crude fiber (CF), Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%. PMID:25610572

  15. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Debashis; Gupta, Radhe Shyam; Singh Baghel, Ramesh Pratap; Khare, Ankur

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg), milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw) and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Ether extract (EE), Crude fiber (CF), Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%. PMID:25610572

  16. Correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels with depression scales in young female students.

    PubMed

    Amani, Reza; Saeidi, Somaye; Nazari, Zahra; Nematpour, Sorour

    2010-11-01

    It has been suggested that mood disorders and depressive status may be accompanied by lowered zinc status in the body, and adequate consumption of zinc increases a general perceived well-being. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentrations and dietary zinc intakes with depression scores in university female students. In the first phase, Beck's depression questionnaire was applied in a random sampling of 308 selected 20-25-year-old female students (one third of total students in Ahvaz Jondi-Shapour University of Medical Sciences Golestan dormitories) to assess the major depressive disorder (MDD) scales. Then, in the second phase, 23 students who identified as having moderate and severe depression were selected as the case group, and 23 healthy age matched were chosen as the controls. Each of them completed a 12-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire containing the main food sources of zinc in the usual dietary patterns and also a 24-h food recall questionnaire to assure the daily zinc intakes. Daily zinc intakes were obtained by multiplying each portion size by its zinc content using food tables. A 5-ml blood sample was taken for further serum zinc status using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Pearson's r was used to show the correlation between quantitative variables. Both daily zinc intake and serum zinc concentrations of MDD group were about two thirds of healthy index (p < 0.01). Depressed individuals used to eat lower servings of red meats and chicken as the main food sources of zinc in students' usual diets (p < 0.001). Consumption of other foods as the sources of zinc was not significantly different in two groups. A linear significant correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels was seen in samples (r = 0.62; p < 0.001) and MDD students (r = 0.55; p < 0.001). There was a linear inverse correlation between Beck questionnaire scores and serum zinc concentrations

  17. The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the intake of DM, OM, EE, ADF, and NDF as a function of dietary protein levels. Dry matter intake average was 1.7% of BW. CP and N intake showed a linear increase as a function of increasing protein level in diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed on the CP and NDF digestibility coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW

  18. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05) in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05) in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  19. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05) in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05) in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  20. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising obesity rates have been linked to the consumption of energy-dense diets. We examined whether dietary energy density was associated with obesity and related disorders, including insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative ...

  1. Impact of a School Nutrition Policy to Middle School Students Dietary Energy Density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and linked to the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density (DED) is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's DED. The Texas Pub...

  2. Effects of dietary composition of energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced energy expenditure following weight loss is thought to contribute to weight gain. However, the effect of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance has not been studied. To examine the effects of 3 diets differing widely in macronutrient composition and glycemic...

  3. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  4. Influence of different dietary zinc levels on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone level and zinc status in male Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Liu, H Y; Sun, M H; Yang, G Q; Jia, C L; Zhang, M; Zhu, Y J; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of zinc (Zn) on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone and Zn profile in male Cashmere goats. Twenty-eight male Liaoning Cashmere goats, 3 years old and body weight at 56.2 ± 2.45 kg, were assigned to four groups. The animals were fed a basal diet containing of 45.9 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM) basis and supplemented with 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg Zn (reagent grade ZnSO₄ ·7H₂ O) per kg DM for 90 days. There was no significant effect on growth and diameter of cashmere fibre for Zn supplemented in diets. However, the length and growth rate of wool were improved (p < 0.05) with dietary Zn. The length and growth rate of wool were higher (p < 0.05) for the groups supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with that of 20 mg Zn/kg DM treatment group. Plasma testosterone concentration was increased for Zn supplemented in diets, and the testosterone concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in goats fed on the diet supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with those fed on basal diet. Plasma Zn concentrations increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn and supplemented with 40 and 80 mg Zn/kg DM groups improved plasma Zn concentration (p < 0.05) more than 20 mg Zn/kg DM group. Fibre Zn content was higher (p < 0.05) in groups supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with control group, but no difference between Zn-supplemented groups (p > 0.05). The activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase was increased (p < 0.05) due to dietary Zn supplementation; however, no difference was found between supplemented treatment groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Zn content (45.9 mg Zn/kg DM) in control diet was insufficient for optimal wool growth performance, and we recommended the level of dietary Zn for such goats is 86 mg/kg DM during the breeding season and cashmere fibre growing period.

  5. Dietary electrolyte balance affects the nutrient digestibility and maintenance energy expenditure of Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Orozco, Z G A; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2013-12-14

    Acid-base disturbances caused by environmental factors and physiological events including feeding have been well documented in several fish species, but little is known about the impact of dietary electrolyte balance (dEB). In the present study, we investigated the effect of feeding diets differing in dEB (-100, 200, 500 or 800 mEq/kg diet) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and energy balance of Nile tilapia. After 5 weeks on the test diet, the growth of the fish was linearly affected by the dEB levels (P< 0·001), with the lowest growth being observed in the fish fed the 800 dEB diet. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of fat was unaffected by dEB, whereas the ADC of DM and protein were curvilinearly related to the dEB levels, being lowest and highest in the 200 and 800 dEB diets, respectively. Stomach chyme pH at 3 h after feeding was linearly related to the dEB levels (P< 0·05). At the same time, blood pH of the heart (P< 0·05) and caudal vein (P< 0·01) was curvilinearly related to the dEB levels, suggesting the influence of dEB on postprandial metabolic alkalosis. Consequently, maintenance energy expenditure (MEm) was curvilinearly related to the dEB levels (P< 0·001), being 54 % higher in the 800 dEB group (88 kJ/kg(0·8) per d) than in the 200 dEB group (57 kJ/kg(0·8) per d). These results suggest that varying dEB levels in a diet have both positive and negative effects on fish. On the one hand, they improve nutrient digestibility; on the other hand, they challenge the acid-base homeostasis (pH) of fish, causing an increase in MEm, and thereby reduce the energy required for growth.

  6. Effects of low dietary levels of methyl mercury on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.

    1974-01-01

    Mallard ducks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 ppm or 3 ppm mercury (as methylmercury dicyandiamide). Health of adults and reproductive success were studied. The dietary level of 3 ppm mercury had harmful effects on reproduction, although it did not appear to affect the health of the adults during the 12 months of dosage. Ducks that were fed the diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury reproduced as well as controls, and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury grew faster in the first week of life than did controls....The greatest harm to reproduction associated with the diet containing 3 ppm mercury was an increase in duckling mortality, but reduced egg laying and increased embryonic mortality also occurred....During the peak of egg laying, eggs laid by controls tended to be heavier than eggs laid by ducks fed either level of mercury; however, there seemed to be no eggshell thinning associated with mercury treatment. Levels of mercury reached about 1 ppm in eggs from ducks fed a dietary dosage of 0.5 ppm mercury and between 6 and 9 ppm in the eggs from ducks fed 3 ppm mercury.

  7. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  8. Blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase levels and dietary selenium of free-living and institutionalized elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Lane, H W; Warren, D C; Taylor, B J; Stool, E

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selenium status of healthy free-living and institutionalized elderly people. For the 36 free-living elderly dietary selenium intake averaged 94 +/- 44 micrograms Se/day and a positive correlation coefficient was found between dietary selenium and dietary calories (r = 0.46; P less than 0.05), dietary protein (r = 0.60; P less than 0.01), and dietary fat (r = 0.43; P less than 0.05). Diet histories from the institutionalized subjects revealed a strong correlation coefficient between selenium and carbohydrate (r = 0.51; P less than 0.005) and selenium and calories (r = 0.44; P less than 0.05). Mean erythrocyte and plasma selenium levels for the free-living subjects were 0.20 +/- 0.06 micrograms/ml and 0.10 +/- 0.03 micrograms/ml, respectively, while mean erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was 27.5 +/- 5.0 units/g protein. For the free-living subjects positive correlation was found between dietary selenium and erythrocyte selenium levels (r = 0.38; P less than 0.05) but no correlation existed between dietary selenium and plasma selenium (r = 0.13; P greater than 0.05) and RBC GSH-Px (r = -0.15; P greater than 0.05). The dietary selenium levels and blood selenium and GSH-Px levels were above the levels found in populations proposed to be at risk for selenium deficiency. Thus, these elderly appear to have adequate selenium status.

  9. Dietary Fatty Acid Metabolism is Affected More by Lipid Level than Source in Senegalese Sole Juveniles: Interactions for Optimal Dietary Formulation.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Estévez, Alicia; Bellot, Olga; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gisbert, Enric; Morais, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of dietary lipid level and source on lipid absorption and metabolism in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Juvenile fish were fed 4 experimental diets containing either 100 % fish oil (FO) or 25 % FO and 75 % vegetable oil (VO; rapeseed, linseed and soybean oils) at two lipid levels (~8 or ~18 %). Effects were assessed on fish performance, body proximate composition and lipid accumulation, activity of hepatic lipogenic and fatty acid oxidative enzymes and, finally, on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in liver and intestine, and to intestinal absorption, both pre- and postprandially. Increased dietary lipid level had no major effects on growth and feeding performance (FCR), although fish fed FO had marginally better growth. Nevertheless, diets induced significant changes in lipid accumulation and metabolism. Hepatic lipid deposits were higher in fish fed VO, associated to increased hepatic ATP citrate lyase activity and up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) mRNA levels post-prandially. However, lipid level had a larger effect on gene expression of metabolic (lipogenesis and β-oxidation) genes than lipid source, mostly at fasting. High dietary lipid level down-regulated fatty acid synthase expression in liver and intestine, and increased cpt1 mRNA in liver. Large lipid accumulations were observed in the enterocytes of fish fed high lipid diets. This was possibly a result of a poor capacity to adapt to high dietary lipid level, as most genes involved in intestinal absorption were not regulated in response to the diet. PMID:26563870

  10. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  11. Both genetic and dietary factors underlie individual differences in DNA damage levels and DNA repair capacity.

    PubMed

    Slyskova, Jana; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Karlsen, Anette; Carlsen, Monica H; Novosadova, Vendula; Blomhoff, Rune; Vodicka, Pavel; Collins, Andrew R

    2014-04-01

    The interplay between dietary habits and individual genetic make-up is assumed to influence risk of cancer, via modulation of DNA integrity. Our aim was to characterize internal and external factors that underlie inter-individual variability in DNA damage and repair and to identify dietary habits beneficial for maintaining DNA integrity. Habitual diet was estimated in 340 healthy individuals using a food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers of antioxidant status were quantified in fasting blood samples. Markers of DNA integrity were represented by DNA strand breaks, oxidized purines, oxidized pyrimidines and a sum of all three as total DNA damage. DNA repair was characterized by genetic variants and functional activities of base and nucleotide excision repair pathways. Sex, fruit-based food consumption and XPG genotype were factors significantly associated with the level of DNA damage. DNA damage was higher in women (p=0.035). Fruit consumption was negatively associated with the number of all measured DNA lesions, and this effect was mediated mostly by β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol (p<0.05). XPG 1104His homozygotes appeared more vulnerable to DNA damage accumulation (p=0.001). Sex and individual antioxidants were also associated with DNA repair capacity; both the base and nucleotide excision repairs were lower in women and the latter increased with higher plasma levels of ascorbic acid and α-carotene (p<0.05). We have determined genetic and dietary factors that modulate DNA integrity. We propose that the positive health effect of fruit intake is partially mediated via DNA damage suppression and a simultaneous increase in DNA repair capacity. PMID:24674629

  12. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  13. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    An, S H; Kim, D W; An, B K

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry. PMID:26954217

  14. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (P<0.01). Energy restriction induced an increase in exercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of

  15. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, D. E.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included. PMID:25557670

  16. The effect of different dietary sodium levels on blood mineral concentrations and tibia mineralization in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J; Lichtorowicz, K; Zduńczyk, Z; Juśkiewicz, J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of sodium in diets with and without sodium chloride on mineral metabolism, including blood electrolyte levels and tibia mineralization parameters, in young turkeys (to six weeks of age). The influence of diets with a low (L), medium (M) and high (H) sodium content, at 0.34, 1.34 and 2.82 g/kg respectively, was compared. The content of chloride and potassium in turkey diets (1.7 - 5.9 and 11 g/kg, respectively) was above the recommended levels. The sodium-deficient diet L decreased the serum concentrations of sodium, chloride and phosphorus, and it increased the serum levels of calcium and magnesium in turkeys, compared with groups M and H. Relative to group L, different dietary sodium levels in groups M and H contributed to a similar increase in the body weights of birds (1.06 vs. 1.46 and 1.44 kg, p < 0.001) and in the absolute (4.60 vs. 6.83 and 6.62 g, p < 0.001) and relative tibia weight (0.42 vs. 0.46 and 0.46% body weight, p = 0.031). No significant differences were found between groups with respect to the content of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibia dry matter. Supplemental sodium increased the bone density index (from 50.6 to 68.4 and 66.3 mg/mm in groups L, M and H, respectively, p < 0.001), the maximum bending moment (from 5.27 to 7.40 and 7.33 N/mm, p = 0.002) and the minimum breaking strength of tibia (from 0.136 to 0.191 and 0.189, p = 0.002). In conclusion, our study indicates that the applied dietary treatment with a moderate sodium level (1.34 g/kg) resulted in a rate of bird growth and tibia mineralization similar to those observed with the treatment with much higher Na content (2.82 g/kg).

  17. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. PMID:20102853

  18. Effects of dietary lactose on incidence and levels of salmonellae on carcasses of broiler chickens grown to market age.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, A L; Yamaguchi, W; Skinner, J T; Waldroup, P W

    1992-02-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of lactose in the diet of broilers grown to market weights on incidence and levels of salmonellae on the carcass. Lactose was substituted for sand in otherwise nutritionally complete diets at levels of 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% and fed from day-old to 49 days of age. Birds were reared on used (Trial 1) or new (Trial 2) litter and inoculated via the drinking water on Days 2, 7, and 14 with 10(8) cfu/mL Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028). At 50 days, 12 (Trial 1) or 24 (Trial 2) birds per treatment were processed and prechill carcasses were evaluated for salmonellae incidence and level by the most probable number (MPN) method. Body weight of male broilers was significantly reduced by feeding diets containing up to 7.5% lactose. Feed intake of broilers fed diets containing lactose was significantly reduced and feed utilization improved, suggesting that lactose provided some metabolizable energy. The degree of litter caking was significantly increased, and cecal pH was significantly decreased as dietary lactose increased. Prechill carcases of broilers fed diets with 7.5% lactose had significantly higher levels of salmonellae than did prechill carcasses of broilers fed 0% lactose. The results of the present study suggest that supplementing poultry diets with lactose is not a viable means in itself of reducing or eliminating salmonellae incidence or levels on processed broiler carcasses.

  19. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Q. F.; Cherry, P.; Doster, A.; Murdoch, R.; Adeola, O.; Applegate, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P < 0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P < 0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P < 0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth

  20. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P<0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P<0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P<0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and

  1. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione.

  2. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione. PMID:23095819

  3. High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

    2013-12-14

    Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ≥ 70 % of FM with PP and ≥ 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    PubMed Central

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:27088010

  5. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels.

    PubMed

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60-80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:27088010

  6. Influence of Dietary Selenium Species on Selenoamino Acid Levels in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Godin, Simon; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Prabhu, Philip Antony Jesu; Kaushik, Sachi; Médale, Françoise; Bouyssiere, Brice

    2015-07-22

    Two forms of selenium (Se) supplementation of fish feeds were compared in two different basal diets. A 12-week feeding trial was performed with rainbow trout fry using either a plant-based or a fish meal-based diet. Se yeast and selenite were used for Se supplementation. Total Se and Se speciation were determined in both diets and whole body of trout fry using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two selenoamino acids, selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenocysteine (SeCys), were determined in whole body of fry after enzymatic digestion using protease type XIV with a prior derivatization step in the case of SeCys. The plant-based basal diet was found to have a much lower total Se than the fish meal-based basal diet with concentrations of 496 and 1222 μg(Se) kg(-1), respectively. Dietary Se yeast had a higher ability to raise whole body Se compared to selenite. SeMet concentration in the fry was increased only in the case of Se yeast supplementation, whereas SeCys levels were similar at the end of the feeding trial for both Se supplemented forms. The results show that the fate of dietary Se in fry is highly dependent on the form brought through supplementation and that a plant-based diet clearly benefits from Se supplementation. PMID:26161943

  7. Effects of dietary protein-energy interrelationships on Holstein steer performance and ruminal bacterial fermentation in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Chester-Jones, H; Stern, M D; Metwally, H M; Linn, J G; Ziegler, D M

    1991-12-01

    In vivo and in vitro 3 x 2 factorial experiments were conducted concurrently to evaluate the incorporation of 0, 15, or 30% sugar beet pulp (SBP) as an energy source in diets fed to growing Holstein steers with either soybean meal (SBM) or alcohol-treated, defatted soybean flakes (ATSBF) as primary supplemental protein sources. Three groups of 42 Holstein steers each were fed six different diets from 54 kg initial BW to 320 kg in three experimental periods. There were no overall SBP level x protein source interactions (P greater than .05). Beet pulp level tended to decrease ADG (linear, P = .05) and increase feed/gain (linear, P less than .05) and DMI (quadratic, P less than .05). Each grower diet was used in a substrate for ruminal microbial metabolism in six dual-flow, continuous-culture fermenters. Organic matter and carbohydrate digestion were similar (P greater than .05) among diets. Increasing dietary levels of SBP caused a concomitant increase (P less than .05) in acetate and decrease (P less than .05) in butyrate and isobutyrate concentrations. Beet pulp level x protein source interactions (P less than .05) were observed for CP degradation, ammonia and nonammonia N, and dietary N flow. Crude protein degradation was higher (P less than .05) for the 0% SBP with SBM diet (81.3%) than for the 30% SBP with ATSBF diet (64.4%). Efficiency of bacterial synthesis was similar (P greater than .05) among diets. Results indicated that SBP is an effective dietary energy source for high-energy grower diets at 15 or 30% of the DM but may cause a decrease in some performance traits. There were no nutritional benefits of using ATSBF vs SBM as the supplemental N source.

  8. Dietary thiamin level influences levels of its diphosphate form and thiamin-dependent enzymic activities of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Blair, P V; Kobayashi, R; Edwards, H M; Shay, N F; Baker, D H; Harris, R A

    1999-03-01

    This study was prompted by our incomplete understanding of the mechanism responsible for the clinical benefits of pharmacological doses of thiamin in some patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and the question of whether thiamin diphosphate (TDP), a potent inhibitor of the activity of the protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates the isolated branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, affects the activity state of the complex. Rats were fed a chemically-defined diet containing graded levels of thiamin (0, 0.275, 0.55, 5.5, and 55 mg thiamin/kg diet). Maximal weight gain was attained over a 3-wk period only in rats fed diets with 5.5 and 55 mg thiamin/kg. Feeding rats the thiamin-free diet for just 2 d caused loss of nearly half of the TDP from liver mitochondria. Three more days caused over 70% loss, an additional 3 wk, over 90%. Starvation for 2 d had no effect, suggesting a mechanism for conservation of TDP in this nutritional state. Mitochondrial TDP was higher in rats fed pharmacological amounts of thiamin (55 mg thiamin/kg diet) than in rats fed adequate thiamin for maximal growth. Varying dietary thiamin had marked but opposite effects on the activities of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH) and BCKDH. Thiamin deficiency decreased alpha-KGDH activity, increased BCKDH activity, and increased the proportion of BCKDH in the active, dephosphorylated, state. Excess dietary thiamin had the opposite effects. TDP appears to be more tightly associated with alpha-KGDH than BCKDH in thiamin-deficient rats, perhaps denoting retention of alpha-KGDH activity at the expense of BCKDH activity. Thus, thiamin deficiency and excess cause large changes in mitochondrial TDP levels that have a major influence on the activities of the keto acid dehydrogenase complexes.

  9. Association between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake/blood level and risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwei; Zhang, Honghe; Chen, Jiamin; Shi, Yu; Cai, Jianting; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua

    2014-09-15

    We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between dietary intake/blood levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene) and gastric cancer risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted until April 2013 in Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied. Forty articles were finally included in the present study. Higher dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (for vitamin C, pooled OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.65; for vitamin E, pooled OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.74; for β-carotene, pooled OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.70; for α-carotene, pooled OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). Subgroup analyses suggested the effects of these antioxidant vitamins were different in gastric cancer subtypes. As indicated by dose-response analysis, a 100 mg/day increment of vitamin C intake conferred an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.90); a 15 mg/day increment of vitamin E intake conferred an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.94); and a 5 mg/day increment in β-carotene intake conferred an OR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.04). No significant association was observed between blood vitamin C, α-tocopherol, γ- tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene levels and gastric cancer risk. In conclusion, dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk while no such association was observed for blood levels of these antioxidant vitamins, thus the results should be interpreted cautiously.

  10. Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Najafabadi, Mojgan Mortazavi; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED), renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake of patients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED (in kcal/g) was calculated with the use of energy content and weight of solid foods and energy yielding beverages. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results. Patients in the first tertile of DED consumed more amounts of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B2. After adjusting for confounders, we could not find any significant trend for BUN and Cr across tertiles of DED. In multivariate model, an increased risk of being in the higher stage of CKD was found among those in the last tertile of DED (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.63; P = 0.01). Conclusion. We observed that lower DED was associated with better nutrient intake and lower risk of CKD progression.

  11. Effects of dietary energy on growth performance and carcass quality of white growing pekin ducks from two to six weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Fan, H P; Xie, M; Wang, W W; Hou, S S; Huang, W

    2008-06-01

    A dose-response experiment with 6 dietary energy levels (2,600, 2,700, 2,800, 2,900, 3,000, 3,100 kcal of AME /kg) was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy on growth performance and carcass quality of White Pekin ducks from 2 to 6 wk of age. Six hundred 14-d-old White Pekin ducks were randomly divided to 6 dietary treatments, each containing 5 replicate pens with 10 males and 10 females per pen, and these birds were raised until 6 wk of age. At 42 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed:gain of ducks from each pen were measured, and 2 ducks (1 male and 1 female) selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), and leg meat (including thigh and drumstick). As dietary energy increased from 2,600 to 3,100 kcal of AME/kg, the weight gain of ducks increased significantly, and the feed intake and feed:gain decreased significantly. According to the broken-line regression analysis, the AME requirements of White Pekin ducks from 2 to 6 wk of age for optimal weight gain and feed:gain were 3,008 and 3,030 kcal/kg, respectively, when dietary protein was 18%. On the other hand, high dietary energy did not affect breast and leg meat (P > 0.05), but abdominal fat increased (P < 0.05) when dietary AME was above 2,700 kcal/kg.

  12. Response of the modern lactating sow and progeny to source and level of supplemental dietary fat during high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rosero, D S; van Heugten, E; Odle, J; Arellano, C; Boyd, R D

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the response to increments of 2 sources of dietary fat on lactating sow and progeny performance during high ambient temperatures. Data were collected from 391 sows (PIC Camborough) from June to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Sows were randomly assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments and a control diet. Factors included 1) fat sources, animal-vegetable blend (A-V) and choice white grease (CWG), and 2) fat levels (2%, 4%, and 6%). The A-V blend contained 14.5% FFA with an iodine value of 89, peroxide value of 4.2 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 23, whereas CWG contained 3.7% FFA with an iodine value of 62, peroxide value of 9.8 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 5. Diets were corn-soybean meal based, with 8.0% distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings, and contained 3.56-g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal ME. Sows were balanced by parity, with 192 and 199 sows representing parity 1 and parity 3 to 5, respectively. Feed refusal increased linearly (P < 0.001) with the addition of supplemental fat, but feed and energy intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary fat. Sows fed CWG diets had reduced (linear, P < 0.05) BW loss during lactation. Litter growth rate was not affected by additional dietary fat. Addition of CWG to the diets improved G:F (sow and litter gain relative to feed intake) compared with the G:F of sows fed the control diet or the diets containing the A-V blend (0.50, 0.43, and 0.44, respectively; P < 0.05). Gain:ME (kg/Mcal ME) was greater (P < 0.05) for CWG (0.146) than A-V blend (0.129) but was not different from that of the control diet (0.131). Addition of A-V blend and CWG both improved (P < 0.05) conception and farrowing rates and subsequent litter size compared with the control diet. In conclusion, energy intake increased with the addition of fat. The A-V blend contained a greater amount of aldehydes (quantified by anisidine

  13. Changes in circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 induced by short-term dietary magnesium deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Katsumata, Shinichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Kajita, Yasutaka

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a potent regulator of phosphorus (P) and vitamin D metabolism. Long-term dietary magnesium (Mg) deficiency increases circulating levels of FGF23, whereas the effects of short-term dietary Mg deficiency are unclear. Thus, the present study investigated whether short-term dietary Mg deficiency affects circulating levels of FGF23. We also assessed changes in renal mRNA expression of vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and type II sodium-phosphate (Na/Pi) cotransporters, since these are regulated by FGF23. Rats were fed a control diet (control group) or an Mg-deficient diet (Mg-deficient group) for 2, 4 or 7 days. Serum Mg levels were significantly lower in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at all time points. Serum FGF23 levels were significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at day 7. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24(OH)ase) mRNA levels were significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at day 7 . No significant differences in types IIa and IIc Na/Pi cotransporter mRNA levels were observed between the control and Mg-deficient groups. These results suggest that dietary Mg deficiency causes a rapid increase in circulating levels of FGF23 and renal 24(OH)ase mRNA levels. PMID:27624533

  14. Effects of dietary medium-chain triacylglycerol on mRNA level of gluconeogenic enzymes in malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Keiichi; Kasai, Michio

    2008-12-01

    We have reported previously that dietary medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) improved serum albumin concentration and protein balance in malnourished rats. To clarify the mechanisms for this effect of MCT, hepatic messenger RNA levels of gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in rats fed low-protein diets containing either MCT or isocaloric long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) for 2 wk. The serum albumin concentration in rats fed the MCT diet was significantly higher compared with those fed the LCT diet. Serum free fatty acids and ketone body fraction were higher in rats fed MCT compared with those fed the LCT diet. The hepatic mRNA level of PDH was significantly lower in rats fed MCT than those fed LCT. But, there was no significant difference between the two groups in mRNA of gluconeogenic enzymes or ALT. These results suggest that ketone bodies, which are an alternative energy source and might spare blood glucose, increase by MCT feeding, and the reason for the PEM (protein-energy malnutrition)-improving effect of MCT is not caused by suppression of gluconeogenesis.

  15. Dietary intake of Zinc, serum levels of Zinc and risk of gastric cancer: A review of studies

    PubMed Central

    Khayyatzadeh, Sayyed Saeid; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Foroughi, Mahdi; Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is considered as most fourth common cancer in the world. Findings from animal, experimental and epidemiologic studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of stomach cancer. Among dietary factors, Zinc status has received great attention in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to review the association of serum levels of Zinc, dietary intake of Zinc and GC risk. A complete search was performed about the association of Zinc status and risk of GC was in databases electronic through such as ISI web of science, PubMed, Scopus, IrMedx and SID. Our results of current review suggest that dietary intake of Zinc and serum levels of Zinc are lower in GC patient. In other word, high serum levels of Zinc may be protective in GC risk. However, it seems further studies in particular epidemiological studies with large scale setting are required to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:26261820

  16. Increasing amounts of dietary myristic acid modify the plasma cholesterol level and hepatic mass of scavenger receptor BI without affecting bile acid biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Loison, Carole; Mendy, François; Serougne, Colette; Lutton, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of increasing amounts of dietary myristic acid (0.03 to 4.2% of the total dietary energy) on the plasma and hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Six groups of hamsters received semi-purified diets containing 0.05% cholesterol and 12.5% lipids and differing only by the nature of the triglycerides (Safflower oil, lard, lard/coconut oil (1:1), milk fat, milk fat/coconut oil (1:1), coconut oil) for 3 weeks. A positive regression between the plasma cholesterol level and the dietary myristic acid level was observed (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001). However, it is noteworthy that the increase in plasma total cholesterol only reflects an increase in the level of HDL-cholesterol. In parallel, the mass SR-BI decreased linearly with the increased level of myristic acid in the diet, whereas the LDL-R did not change. This study shows that increasing amounts of myristic acid (0.03 to 4.2%) do not alter the cholesterol or bile acid metabolism and increase only the HDL-C. PMID:12216956

  17. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  18. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. PMID:27006242

  19. Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Diane C; Rolls, Barbara J; Hartman, Terryl J

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in examining dietary energy density (ED, kcal/g) as it relates to various health outcomes. Consuming a diet low in ED has been recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, as well as by other agencies, as a dietary approach for disease prevention. Translating this recommendation into practice; however, is difficult. Currently there is no standardized method for calculating dietary ED; as dietary ED can be calculated with foods alone, or with a combination of foods and beverages. Certain items may be defined as either a food or a beverage (e.g., meal replacement shakes) and require special attention. National survey data are an excellent resource for evaluating factors that are important to dietary ED calculation. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) nutrient and food database does not include an ED variable, thus researchers must independently calculate ED. The objective of this study was to provide information that will inform the selection of a standardized ED calculation method by comparing and contrasting methods for ED calculation. The present study evaluates all consumed items and defines foods and beverages based on both USDA food codes and how the item was consumed. Results are presented as mean EDs for the different calculation methods stratified by population demographics (e.g. age, sex). Using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) food codes in the 2005-2008 NHANES, a standardized method for calculating dietary ED can be derived. This method can then be adapted by other researchers for consistency across studies.

  20. Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in examining dietary energy density (ED, kcal/g) as it relates to various health outcomes. Consuming a diet low in ED has been recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, as well as by other agencies, as a dietary approach for disease prevention. Translating this recommendation into practice; however, is difficult. Currently there is no standardized method for calculating dietary ED; as dietary ED can be calculated with foods alone, or with a combination of foods and beverages. Certain items may be defined as either a food or a beverage (e.g., meal replacement shakes) and require special attention. National survey data are an excellent resource for evaluating factors that are important to dietary ED calculation. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) nutrient and food database does not include an ED variable, thus researchers must independently calculate ED. The objective of this study was to provide information that will inform the selection of a standardized ED calculation method by comparing and contrasting methods for ED calculation. The present study evaluates all consumed items and defines foods and beverages based on both USDA food codes and how the item was consumed. Results are presented as mean EDs for the different calculation methods stratified by population demographics (e.g. age, sex). Using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) food codes in the 2005–2008 NHANES, a standardized method for calculating dietary ED can be derived. This method can then be adapted by other researchers for consistency across studies. PMID:24432201

  1. Healthy Dietary Interventions and Lipoprotein (a) Plasma Levels: Results from the Omni Heart Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Bernhard; Wyler von Ballmoos, Moritz C.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a) are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a) concentration. Methods Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites) individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each. Plasma Lp(a) concentration was assessed at baseline and after each diet. Results Compared to baseline, all interventional diets increased mean Lp(a) by 2 to 5 mg/dl. Unsat Fat increased Lp(a) less than Prot with a difference of 1.0 mg/dl (95% CI, −0.5, 2.5; p = 0.196) in whites and 3.7 mg/dl (95% CI, 2.4, 5.0; p<0.001) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.008); Unsat Fat increased Lp(a) less than Carb with a difference of −0.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, −2.1, 0.9; p = 0.441) in whites and −1.5 mg/dl (95% CI, −0.2, −2.8; p = 0.021) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.354). Prot increased Lp(a) more than Carb with a difference of 0.4 mg/dl (95% CI, −1.1, 1.9; p = 0.597) in whites and 2.2 mg/dl (95%CI, 0.9, 3.5; p = 0.001) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.082). Conclusion Diets high in unsaturated fat increased Lp(a) levels less than diets rich in carbohydrate or protein with greater changes in blacks than whites. Our results suggest that substitutions with dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy diets may be preferable over protein or carbohydrates with regards to Lp(a). Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00051350 PMID:25506933

  2. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    PubMed

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p < 0.01). Energy intake assessed by the dietary record was significantly lower than TEE in the obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p < 0.001) but comparable to TEE in the nonobese children (8.03 +/- 0.99 MJ/day; p = not significant). Energy intake assessed by diet history was lower than TEE in the obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p < 0.05) but close to TEE in the nonobese children (8.64 +/- 1.54 MJ/day, p = not significant). These results suggest that obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  3. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet.

  4. Tools for quantifying isotopic niche space and dietary variation at the individual and population level.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsome, Seth D.; Yeakel, Justin D.; Wheatley, Patrick V.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly using stable isotope analysis to inform questions about variation in resource and habitat use from the individual to community level. In this study we investigate data sets from 2 California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) populations to illustrate the advantages and potential pitfalls of applying various statistical and quantitative approaches to isotopic data. We have subdivided these tools, or metrics, into 3 categories: IsoSpace metrics, stable isotope mixing models, and DietSpace metrics. IsoSpace metrics are used to quantify the spatial attributes of isotopic data that are typically presented in bivariate (e.g., δ13C versus δ15N) 2-dimensional space. We review IsoSpace metrics currently in use and present a technique by which uncertainty can be included to calculate the convex hull area of consumers or prey, or both. We then apply a Bayesian-based mixing model to quantify the proportion of potential dietary sources to the diet of each sea otter population and compare this to observational foraging data. Finally, we assess individual dietary specialization by comparing a previously published technique, variance components analysis, to 2 novel DietSpace metrics that are based on mixing model output. As the use of stable isotope analysis in ecology continues to grow, the field will need a set of quantitative tools for assessing isotopic variance at the individual to community level. Along with recent advances in Bayesian-based mixing models, we hope that the IsoSpace and DietSpace metrics described here will provide another set of interpretive tools for ecologists.

  5. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:21091914

  6. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed.

  7. Agreement between Two Methods of Dietary Data Collection in Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Cockburn, Emma; Russell, Mark; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall) when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h), during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA) and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV) were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01) but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1). For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1). The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under-reporting common to such

  8. Vitamin D levels, dietary intake, and photoprotective behaviors among patients with skin cancer.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Laura K; Wetherington, Sarah; Hill, Nikki; Kumari, Meena; Gammon, Bryan; Dunbar, Scott; Tangpricha, Vin; Chen, Suephy C

    2010-09-01

    Photoprotection against ultraviolet light is an important part of our armamentarium against actinically derived skin cancers. However, there has been concern that adherence to photoprotection may lead to low vitamin D status, leading to negative effects on patients' health. In this work we discuss previous findings in this area, which do not give a clear picture as to the relationship between vitamin D levels and photoprotection measures, as well as research performed by the authors, who did not detect a relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adherence to photoprotection measures in subjects with skin cancer, as assessed by the use of sunscreen, clothing, hats, sunglasses, and umbrellas/shade through the Sun Protection Habits Index. Subjects who took vitamin D oral supplementation had greater serum 25(OH)D levels than those who did not, whereas dietary intake through foods did not predict 25(OH)D levels in the authors' study. However, there was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in the authors' study population, highlighting the importance of assessing vitamin D status and recommending oral vitamin D supplementation when indicated.

  9. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Lerin, Carles

    2016-04-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine's beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  10. Milk production responses to a change in dietary starch concentration vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary starch concentration on yield of milk and milk components were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n=32; 115±22 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (28 to 62kg/d) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to a treatment sequence. Treatments were diets containing 30% dry ground corn (CG) or 30% soyhulls (SH) on a DM basis. Diets containing corn silage and alfalfa silage were formulated to contain 16% crude protein, 24% forage neutral detergent fiber, and either 27 or 44% neutral detergent fiber and 30 or 12% starch for CG and SH, respectively. Cows were fed a diet intermediate to the treatments during a preliminary 14-d period. Treatment periods were 28 d with measurements taken throughout the period for energy calculations and the final 5 d used for data and sample collection for production variables. Compared with SH, CG increased dry matter intake, and yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and energy-corrected milk, as well as milk protein concentration. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentration. Yield of de novo synthesized and preformed milk fatty acids increased with CG. Treatment interacted with level of preliminary milk production for several response variables (yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Compared with SH, the CG treatment increased energy-corrected milk in higher-producing cows with a lesser response to CG as milk yield decreased. The CG treatment increased milk:feed compared with the SH treatment, but not body weight or body condition score. In conclusion, higher-producing cows benefited from the high-starch diet, and lower-producing cows were able to maintain production when most of the starch was replaced with nonforage fiber. PMID:25981075

  11. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  12. Dietary Intake Estimates and Urinary Cadmium Levels in Danish Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Levine, Keith; McElroy, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Harrington, James M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a known carcinogen that can disrupt endocrine signalling. Cigarette smoking and food are the most common routes of non-occupational exposure to cadmium. Cadmium accumulates in the kidney and can be measured in urine, making urine cadmium (U-Cd) a biomarker of long-term exposure. However dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake estimates are often used as surrogate indicator of cadmium exposure in non-smoking subjects. It is therefore important to investigate the concordance between D-Cd estimates obtained with Food Frequency Questionnaires and U-Cd. Methods U-Cd levels were compared with estimated dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake in 1764 post-menopausal women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. For each participant, a food frequency questionnaire, and measures of cadmium content in standard recipes were used to judge the daily intake of cadmium, normalized by daily caloric intake. Cadmium was measured by ICP-MS in spot urine sampled at baseline and normalized by urinary creatinine. Information on diet, socio-demographics and smoking were self-reported at baseline. Results Linear regressions between U-Cd and D-Cd alone revealed minimal but significant positive correlation in never smokers (R2 = 0.0076, β = 1.5% increase per 1 ng Cd kcal-1, p = 0.0085, n = 782), and negative correlation in current smokers (R2 = 0.0184, β = 7.1% decrease per 1 ng Cd kcal-1 change, p = 0.0006, n = 584). In the full study population, most of the variability in U-Cd was explained by smoking status (R2 = 0.2450, n = 1764). A forward selection model revealed that the strongest predictors of U-Cd were age in never smokers (Δ R2 = 0.04), smoking duration in former smokers (Δ R2 = 0.06) and pack-years in current smokers (Δ R2 = 0.07). Food items that contributed to U-Cd were leafy vegetables and soy-based products, but explained very little of the variance in U-Cd. Conclusions Dietary-Cd intake estimated from food frequency questionnaires correlates only minimally

  13. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Felicetti, Laura A; Robbins, Charles T; Shipley, Lisa A

    2003-01-01

    Many fruits contain high levels of available energy but very low levels of protein and other nutrients. The discrepancy between available energy and protein creates a physiological paradox for many animals consuming high-fruit diets, as they will be protein deficient if they eat to meet their minimum energy requirement. We fed young grizzly bears both high-energy pelleted and fruit diets containing from 1.6% to 15.4% protein to examine the role of diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis in dealing with high-energy-low-protein diets. Digestible energy intake at mass maintenance increased 2.1 times, and composition of the gain changed from primarily lean mass to entirely fat when the protein content of the diet decreased from 15.4% to 1.6%. Daily fat gain was up to three times higher in bears fed low-protein diets ad lib., compared with bears consuming the higher-protein diet and gaining mass at the same rate. Thus, bears eating fruit can either consume other foods to increase dietary protein content and reduce energy expenditure, intake, and potentially foraging time or overeat high-fruit diets and use diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis to deal with their skewed energy-to-protein ratio. These are not discrete options but a continuum that creates numerous solutions for balancing energy expenditure, intake, foraging time, fat accumulation, and ultimately fitness, depending on food availability, foraging efficiency, bear size, and body condition.

  14. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods from Catalonia, Spain: estimated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Teixidó, Angel; Casas, Conrad; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities in Catalonia, Spain. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 108 samples of vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Levels of 11 PCB congeners (IUPAC 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 138, 153, 169, and 180) were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. For toxic equivalent (TEQ) calculations, World Health Organization (WHO) toxicity equivalent factors (WHO-TEFs) were used. The highest levels of most congeners were found in fish and shellfish (11,864.18 ng/kg [wet weight]), and the next highest levels, which were substantially lower, were found in milk and dairy products (674.50 ng/kg [wet weight]). For the general population of Catalonia, the total dietary intake of PCBs was found to be 150.13 pg WHO-TEQ/day. The largest contribution to this intake came from fish and shellfish (82.87 pg WHO-TEQ/day) and dairy products (29.38 pg WHO-TEQ per day). A relatively large contribution was also noted for cereals (11.36 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Among the PCB congeners determined in this study, PCB 126 showed the largest contribution to total TEQ intake (50.56%). The data obtained in this study should be useful in risk assessment with regard to human PCB exposure through food in Catalonia.

  15. Water and energy dietary requirements and endocrinology of human space flight.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  16. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  17. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and Dietary Energy on Growth and Health of Pre-ruminant Dairy Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 wks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received moder...

  18. Effects of D-a-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 weeks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received mod...

  19. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  20. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%<3 was observed. In mixed diets, the DF energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered.

  1. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    PubMed

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  2. Blood lead level modifies the association between dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress in an urban adult population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun-Chul; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Park, Min-Seon; Kim, Ho; Leem, Jong-Han; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2013-01-14

    Oxidative stress may be affected by lead exposure as well as antioxidants, yet little is known about the interaction between dietary antioxidants and blood lead levels (BLL) on oxidative stress level. We investigated the interaction between dietary antioxidants and BLL on oxidative stress level. As part of the Biomarker Monitoring for Environmental Health conducted in Seoul and Incheon, Korea, between April and December 2005, we analysed data from 683 adults (female = 47·4 %, mean age 51·4 (sd 8·4) years) who had complete measures on BLL, dietary intakes and oxidative stress marker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)). Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ, BLL was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and 8-OHdG by ELISA. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the influence of BLL on the association between dietary antioxidants and 8-OHdG. Geometric means of BLL and 8-OHdG concentrations were 4·1 (sd 1·5) μg/dl and 5·4 (sd 1·9) μg/g creatinine, respectively. Increases of vitamins C and E were significantly associated with the decrease of log10 8-OHdG in the adults from the lowest quartile of the BLL group (≤ 3·18 μg/dl, geometric mean = 2·36 μg/dl) than those of the highest quartile BLL group (>5·36 μg/dl, geometric mean = 6·78 μg/dl). Regarding antioxidant-related foods, vegetables excluding kimchi showed a higher inverse relationship with 8-OHdG in the lowest quartile BLL group than the highest group. These findings suggest a rationale for lowering the BLL and increasing the intake of dietary antioxidants in the urban population in Korea.

  3. Interaction between dietary levels of victamin C and E on growth and immune responses in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of vitamins C and E on growth performance, liver contents of vitamins C and E, hematology and immune response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. A basal practical diet containing 32% protein and 2,900 kcal DE kg-1 was supplemen...

  4. Influence of dietary iron level and form on biochemical, hematological, and immunological changes in copper deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, H.; Gallaher, D.D.; Kramer, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Weanling male Lewis rats (N = 10/group) were fed ad-libitum for 42 days diets based on AIN standards containing 21% casein, 5% safflower oil, deficient (0.6 ..mu..g/g) or adequate (5.6 ..mu..g/g) levels of Cu, and adequate (50 ..mu..g/g) or high (300 ..mu..g/g) levels of Fe/sup +2/ or Fe/sup +3/. Cu-deficient rats, regardless of Fe level or form, exhibited depressed (p < 0.05) serum Cu, Fe and ceruloplasmin activity, and hemoglobin levels; and elevated (p < 0.05) unsaturated serum Fe binding capacity. Except for high Fe/sup +3/ fed rats, Cu-deficient rats showed decreased hematocrits. Decreased proliferation was exhibited by concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulated spleen lymphoid cells (SLC) of Cu-deficient rats fed adequate dietary Fe, but not by SLC of Cu-deficient rats fed high dietary Fe. High Fe fed rats exhibited reduced proliferation and increased variability in proliferation by Con-A stimulated SLC, which apparently caused a lack of difference in proliferation by SLC of Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats fed high Fe. Thus, high dietary Fe did not correct biochemical and hematological parameters in Cu-deficient rats, but because of lowered proliferation and increased variability of SLC proliferation, high dietary Fe did alleviate suppressed Con-A stimulated SLC proliferation in Cu-deficiency.

  5. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, J.; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Dietary iron-deficiency up-regulates hephaestin mRNA level in small intestine of rats.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Shoji; Aoyama, Yoritaka

    2002-05-17

    Hephaestin is a protein, recently found from the study of sla (sex-linked anemia) mouse. Hephaestin is suggested to transport iron from intestinal enterocytes into the circulation. Iron is essential for living and for humans to maintain a constant total iron concentration in whole body. In this study, it was found that dietary iron-deficiency up-regulated hephaestin mRNA level in the proximal small intestine of rats. Therefore, it is suggested that in dietary iron-deficiency, hephaestin gene expression in proximal small intestine is up-regulated to absorb more iron from diet.

  7. The interaction between the interleukin 6 receptor gene genotype and dietary energy intake on abdominal obesity in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Song, Yixuan; Miyaki, Koichi; Araki, Jungo; Zhang, Ling; Omae, Kazuyuki; Muramatsu, Masaaki

    2007-07-01

    Previous reports have shown that the Asp358Ala (T/G) polymorphism of the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) gene is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but few studies have examined this association in the Japanese population. We performed the current study to investigate the relationship between the IL6R Asp358Ala (T/G) polymorphism and obesity in healthy Japanese men. Two hundred eighty-five healthy Japanese men (age, 46.1 +/- 11.5 years [mean +/- SD]; waist circumference [WC], 83.9 +/- 9.3 cm; body mass index, 23.3 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2)) employed by a Japanese company were enrolled in this study. Height, weight, and WC were measured, and daily energy intake levels were assessed by self-reported questionnaires. Genotyping of polymorphisms was performed by using melting curve analysis; no association was found between IL6R genotype and WC or body mass index. However, when the subjects were stratified by IL6R genotype, an association between WC and dietary energy intake level was found in the TT + GT-type subjects (P for linear regression = .048), but not in GG subjects (P for linear regression = .555). In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction of IL6R (GG vs TT + GT) genotypes and dietary energy intake levels affected risk for abdominal obesity (P for interaction = .030). We concluded that the IL6R Asp358Ala (T/G) polymorphism appears to interact with energy intake and affect abdominal obesity in Japanese men. The interaction of this genotype and energy intake warrants further study.

  8. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. PMID:26148242

  9. Zinc levels in foods from southeastern Spain: relationship to daily dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Terrés, C; Navarro, M; Martín-Lagos, F; Giménez, R; López, H; López, M C

    2001-08-01

    The zinc content of 300 food and 79 beverage samples was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample recoveries, repeatability, and analyses of NIST and CBR-CEC reference materials demonstrated the reliability and accuracy of this technique. Mean zinc concentrations varied from 0.02 microg/ml in fresh water to 71.0 microg/g (fresh weight) in pork liver. The daily dietary intake of zinc for inhabitants of southeastern Spain was estimated to be 10.1 mg (5.5, 4.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mg Zn/day per person from foods of animal and vegetable origin, drinks, and other foods, respectively). Zinc levels found in high protein foods (meat, fish, milk products, eggs, dry fruits, cereals and legumes) were significantly higher than those found in food with a low protein content (vegetables, fruits and drinks) (p < 0.001). A significant linear correlation between zinc levels and the corresponding protein content of cereals, legumes and dry fruits was found (r = 0.754, p < 0.005). Zinc concentrations in milk samples were significantly modified by the thermal treatment (p < 0.001), and the skimming (p < 0.05) and calcium enrichment processes (p < 0.001). Shellfish zinc levels were also significantly higher than those measured in fish (p < 0.05). Mean zinc concentrations found in cheese were statistically higher than those determined in the remaining milk products (p < 0.001). Zinc levels measured in distilled beverages were also statistically lower than those found in fermented ones (p < 0.001).

  10. Optimizing dietary levels of menhaden and soybean oils and soybean lecithin for pre-gonadal somatic growth in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Victoria K.; Heflin, Laura E.; Jones, Warren T.; Powell, Mickie L.; Lawrence, Addison L.; Makowsky, Robert; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary lipids serve as important sources of energy and essential fatty acids for aquatic animals. Sources of animal and plant oils are increasingly limited as well as expensive, and dietary requirements associated with the inclusion of these oils must be carefully evaluated to facilitate sustainable and affordable formulations. In this study, we investigated quantities of menhaden oil (MO) with and without soybean lecithin or soybean oil (SO) to determine appropriate levels for optimal somatic growth for pre-gonadal juvenile Lytechinus variegatus. We prepared semi-purified diets that varied in neutral lipid content (0, 2, 4, or 8% dry matter) and soy lecithin (0 or 2%) and exchanged lipids reciprocally with purified starch while holding constant all other nutrients. We maintained laboratory-reared juvenile L. variegatus (average initial wet weight 82 ± 0.7 mg, mean ± SE , n = 9 treatment−1) in recirculating seawater systems and fed each daily a sub-satiation ration for five weeks. We assessed wet weights and test diameters every two weeks and at the end of the experiment (5 wk). Level of MO with or without soybean lecithin did not significantly affect wet weight gain; however, increasing levels of SO in the diet reduced wet weight gain and dry matter production efficiency and increased feed conversion ratio. Dry gut weight was positively correlated with level of MO. Lipid level in the gut increased with increasing dietary lipid level, regardless of source. These data suggest the composition of the SO is inhibitory for either nutrient absorption or metabolic processes associated with growth at this life stage. Diets containing total lipid levels of approximately 5 to 6% that include sources of n-3 fatty acids may support optimal growth for pre-gonadal juvenile L. variegatus. PMID:26146422

  11. Influence of dietary urea level on digestive function and growth performance of cattle fed steam-flaked barley-based finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Barrajas, R; Montano, M; Ware, R A

    2003-10-01

    Four Holstein steers (282 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of dietary urea level (0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2%, DM basis) in a steam-flaked barley-based finishing diet on digestive function. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.20) on ruminal digestion of OM and ADF. Increasing dietary urea level increased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal starch digestion. Ruminal degradability of protein in the basal diet (no supplemental urea) was 60%. Increasing dietary urea level did not increase (P > 0.20) ruminal microbial protein synthesis or nonammonia N flow to the small intestine. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.20) on total-tract ADF digestion. Total tract digestion of OM (quadratic, P < 0.01) and starch (linear, P < 0.05) increased slightly with increasing urea level. Urea supplementation increased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal pH 1 h after feeding; however, by 3 h after feeding, ruminal pH was lower (cubic, P < 0.05) with urea-supplemented diets. Urea supplementation did not affect (P > 0.20) ruminal molar proportions of acetate and propionate. One hundred twenty crossbred steers (252 kg; approximately 25% Brahman breeding) were used in an 84-d feeding trial (five pens per treatment) to evaluate treatment effects on growth performance. Daily weight gain increased (linear, P = 0.01) with increasing urea level, tending to be maximal (1.53 kg/d; quadratic, P = 0.13) at the 0.8% level of urea supplementation. Improvements in ADG were due to treatment effects (linear, P < 0.01) on DMI. Urea supplementation did not affect (P > 0.20) the NE value of the diet for maintenance and gain. Observed dietary NE values, based on growth performance, were in close agreement with expected based on tabular values for individual feed ingredients, averaging 100.4%. We conclude that with steam-flaked barely-based finishing diets, ruminal and total-tract digestion of OM and ruminal microbial protein synthesis

  12. Impact of Increasing Dietary Calcium Levels on Calcium Excretion and Vitamin D Metabolites in the Blood of Healthy Adult Cats

    PubMed Central

    Paßlack, Nadine; Schmiedchen, Bettina; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J.; Stumpff, Friederike; Kohn, Barbara; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary calcium (Ca) concentrations might affect regulatory pathways within the Ca and vitamin D metabolism and consequently excretory mechanisms. Considering large variations in Ca concentrations of feline diets, the physiological impact on Ca homeostasis has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, diets with increasing concentrations of dicalcium phosphate were offered to ten healthy adult cats (Ca/phosphorus (P): 6.23/6.02, 7.77/7.56, 15.0/12.7, 19.0/17.3, 22.2/19.9, 24.3/21.6 g/kg dry matter). Each feeding period was divided into a 10-day adaptation and an 8-day sampling period in order to collect urine and faeces. On the last day of each feeding period, blood samples were taken. Results Urinary Ca concentrations remained unaffected, but faecal Ca concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Ca levels. No effect on whole and intact parathyroid hormone levels, fibroblast growth factor 23 and calcitriol concentrations in the blood of the cats were observed. However, the calcitriol precursors 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, which are considered the most useful indicators for the vitamin D status, decreased with higher dietary Ca levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.033). Increasing dietary levels of dicalcium phosphate revealed an acidifying effect on urinary fasting pH (6.02) and postprandial pH (6.01) (P < 0.001), possibly mediated by an increase of urinary phosphorus (P) concentrations (P < 0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, calcitriol precursors were linearly affected by increasing dietary Ca concentrations. The increase in faecal Ca excretion indicates that Ca homeostasis of cats is mainly regulated in the intestine and not by the kidneys. Long-term studies should investigate the physiological relevance of the acidifying effect observed when feeding diets high in Ca and P. PMID:26870965

  13. The Impact of a Long-Term Reduction in Dietary Energy Density on Body Weight Within a Randomized Diet Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Pierce, John P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of dietary energy density change on body weight in participants of a randomized trial. Intervention participants markedly increased fruit and vegetable intake while reducing energy intake from fat. Participants were 2,718 breast cancer survivors, aged 26−74 yr, with baseline mean body mass index of 27.3 kg/m2 (SD = 6.3). We assessed dietary intake by sets of four 24-h dietary recalls and validated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Weight and height were measured at baseline, 1 yr, and 4 yr. Dietary energy density was calculated using food but excluding beverages. Intervention participants significantly reduced dietary energy density compared to controls and maintained it over 4 yr—both in cross-sectional (P < 0.0001) and longitudinal (Group × Time interaction, P < 0.0001) analyses. Total energy intake or physical activity did not vary between groups. The intervention group had a small but significant weight loss at 1 yr (Group × Time interaction, P < 0.0001), but no between-group weight difference was observed at 4 yr. Our study showed that reducing dietary energy density did not result in a reduction in total energy intake and suggests that this strategy alone is not sufficient to promote long-term weight loss in a free-living population. PMID:18444133

  14. The impact of a long-term reduction in dietary energy density on body weight within a randomized diet trial.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Pierce, John P

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of dietary energy density change on body weight in participants of a randomized trial. Intervention participants markedly increased fruit and vegetable intake while reducing energy intake from fat. Participants were 2,718 breast cancer survivors, aged 26-74 yr, with baseline mean body mass index of 27.3 kg/m(2) (SD = 6.3). We assessed dietary intake by sets of four 24-h dietary recalls and validated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Weight and height were measured at baseline, 1 yr, and 4 yr. Dietary energy density was calculated using food but excluding beverages. Intervention participants significantly reduced dietary energy density compared to controls and maintained it over 4 yr -- both in cross-sectional (P < 0.0001) and longitudinal (Group x Time interaction, P < 0.0001) analyses. Total energy intake or physical activity did not vary between groups. The intervention group had a small but significant weight loss at 1 yr (Group x Time interaction, P < 0.0001), but no between-group weight difference was observed at 4 yr. Our study showed that reducing dietary energy density did not result in a reduction in total energy intake and suggests that this strategy alone is not sufficient to promote long-term weight loss in a free-living population. PMID:18444133

  15. Effect of dietary phosphorus and phytase levels on the reproductive performance of large white turkey breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Godwin, J L; Grimes, J L; Christensen, V L; Wineland, M J

    2005-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary P levels and dietary phytase enzyme (E) inclusion on Large White turkey breeder hen reproductive performance from 31 to 62 wk of age. Hens were placed in a curtain-sided house with 48 pens (10 birds per pen; 8 pens per treatment) at 31 wk and were fed a breeder ration with treatments as follows: HP, dietary available P = 0.55%; HPE, HP + E; MP, dietary available P = 0.35%; MPE, MP + E; LP, dietary available P = 0.17%; and LPE, LP + E. Feed and water were available ad libitum for 28 wk of lay. Diets were fed in mash form, and all other nutrients were formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements. All hens were photostimulated in January (31 wk) with 15.5 h of light daily. Production data were recorded on a pen basis. Individual bird BW and feed consumption, by pen, were determined at monthly intervals from 31 to 62 wk. Hens were observed for weekly reproductive performance for hen housed egg production, hen-day egg production, settable eggs, cumulative settable eggs, hens out of lay, and hen mortality and for biweekly performance for egg fertility, hatchability of all eggs, hatchability of fertile eggs, egg weight loss, conductance, conductance constant (k), and embryonic mortality. Egg weight, eggshell thickness, egg components, and albumen and yolk P were measured monthly. At 62 wk of age, hen tibia P, plasma P, total fecal P, and water-soluble fecal P were determined. Decreasing dietary P resulted in no decreases in reproductive performance for turkey breeder hens to 62 wk. Additionally, decreased dietary P resulted in decreased total fecal P and water-soluble fecal P. Feeding turkey breeder hens dietary phytase enzyme resulted in significantly fewer hens going out of lay; however, this was not reflected in hen housed egg production. It was concluded that phosphorus could be lowered in turkey breeder hen diets, compared with current surveyed industry levels, without impairing reproductive performance.

  16. Effects of source and level of energy on the immune competence and response to an Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy level and source affect immune competence and response to a viral challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by BW within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (8 steers/treatment within period). Treatments we...

  17. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (β = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (β = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI -0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (β = -1·7 E%, 95 % CI -3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (β = -0·9, 95 % CI -2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  18. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (β = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (β = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI -0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (β = -1·7 E%, 95 % CI -3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (β = -0·9, 95 % CI -2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging. PMID:25744160

  19. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  20. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  1. Effects of energy deficit, dietary protein, and feeding on intracellular regulators of skeletal muscle proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Carbone, John W; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Cao, Jay J; Murphy, Nancy E; Sauter, Edward R; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) response to varied dietary protein intake, energy deficit (ED), and consumption of a mixed meal. A randomized, controlled trial of 39 adults consuming protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance [RDA]), 1.6 (2×-RDA), or 2.4 (3×-RDA) g · kg(-1) · d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight maintenance (WM) period was followed by 21 d of 40% ED. Ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated proteolysis and associated gene expression were assessed in the postabsorptive (fasted) and postprandial (fed; 480 kcal, 20 g protein) states after WM and ED by using muscle biopsies, fluorescence-based assays, immunoblot analysis, and real-time qRT-PCR. In the assessment of UPS responses to varied protein intakes, ED, and feeding, the RDA, WM, and fasted measures served as appropriate controls. ED resulted in the up-regulation of UPS-associated gene expression, as mRNA expression of the atrogenes muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and atrogin-1 were 1.2- and 1.3-fold higher (P<0.05) for ED than for WM. However, mixed-meal consumption attenuated UPS-mediated proteolysis, independent of energy status or dietary protein, as the activities of the 26S proteasome subunits β1, β2, and β5 were lower (P<0.05) for fed than for fasted. Muscle protein ubiquitylation was also 45% lower (P<0.05) for fed than for fasted, regardless of dietary protein and energy manipulations. Independent of habitual protein intake and despite increased MuRF1 and atrogin-1 mRNA expression during ED, consuming a protein-containing mixed meal attenuates Ub-mediated proteolysis.

  2. Effects of energy deficit, dietary protein, and feeding on intracellular regulators of skeletal muscle proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Carbone, John W; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Cao, Jay J; Murphy, Nancy E; Sauter, Edward R; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) response to varied dietary protein intake, energy deficit (ED), and consumption of a mixed meal. A randomized, controlled trial of 39 adults consuming protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance [RDA]), 1.6 (2×-RDA), or 2.4 (3×-RDA) g · kg(-1) · d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight maintenance (WM) period was followed by 21 d of 40% ED. Ubiquitin (Ub)-mediated proteolysis and associated gene expression were assessed in the postabsorptive (fasted) and postprandial (fed; 480 kcal, 20 g protein) states after WM and ED by using muscle biopsies, fluorescence-based assays, immunoblot analysis, and real-time qRT-PCR. In the assessment of UPS responses to varied protein intakes, ED, and feeding, the RDA, WM, and fasted measures served as appropriate controls. ED resulted in the up-regulation of UPS-associated gene expression, as mRNA expression of the atrogenes muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and atrogin-1 were 1.2- and 1.3-fold higher (P<0.05) for ED than for WM. However, mixed-meal consumption attenuated UPS-mediated proteolysis, independent of energy status or dietary protein, as the activities of the 26S proteasome subunits β1, β2, and β5 were lower (P<0.05) for fed than for fasted. Muscle protein ubiquitylation was also 45% lower (P<0.05) for fed than for fasted, regardless of dietary protein and energy manipulations. Independent of habitual protein intake and despite increased MuRF1 and atrogin-1 mRNA expression during ED, consuming a protein-containing mixed meal attenuates Ub-mediated proteolysis. PMID:23965841

  3. Trends in dietary energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein intake in Chinese children and adolescents from 1991 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhaohui; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have examined nutrition transition in children in China. Our aim, in the present study, was to examine temporal trends in dietary energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein intake in Chinese children aged 7-17 years. The analysis used individual level, consecutive 3 d dietary recall data from seven rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys in 1991 (n 2714), 1993 (n 2542), 1997 (n 2516), 2000 (n 2142), 2004 (n 1341), 2006 (n 1072) and 2009 (n 996). Mixed-effect models were constructed to obtain adjusted means and to examine trends after adjusting for intra-class correlation within clusters and for covariates including age, sex, urban/rural residence and income. From 1991 to 2009, daily energy intake steadily declined from 9511·0 to 7658·2 kJ (P<0·0001). There was a steady decline in daily carbohydrate intake from 382·5 to 254·1 g (P<0·0001), and in the proportion of energy from carbohydrate from 66·7 to 56·8 % (P<0·0001). In contrast, daily fat intake steadily increased from 54·8 to 66·0 g (P<0·0001), as did the proportion of energy from fat from 21·5 to 30·0 % (P<0·0001). The proportion of children who consumed a diet with more than 30 % of energy from fat increased from 20·1 to 49·4 % (P<0·0001). The proportion of energy from protein increased from 11·8 to 13·1 % (P<0·0001), although daily protein intake dropped from 66·2 to 58·0 g (P<0·0001). Our data suggest that Chinese children have been undergoing a rapid nutrition transition to a high-fat diet.

  4. Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake increases resolvin and protectin levels in the rat placenta

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan L.; Mark, Peter J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Barden, Anne; Mas, Emilie; Mori, Trevor A.; Waddell, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Placental inflammation is associated with several pregnancy disorders. Inflammation is limited by anti-inflammatory and proresolving mechanisms, the latter partly mediated by resolvins and protectins derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). We examined effects of dietary n-3PUFAs on levels of resolvins, protectins, and lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes in the rat placenta. Rats consumed standard (Std) or high n-3PUFA (Hn3) diets from day 1 of pregnancy; tissues were collected on day 17 or 22 (term = day 23). Maternal Hn3 diet increased resolvin and protectin precursors, 18R/S-HEPE (P < 0.001), and 17R/S-HDHA (P < 0.01) at both days. Resolvins (17R-RvD1 and RvD1) increased at day 22 (P < 0.001) after Hn3 consumption, coincident with higher Alox15b and Alox5 mRNA expression, while RvD2 increased at both days (P < 0.05). Protectins, PD1, and 10S,17S-DiHDHA increased over late gestation (P < 0.001), coincident with higher Alox15 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and further increased with Hn3 diet (P < 0.05). Maternal systemic and placental proinflammatory mediators were not suppressed by Hn3 diet; systemic IL1β, placental Il1β, and Il6 mRNA expression increased marginally with Hn3 at day 22 (P < 0.001), while Ptgs1 (Cox1) expression increased both days (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that maternal n-3PUFA supplementation enhances expression of enzymes in the n-3PUFA metabolic pathway and increases placental levels of resolvins and protectins. PMID:23723388

  5. Effects of low levels of dietary lead and iron on hepatic RNA, protein, and minerals in young Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.L.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1984-04-01

    Day-old Japanese quail were fed purified diets containing either 0.2 (control), 5.4, or 16.2 ppm lead as the acetate with either 25 (deficient) or 100 ppm (adequate control) iron for 2 weeks. Iron deficiency caused decreases in hemoglobin, iron, and manganese concentrations in the liver, and hepatic RNA synthesis. Iron deficiency also caused increased concentrations of lead, calcium, and molybdenum in the liver. Lead supplements caused increased concentrations of lead in the liver, and with adequate dietary iron, each supplemental lead level caused a slight decrease in the concentration of RNA in the liver. Treatment had no effect on DNA or protein synthesis, body weight, or liver weight in relation to body weight. These low levels of dietary lead did not cause the same adverse metabolic effects observed by others with higher levels of lead; however, iron deficiency increased lead uptake by the liver and affected RNA synthesis. 44 references.

  6. The effect of dietary energy concentrations on production variables of ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus var. domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brand, T S; Carstens, P D; Hoffman, L C

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different dietary energy concentrations on ostrich production variables were examined in two separate trials. The first trial tracked changes in production variables from the pre-starter phase through the starter phase and grower phase. The second trial was based on the finisher phase per se. In both trials, the influence of dietary energy on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and growth variables was investigated. Additionally, basic abattoir weights were recorded, and measurements of the feathers and skin were performed. In both trials, three diets with different concentrations of dietary energy were given during each phase where the low-, medium- and high-energy concentrations for each phase were as follows: 13.5, 14.5 and 15.5 MJ ME/kg feed pre-starter; 12.5, 13.5 and 14.5 MJ ME/kg feed starter; 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 MJ ME/kg feed grower and 9.5, 10.5 and 11.5 MJ ME/kg feed finisher. Feed and water were available ad libitum in both trials. Overall, it was found that the best performance for growth, FCR, skin size and grade, live weight, carcass weight and thigh weight were obtained on the medium-energy diet during the pre-starter, starter and grower phases. During the finisher phase, improved growth rate and tanned skin size was found in birds given the diet with the highest energy concentration (11.5 MJ ME/kg feed). Carcass weight, growth rate and certain feather variables were also significantly influenced by gender. PMID:25266635

  7. The effect of a dietary carbohydrase enzyme system on blood glucose levels when combined with foods of varying glycemic index in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that physical performance and recovery can be improved by maintaining or enhancing glucose availability. Carbogen(®) (Triarco Industries, Wayne, NJ, USA), a patented dietary fungal carbohydrase enzyme system, converts complex carbohydrates and fiber into simpler carbohydrates when ingested. Supplementing the enzymatic digestion of complex carbohydrates and fiber that may be digested very slowly or not at all in vivo may increase the availability of glucose. This may be reflected by increased absorption rates and higher measurable levels of whole blood glucose (WBG) that may be bioavailable for extended energy production. These preliminary investigations evaluate the ability of Carbogen to produce a rapid and more sustained increase in WBG levels when combined with a variety of food substrates commonly used by athletes and non-athletes to increase levels of physical activity. To investigate this, food substrates having a low, moderate, or high glycemic index (GI) with various amounts of total carbohydrates and dietary fiber were used. The individually tested substrates include soy nuts, cooked pasta, meal replacement bars, a nutrition shake, and a carbohydrate sports supplement. The investigations presented here consist of seven separate preclinical rat feasibility studies conducted over a period of approximately 12 months. The collective results presented here identify specific attributes of a category of food substrates common to sports nutrition enthusiasts that may significantly increase WBG levels over an extended time when dosed with Carbogen. Specifically, using Carbogen with a food substrate having a low or moderate GI and containing dietary fiber may increase the rate of glucose absorption and maintain significant increases in WBG levels.

  8. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  9.  Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary energy supplements: use and abuse by young athletes.

    PubMed

    Avelar-Escobar, Giovanni; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Ortiz-Olvera, Nayeli X; Castellanos, Guillermo; Ramos, Roberto; Gallardo-Cabrera, Víctor E; Vargas-Alemán, José de Jesús; Díaz de León, Oscar; Rodríguez, Elda V; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita

    2012-01-01

     In recent years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of dietary energy supplements (DES) associated with the parallel advertising against obesity and favoring high physical performance. We present the case and outcome of a young patient who developed acute mixed liver injury (hepatocellular and cholestatic) after ingestion of various "over the counter" products to increase muscle mass and physical performance (NO Xplode®, creatine, L-carnitine, and Growth Factor ATN®). The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and liver biopsy findings. The dietary supplement and herbal multivitamins industry is one with the highest growth rates in the market, with annual revenues amounting to billions and constantly lacking scientific or reproducible evidence about the efficacy and/or safety of the offered products. Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, different forms of injury associated with these natural substances have been documented particularly in the liver, supporting the need of a more strict regulation.

  10. Dietary amino acid levels and feed restriction affect small intestinal development, mortality, and weight gain of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wijtten, P J A; Hangoor, E; Sparla, J K W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different dietary amino acid treatments and feed restriction in early life versus a control treatment on development of the small intestine segments (weights), mortality, and broiler performance. Each treatment was applied to 6 cages with Ross 308 male broilers and to 6 cages with Cobb 500 male broilers with 24 birds per cage. A control treatment (100% ideal protein) was compared with a treatment with 30% extra ideal protein, a treatment with daily adjustment of the dietary amino acid level and profile, and a feed restriction treatment. The protein treatments were applied from 0 to 14 d of age. The feed restriction was applied from 4 to 21 d of age. Restriction was 15% from d 4 to 14 of age and diminished with equal daily steps thereafter to 5% at 21 d of age. Birds were weighed and dissected for evaluation of small intestine weights at 6, 9, 14, and 36 d of age. Feed intake restriction reduced leg problems in Ross and Cobb broilers. Extra dietary protein reduced leg problems in Ross broilers only. The present experiment does not show that small intestinal weight development is related to mortality. Thirty percent extra dietary ideal protein increased duodenum weight between 6 and 9 d of age. This was not further increased by the daily optimization of the dietary amino acid level and profile. The increased duodenum weights coincided with an improved BW gain. This indicates that duodenum weight may be important in facilitating BW gain in young broilers. Thus, it may be worthwhile to pay more attention to the relation between nutrition and duodenum weight and duodenum function in further studies. PMID:20548070

  11. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  12. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  13. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

    PubMed

    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. PMID:26818054

  14. The Expression of Pre- and Postcopulatory Sexually Selected Traits Reflects Levels of Dietary Stress in Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed ‘n3LC’) influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet ‘quantity’ treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males’ colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits. PMID:25170940

  15. The expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits reflects levels of dietary stress in guppies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed 'n3LC') influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet 'quantity' treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males' colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits.

  16. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-06-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu.

  17. The expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits reflects levels of dietary stress in guppies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed 'n3LC') influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet 'quantity' treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males' colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits. PMID:25170940

  18. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D.

    2016-01-01

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. PMID:26818054

  19. Effects of dietary energy density and digestible protein:energy ratio on de novo lipid synthesis from dietary protein in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) quantified with stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Ekmann, Kim S; Dalsgaard, Johanne; Holm, Jørgen; Campbell, Patrick J; Skov, Peter V

    2013-11-01

    The effects of varying dietary digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) content on performance, nutrient retention efficiency and the de novo lipogenesis of DP origin were examined in triplicate groups of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), fed nine extruded experimental diets. In order to trace the metabolic fate of dietary protein, 1·8% fishmeal was replaced with isotope-labelled whole protein (.98% 13C). The experiment was divided into a growth period lasting 89 d, growing fish from approximately 140 to 350 g, followed by a 3 d period feeding isotope-enriched diets. Isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4% of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3% of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were significantly improved with increasing dietary energy density. The present study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently utilises dietary nutrients over a wide range of DP:DE ratios and energy densities. In addition, they appear to endeavour a certain body energy status rather than maximising growth, which in the present trial was apparent from inherently high de novo lipogenesis originating from DP.

  20. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  1. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Sulfate during Late Gestation and Lactation Affects the Milk Composition and Immunoglobulin Levels in Sows.

    PubMed

    Hou, W X; Cheng, S Y; Liu, S T; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) during late gestation and lactation on sow and litter performance, fecal moisture, blood biochemistry parameters, immunoglobulin levels and milk composition in sows. Forty-eight sows (Yorkshire×Landrace, 4th to 5th parity) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments supplemented with 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg MgSO4 (n = 12). The experiment started on day 90 of gestation and continued through day 21 of lactation. Blood samples were collected on day 107 of gestation, day 0 (farrowing) and 21 (weaning) of lactation for the analyses of the blood biochemistry parameters and immunoglobulin levels. The colostrum and milk samples were obtained on day 0 and 14 of lactation, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from the sows on day 107 of gestation as well as day 7 and 20 of lactation to determine fecal moisture content. The results showed that the survival percentage of piglets and the litter weight at weaning were decreased linearly (p<0.05) and other parameters of the sow or litter performance were not influenced (p>0.05) by MgSO4 supplementation. The fecal moisture content of the sows were increased (p<0.05) linearly as dietary MgSO4 increased on day 7 and 20 of lactation. Supplementation with MgSO4 increased the plasma magnesium (Mg) level linearly (p<0.05) and had a trend to increase total protein level (p>0.05 and p<0.10). However, an increase in the dietary MgSO4 level resulted in a linear decrease in the colostrum fat content (p<0.05). Dietary MgSO4 supplementation enhanced the immunoglobulin G (IgG) level (linear, p<0.05) in plasma on day of farrowing and immunoglobulin A (IgA) level in colostrum (quadratic, p<0.05) and milk (linear, p<0.05) of the sows. These results indicated that supplementation with MgSO4 during late gestation and lactation may have the potential to prevent sow constipation, but may also result in some negative

  2. Effects of dietary folic acid level and symbiotic folate production on fitness and development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Blatch, Sydella A; Meyer, Kyle W; Harrison, Jon F

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid is a vitamin for probably all animals. When converted to folate forms, it is used in DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism. Literature suggests insects must consume folates, folates do not affect others, is a toxin for some, and that a few insects synthesize it. It has been reported that Drosophila melanogaster does not consistently need dietary folate because it can synthesize it. This seems unlikely since animals generally lack this ability. More likely, folates thought to have been made by the fly came from microbial symbionts. We aimed to clarify how dietary folic acid affects fitness and development in fruit flies and whether flies may receive folates from microbial symbionts. We found larvae were more viable and developed faster with increasing dietary folic acid, with the surprising exception that larvae fed nearly-zero folic acid developed faster. Their body folate levels did not significantly differ from those that consumed up to 600 times more folic acid. However, these flies fed little folate only achieved normal body folate levels and development times when antibiotics were excluded from the diet. When flies consumed near-zero folates with antibiotics, their body folate levels decreased and development was prolonged. An assay for the endosymbiont Wolbachia in flies used to generate the experimental flies did not show presence of these bacteria. Our data suggest D. melanogaster can harbor unknown bacterial symbiont(s) that provide essential folates to their host when it is scarce in the diet, allowing the fruit fly to maintain growth and development.

  3. Dietary supplementation and doping-related factors in high-level sailing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although dietary supplements (DSs) in sports are considered a natural need resulting from athletes’ increased physical demands, and although they are often consumed by athletes, data on DS usage in Olympic sailing are scarce. The aim of this study was to study the use of and attitudes towards DSs and doping problems in high-level competitive sailing. Methods The sample consisted of 44 high-level sailing athletes (5 of whom were female; total mean age 24.13 ± 6.67 years) and 34 coaches (1 of whom was female; total mean age 37.01 ± 11.70). An extensive, self-administered questionnaire of substance use was used, and the subjects were asked about sociodemographic data, sport-related factors, DS-related factors (i.e., usage of and knowledge about DSs, sources of information), and doping-related factors. The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used to determine the differences in group characteristics, and Spearman’s rank order correlation and a logistic regression analysis were used to define the relationships between the studied variables. Results DS usage is relatively high. More than 77% of athletes consume DSs, and 38% do so on a regular basis (daily). The athletes place a high degree of trust in their coaches and/or physicians regarding DSs and doping. The most important reason for not consuming DSs is the opinion that DSs are useless and a lack of knowledge about DSs. The likelihood of doping is low, and one-third of the subjects believe that doping occurs in sailing (no significant differences between athletes and coaches). The logistic regression found crew number (i.e., single vs. double crew) to be the single significant predictor of DS usage, with a higher probability of DS consumption among single crews. Conclusion Because of the high consumption of DSs future investigations should focus on real nutritional needs in sailing sport. Also, since athletes reported that their coaches are the primary source of information about nutrition and DSs, further

  4. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed. PMID:24046416

  5. Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Firmino-Diógenes, Alexandre; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH-) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition

  6. Vitamin D levels in children of asylum seekers in The Netherlands in relation to season and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A M; Wiegersma, P Auke; Storm, Huub; Bijleveld, Charles M A; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2007-03-01

    Low dietary intake and limited sun exposure during Dutch winters, in particular when combined with highly pigmented skin, could compromise the vitamin D status of asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands. We determined the vitamin D status of children living in The Netherlands, but originating from Africa, Central Asia, or Eastern Europe. In a subgroup, we reassessed the vitamin D status after the summer, during which the children had been assigned at random to remain unsupplemented or to receive vitamin D supplementation. In total 112 children (median age 7.1 yr, range 2-12 yr) were assessed for serum concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (I-PTH) and plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and hypovitaminosis D were defined as 25(OH)D below 30 or 50 nmol/L, respectively. Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium was estimated using a 24 h recall interview. In mid-spring, 13% of the children had VDD, and 42% had hypovitaminosis D. I-PTH and ALP levels were significantly higher in children with VDD. The dietary intake of vitamin D was below 80% of the recommended daily allowances (RDA) in 94% of the children, but the dietary calcium intake was not significantly related to the s-25(OH)D levels found. After the summer, median s-25(OH)D increased with +35 nmol/L (+85%) and +19 nmol/L (+42%) in children with or without supplementation, respectively. The effect of supplementation was most prominent among African children. VDD and hypovitaminosis D are highly prevalent in mid-spring among asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands. Although 25(OH)D levels increase in African children during Dutch summer months, this does not completely correct the compromised vitamin D status. Our data indicate that children from African origin would benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

  7. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  8. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  9. Starch source influences dietary glucose generation at the mucosal alpha-glucosidase level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of starch digestion, related to the rate and extent of release of dietary glucose, is associated with glycemia-related problems such as diabetes and other metabolic syndrome conditions. Here, we found that the rate of glucose generation from starch is unexpectedly associated with mucosal...

  10. High levels of dietary unsaturated fat decrease alpha-tocopherol content of whole body, liver, and plasma of chickens without variations in intestinal apparent absorption.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, C; Baucells, M D; Manzanilla, E G; Barroeta, A C

    2008-03-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the effect of dietary unsaturated fat inclusion level on alpha-tocopherol apparent absorption and deposition in broiler chickens at 2 ages (20 and 39 d). The dietary fat was a mixture of linseed and fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The experimental treatments were the result of 4 levels of supplementation with alpha-tocopheryl acetate (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg; E0, E100, E200, and E400 treatments, respectively) and 4 dietary oil inclusion levels (2, 4, 6, and 8%; O2, O4, O6, and O8 treatments respectively). Almond husk was used as an energy dilutor in the high-fat diets. Apparent absorption of total fatty acids was high in all treatments averaging 88% and was higher with high fat dietary inclusion level. alpha-Tocopheryl acetate hydrolysis and apparent absorption of alpha-tocopherol were similar in both ages and were not affected by fat inclusion level, except for a reduction of the absorption in the low-fat diet (O2) in the E100 treatment at 20 d of age. Despite this lack of differences in hydrolysis and absorption, higher-fat PUFA diets induced lower concentrations of free alpha-tocopherol in the excreta, at high alpha-tocopherol doses, suggesting an increase in the destruction of alpha-tocopherol by lipid oxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, total and hepatic alpha-tocopherol deposition was lower in the birds fed high-PUFA diets in the E200- and E400-supplemented birds, possibly due to a destruction of vitamin E when protecting these PUFA from lipid peroxidation. alpha-Tocopherol concentration in liver and, to a lesser extent, in plasma was a useful indicator of the degree of response of this vitamin to different factors that can affect its bioavailability; however, in the present experiment, CV were too high to use liver and plasma concentrations as estimators of total body vitamin E. PMID:18281576

  11. EFFECT OF A DIETARY INTERVENTION ON GROWTH AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Latham, Norma E.; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The study aim was to determine the effect of a dietary intervention on growth, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS Subjects (5 to 17 yrs) participated in a 12-month trial of the organized lipid matrix LYM-X-SORB™ (LXS) vs. placebo dietary supplements with similar calories, total fat and fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day weighed food records. Height (HAZ), weight (WAZ), BMI (BMIZ), mid-upper arm muscle (UAMAZ) and fat area (UAFAZ) Z-scores were calculated. Fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were obtained by whole body DXA. REE (kcal/d) was evaluated by indirect calorimetry at baseline, 3 and 12 months and %REE calculated using Schofield equations. No growth or REE differences were observed between LXS and placebo groups so data were pooled for analysis. RESULTS 63 children (57% males, age 10.6±2.9 yr, 43% receiving LXS) completed REE measurements. Caloric intake increased from a median of 2502 [1478, 4909] to 2616 [1660, 4125] kcal/d at 12 months. HAZ, WAZ and UAMAZ increased (p < 0.05) over 12 months. Mean REE was 109±8% predicted at baseline and 107±9% at 12 months (p < 0.05). REE (kcal/d) adjusted for FFM and FM decreased over 12 months ([mean±SE] −31±12 kcals, p < 0.01), significant only in males (−49±16 kcals, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Over a 12 month nutrition intervention with either LXS or placebo, the growth status, muscle stores and REE improved. Sustained increased energy intake improved energy metabolism, growth and nutritional status in school age children with CF, PI and mild lung disease. PMID:24518280

  12. Dietary copper can regulate the level of mRNA for dopamine B-hydroxylase in rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sabban, E.L.; Failla, M.L.; McMahon, A.; Seidel, K.E. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Recent studies have shown that Cu deficiency markedly alters the levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in several peripheral tissues of rodents. Conversion of DA to NE is mediated by dopamine B-hydroxylase (DBM). Here the authors examined the effect of dietary Cu deficiency on the levels of DA, NE and DBM mRNA in rat adrenal gland. Severe Cu deficiency was induced by feeding low Cu diet to dams beginning at 17d gestation and weaning pups to the same diet. At 7 wks of age rats fed {minus}Cu diet were characterized by depressed growth, low tissue Cu, enlarged hearts and moderate anemia. Concentrations of DA were higher in adrenals and hearts of {minus}Cu rats compared to +Cu controls. While cardiac level of NE in {minus}Cu rats were reduced to 17% that of controls, adrenal NE was unchanged by Cu deficiency. To investigate possible mechanisms responsible for the response of adrenal gland to Cu deficiency, RNA was isolated and the levels of DBH mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA were analyzed by Northern blots. Steady state levels of adrenal DBH mRNA was increased 2-3 fold in {minus}Cu rats, whereas TH mRNA were unchanged by dietary Cu status. Upon feeding the {minus}Cu rats the Cu adequate diet overnight, there was a further increase in DBH mRNA and a slight elevation of TH mRNA levels. The results indicate that dietary copper can markedly affect the level of DBH mRNA in rat adrenal gland.

  13. Relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yeo, SeonAe; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2014-06-01

    A high total homocysteine (tHcy) level during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes, such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Caffeine is assumed to increase tHcy levels by acting as a vitamin B6 antagonist. The objective of this study was to examine a relationship between circulating tHcy levels and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant Japanese women. A total of 321 healthy women with singleton pregnancies were recruited in metropolitan Tokyo, from June to December 2008, resulting in the final number included in the study as 254. Dietary caffeine intakes did not correlate with plasma tHcy levels. When we analyzed the data according to caffeinated beverages, caffeinated tea consumption was positively associated with plasma tHcy levels only among the women with a high intake of vitamin B6 , after controlling for confounding factors (P = 0.029). No correlation between coffee consumption and plasma tHcy levels was found. Pregnant Japanese women might need to cut down the consumption of caffeinated tea as well as take sufficient vitamin B6 in order to prevent the tHcy levels from increasing.

  14. A Molecular-Level Landscape of Diet-Gut Microbiome Interactions: Toward Dietary Interventions Targeting Bacterial Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yueqiong; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT As diet is considered the major regulator of the gut ecosystem, the overall objective of this work was to demonstrate that a detailed knowledge of the phytochemical composition of food could add to our understanding of observed changes in functionality and activity of the gut microbiota. We used metatranscriptomic data from a human dietary intervention study to develop a network that consists of >400 compounds present in the administered plant-based diet linked to 609 microbial targets in the gut. Approximately 20% of the targeted bacterial proteins showed significant changes in their gene expression levels, while functional and topology analyses revealed that proteins in metabolic networks with high centrality are the most “vulnerable” targets. This global view and the mechanistic understanding of the associations between microbial gene expression and dietary molecules could be regarded as a promising methodological approach for targeting specific bacterial proteins that impact human health. PMID:26507230

  15. Adipose tissue and liver metabolic responses to different levels of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Bou, Marta; Todorčević, Marijana; Fontanillas, Ramón; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzes the effects of replacing dietary lipids by carbohydrates and carbohydrates by fiber on gilthead sea bream growth, as well as lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and liver over the course of a 15-week feeding trial. Six different diets were formulated and fish were classified into two experimental groups sharing one diet. In the first group (LS), fish were fed four diets where lipids were reduced (23%-17%) by increasing carbohydrates (12%-28%) and, the second group (SF) consisted on three diets where the amount of carbohydrates (28%-11%) was exchanged at expenses of fiber (1%-18%). Differences in growth were not observed; nevertheless, the hepatosomatic index was positively related to dietary starch levels, apparently not due to enhanced hepatic lipogenesis, partly supported by unchanged G6PDH expression. In the LS group, lipogenic activity of adipose tissue was stimulated with low-lipid/high-carbohydrate diets by up-regulating G6PDH expression and a tendency to increase FAS, and promoted carbohydrate utilization versus fatty acid oxidation by modulating the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα and PPARβ expression. In the SF group, PPARs and LXRα increased parallel to fiber levels in adipose tissue. Furthermore, an adaptation of hepatic GK to dietary starch inclusion was observed in both groups; however, the lack of effects on G6Pase expression indicated that gluconeogenesis was not nutritionally regulated under the conditions examined. Overall, metabolic adaptations directed to an efficient use of dietary carbohydrates are present in gilthead sea bream, supporting the possibility of increasing carbohydrate or fiber content in diets for aquaculture sustainability.

  16. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids and energy content of nine corn coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Kerr, B J; Zijlstra, R T; Patience, J F

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine a best fitting dietary fiber (DF) component to estimate the effect of DF concentration on the digestibility of energy, DF, and AA and energy value of 9 corn coproducts: corn bran (37.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP]); corn bran with solubles (17.1% NSP); cooked corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20.4% NSP); reduced oil DDGS (25.0% NSP); uncooked DDGS (22.0% NSP); high protein distillers dried grains (21.9% NSP); dehulled, degermed corn (1.1% NSP); corn germ meal (44.4% NSP); and corn gluten meal (4.9% NSP). A total of 20 growing pigs (initial BW: 25.9 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 10 dietary treatment groups in a 4-period incomplete block design with 8 observations per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and 9 diets obtained by mixing 70% of the basal diet with 30% of the test ingredient. In tested ingredients, 11 DF components were determined: 1) ADF, 2) NDF, 3) total dietary fiber, 4) hemicellulose, 5) total NSP, 6) NSP arabinose, 7) NSP xylose, 8) NSP mannose, 9) NSP glucose, 10) NSP galactose, and 11) arabinoxylan. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF and the AID of AA of ingredients were measured. A single best fitting DF component was assessed and ranked for each trait, showing that arabinoxylan concentration best explained variance in AID of GE (R(2) = 0.65; cubic, P < 0.01) and DM (R(2) = 0.67; cubic, P < 0.01). The NSP xylose residue best explained variance in ATTD of GE (R(2) = 0.80; cubic, P < 0.01), DM (R(2) = 0.78; cubic, P < 0.01), and NDF (R(2) = 0.63; cubic, P < 0.01); AID of Met (R(2) = 0.40; cubic, P = 0.02), Met + Cys (R(2) = 0.44; cubic, P = 0.04), and Trp (R(2) = 0.11; cubic, P = 0.04); and DE (R(2) = 0.66; linear, P = 0.02) and ME (R(2) = 0.71; cubic, P = 0.01) values. The AID of Lys was not predictable (P > 0.05) from the DF

  17. Dietary products consumption in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and selenium level in Saudi children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Attas, Omar; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji; Al-Fawaz, Hanan; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health threat that has been associated with several chronic diseases. Selenium is an essential trace element because of role in major metabolic processes, immune function, thyroid hormone metabolism, male infertility, neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate for the first time in the Saudi population the association between vitamin D and selenium status with various dietary products consumption. A total of 259 children and 95 adults were included in this cross-sectional study. We estimated the consumption frequencies of various dietary food products using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and also measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and selenium. Associations between variables of interest were assessed. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were observed in 80% of the boys, 90% of the girls, 64% of men and 50% of women. Modest associations were found between mean serum 25 (OH) D concentration and consumption frequencies of fresh milk in children (r=0.11; P<0.05), more specifically in girls (r=0.12; P<0.05), and to the overall consumption of dairy products in women (r=0.12; P<0.05). Vitamin D status was also inversely associated with selenium in adults (r=-0.43; P<0.05). There was a significant correlation between delta changes of serum selenium, triglycerides and HDL levels (P-values <0.05). Vitamin D and selenium levels are modestly associated with dietary products consumption. Changes in selenium levels were associated with increased serum triglyceride levels, indicating a potential biomarker for cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia. The widespread vitamin D deficiency observed in the present study highlight the need for adequate fortification of dairy products. PMID:25785131

  18. Fat spectro-colorimetric characteristics of lambs switched from a low to a high dietary carotenoid level for various durations before slaughter.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, L; Carvalho, P C F; Prache, S

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in fat reflectance spectrum characteristics and color in lambs switched from a low to a high dietary carotenoid level for various durations before slaughter. Six treatments, feeding a high dietary carotenoid level for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 or 75 days before slaughter, were compared in individually indoor penned lambs. Each treatment used 10 Romane lambs; feeding management ensured similar growth pattern and carcass weight for all the treatment groups. There was a change in reflectance spectrum characteristics and yellowness of subcutaneous fat as early as 15 days after the switch. Mean concentration of carotenoid pigments and yellowness of subcutaneous fat increased linearly with the duration of the high dietary carotenoid level. In perirenal fat, the change in reflectance spectrum characteristics was observed as early as 15 days after the switch, but the response to the duration of the high dietary carotenoid level was curvilinear.

  19. Increased dietary protein attenuates C-reactive protein and creatine kinase responses to exercise-induced energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined if dietary protein (P) modulates responses of C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK), biomarkers of inflammation and muscle damage, during exercise-induced energy deficit (DEF). Thirteen healthy men (22 +/- 1 y, VO2peak 60 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) balanced energy expenditure (EE...

  20. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  1. The metabolizable energy of dietary resistant maltodextrin is variable and alters fecal microbiota composition in adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant maltodextrin (RM) is a novel soluble, nonviscous dietary fiber. Its metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) values derived from nutrient balance studies are unknown, as is the effect of RM on fecal microbiota. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study was conduct...

  2. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  3. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  4. Effects of different dietary manganese levels on growth performance and N balance of growing mink (Neovision vision).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H H; Zhou, N; Zhang, T T; Bao, K; Xu, C; Song, X C; Li, G Y

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary manganese levels on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and N balance of minks during growing period. In experiment 1, 75 healthy male minks (60 days old) were selected and randomly divided into five groups with different types of diet. The diet was supplemented with 0 (control), 50, 100, 300, and 600 ppm of manganese as MnSO4 of dry matter (DM) in basic diet, respectively. From early July to middle September, the results showed that the final body weights of minks were significantly affected by diets (P < 0.05). Average daily gains (ADG) were significantly higher in the 300-ppm manganese group than those in other groups. The ratio of feed to body weight gain (F/G) was significantly affected by manganese level (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, 45 male minks (75 days old) with the same body weight were selected from each group of experiment 1 to carry out the nutrient digestion and N-balance tests which lasted for 4 days for the collection of the feces and urine, and the diets and treatment codes were same as in experiment 1. The results showed that no significant differences were found in DM, crude protein (CP), and crude carbohydrate (CC) digestibility among all groups (P > 0.05), but ether extract (EE) and gross energy (GE) digestibility were all the highest in the 300-ppm group. N intake and fecal N were similar among all groups (P > 0.05). Urinary N was lower in the 300-ppm group; in contrast, N retention was higher in this group (P < 0.05). In conclusion of experiment 1 and experiment 2, the diet supplemented with 300 ppm of manganese (as manganese sulfate) could improve the growth performance and increase the EE and GE digestibility of mink during the growing period and moreover reduce the nitrogen emissions to the environment, and the optimal total manganese level in mink's diet was 409.16 in DM during the growing period.

  5. Effect of the level of dietary protein on the utilization of alpha-ketoisocaproate for protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, C.W.; Tungsanga, K.; Walser, M.

    1986-04-01

    The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) as a dietary substitute for leucine in rats on varying protein intake was estimated by an isotopic method, previously shown to yield the same results as comparative growth experiments. /sup 14/C-KIC and /sup 3/H-leucine are injected orally. Six hours later the ratio, R, of /sup 14/C//sup 3/H in isolated proteins, divided by the same ratio in the injectate is measured. This ratio has been shown to be approximately equal to nutritional efficiency of KIC relative to leucine. As dietary protein increased from 6.3% to 48.3%, whole body protein R decreased from 0.515 +/- 0.045 to 0.299 +/- 0.016. Variations with protein intake were noted in R of protein isolated from individual organs. The magnitude of R in these organs varied two-fold, in the following sequence: brain greater than heart greater than or equal to skeletal muscle greater than or equal to salivary gland greater than or equal to kidney greater than liver. Whole body protein R could be confidently predicted (r2 = 0.992) from R in the protein of kidney and muscle. Thus, the nutritional efficiency of KIC as a dietary substitute for leucine in individual organs as well as in the whole animal is strongly dependent on the level of protein intake.

  6. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild. PMID:25823966

  7. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild.

  8. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area. PMID:26991380

  9. Dietary lipid levels impact lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and fatty acid synthetase gene expression in three tissues of adult GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; Wu, Fan; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Wei; Wen, Hua

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary lipids on growth performance, body composition, serum parameters, and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT strain) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. We randomly assigned adult male Nile tilapia (average initial body weight = 220.00 ± 9.54 g) into six groups consisting of four replicates (20 fish per replicate). Fish in each group were hand-fed a semi-purified diets containing different lipid levels [3.3 (the control group), 28.4, 51.4, 75.4, 101.9, and 124.1 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. The results indicated that there was no obvious effect in feeding rate among all groups (P > 0.05). The highest weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio in 75.4 g kg(-1) diet group were increased by 23.31, 16.17, and 22.02 % than that of fish in the control group (P < 0.05). Protein retention ratio was highest in 51.4 g kg(-1) diet group. The results revealed that the optimum dietary lipid level for maximum growth performance is 76.6-87.9 g kg(-1). Increasing dietary lipid levels contributed to increased tissue and whole body lipid levels. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing dietary lipid levels. With the exception of MUFAs, the fatty acid profiles of liver and muscle were similar. Dietary lipid levels were negatively correlated with low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol content and positively with triacylglycerol and glucose contents. In the lipid-fed groups, there was a significant down-regulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in liver, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues. There was a rapid up-regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA in muscle and liver with increasing dietary lipid levels. In visceral adipose tissue, LPL mRNA was significantly down-regulated in the lipid-fed groups. Dietary lipids increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) m

  10. Fasting substrate oxidation at rest assessed by indirect calorimetry: is prior dietary macronutrient level and composition a confounder?

    PubMed

    Miles-Chan, J L; Dulloo, A G; Schutz, Y

    2015-07-01

    Indirect calorimetry, the measurement of O₂ consumption and CO₂ production, constitutes an invaluable tool as the most common method for analyzing whole-body energy expenditure, and also provides an index of the nature of macronutrient substrate oxidation--namely, carbohydrate (CHO) versus fat oxidation. The latter constitutes a key etiological factor in obesity as this condition can only develop when total fat oxidation is chronically lower than total exogenous fat intake. The standardization of indirect calorimetry measurements is essential for accurately tracking the relative proportion of energy expenditure derived from CHO and fat oxidation. Here we analyze literature data to show that the average fasting respiratory quotient typically shifts from approximately 0.80 to 0.90 (indicating a doubling of resting CHO oxidation) in response to a switch in dietary CHO intake (as % energy) from 30 to 60%. This underscores the importance of taking into account dietary macronutrient composition prior to indirect calorimetry studies in the interpretation of data on substrate utilization and oxidation.

  11. Effect of prepartal and postpartal dietary fat level on performance and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Karimian, M; Khorvash, M; Forouzmand, M A; Alikhani, M; Rahmani, H R; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary fat (low and high) offered during the prepartal and postpartal periods on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma concentration of metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Twenty-four Holstein dry cows were assigned on d 21 relative to expected parturition date to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 levels of fat fed during the prepartal period and 2 levels of fat fed during the postpartal period: prepartal low fat and postpartal low fat (LF-LF), prepartal low fat and postpartal high fat (LF-HF), prepartal high fat and postpartal low fat (HF-LF), or prepartal high fat and postpartal high fat (HF-HF). Prepartal and postpartal LF diets contained no fat supplement. Prepartal HF diets contained 1.60% calcium salts of soybean oil. The proportion of calcium salts of soybean oil was increased to 1.70% of DM for the first 21 d of lactation and to 2.27% of DM from d 21 to 56 of lactation in the HF diet. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake from d 21 before calving until d 56 of gestation. Prepartal DMI was lower for cows fed the HF diet compared with those fed the LF diet (12.6 vs. 16.2kg/d). Postpartum, cows fed the HF-HF and HF-LF diets had, respectively, the lowest and highest DMI, although no significant differences existed between HF-LF and LF-LF. Net energy intake was higher for cows fed the postpartal HF diets compared with those fed the LF diets. Prepartal fat level had no effect on net energy intake. Cows offered the prepartal HF diet had higher milk yield when offered the postpartal LF diet compared with those offered the postpartal HF diet and no effect of the postpartal fat level was detected when cows were fed the prepartal LF diet. Milk composition was similar among treatments. Plasma cholesterol concentration postpartum was higher for cows fed the prepartal LF diet than for those fed the prepartal HF diet (5.16 vs. 3.74mmol/L) and postpartal fat level had no effect

  12. The performance of brown egg-type layers fed different protein and energy levels in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Olomu, J M; Offiong, S A

    1983-02-01

    The effects of feeding three protein levels (16, 18, and 20%), each at three metabolizable energy levels (2400, 2600, and 2800 kcal/kg diet), were studied with 990 caged Warren Studler Sex-Sal Link pullets over a 336-day laying period. Dietary protein had no significant effects on hen-day egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, feed intake, feed conversion, feed cost per dozen eggs, caloric intake, egg weights, and final body weight. Protein consumption on all levels of dietary protein was over 20 g per bird per day and increased significantly with increases in dietary protein. Mortality was lowest on the highest protein level. The highest energy level (2800 kcal/kg diet) significantly depressed egg production and feed and protein intake. The feed costs per dozen eggs increased significantly with increases in dietary energy level. Caloric intake and final body weights were similar for the medium (2600 kcal/kg diet) and highest energy levels (2800 kcal/kg diet) but significantly higher than that obtained on the lowest energy level (2400 kcal/kg diet). Egg weights, Haugh units, feed per dozen eggs, and mortality were not significantly affected by energy levels. In spite of the average maximum monthly temperatures, ranging from 26.8 to 35.2 C, annual egg production was about 71 to 73% for the best groups, figures comparable with those obtainable in temperate climates. Egg weight and Haugh units were similar to reported temperate zone values. This experiment supports the use of 16% protein and a metabolizable energy level of 2400 kcal/kg diet for brown egg-type layers.

  13. The influence of dietary salt and energy on the response to low pH in juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, L M; Wood, C M

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of diet, specifically the relative importance of salt content versus energy content, in the response of juvenile rainbow trout to environmental acid stress in soft water ([Ca2+] = 0.057 mmol L-1, [Na+] = 0.047 mmol L-1). Diets were formulated at two energy levels (regular, 16.3 MJ kg-1, and low, 9.8 MJ kg-1) and two levels of NaCl (regular, approximately 263 mmol kg-1, and low, approximately 64 mmol kg-1), yielding four treatment combinations, each fed at a ration of 0.6% body weight d-1. A fifth group of fish was not fed during the experiment. All groups were subjected to an initial acid challenge (24 h at pH 5.0 plus 12 h at pH 4.0), followed by 28 d of exposure to pH 5.2. Following the initial acid challenge, typical ionoregulatory disturbances were seen, but most effects had attenuated or disappeared by day 20 of chronic low-pH exposure. However, after 28 d, fish fed the regular-salt diets maintained the restored ionic homeostasis, whereas those fed low-salt diets did not, regardless of the energy content of the diet. Growth and food conversion efficiency were greatest in trout fed the regular-energy/regular-salt diet, negative in fish fed the low-energy/regular-salt diet, and intermediate in trout on the other diets; starved fish lost weight. Fish maintained on the regular-energy/low-salt diet exhibited the most deleterious effects, including elevated cortisol levels and a 4.1% d-1 mortality rate. Fish fed the low-energy/low-salt diet, those fed regular-salt diets, and starved fish were not as adversely affected by the acid stress. Following a regular-energy meal, fish tended to exhibit an elevated rate of oxygen consumption, but this did not occur after a low-energy meal, regardless of its salt content. Elevated oxygen consumption may be accompanied by a loss of ions via the osmorespiratory compromise. We hypothesize that fish fed the regular-energy/low-salt diets were most deleteriously affected in an acidified environment

  14. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Petra A; Carlson, Bradley A; Anderson, Christine B; Seifried, Harold E; Hatfield, Dolph L; Howard, Michael T

    2015-08-06

    Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  15. Evaluation of tolerable levels of dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect in high cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Keiko; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Terao, Junji

    2010-04-01

    The tolerable level of dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect was evaluated in high cholesterol-fed rats, using quercetin-containing diets (31-1260 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day) and onion diets (19-94 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent/kg body weight/day), from the viewpoint of a safety assessment. After feeding for 4 weeks, the urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels of the quercetin-containing diet groups fed more than 157 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day were higher than the group fed a quercetin-free diet, although the plasma quercetin metabolite levels and plasma antioxidative activity were elevated depending on the amounts of quercetin or onion diet intake. No significant effect on body weight gain by quercetin-containing diets or onion diets was observed. However, ratios of the liver and kidney weights to the body weight were significantly increased in the quercetin-containing diet groups fed more than 314 mg and 157 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day, respectively, and in the onion diet groups fed more than 47 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent/kg body weight/day. These results indicated that the tolerable level for dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect was between 126 and 157 mg/kg/day for the quercetin diet and between 19 and 34 mg/kg/day for the onion diet. PMID:20138950

  16. Energy levels for F-16 (Fluorine-16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-16 (fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 16).

  17. Underreporting of Dietary Energy Intake in Five Populations of the African Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Dugas, Lara R.; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic underreporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among individuals of African ancestry (n=324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index scale, a United Nations statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24-hour recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labeled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values to identify underreporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all countries. The South African cohort displayed the greatest mean % under-reporting: −52.1% ([self-report - expenditure/expenditure]×100) compared to −22.5%, −17.9%, −25.0%, and −18.5%, for, Ghana, Jamaica, Seychelles and the United States cohorts, respectively. Body mass index was the most consistent predictor of underreporting compared to other factors. We conclude that there is substantial under-reporting in populations across the whole range of the human development index and that this systematic error increases according to an individual’s body mass index. PMID:25585294

  18. Effect of Dietary Fiber Intake on Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Independent of Estradiol in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    High-fiber diets are associated with improved lipid profiles. However, pre- and postmenopausal women respond differently to fiber intake, suggesting that endogenous estradiol mediates the effect. The authors' objective was to determine the direct effect of fiber intake on lipoprotein cholesterol levels independent of estradiol among premenopausal women. The BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, followed 259 healthy women for up to 2 complete menstrual cycles. Serum lipoprotein and hormone levels were measured at 16 visits timed using fertility monitors. Fiber intake was assessed by 8 24-hour recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weights for both lipoprotein and estradiol levels were used to estimate controlled direct effects of the highest category of fiber intake (≥22 g/day vs. <22 g/day) while accounting for age, body mass index, total energy, vitamin E intake, physical activity, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone. Reductions were observed in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in women with higher fiber intakes. Direct effects were greater than total effects. These analyses suggested that estradiol mediates at least part of the association between fiber and cholesterol among premenopausal women. More research is needed to elucidate the biologic mechanisms driving these associations. PMID:21148240

  19. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods.

  20. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods. PMID:24614217

  1. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P < 0.01) of the interaction between protein and energy (P < 0.05) on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was higher (P < 0.0001) in high-energy groups compared to low-energy groups. The CP digestibility increased with the increased CP and ME of the rations. The absorbed N was improved linearly with an increased level of dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations. PMID:26970972

  2. The effects of dietary protein levels on the population growth, performance, and physiology of honey bee workers during early spring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Benle; Wu, Zaifu; Xu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on honey bee colonies, specifically the population growth, physiology, and longevity of honey bee workers during early spring. Diets containing four different levels of crude protein (25.0, 29.5, 34.0, or 38.5%) and pure pollen (control) were evaluated. Twenty-five colonies of honey bees with sister queens were used in the study. We compared the effects of the different bee diets by measuring population growth, emergent worker weight, midgut proteolytic enzyme activity, hypopharyngeal gland development, and survival. After 48 d, the cumulative number of workers produced by the colonies ranged from 22,420 to 29,519, providing a significant fit to a quadratic equation that predicts the maximum population growth when the diet contains 31.7% crude protein. Significantly greater emergent worker weight, midgut proteolytic enzyme activity, hypopharyngeal gland acini, and survival were observed in the colonies that were fed diets containing 34.0% crude protein compared with the other crude protein levels. Although higher emergent worker weight and survival were observed in the colonies that were fed the control diet, there were no significant differences between the control colonies and the colonies that were fed 34.0% crude protein. Based on these results, we concluded that a dietary crude protein content of 29.5-34.0% is recommended to maximize the reproduction rate of honey bee colonies in early spring.

  3. The effects of dietary protein levels on the population growth, performance, and physiology of honey bee workers during early spring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Benle; Wu, Zaifu; Xu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on honey bee colonies, specifically the population growth, physiology, and longevity of honey bee workers during early spring. Diets containing four different levels of crude protein (25.0, 29.5, 34.0, or 38.5%) and pure pollen (control) were evaluated. Twenty-five colonies of honey bees with sister queens were used in the study. We compared the effects of the different bee diets by measuring population growth, emergent worker weight, midgut proteolytic enzyme activity, hypopharyngeal gland development, and survival. After 48 d, the cumulative number of workers produced by the colonies ranged from 22,420 to 29,519, providing a significant fit to a quadratic equation that predicts the maximum population growth when the diet contains 31.7% crude protein. Significantly greater emergent worker weight, midgut proteolytic enzyme activity, hypopharyngeal gland acini, and survival were observed in the colonies that were fed diets containing 34.0% crude protein compared with the other crude protein levels. Although higher emergent worker weight and survival were observed in the colonies that were fed the control diet, there were no significant differences between the control colonies and the colonies that were fed 34.0% crude protein. Based on these results, we concluded that a dietary crude protein content of 29.5-34.0% is recommended to maximize the reproduction rate of honey bee colonies in early spring. PMID:25368092

  4. Dietary histidine increases mouse skin urocanic acid levels and enhances UVB-induced immune suppression of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Reilly, S K; De Fabo, E C

    1991-04-01

    Urocanic Acid (UCA) exists in mammalian skin primarily as the trans isomer and is photoisomerized to cis UCA upon UVB absorption. Our previous studies indicated that the photoisomerization of UCA is the initiating event in UBV-induced suppression of cell-mediated immunity (tUCA----cUCA----immune suppression). The purpose of this study was to verify the role of UCA in UV-induced immune suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in BALB/c mice. Since UCA is a metabolite of the amino acid L-histidine, we reasoned that increased dietary levels of histidine should raise skin tUCA levels. If skin tUCA is the UVB photoreceptor for immune suppression, this increase should enhance UV-induced suppression of CHS. HPLC analysis of skin from BALB/c mice given a histidine-rich diet (10%) showed that the total amount of UCA is significantly higher in these animals than in mice fed a normal diet. Further, levels of suppression of CHS of 3% and 49% in control fed mice, induced by 4.8 and 7.2 kJ/m2 UVB were significantly increased to 21% and 71% respectively in histidine-fed animals at these same UVB doses. These findings provide additional support for the UCA model for immune suppression, and provide the first evidence that UV-induced immune suppression can be enhanced by a dietary component, L-histidine. PMID:1857737

  5. Fermi level stabilization energy in cadmium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Speaks, D. T.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Mao, S. S.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2010-04-08

    We have studied the effects of high concentrations of native point defects on the electrical and optical properties of CdO. The defects were introduced by irradiation with high energy He+, Ne+, Ar+ and C+ ions. Increasing the irradiation damage with particles heavier than He+ increases the electron concentration until a saturation level of 5x1020 cm-3 is reached. In contrast, due to the ionic character and hence strong dynamic annealing of CdO, irradiation with much lighter He+ stabilizes the electron concentration at a much lower level of 1.7x1020 cm-3. A large shift of the optical absorption edge with increasing electron concentration in irradiated samples is explained by the Burstein-Moss shift corrected for electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. The saturation of the electron concentration and the optical absorption edge energy are consistent with a defect induced stabilization of the Fermi energy at 1 eV above the conduction band edge. The result is in a good agreement with previously determined Fermi level pinning energies on CdO surfaces. The results indicate that CdO shares many similarities with InN, as both materials exhibit extremely large electron affinities and an unprecedented propensity for n-type conductivity.

  6. SERPINE1, PAI-1 protein coding gene, methylation levels and epigenetic relationships with adiposity changes in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome features under dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Zulet, Marian Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been associated with metabolic disorders, through different mechanisms, which could involve changes in DNA methylation. This work aimed to assess the potential relationships of the cytosine methylation levels within SERPINE1 gene transcriptional regulatory region, which codes for PAI-1, in peripheral white blood cells with anthropometrical, metabolic and inflammatory features. Forty-six obese subjects with metabolic syndrome features followed Control or Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) energy-restricted (−30%E) diets for 8 weeks. SERPINE1 transcriptional regulatory region methylation at baseline was analyzed by a microarray technical. Both dietary strategies reduced anthropometric and biochemical parameters. The Control group significantly reduced plasma PAI-1 concentrations but not the RESMENA group. Participants from both nutritional interventions with higher SERPINE1 methylation levels at baseline showed significantly major reductions in body weight, total fat mass, android fat mass, total cholesterol and triglycerides, as compared with those with lower initial SERPINE1 methylation levels. In conclusion, the DNA methylation levels of SERPINE1 transcriptional regulatory region were associated with some metabolic and anthropometric changes in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome under energy restriction, suggesting a complex epigenetic network in the regulation of this recognized pro-inflammatory marker. (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086) PMID:24249967

  7. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  8. Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampoultzis, M.; Sinatkas, J.; Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system.

  9. Defect energy levels from current transient recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momayezi, Michael

    1991-07-01

    Silicon detectors are widely used in high energy physics in vertexing and calorimetry applications. The radiative environment will introduce defects with energy levels in the bandgap into the crystals. At the high levels of radiation present at proton accelerators the defect concentration will easily approach or exceed the doping concentration of the usual high ohmic material. DLTS, the most common technique for defect characterization is known to fail under these conditions. To study heavy radiation damage in silicon detectors a new method has been developed. Using a DLTS-like pulser setup, the current transient from trap emptying is recorded on a fast digital scope being read out by a microcomputer. This is repeatedly done during a temperature scan. The time integral of the current transient equals the number of traps present and the activation enthalpy is found from the temperature dependence of the emission life time. If there is more than one energy level present the individual components may be extracted by a fitting procedure from the then multiexponential current transient. The sensitivity reached so far is, noise and systematics considered, ˜10 9 traps. Lifetimes between 5 μs and 5 ms are covered.

  10. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  11. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  12. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity.

  13. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  14. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  15. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Melissa G; Roudybush, Thomas E; McGraw, Kevin J

    2012-08-15

    Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits, is naturally restricted in hummingbird diets (comprised mostly of sugars), suggesting that iridescent coloration may be especially challenging to produce in these animals. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of dietary protein availability during molt on iridescent color expression in male Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We fed captive birds either a 6% (high) or a 3% (low) protein diet and stimulated molt by plucking half the gorget and crown ornaments on each bird as well as the non-ornamental iridescent green tail feathers. We found that birds receiving more protein grew significantly more colorful crown feathers (higher red chroma and redder hue) than those fed the low-protein diet. Diet did not affect gorget coloration, but regrowth of feathers in captivity affected both gorget and crown coloration. Additionally, birds on the high-protein diet grew yellower (higher hue) green tail feathers than birds on the low-protein diet. These results indicate that iridescent ornamental feathers are sensitive to diet quality and may serve as honest signals of nutrition to mates or rivals. Further, because both ornamental and non-ornamental iridescent coloration were affected by conditions during their growth, iridescent color in these birds appears to be generally condition dependent.

  16. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Melissa G.; Roudybush, Thomas E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits, is naturally restricted in hummingbird diets (comprised mostly of sugars), suggesting that iridescent coloration may be especially challenging to produce in these animals. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of dietary protein availability during molt on iridescent color expression in male Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We fed captive birds either a 6% (high) or a 3% (low) protein diet and stimulated molt by plucking half the gorget and crown ornaments on each bird as well as the non-ornamental iridescent green tail feathers. We found that birds receiving more protein grew significantly more colorful crown feathers (higher red chroma and redder hue) than those fed the low-protein diet. Diet did not affect gorget coloration, but regrowth of feathers in captivity affected both gorget and crown coloration. Additionally, birds on the high-protein diet grew yellower (higher hue) green tail feathers than birds on the low-protein diet. These results indicate that iridescent ornamental feathers are sensitive to diet quality and may serve as honest signals of nutrition to mates or rivals. Further, because both ornamental and non-ornamental iridescent coloration were affected by conditions during their growth, iridescent color in these birds appears to be generally condition dependent. PMID:22837446

  17. Dietary whey reduces energy intake and alters hypothalamic gene expression in obese phyto-oestrogen-deprived male rats.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María F; Stoker, Cora; Lazzarino, Gisela P; Canesini, Guillermina; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2016-09-01

    Removing dietary phyto-oestrogens in adult male rats causes obesity and diabetes. As whey proteins have been reported to reduce food intake and improve glucose homoeostasis, we investigated whether they could attenuate susceptibility to obesity and diabetes due to phyto-oestrogen deprivation. To this end, thirty male Wistar rats were fed a high-phyto-oestrogen (HP) or a phyto-oestrogen-free (PF) diet for 10 weeks; six rats from each group were killed. The remaining HP animals (six animals) continued receiving the HP diet for 6 weeks. The remaining PF rats (twelve rats) were divided in two groups: one was given the PF diet and the other a variation of the PF diet plus whey protein (PF-W). Body weight, food intake and adipose tissue weights were recorded. Hypothalamic mRNA expressions of orexigenic (neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein (AgRP)) and anorexigenic (pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine-amphetamine-related transcript (CART)) neuropeptides were quantified by real-time PCR. Serum glucose, insulin and total thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and oestradiol were assessed. After 10 weeks of PF diet, increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake, with up-regulation of AgRP and down-regulation of POMC', were observed. Longer treatment exacerbated these results, increased total T4 levels, reduced oestradiol levels and impaired glucose homoeostasis. PF-W reduced energy intake and increased POMC expression; however, body weight and adiposity remained unchanged. PF-W could not prevent the hormonal changes or the high circulating glucose levels induced by phyto-oestrogen deprivation, but reduced fasting insulin. These data demonstrate that, although 6 weeks of whey administration could not prevent obesity in phyto-oestrogen-deprived rats, the reduction in energy intake and circulating insulin could be beneficial with longer treatments. PMID:27469930

  18. Dietary whey reduces energy intake and alters hypothalamic gene expression in obese phyto-oestrogen-deprived male rats.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María F; Stoker, Cora; Lazzarino, Gisela P; Canesini, Guillermina; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2016-09-01

    Removing dietary phyto-oestrogens in adult male rats causes obesity and diabetes. As whey proteins have been reported to reduce food intake and improve glucose homoeostasis, we investigated whether they could attenuate susceptibility to obesity and diabetes due to phyto-oestrogen deprivation. To this end, thirty male Wistar rats were fed a high-phyto-oestrogen (HP) or a phyto-oestrogen-free (PF) diet for 10 weeks; six rats from each group were killed. The remaining HP animals (six animals) continued receiving the HP diet for 6 weeks. The remaining PF rats (twelve rats) were divided in two groups: one was given the PF diet and the other a variation of the PF diet plus whey protein (PF-W). Body weight, food intake and adipose tissue weights were recorded. Hypothalamic mRNA expressions of orexigenic (neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein (AgRP)) and anorexigenic (pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine-amphetamine-related transcript (CART)) neuropeptides were quantified by real-time PCR. Serum glucose, insulin and total thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and oestradiol were assessed. After 10 weeks of PF diet, increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake, with up-regulation of AgRP and down-regulation of POMC', were observed. Longer treatment exacerbated these results, increased total T4 levels, reduced oestradiol levels and impaired glucose homoeostasis. PF-W reduced energy intake and increased POMC expression; however, body weight and adiposity remained unchanged. PF-W could not prevent the hormonal changes or the high circulating glucose levels induced by phyto-oestrogen deprivation, but reduced fasting insulin. These data demonstrate that, although 6 weeks of whey administration could not prevent obesity in phyto-oestrogen-deprived rats, the reduction in energy intake and circulating insulin could be beneficial with longer treatments.

  19. An approach to assessment of the efficiency of dietary energy utilization by horses and ponies kept at riding schools.

    PubMed

    Jansen, W L; van Alphen, M; Berghout, M; Everts, H; Beynen, A C

    2001-11-01

    The ratio of calculated net energy intake (NEi) to calculate net energy requirement (NEr) might serve as an indicator of the efficiency of dietary energy utilization. The ratio was determined for 93 horses and ponies from 10 riding schools. For each animal with an assumed constant body weight, energy intake and energy requirements were assessed. On average, the estimated NEi was 14% greater than NEr. There was a significant, negative association between crude fibre intake and the NEi: NEr ratio. Earlier work indicated that extra fat intake may lead to over estimation of the calculated energy value of the ration due to changes in macronutrient digestibility. Dietary fat concentration was found to range from 32 to 52 g/kg dry matter (5 to 6 g/MJ net energy), but on the basis of digestibility trials this range in fat concentration is too small to significantly influence the NEi: NEr ratio. This study shows that assessment of the efficiency of dietary energy utilization under normal conditions, on the basis of the NEi: NEr ratio is fraught with uncertainty.

  20. The effect of 6'-galactooligosaccharides on bone mineralization of rats adapted to different levels of dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Chonan, O; Watanuki, M

    1996-01-01

    6'-galactooligosaccharides (6'-GOS), a mixture of galactosyl oligosaccharides formed from lactose by the transgalactosyl reaction with beta-D-galactosidase derived from Aspergillus oryzae and Streptococcus thermophillus, are unhydrolyzed in the small intestine and are fermented by the intestinal bacteria. The effects of 6'-GOS on calcium (Ca) absorption and bone mineralization were examined in male Wistar rats adapted to different levels of dietary Ca for 30 days. Dietary 6'-GOS (5 g/100 g of diet) were more potent than control in stimulating Ca absorption in rats fed the Normal-Ca diet (0.5 g of Ca/100 g of diet) after 8-10 days and 18-20 days, and the bone (femur and tibia) Ca content of rats fed the Normal-Ca diet with 6'-GOS were significantly higher than those of the control animals. However, in rats fed the Low-Ca diet (0.05 g of Ca/100 g of diet), 6'-GOS feeding did not affect both the absorption of Ca and the bone mineralization. Ca content in the liquid phase of the cecal digesta was significantly elevated by 6'-GOS feeding in the rats fed the Normal-Ca diet, however, this was unchanged in the rats fed the Low-Ca diet. We conclude that the effect of 6'-GOS on the bone mineralization is affected by dietary Ca concentration used in the experiment, and the stimulatory effect of 6'-GOS on Ca absorption may be partly associated with increased solubility of Ca in the intestinal digesta.

  1. Effects of different dietary phospholipid levels on growth performance, fatty acid composition, PPAR gene expressions and antioxidant responses of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Gao, Jian; Huang, Songqian

    2015-04-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary phospholipid (PL) from soybean lecithin on growth performance, liver fatty acid composition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene expression levels and antioxidant responses of blunt snout bream fingerlings. Fish (average initial weight 0.35 ± 0.01 g) were fed five experimental diets containing the following inclusion levels of PL: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Results showed that final body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as dietary PL level increased from 0 to 6%, meanwhile the survival was not affected by dietary PL supplementation. Increasing dietary PL level significantly (P < 0.05) increased in 20:4n-6 content in neutral lipid of liver, indicating fish had the capacity to convert C18 to C20 and C22 by elongation and desaturation. The expression levels of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in liver were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was decreased with dietary PL supplementation up to 6% compared with the control. Therefore, it was concluded that supplementation of 6% (18.8 g kg(-1), polar lipid of diet) PL could improve growth performance of blunt snout bream fingerlings.

  2. The effect of different dietary levels of rapeseed meal on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Zdunczyk, Z; Juskiewicz, J; Slominski, B A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood thyroid hormone concentration, carcass traits, and chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and fatty acid profile of breast meat in growing turkeys. The experiment lasted for 21 wk. Large White BIG-6 turkeys were fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 60, 120, and 180 g/kg of RSM. Each experimental group was comprised of 7 replicates/pen of 28 birds each. There was no effect of graded levels of RSM on final BW. An increase in the inclusion rate of RSM was followed by a linear increase in feed conversion ratio, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group fed 180 g/kg of RSM. The blood levels of free triiodothyronine decreased significantly (P < 0.05) regardless of the dietary level of RSM. No significant changes in the carcass dressing percentage or the meat fat content were observed. Significant differences were found in the fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of breast meat. The concentrations of margaroleic acid and saturated fatty acids, including myristic and palmitic acid, in meat from male turkeys fed 120 and 180 g/kg of RSM decreased linearly; whereas the levels of oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic and linolenic acid (an n-3 fatty acid), increased linearly. An increase in RSM content of the diets was accompanied by the unfavorable changes in selected functional properties of meat, including a significant increase in drip loss in groups fed 120 g/kg of RSM (from 1.85 to 2.38%) and 180 g/kg of RSM (from 1.85 to 3.02%) and a decrease in Warner-Bratzler shear force values in turkeys fed 180 g/kg of RSM (from 19.1 to 15.8 N). The results suggest that the quality of turkey meat could be affected by impaired triiodothyronine secretion caused by dietary RSM.

  3. Energy-level alignment at organic heterointerfaces

    PubMed Central

    Oehzelt, Martin; Akaike, Kouki; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Today’s champion organic (opto-)electronic devices comprise an ever-increasing number of different organic-semiconductor layers. The functionality of these complex heterostructures largely derives from the relative alignment of the frontier molecular-orbital energies in each layer with respect to those in all others. Despite the technological relevance of the energy-level alignment at organic heterointerfaces, and despite continued scientific interest, a reliable model that can quantitatively predict the full range of phenomena observed at such interfaces is notably absent. We identify the limitations of previous attempts to formulate such a model and highlight inconsistencies in the interpretation of the experimental data they were based on. We then develop a theoretical framework, which we demonstrate to accurately reproduce experiment. Applying this theory, a comprehensive overview of all possible energy-level alignment scenarios that can be encountered at organic heterojunctions is finally given. These results will help focus future efforts on developing functional organic interfaces for superior device performance. PMID:26702447

  4. Effect of dietary fructose on portal and systemic serum fructose levels in rats and in KHK-/- and GLUT5-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Douard, Veronique; Shah, Ami; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2015-11-01

    Elevated blood fructose concentrations constitute the basis for organ dysfunction in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that diet-induced changes in blood fructose concentrations are regulated by ketohexokinase (KHK) and the fructose transporter GLUT5. Portal and systemic fructose concentrations determined by HPLC in wild-type mice fed for 7 days 0% free fructose were <0.07 mM, were independent of time after feeding, were similar to those of GLUT5(-/-), and did not lead to hyperglycemia. Postprandial fructose levels, however, increased markedly in those fed isocaloric 20% fructose, causing significant hyperglycemia. Deletion of KHK prevented fructose-induced hyperglycemia, but caused dramatic hyperfructosemia (>1 mM) with reversed portal to systemic gradients. Systemic fructose in wild-type and KHK(-/-) mice changed by 0.34 and 1.8 mM, respectively, for every millimolar increase in portal fructose concentration. Systemic glucose varied strongly with systemic, but not portal, fructose levels in wild-type, and was independent of systemic and portal fructose in KHK(-/-), mice. With ad libitum feeding for 12 wk, fructose-induced hyperglycemia in wild-type, but not hyperfructosemia in KHK(-/-) mice, increased HbA1c concentrations. Increasing dietary fructose to 40% intensified the hyperfructosemia of KHK(-/-) and the fructose-induced hyperglycemia of wild-type mice. Fructose perfusion or feeding in rats also caused duration- and dose-dependent hyperfructosemia and hyperglycemia. Significant levels of blood fructose are maintained independent of dietary fructose, KHK, and GLUT5, probably by endogenous synthesis of fructose. KHK prevents hyperfructosemia and fructose-induced hyperglycemia that would markedly increase HbA1c levels. These findings explain the hyperfructosemia of human hereditary fructosuria as well as the hyperglycemia of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

  5. Foods E-KINDEX: a dietary index associated with reduced blood pressure levels among young children: the CYKIDS study.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2009-06-01

    Dietary modification is, in general, the preferred method when attempting reductions in blood pressure (BP) among adults. In children, however, few studies, have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and levels of BP, and the reported results are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between levels of Foods E-KINDEX score and levels of BP in children. Measurements included BP, height, weight, and waist circumference. Diet quality was assessed by the Foods E-KINDEX diet score. The index includes 13 components that assess consumption frequency of 11 major food groups or foods, as well as two cooking techniques (fried and grilled foods). Its score ranges between 0 and 37. A subsample of 622 Cypriot children (mean age=11.7+/-0.83 years) from the CYKIDS national cross-sectional study was used. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to examine the relationship of systolic BP, diastolic BP, and BP with diet quality (as assessed by the Foods E-KINDEX score). The median systolic BP and diastolic BP were 110 mm Hg (interquartile range [IQR]=100 to 120 mm Hg) and 68 mm Hg (IQR=60 to 70 mm Hg) for boys and 110 mm Hg (IQR=100 to 120 mm Hg) and 63 mm Hg (IQR=60 to 70 mm Hg) for girls, respectively. Mean Foods E-KINDEX score was 23.4+/-4.9 in boys and 24.3+/-4.8 in girls (P=0.487). Compared with children with a low diet score, those with at least an average Foods E-KINDEX score were 57% (odds ratio=0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.98) less likely to have elevated systolic BP levels, regardless of various potential confounders. The Foods E-KINDEX score is independently associated with lower BP among healthy children. This finding might have implications in public health and should be further explored.

  6. Differential vulnerability of substantia nigra and corpus striatum to oxidative insult induced by reduced dietary levels of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D.; Passos, Priscila P.; Lagranha, Claudia J.; Ferraz, Anete C.; Santos Júnior, Eraldo F.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Oliveira, Pablo E. L.; Santos, Rita de C. F.; Santana, David F.; Borba, Juliana M. C.; Rocha-de-Melo, Ana P.; Guedes, Rubem C. A.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Borner, Roseane; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W.; Beltrão, Eduardo I.; Silva, Janilson F.; Rodrigues, Marcelo C. A.; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L. S.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with unbalanced levels of essential fatty acids (EFA). The response of certain brain regions to OS, however, is not uniform and a selective vulnerability or resilience can occur. In our previous study on rat brains, we observed that a two-generation EFA dietary restriction reduced the number and size of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) rostro-dorso-medial. To understand whether OS contributes to this effect, we assessed the status of lipid peroxidation (LP) and anti-oxidant markers in both SN and corpus striatum (CS) of rats submitted to this dietary treatment for one (F1) or two (F2) generations. Wistar rats were raised from conception on control or experimental diets containing adequate or reduced levels of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, respectively. LP was measured using the thiobarbituric acid reaction method (TBARS) and the total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activities were assessed. The experimental diet significantly reduced the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of SN phospholipids in the F1 (~28%) and F2 (~50%) groups. In F1 adult animals of the experimental group there was no LP in both SN and CS. Consistently, there was a significant increase in the t-SOD activity (p < 0.01) in both regions. In EF2 young animals, degeneration in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons and a significant increase in LP (p < 0.01) and decrease in the CAT activity (p < 0.001) were detected in the SN, while no inter-group difference was found for these parameters in the CS. Conversely, a significant increase in t-SOD activity (p < 0.05) was detected in the CS of the experimental group compared to the control. The results show that unbalanced EFA dietary levels reduce the redox balance in the SN and reveal mechanisms of resilience in the CS under this stressful condition. PMID

  7. Conceptual model for dietary behaviour change at household level: a ‘best-fit’ qualitative study using primary data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions having a strong theoretical basis are more efficacious, providing a strong argument for incorporating theory into intervention planning. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual model to facilitate the planning of dietary intervention strategies at the household level in rural Kerala. Methods Three focus group discussions and 17 individual interviews were conducted among men and women, aged between 23 and 75 years. An interview guide facilitated the process to understand: 1) feasibility and acceptability of a proposed dietary behaviour change intervention; 2) beliefs about foods, particularly fruits and vegetables; 3) decision-making in households with reference to food choices and access; and 4) to gain insights into the kind of intervention strategies that may be practical at community and household level. The data were analysed using a modified form of qualitative framework analysis, which combined both deductive and inductive reasoning. A priori themes were identified from relevant behaviour change theories using construct definitions, and used to index the meaning units identified from the primary qualitative data. In addition, new themes emerging from the data were included. The associations between the themes were mapped into four main factors and its components, which contributed to construction of the conceptual model. Results Thirteen of the a priori themes from three behaviour change theories (Trans-theoretical model, Health Belief model and Theory of Planned Behaviour) were confirmed or slightly modified, while four new themes emerged from the data. The conceptual model had four main factors and its components: impact factors (decisional balance, risk perception, attitude); change processes (action-oriented, cognitive); background factors (personal modifiers, societal norms); and overarching factors (accessibility, perceived needs and preferences), built around a three-stage change spiral (pre

  8. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Nicole Landa; Garry, Jamie; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Walford, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine) in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]). All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all). Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02) and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation. PMID:26781817

  9. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study.

    PubMed

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35-69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  10. Associations between Dietary Patterns, ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg with Regard to Serum Triglyceride Levels: J-MICC Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Naito, Mariko; Yin, Guang; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Kohno, Michiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Koyama, Teruhide; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dietary patterns and 2 β-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ) gene polymorphisms (ADRβ2 Gln27Glu and ADRβ3 Trp64Arg) were examined with regard to the effects on serum triglyceride levels. The cross-sectional study comprised 1720 men and women (aged 35–69 years) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. Genotyping was conducted using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based invader assay. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. We identified four dietary patterns: healthy, Western, seafood and bread patterns. There was no significant association between any dietary pattern and serum triglyceride levels. After a separate genotype-based analysis, significant interactions between ADRβ3 Trp64Arg genotype and the bread pattern (p for interaction = 0.01) were associated with serum triglyceride levels; specifically, after adjusting for confounding factors, Arg allele carriers with the bread pattern had lower serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.01). However, the Trp/Trp homozygous subjects with the bread pattern showed no association with serum triglycerides (p for trend = 0.55). Interactions between other dietary patterns and ADRβ polymorphisms were not significant for serum triglyceride levels. Our findings suggest that ADRβ3 polymorphism modifies the effects of the bread pattern on triglyceride levels. PMID:27608039

  11. Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Menoyo, David; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Struksnæs, Gunvor; Koppe, Wolfgang; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E did not affect feed conversion efficiency ratio but significantly (p < 0.05) increased alpha-tocopherol concentrations in salmon plasma, liver, and fillet (n = 8 per group each). The increase in fillet alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a considerable decrease (p < 0.01) in malondialdehyde concentrations at the higher supplementation level. Furthermore, we observed an antagonistic interaction between alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma at the highest supplementation level, since high dietary alpha-tocopherol reduced plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, remained largely unchanged in response to dietary alpha-tocopherol. Dietary alpha-tocopherol did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in salmon fillet. Present data suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplementations beyond dietary recommendations may further improve flesh quality and nutritional value of Atlantic salmon fillet as far as malondialdehyde and vitamin E concentrations are concerned. PMID:25008014

  12. Levels and potential health risks of mercury in prescription, non-prescription medicines and dietary supplements in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Determination of mercury is important in the case of pharmaceuticals for which the European Union regulations have not defined the maximum permissible concentration of this metal. The aim of the study was to determine the levels of mercury in the following groups of drugs (n = 119): analgesics, diuretics, cardiacs, antihypertensives, anti-influenza, antibiotics, anti-allergics, tranquilizers, antibacterials and in dietary supplements (n = 33) available on the Polish market. Mercury was analyzed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry CV-AFS. Its content in the samples varied in the range of 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1). Higher mercury concentrations were reported for prescription drugs (Rx): 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1) (median: 7.4 ng g(-1)), lower--for non-prescription medicines (OTC): 1.2-45.8 ng g(-1) (median: 6.0 ng g(-1)). In the analyzed dietary supplements the concentrations were: 0.9-16.7 ng g(-1) (median: 5.9 ng g(-1)). On the basis of the information contained in the leaflet accompanying the medicine, a daily dose of mercury taken into the body with an analyzed medicament was estimated and the health risk posed by using such medicines was assessed. The study indicates that it is justified to carry out measurements of mercury in pharmaceuticals due to its high, potentially harmful.

  13. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  14. Reversal of physiological deficits caused by diminished levels of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase by dietary copper.

    PubMed

    Bousquet-Moore, D; Ma, X M; Nillni, E A; Czyzyk, T A; Pintar, J E; Eipper, B A; Mains, R E

    2009-04-01

    Amidated peptides are critically involved in many physiological functions. Genetic deletion of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), the only enzyme that can synthesize these peptides, is embryonically lethal. The goal of the present study was the identification of physiological functions impaired by haploinsufficiency of PAM. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and body temperature, functions requiring contributions from multiple amidated peptides, were selected for evaluation. Based on serum T(4) and pituitary TSH-beta mRNA levels, mice heterozygous for PAM (PAM(+/-)) were euthyroid at baseline. Feedback within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis was impaired in PAM(+/-) mice made hypothyroid using a low iodine/propylthiouracil diet. Despite their normal endocrine response to cold, PAM(+/-) mice were unable to maintain body temperature as well as wild-type littermates when kept in a 4 C environment. When provided with additional dietary copper, PAM(+/-) mice maintained body temperature as well as wild-type mice. Pharmacological activation of vasoconstriction or shivering also allowed PAM(+/-) mice to maintain body temperature. Cold-induced vasoconstriction was deficient in PAM(+/-) mice. This deficit was eliminated in PAM(+/-) mice receiving a diet with supplemental copper. These results suggest that dietary deficiency of copper, coupled with genetic deficits in PAM, could result in physiological deficits in humans.

  15. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-07-05

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  16. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  17. Effect of dietary protein level on carcass traits and meat properties of Cinta Senese pigs.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, F; Crovetti, A; Acciaioli, A; Pugliese, C; Bozzi, R; Campodoni, G; Franci, O

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of various dietary protein contents (CP) on the carcass traits and the meat quality of Cinta Senese pigs. A total of 60 Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups that were balanced for sex (barrows and gilts) and live weight. The animals in the groups were fed one of four diets (80CP, 100CP, 130CP and 160CP) containing different CP contents (80, 100, 130 and 160 g/kg, respectively). The diets were administered to the pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, to a maximum of 2.5 kg/day per animal. The duration of the trial was ~250 days, ending when the animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 80CP diet produced fatter carcasses than did the other diets; no differences in carcass composition were found among the animals fed the other three diets (total lean cuts: 57.4%, 61.4%, 60.8% and 61.3% for 80CP, 100CP, 130CP and 160CP diet, respectively). The sample joint composition confirmed the highest fatness and the lowest meatiness of pigs fed 80CP. This same pattern was evident for the composition of the muscle (Longissimus lumborum) containing the largest amount of i.m. fat, and the lowest protein content in the 80CP group. Moreover, the 80CP diet resulted in the lightest and yellowest meat with the highest cooking loss. A principal component analysis of the physical and chemical traits of the meat revealed three first factors that explained 56% of the total variance. Among them, only the intersection of Factor1, which combined mainly lower pH at 24 h postmortem and higher drip loss, cooking loss, lightness and yellowness, with Factor2, which associated higher toughness, higher protein and lower fat content, graphically appeared to discriminate the 80CP diet from the other ones. In conclusion, a diet with 80 g/kg of CP content was inadequate for this local breed, while, in consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N

  18. Mercury in seabird feathers: insight on dietary habits and evidence for exposure levels in the western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kojadinovic, Jessica; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cosson, Richard P; Le Corre, Matthieu

    2007-10-01

    Breast feathers were used to estimate mercury levels in six marine birds nesting in the tropical western Indian Ocean, i.e. Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata), Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), Lesser Noddy (Anous tenuirostris), Audubon Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri bailloni), Barau's Petrel (Pterodroma baraui) and the White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus). Juveniles consistently showed lower plumage mercury than adults. The lowest mean level was noted in juvenile Sooty Terns from the Glorioso Archipelago (0.05 microg g(-1)). The highest levels were obtained for adult Barau's Petrels from Reunion Island (0.96 microg g(-1)). An inter-site analysis of Sooty Tern showed higher mercury levels in birds nesting on Juan de Nova Island. Levels were low in comparison with values reported in the plumage of seabirds worldwide. The potential impacts of the size, the type (fish/cephalopod) and the origin (epi-/meso-pelagic) of prey on mercury intake in birds are discussed. Although the diet composition of individuals within a species appeared to be quite variable, combining results on mercury levels with common knowledge of each species allowed additional information on their dietary and foraging habits to be unraveled. PMID:17659323

  19. The effect of dietary fat levels on the size and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuebo; Yang, Yongqiang; Li, Genping; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Qingshan; Wan, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the type of tissue that larvae feed on can produce marked differences in developmental rate and body size, which can compromise predictions of minimum postmortem interval. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat content in the diet on larval growth in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an important forensic blowfly species in China. Bionomical parameters such as body size, development time, mortality, and sex ratio were observed. The results indicated that fat content in the diet has a dramatic effect on the body size and larval development. More dietary fat content was beneficial for development of larvae in first and early second instar. But it was adverse in the later third instar. Significantly, a high-fat diet resulted in increased development rates and the production of undersized larvae and adults. Overall mortality of larvae and pupa was higher when more fat was added to the diet, but sex ratio of adults was not negatively affected. This study highlights that the fat content in the diet should be considered in the entomological research and forensic application when estimating minimum postmortem interval on the basis of larval body size and developmental stage.

  20. The effect of dietary fat levels on the size and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuebo; Yang, Yongqiang; Li, Genping; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Qingshan; Wan, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the type of tissue that larvae feed on can produce marked differences in developmental rate and body size, which can compromise predictions of minimum postmortem interval. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat content in the diet on larval growth in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an important forensic blowfly species in China. Bionomical parameters such as body size, development time, mortality, and sex ratio were observed. The results indicated that fat content in the diet has a dramatic effect on the body size and larval development. More dietary fat content was beneficial for development of larvae in first and early second instar. But it was adverse in the later third instar. Significantly, a high-fat diet resulted in increased development rates and the production of undersized larvae and adults. Overall mortality of larvae and pupa was higher when more fat was added to the diet, but sex ratio of adults was not negatively affected. This study highlights that the fat content in the diet should be considered in the entomological research and forensic application when estimating minimum postmortem interval on the basis of larval body size and developmental stage. PMID:25550356

  1. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281). PMID:26839476

  2. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008-9 Nationwide Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-04-14

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-9, food records were collected from 25 753 individuals aged 10 years or older, living in urban areas of Brazil. Foods were grouped into thirty-three food groups, and the mean energy intake provided by away-from-home food consumption was estimated. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between away-from-home food consumption and total energy intake. All analyses considered the sample design effect. Of the total population, 43 % consumed at least one food item away from home. The mean energy intake from foods consumed away from home was 1408 kJ (337 kcal), averaging 18 % of total energy intake. Eating away from home was associated with increased total energy intake, except for men in the highest income level. The highest percentage of away-from-home energy sources was for food with a high content of energy, such as alcoholic beverages (59 %), baked and deep-fried snacks (54 %), pizza (42 %), soft drinks (40 %), sandwiches (40 %), and sweets and desserts (30 %). The consumption of foods away from home was related to a greater energy intake. The characterisation of away-from-home food habits is necessary in order to properly design strategies to promote healthy food consumption in the away-from-home environment.

  3. Association of dietary energy density in childhood with age and body fatness at the onset of the pubertal growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Günther, Anke L B; Stahl, Lisa J; Buyken, Anette E; Kroke, Anja

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of pre-pubertal dietary energy density (ED) with both age and body fatness at the start of the pubertal growth spurt (age at take-off, ATO). Analyses included 219 DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants with sufficient height measurements to estimate ATO who provided 3 d weighed dietary records at baseline, i.e. 2 and 3 years before ATO (mean age 6·9 (SD 1·2) years). Mean energy intakes and amounts of foods/drinks consumed at baseline were derived from the records. ED (kJ/g) was calculated based on (1) all foods and drinks (ED_all), (2) foods and energy-containing drinks (ED_energy), (3) foods and milk as a drink, but no other beverages (ED_milk) and (4) foods only, solid or liquid (ED_food). Using multiple regression analyses, the association between the ED variables and ATO was investigated. Furthermore, Z-scores of BMI and fat mass index (FMI) at ATO were considered as outcomes to reflect body fatness at puberty onset. The results showed that ED at baseline was not associated with ATO, regardless of the ED method used. For example, mean ATO in the lowest v. highest tertile of ED_food was 9·3 (95 % CI 9·0, 9·5) v. 9·4 (95 % CI 9·1, 9·7) years, P(trend) = 0·8 (adjusted for sex, maternal age, birth weight, dietary protein, dietary fibre, baseline BMI Z-score). Similarly, ED was not independently associated with BMI or FMI Z-score at ATO (P(trend) = 0·3-0·9). In conclusion, dietary ED in childhood did not influence timing or body fatness at ATO in this cohort of healthy, free-living children. PMID:21736806

  4. Dietary supplementation of aspartate enhances intestinal integrity and energy status in weanling piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Pi, Dingan; Liu, Yulan; Shi, Haifeng; Li, Shuang; Odle, Jack; Lin, Xi; Zhu, Huiling; Chen, Feng; Hou, Yongqing; Leng, Weibo

    2014-04-01

    The intestine has a high requirement for ATP to support its integrity, function and health, and thus, energy deficits in the intestinal mucosa may play a critical role in intestinal injury. Aspartate (Asp) is one of the major sources of ATP in mammalian enterocytes via mitochondrial oxidation. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of Asp could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal damage via modulation of intestinal energy status. Twenty-four weanling piglets were allotted to one of four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control, (2) LPS-challenged control, (3) LPS+0.5% Asp treatment, and (4) LPS+1.0% Asp treatment. On day 19, pigs were injected with saline or LPS. At 24 h postinjection, pigs were killed and intestinal samples were obtained. Asp attenuated LPS-induced intestinal damage indicated by greater villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio as well as higher RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios. Asp improved intestinal function indicated by increased intestinal mucosal disaccharidase activities. Asp also improved intestinal energy status indicated by increased ATP, ADP and total adenine nucleotide contents, adenylate energy charge and decreased AMP/ATP ratio. In addition, Asp increased the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle key enzymes including citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Moreover, Asp down-regulated mRNA expression of intestinal AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1), AMPKα2, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α) and decreased intestinal AMPKα phosphorylation. These results indicate that Asp may alleviate LPS-induced intestinal damage and improve intestinal energy status.

  5. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25285277

  6. Healthy Choices for Kids: Nutrition Education Program Based on the 1990 U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Chapter One: Eat a Wide Variety of Foods. Levels 1-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marianne; Walsh, Joan

    "Healthy Choices for Kids" is a nutrition education program based on the 1990 U.S. Dietary Guidelines. This kit, the first of a series, provides elementary school teachers with tools to teach students about good nutrition. This set has five levels (Grades 1-5), bound separately. Each level has its own unit complete with teacher materials,…

  7. Effect of a novel dietary supplement on pH levels of healthy volunteers: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen Douglas; Lu, Xiaomin; Bank, Ginny; Heekin, Kacey; Saha, Debbie; Dubyak, Pamela Jean; Hausenblas, Heather Ann

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of a greens alkalizing dietary supplement on urinary pH levels in individuals with lower than average pH levels. METHODS The present study investigated the effects of an alkalizing formula (Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™) on four individuals who had average urinary pH levels below 6.0 for three consecutive days. Following the three-day, baseline period, participants received Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™ for four consecutive days and were instructed to continue to measure their urine pH levels. Paired samples t-tests were used to examine pH levels before and after a four day treatment period with Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™. RESULTS Compared to baseline, mean urine pH levels in all volunteers were significantly higher following the supplementation with Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™ (5.89 ± 0.20 vs 5.56 ± 0.23; P<0.01). Participants’ pH levels were also significantly higher than baseline on days 5, 6, and 7 of the treatment period (P < 0.05). Noteworthy, on day 7, participants’ mean pH levels were significantly higher than at the beginning of the treatment period (6.03 ± 0.15 at day 7 vs 5.65 ± 0.24 at day 4; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION The findings of this study suggest that supplementation with Reserveage Wholeganic Greens™ has an alkalizing effect on the body and can increase the urine pH levels in individuals with lower than average pH levels. PMID:24125056

  8. Effects of dietary arginine levels and carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios on mRNA expression of growth-related hormones in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Naisong; Jin, Lina; Zhou, Hengyong; Qiu, Xiaojie

    2012-10-01

    Utilizing the tissue samples and growth data collected from our two preceding researches in largemouth bass (LMB), we have investigated effects of dietary arginine (Arg) levels and carbohydrate-to-lipid (CHO/LIP) ratios on the GH, IGF-I and insulin expression in related tissues to find possible relationships between the nutrient intake, growth performance and transcript level. Hepatic IGF-I and pituitary GH mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by lower dietary Arg levels from 1.94% to 3.01% and by higher levels from 2.76% to 3.01%, respectively, while Brockmann body (BB)-containing tissue insulin mRNA expression was not affected. Dietary CHO/LIP ratios ranging from 0.32 to 5.17 (w/w) affected pituitary GH, liver IGF-I and BB-containing tissue insulin mRNA expression in a ratio-specific pattern. The lower ratios from 0.32 to 2.36 significantly up-regulated GH and insulin transcript levels, but significantly down-regulated IGF-I transcript levels; the higher ratios did no longer exert any further effects on them. Meanwhile, two strong positive correlations (r=0.892, r=0.885) between hepatic IGF-I transcript levels and specific growth rates of tested fish were observed with varying dietary Arg levels and CHO/LIP ratios, respectively. These findings indicate that in LMB dietary Arg levels and CHO/LIP ratios regulate differentially the endocrine system of GH, IGF-I and insulin at transcription level; this system, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the nutrient metabolism and somatic growth; and that hepatic IGF-I mRNA abundance should be a more reliable index to assess growth and nutritional fitness than the others, at least in LMB. PMID:22906421

  9. Effects of dietary arginine levels and carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios on mRNA expression of growth-related hormones in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Naisong; Jin, Lina; Zhou, Hengyong; Qiu, Xiaojie

    2012-10-01

    Utilizing the tissue samples and growth data collected from our two preceding researches in largemouth bass (LMB), we have investigated effects of dietary arginine (Arg) levels and carbohydrate-to-lipid (CHO/LIP) ratios on the GH, IGF-I and insulin expression in related tissues to find possible relationships between the nutrient intake, growth performance and transcript level. Hepatic IGF-I and pituitary GH mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated by lower dietary Arg levels from 1.94% to 3.01% and by higher levels from 2.76% to 3.01%, respectively, while Brockmann body (BB)-containing tissue insulin mRNA expression was not affected. Dietary CHO/LIP ratios ranging from 0.32 to 5.17 (w/w) affected pituitary GH, liver IGF-I and BB-containing tissue insulin mRNA expression in a ratio-specific pattern. The lower ratios from 0.32 to 2.36 significantly up-regulated GH and insulin transcript levels, but significantly down-regulated IGF-I transcript levels; the higher ratios did no longer exert any further effects on them. Meanwhile, two strong positive correlations (r=0.892, r=0.885) between hepatic IGF-I transcript levels and specific growth rates of tested fish were observed with varying dietary Arg levels and CHO/LIP ratios, respectively. These findings indicate that in LMB dietary Arg levels and CHO/LIP ratios regulate differentially the endocrine system of GH, IGF-I and insulin at transcription level; this system, in turn, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the nutrient metabolism and somatic growth; and that hepatic IGF-I mRNA abundance should be a more reliable index to assess growth and nutritional fitness than the others, at least in LMB.

  10. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply.

    PubMed

    Capuco, A V; Rice, C P; Baldwin, R L; Bannerman, D D; Paape, M J; Hare, W R; Kauf, A C W; McCarty, G W; Hapeman, C J; Sadeghi, A M; Starr, J L; McConnell, L L; Van Tassell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health.

  11. Fate of dietary perchlorate in lactating dairy cows: Relevance to animal health and levels in the milk supply

    PubMed Central

    Capuco, A. V.; Rice, C. P.; Baldwin, R. L.; Bannerman, D. D.; Paape, M. J.; Hare, W. R.; Kauf, A. C. W.; McCarty, G. W.; Hapeman, C. J.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Starr, J. L.; McConnell, L. L.; Van Tassell, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate is a goitrogenic anion that competitively inhibits the sodium iodide transporter and has been detected in forages and in commercial milk throughout the U.S. The fate of perchlorate and its effect on animal health were studied in lactating cows, ruminally infused with perchlorate for 5 weeks. Milk perchlorate levels were highly correlated with perchlorate intake, but milk iodine was unaffected, and there were no demonstrable health effects. We provide evidence that up to 80% of dietary perchlorate was metabolized, most likely in the rumen, which would provide cattle with a degree of refractoriness to perchlorate. Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health. PMID:16260728

  12. Lack of hepatic enzymatic adaptation to low and high levels of dietary protein in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Q R; Morris, J G; Freedland, R A

    1977-01-01

    The activities of three urea cycle enzymes, several nitrogen catabolic, gluconeogenic, and lipogenic enzymes were measured in the liver of adult cats fed: a commercial kibble; a 17.5 or 70% protein purified diet, or starved for 5 days. Except for an increase in tyrosine transaminase (EC 2.6.1.5) after feeding the high protein diet, there were no changes in the activities of the hepatic enzymes as influenced by dietary protein level. Likewise, starvation had a minimal effect on the activities of these enzymes as compared to that found in similar experiments in rats. These results indicate that the cat may have only minimal capabilities for enzyme adaptation as compared to that found in many herbivores and omnivores and may provide an explanation as to why cats have an unusually high protein requirement as compared to many other mammals.

  13. Enhanced level of n-3 fatty acid in membrane phospholipids induces lipid peroxidation in rats fed dietary docosahexaenoic acid oil.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Miyazawa, T

    2001-03-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) oil with different lipid types on lipid peroxidation was studied in rats. Each group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was pair fed 15% (w/w) of either DHA-triglycerides (DHA-TG), DHA-ethyl esters (DHA-EE) or DHA-phospholipids (DHA-PL) for up to 3 weeks. The palm oil (supplemented with 20% soybean oil) diet without DHA was fed as the control. Dietary DHA oils lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats fed DHA-TG (by 30%), DHA-EE (by 45%) and DHA-PL (by 27%), compared to control. The incorporation of dietary DHA into plasma and liver phospholipids was more pronounced in the DHA-TG and DHA-EE group than in the DHA-PL group. However, DHA oil intake negatively influenced lipid peroxidation in both plasma and liver. Phospholipid peroxidation in plasma and liver was significantly higher than control in rats fed DHA-TG or DHA-EE, but not DHA-PL. These results are consistent with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased alpha-tocopherol levels in plasma and liver. In addition, liver microsomes from rats of each group were exposed to a mixture of chelated iron (Fe(3+)/ADP) and NADPH to determine the rate of peroxidative damage. During NADPH-dependent peroxidation of microsomes, the accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, as well as TBARS, were elevated and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly exhausted in DHA-TG and DHA-EE groups. During microsomal lipid peroxidation, there was a greater loss of n-3 fatty acids (mainly DHA) than of n-6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). These results indicate that polyunsaturation of n-3 fatty acids is the most important target for lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the ingestion of large amounts of DHA oil enhances lipid peroxidation in the target membranes where greater amounts of n-3 fatty acids are incorporated, thereby increasing the peroxidizability and possibly accelerating the atherosclerotic process.

  14. Effects of dietary source and intake of energy on immune competence and the response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...

  15. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Kitvorapat, Wanicha

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in Thailand's nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs). The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females) was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females' median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand's rapidly growing sedentary workforce. PMID:25525512

  16. Effects of dietary salt levels on monocytic cells and immune responses in healthy human subjects: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Buqing; Titze, Jens; Rykova, Marina; Feuerecker, Matthias; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Schelling, Gustav; Morukov, Boris; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicated that excess salt consumption can impose risks on human health and a reduction in daily salt intake from the current average of approximately 12 g/d to 5-6 g/d was suggested by public health authorities. The studies on mice have revealed that sodium chloride plays a role in the modulation of the immune system and a high-salt diet can promote tissue inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, translational evidence of dietary salt on human immunity is scarce. We used an experimental approach of fixing salt intake of healthy human subjects at 12, 9, and 6 g/d for months and examined the relationship between salt-intake levels and changes in the immune system. Blood samples were taken from the end point of each salt intake period. Immune phenotype changes were monitored through peripheral leukocyte phenotype analysis. We assessed immune function changes through the characterization of cytokine profiles in response to mitogen stimulation. The results showed that subjects on the high-salt diet of 12 g/d displayed a significantly higher number of immune cell monocytes compared with the same subjects on a lower-salt diet, and correlation test revealed a strong positive association between salt-intake levels and monocyte numbers. The decrease in salt intake was accompanied by reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23, along with enhanced producing ability of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results suggest that in healthy humans high-salt diet has a potential to bring about excessive immune response, which can be damaging to immune homeostasis, and a reduction in habitual dietary salt intake may induce potentially beneficial immune alterations.

  17. Metabolic responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy.

    PubMed

    Holmbäck, Ulf; Forslund, Anders; Forslund, Jeanette; Hambraeus, Leif; Lennernäs, Maria; Lowden, Arne; Stridsberg, Mats; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2002-07-01

    Because night work is becoming more prevalent, we studied whether feeding at different times of a 24-h period would elicit different metabolic responses and whether dietary macronutrient composition would affect these responses. Seven men (26-43 y, 19.9-26.6 kg/m(2)) consumed two isocaloric diets, in a crossover design. The diets were a high carbohydrate (HC) diet [65 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 20E% fat] and a high fat (HF) diet (40E% carbohydrates, 45E% fat). After a 6-d diet-adjustment period, the men were kept awake for 24 h and the food (continuation of respective diet) was provided as six isocaloric meals (i.e., every 4 h). Energy and substrate turnover, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were measured throughout the 24-h period. Significantly higher energy expenditure and NEFA concentration, and lower blood glucose and TAG concentrations were observed when the men consumed the HF diet than when they consumed the HC diet. Significant circadian patterns were seen in body and skin temperature (nadir, 0400-0500 h). When the men consumed the HF diet, significant circadian patterns were seen in fat oxidation (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1200-0800 h), heat release (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1600-0800 h), heart rate (nadir, 0000 h), blood glucose (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0000-0400 h), NEFA (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 1200-2000 h) and TAG (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0400-0800 h) concentrations. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation, MAP and glycerol concentration did not display circadian patterns. Unequal variances eradicated most circadian effects in the HC-diet data. The increased TAG concentration in response to feeding at 0400 h might be involved in the higher TAG concentrations seen in shift workers. Distinct macronutrient/circadian-dependent postprandial responses were seen in most studied variables.

  18. Metabolic responses to nocturnal eating in men are affected by sources of dietary energy.

    PubMed

    Holmbäck, Ulf; Forslund, Anders; Forslund, Jeanette; Hambraeus, Leif; Lennernäs, Maria; Lowden, Arne; Stridsberg, Mats; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2002-07-01

    Because night work is becoming more prevalent, we studied whether feeding at different times of a 24-h period would elicit different metabolic responses and whether dietary macronutrient composition would affect these responses. Seven men (26-43 y, 19.9-26.6 kg/m(2)) consumed two isocaloric diets, in a crossover design. The diets were a high carbohydrate (HC) diet [65 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 20E% fat] and a high fat (HF) diet (40E% carbohydrates, 45E% fat). After a 6-d diet-adjustment period, the men were kept awake for 24 h and the food (continuation of respective diet) was provided as six isocaloric meals (i.e., every 4 h). Energy and substrate turnover, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were measured throughout the 24-h period. Significantly higher energy expenditure and NEFA concentration, and lower blood glucose and TAG concentrations were observed when the men consumed the HF diet than when they consumed the HC diet. Significant circadian patterns were seen in body and skin temperature (nadir, 0400-0500 h). When the men consumed the HF diet, significant circadian patterns were seen in fat oxidation (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1200-0800 h), heat release (nadir, 0800-1200 h; plateau, 1600-0800 h), heart rate (nadir, 0000 h), blood glucose (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0000-0400 h), NEFA (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 1200-2000 h) and TAG (nadir, 0800-1200 h; peak, 0400-0800 h) concentrations. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation, MAP and glycerol concentration did not display circadian patterns. Unequal variances eradicated most circadian effects in the HC-diet data. The increased TAG concentration in response to feeding at 0400 h might be involved in the higher TAG concentrations seen in shift workers. Distinct macronutrient/circadian-dependent postprandial responses were seen in most studied variables. PMID:12097665

  19. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  20. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  1. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    lower glucokinase activity (-15%; P < 0.05) in the liver. These results show that dietary energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  2. [Dietary life style of Japanese college students: relationship between dietary life, mental health and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuji; Nouchi, Rui; Takano, Haruka; Kojima, Akiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2009-10-01

    A scale was constructed to investigate the dietary life style of Japanese college students relating to dietary life, mental health, and eating disorders. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors, termed "dietary mood," "dietary regulation," "dietary stress avoidance behavior," and "food safety." Cluster analysis revealed four typical dietary habits of Japanese college students: "deprecating food safety," "dietary regulation oriented and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior," "deprecating dietary moods," and "frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior." Regarding eating disorders, a high percentage of the moderate eating disorder group exhibited frequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. Regarding mental health, a high percentage of the healthy group showed dietary regulation orientation and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior. A high percentage of the neurotic-level participants deprecated dietary moods. These results suggest that dietary regulation and deprecatory mood and infrequent dietary stress avoidance behavior lead to college students having a healthy dietary life.

  3. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence. PMID:26758859

  4. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  5. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  6. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  7. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary energy on energy partitioning coefficients of female broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Pishnamazi, A; Renema, R A; Paul, D C; Wenger, I I; Zuidhof, M J

    2015-10-01

    With increasing disparity between broiler breeder target weights and broiler growth potential, maintenance energy requirements have become a larger proportion of total broiler breeder energy intake. Because energy is partitioned to growth and egg production at a lower priority than maintenance, accurate prediction of maintenance energy requirements is important for practical broiler breeder feed allocation decisions. Environmental temperature affects the maintenance energy requirement by changing rate of heat loss to the environment. In the ME system, heat production (energy lost) is part of the maintenance requirement (ME). In the current study, a nonlinear mixed model was derived to predict ME partitioning of broiler breeder hens under varied temperature conditions. At 21 wk of age, 192 Ross 708 hens were individually caged within 6 controlled environmental chambers. From 25 to 41 wk, 4 temperature treatments (15°C, 19°C, 23°C, and 27°C) were randomly assigned to the chambers for 2-week periods. Half of the birds in each chamber were fed a high-energy (HE; 2,912 kcal/kg) diet, and half were fed a low-energy (LE; 2,790 kcal/kg) diet. The nonlinear mixed regression model included a normally distributed random term representing individual hen maintenance, a quadratic response to environmental temperature, and linear ADG and egg mass (EM) coefficients. The model assumed that energy requirements for BW gain and egg production were not influenced by environmental temperature because hens were homeothermic, and the cellular processes for associated biochemical processes occurred within a controlled narrow core body temperature range. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual ME (RME) were used to estimate efficiency. A quadratic effect of environmental temperature on broiler breeder MEm was predicted ( < 0.0001), with a minimum energy expenditure at 24.3°C. Predicted ME at 21°C was 92.5 kcal/kg; requirements for gain and EM were 2.126 and 1.789 kcal/g, respectively

  8. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  9. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  10. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  11. Higher habitual intake of dietary fat and carbohydrates are associated with lower leptin and higher ghrelin concentrations in overweight and obese postmenopausal women with elevated insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Neuhouser, Marian L; Xiao, Liren; Ulrich, Cornelia M; McTiernan, Anne; Foster-Schubert, Karen E

    2009-11-01

    A highly regulated homeostatic system governs body weight; however, it is possible that this system might be impaired by the sustained intake of highly palatable foods. Short-term feeding studies suggest that the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin is suppressed less effectively by dietary fat intake, and diets high in sucrose decrease levels of the adipose hormone leptin. We hypothesized that higher habitual intake of dietary fat and carbohydrate (CHO) would be associated with elevated concentrations of circulating plasma ghrelin and lower circulating leptin in humans, a hormonal profile that could promote weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we examined the cross-sectional associations of ghrelin and leptin with the habitual macronutrient intake of 165 healthy overweight and obese sedentary women and tested the modifying role of insulin in these associations. We observed a significant inverse association between leptin concentrations and percentage energy from CHO independent of body mass index, percentage body fat, age, and intraabdominal fat (beta = -0.11 P = .04). No significant associations were observed between ghrelin and macronutrients or their subtypes among the total cohort. Among women with insulin concentrations at or greater than the median, we found a statistically significant positive association between intake of saturated fat and ghrelin concentrations, as well as additional statistically significant associations between leptin concentrations and macronutrients not observed among the total cohort. Our results provide some evidence that diets higher in fat and CHO are associated with a hormonal profile (ie, lower leptin and higher ghrelin concentrations), which could enhance weight gain, particularly among individuals with higher circulating insulin concentrations.

  12. Interactive effects of thermal environment and dietary amino acid and fat levels on rate and efficiency of growth of pigs housed in a conventional nursery.

    PubMed

    Schenck, B C; Stahly, T S; Cromwell, G L

    1992-12-01

    In four trials, 480 weanling pigs were housed in a conventional nursery maintained at 20 or 30 degrees C, which represented a cool and hot thermal environment, respectively. They were allowed ad libitum access to corn-soybean meal-dried whey diets containing .7, 1.0, or 1.3% lysine and 0 or 5% added fat (choice white grease). The pigs were weaned between 27 and 33 d of age (7.27 +/- .90 kg) and penned in groups of five for the duration of the 42-d trials. Pigs housed in the cool environment consumed more feed (P < .01), gained more weight (P < .01), and utilized feed more efficiently (P < .01) than those in the hot environment. As dietary lysine levels were increased in the 20 and 30 degrees C environments, daily weight gains and gain:feed ratios increased linearly (P < .01) from d 0 to 21 and quadratically (P < .01) from d 21 to 42. However, the magnitudes of the increases were less in the cool environment, resulting in temperature x lysine interactions (P < .05). As the pig's feed intake, body weight, and heat production increased over time, the 20 and 30 degrees C environments became progressively warmer relative to the animal's zone of thermoneutrality. The associated reductions over time in energy and lysine intakes relative to the pigs' maintenance needs resulted in an increase in the concentration of dietary lysine needed to maximize rate and efficiency of gain in the 30 degrees C environment but not in the 20 degrees C environment (temperature x lysine x period interaction, P < .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Evaluation of nitrogen and organic matter balance in the feedlot as affected by level and source of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bierman, S; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A; Shain, D H

    1999-07-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the effect of level and source of dietary fiber on N and OM excretion by cattle on finishing diets. One hundred twenty steers were stratified by weight and allotted to one of the following treatments: 7.5% roughage (7.5% R), wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; 41.5% of dietary DM), and all-concentrate (All Con) diet. Cattle were fed for 87 d during the summer with 23.7 m2 of pen area per animal. Steers fed the WCGF diet had heavier final weights, greater DMI, and higher ADG (P < .01) than the 7.5% R and All Con treatments. Steers fed All Con had lower (P < .01) DMI than the other two treatments. Nitrogen and OM mass balances in the feedlot were quantified. Main components were nutrient input, retention, and excretion. Nitrogen and OM intake of steers fed WCGF were greater (P < .05) than those of steers fed the other treatments. The WCGF treatment had a greater percentage of fecal N output (P < .05). The All Con treatment had a greater (P < .01) percentage of urinary N than WCGF and 7.5% R diets. Steers fed the WCGF treatment excreted more (P < .01) OM compared with the other treatments, which led to more N and OM being removed in manure at cleaning. The All Con treatment had more (P < .01) N and OM in runoff than the other treatments. Nutrition can change site of fermentation, which affects the composition of excreted material; however, total amount of N excreted may be more important than route of excretion in decreasing N losses to the environment and maximizing recovery in manure.

  14. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P<0.001) when dietary methionine increased. Postprandial plasma methionine concentrations correlated positively with the dietary level (P<0.001) at the different sampling points. The study shows that the expression of several genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine.

  15. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P<0.001) when dietary methionine increased. Postprandial plasma methionine concentrations correlated positively with the dietary level (P<0.001) at the different sampling points. The study shows that the expression of several genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine. PMID:27105833

  16. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  17. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    de Barros Moreira Filho, Alexandre Lemos; de Oliveira, Celso José Bruno; de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Givisiez, Patricia Emília Naves

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  18. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  19. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Mahrose, Kh.M.; Attia, A.I.; Ismail, I.E.; Abou-Kassem, D.E.; El-Hack, M.E. Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%). PMID:26623373

  20. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%). PMID:26623373

  1. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).

  2. Dietary anaplerotic therapy improves peripheral tissue energy metabolism in patients with Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mochel, Fanny; Duteil, Sandrine; Marelli, Cécilia; Jauffret, Céline; Barles, Agnès; Holm, Janette; Sweetman, Lawrence; Benoist, Jean-François; Rabier, Daniel; Carlier, Pierre G; Durr, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    We previously identified a systemic metabolic defect associated with early weight loss in patients with Huntington's disease (HD), suggesting a lack of substrates for the Krebs cycle. Dietary anaplerotic therapy with triheptanoin is used in clinical trials to promote energy production in patients with peripheral and brain Krebs cycle deficit, as its metabolites – C5 ketone bodies – cross the blood–brain barrier. We conducted a short-term clinical trial in six HD patients (UHDRS (Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale)=33±13, 15–49) to monitor the tolerability of triheptanoin. We also assessed peripheral markers of short-term efficacy that were shown to be altered in the early stages of HD, that is, low serum IGF1 and 31P-NMR spectroscopy (NMRS) in muscle. At baseline, 31P-NMRS displayed two patients with end-exercise muscle acidosis despite a low work output. On day 2, the introduction of triheptanoin was well tolerated in all patients, and in particular, there was no evidence of mitochondrial overload from triheptanoin-derived metabolites. After 4 days of triheptanoin-enriched diet, muscle pH regulation was normalized in the two patients with pretreatment metabolic abnormalities. A significant increase in serum IGF1 was also observed in all patients (205±60 ng/ml versus 246±68 ng/ml, P=0.010). This study provides a rationale for extending our anaplerotic approach with triheptanoin in HD. PMID:20512158

  3. The relationship between dietary intake, exercise, energy balance and the space craft environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2000-01-01

    Space flight is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle, principally from muscles with anti-gravity functions. Examination of data across different missions can permit a distinction to be made between true microgravity responses and what are mission-specific responses. Protein metabolism has been investigated on six missions, four short-term [Shuttle missions Space Life Sciences 1 (1991, SLSI), Space Life Sciences 2 (1993, SLS2), Deutsche-2 (1993, D2) and the Life and Microgravity Sciences (1996, LMS)] and two long-term missions (Skylab 1993 and NASA/MIR, 1996-1998). Measurements made include dietary intake (six missions), nitrogen balance (four missions), whole-body protein kinetics with [15N]glycine as the tracer (four missions) and cortisol excretion (three missions). Also available for comparison are bed rest studies with and without exercise. The purpose of this paper is to see what can be learnt about the muscle loss problem by comparing metabolic results across the six missions for which data are available and against bed rest. The analysis suggests that there is a linkage between the inability to maintain energy balance and exercise, and the connection is the decreased efficiency of removal of the metabolic by-products of exercise (heat, CO2) during space flight.

  4. Nutritionally related blood metabolites and performance of finishing pigs fed on graded levels of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Archibold Garikayi; Ndou, Saymore Petros; Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine effect of feeding fibrous diets on performance and biochemical profiles of finishing pigs. A total of 84 clinically healthy male pigs were used in the experiment. Body weight of the pigs at the beginning of the experiment was 85 ± 10.1 kg. Maize cob (MC), sunflower hulls (SH), lucerne hay (LH) and dried citrus pulp (PU) were incorporated in a basal diet for finishing pigs at different inclusion levels of 0, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 400 g/kg. Effects of week of feeding, fibre source and inclusion level of fibre were significant (P < 0.05). Pigs consumed more LH compared to MC, SH and PU. Average daily gain was high for pigs consuming diets with inclusion levels of 0, 80, 160 and 240 g/kg and low for pigs consuming 320 and 400 g/kg inclusion level of fibre in a diet. There was an increase in serum total concentration (TP) with an increase in PU, MC and LH in pig diets (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (CK) concentrations decreased as levels of PU, LH and MC increased (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion level of LH and SH in pig diets resulted in an increase in glycated haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that level of PU, LH, MC and SH in diets of finishing pigs negatively influences average daily feed intake, average daily gain and biochemical profiles. PMID:26984596

  5. Experimental manipulation of dietary lead levels in great tit nestlings: limited effects on growth, physiology and survival.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Miia; Berglund, Åsa; Kanerva, Mirella; Stauffer, Janina; Stöwe, Mareike; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2014-07-01

    We manipulated dietary lead (Pb) levels of nestlings in wild populations of the great tit (Parus major L) to find out if environmentally relevant Pb levels would affect some physiological biomarkers (haematocrit [HT], fecal corticosterone metabolites [CORT], heat shock proteins [HSPs], erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity [ALAd]), growth (body mass, wing length), phenotype (plumage coloration) or survival of nestlings. The responses to three experimental manipulation (control, low and high: 0, 1 and 4 μg/g body mass/day) are compared with those in a P. major population breeding in the vicinity of a heavy metal source, a copper smelter. Our Pb supplementation was successful in raising the fecal concentrations to the levels found in polluted environments (high: 8.0 μg/g d.w.). Despite relatively high range of exposure levels we found only few effects on growth rates or physiology. The lack of blood ALAd inhibition suggests that the circulating Pb levels were generally below the toxic level despite that marked accumulation of Pb in femur (high: 27.8 μg/g d.w.) was observed. Instead, birds in the metal polluted environment around the smelter showed decreased growth rates, lower HT, higher CORT, less colorful plumage and lower survival probabilities than any of the Pb treated groups. These effects are likely related to decreased food quality/quantity for these insectivorous birds at the smelter site. In general, the responses of nestlings to metal exposure and/or associated resource limitation were not gender specific. One of the stress proteins (HSP60), however, was more strongly induced in Pb exposed males and further studies are needed to explore if this was due to higher accumulation of Pb or higher sensitivity of males. In all, our results emphasize the importance of secondary pollution effects (e.g. via food chain disruption) on reproductive output of birds. PMID:24700183

  6. Reflections from a systematic review of dietary energy density and weight gain: is the inclusion of drinks valid?

    PubMed

    Johnson, L; Wilks, D C; Lindroos, A K; Jebb, S A

    2009-11-01

    The association between dietary energy density, increased energy intake and weight gain is supported by experimental evidence, but confirmation of an effect in free-living humans is limited. Experimental evidence supports a role of energy density in obesity through changes in food composition, not drinks consumption. The inclusion of drinks in the calculation creates a variable of questionable validity and has a substantive impact on the estimated energy density of the diet. We posit, based on the experimental evidence, that calculating the energy density of diets by excluding drinks and including calories from drinks as a covariate in the analysis is the most valid and reliable method of testing the relationship between energy density and weight gain in free-living humans. We demonstrate, by systematically reviewing existing observational studies of dietary energy density and weight gain in free-living humans, how current variation in the method for calculating energy density hampers the interpretation of these data. Reaching an a priori decision on the appropriate methodology will reduce the error caused by multiple comparisons and facilitate meaningful interpretation of epidemiological evidence to inform the development of effective obesity prevention strategies. PMID:19413706

  7. Prediction of metabolisable energy value of broiler diets and water excretion from dietary chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Lessire, M; Juin, H

    2013-08-01

    Thirty various pelleted diets were given to broilers (8/diet) for in vivo measurements of dietary metabolisable energy (ME) value and digestibilities of proteins, lipids, starch and sugars from day 27 to day 31, with ad libitum feeding and total collection of excreta. Water excretion was also measured. Amino acid formulation of diets was done on the basis of ratios to crude proteins. Mean in vivo apparent ME values corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) were always lower than the AMEn values calculated for adult cockerels using predicting equations from literature based on the chemical analyses of diets. The difference between mean in vivo AMEn values and these calculated AMEn values increased linearly with increasing amount of wheat in diets (P = 0.0001). Mean digestibilities of proteins, lipids and starch were negatively related to wheat introduction (P = 0.0001). The correlations between mean in vivo AMEn values and diet analytical parameters were the highest with fibre-related parameters, such as water-insoluble cell-walls (WICW) (r = -0.91) or Real Applied Viscosity (RAV) (r = -0.77). Thirteen multiple regression equations relating mean in vivo AMEn values to dietary analytical data were calculated, with R² values ranging from 0.859 to 0.966 (P = 0.0001). The highest R² values were obtained when the RAV parameter was included in independent variables. The direct regression equations obtained with available components (proteins, lipids, starch, sucrose and oligosaccharides) and the indirect regression equations obtained with WICW and ash parameters showed similar R² values. Direct or indirect theoretical equations predicting AMEn values were established using the overall mean in vivo digestibility values. The principle of indirect equations was based on the assumption that WICW and ashes act as diluters. Addition of RAV or wheat content in variables improved the accuracy of theoretical equations. Efficiencies of theoretical equations for predicting AMEn

  8. Effect of dietary level of protein and fiber on the productive performance and health status of piglets.

    PubMed

    Hermes, R G; Molist, F; Ywazaki, M; Nofrarías, M; Gomez de Segura, A; Gasa, J; Pérez, J F

    2009-11-01

    To study the interaction between the levels of protein and fiber on the productive performance and health status of piglets, ninety-six 35-d-old piglets (9.11 +/- 0.60 kg of BW) were placed in 32 pens of 3 animals each and allotted to 4 dietary treatments for 21 d. The 4 diets were based on rice, dairy products, and soybean meal in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with 2 levels of CP (15.4 vs. 19.4%, as-fed basis) and 2 levels of dietary fiber [DF; low fiber (LF) 5.3% NDF and high fiber (HF) 7.15% NDF, as-fed basis]. The HF diet was developed by supplementing the basal diet with 40 g/kg of wheat bran and 20 g/kg of sugar beet pulp. Animal performance was obtained weekly with samples of feces collected for microbiology on the first and the last experimental day and scored from 1 (liquid) to 4 (hard). On the last day, 1 pig from each pen was sampled for blood analyses of the acute-phase protein, major acute-phase protein of pigs (PigMap) and subsequently killed to register the digestive tract weight (including contents) and colon histology. Pigs fed the HF diets had greater ADG (390 vs. 457 g; P < or = 0.001) and large intestine weight (4.4 vs. 5.4% of BW; P < or = 0.05). This coincided with a greater (P < or = 0.05) short-chain fatty acid concentration (especially of acetic and butyric acids), a decrease in Escherichia coli counts (7.77 vs. 6.86 log of cfu/g of feces, P < or = 0.05), and an increase in the ratio of lactobacilli:enterobacteria (0.76 vs. 1.37, P < or = 0.05). However, CP level did not modify the productive performance, but 20% CP increased P < or = 0.05) the relative weight (% of BW) of the small (6.5 vs. 7.7) and large intestine (3.8 vs. 4.3). In the large bowel, the 20% CP diet increased the numbers of goblet cells (4.6 vs. 5.4/100 microm; P < or = 0.05) and reduced the numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (1.8 vs. 1.3/100 microm; P < or = 0.05). In relation to health status, increasing DF was dependent of the dietary CP content

  9. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  10. Correlations between self-efficacy in resisting six temptations and dietary energy and macronutrient intake at each meal.

    PubMed

    Shimpo, Misa; Fukkoshi, Yuko; Akamatsu, Rie

    2014-12-01

    Self-efficacy in relation to eating behavior for weight control is commonly defined as having the confidence to control urges to overeat in high-risk situations. Prior researchers have suggested that self-efficacy plays a mediating role in eating behavior for weight loss and maintenance. The current study examined the relationship between self-efficacy in resisting certain temptations and daily dietary intake at each meal. Participants were 83 men and 122 women registered at the health management website "Asken". They administered questionnaires about self-efficacy and dietary records. As results of multiple regression analysis, self-efficacy in resisting negative emotions was negatively related to lunch energy intake in men (β=-0.308, p=0.023) and total (β=-0.302, p=0.003), breakfast (β=-0.334, p=0.004), and snacking (β=-0.232, p=0.022) energy intake in women. Also, self-efficacy in resisting rewards was negatively related to lunch energy intake in men (β=-0.218, p=0.040). In men, self-efficacy in resisting hunger was positively related to protein intake (β=0.148, p=0.021) and relaxation was negatively related to lipid intake (β=-0.211, p=0.009). Self-efficacy in resisting some temptations, especially negative emotions, and dietary intakes were negatively related. Future research is needed to confirm these results and assess the prospective effects of self-efficacy.

  11. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  12. Effect of rearing system and of dietary protein level on leptin, growth, and carcass composition in young Podolian bulls.

    PubMed

    Marino, R; Braghieri, A; Albenzio, M; Caroprese, M; Girolami, A; Santillo, A; Sevi, A

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of rearing system and level of dietary protein supplementation on growth performance, metabolic profile, plasma leptin, and carcass composition of young Podolian bulls. At the beginning of the finishing period (about 14 mo of age), animals were divided into 3 groups according to rearing system and dietary protein level: indoor receiving a diet with 15% CP of DM (IND); and outdoor, at pasture, receiving a supplementation with 12% CP of DM (OUT12) or with 15% CP of DM (OUT15). Plasma leptin concentration increased (P < 0.05) with age, whereas it was unaffected by rearing system and protein level. Positive correlations between plasma leptin concentration, ADG (r = 0.861, P < 0.001), and blood glucose concentration (r = 0.977, P < 0.001) were observed, whereas NEFA and triglycerides were not correlated with leptin concentration. At the end of the finishing period (about 20 mo of age), young bulls in the OUT12 group showed greater (P < 0.05) cholesterol concentrations in blood than the OUT15 group, whereas the OUT15 group showed greater urea concentrations compared with IND (P < 0.01) and OUT12 groups (P < 0.001). Average daily gains, feed conversion ratio, and final BW were similar between groups. Intramuscular lipid content of LM, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles was correlated with plasma leptin before slaughtering (r = 0.77, P < 0.01; r = 0.67, P < 0.01, r = 0.79, respectively). Correlations between plasma leptin and intramuscular fat were found starting from 18 mo of age for LM (r = 0.44; P < 0.05) and from 19 mo for semimembranosus (r = 0.56; P < 0.05) and semitendinosus (r = 0.58; P < 0.05). Mean value of intramuscular fat and intramuscular fat of LM was greater in OUT15 than OUT12 (P < 0.05). No differences were found between 12 and 15% CP supplementations for growth and carcass data. Therefore, we conclude that the extensive rearing system supplemented with 12% CP may be adequate to sustain good growth

  13. Serum progesterone, estradiol-17 beta, and glucocorticoids in the collared peccary during gestation and lactation as influenced by dietary protein and energy.

    PubMed

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Grant, W E

    1985-09-01

    Sixteen pregnant collared peccaries were assigned to four experimental diets representing two levels of crude protein and two levels of digestible energy. Serum levels of progesterone, estradiol-17 beta (E2), and glucocorticoids were measured by radioimmunoassay. There was no significant dietary effect (P greater than 0.05) associated with any hormone during gestation. Progesterone did not differ between days 11 and 140 of gestation (X +/- SE = 36.48 +/- 1.11 ng/ml, N = 72), began to decline during the last week prepartum, and continued to decline within 24 hr of birth. Glucocorticoid concentrations remained level throughout gestation (X +/- SE = 6.57 +/- 0.45 microgram/dl, N = 74). E2 levels were low during the first 90 days of gestation, rose significantly (P less than 0.001) from 10.11 +/- 1.73 pg/ml (X +/- SE, N = 8) at Days 81-90 gestation to 49.07 +/- 12.87 pg/ml (N = 3) at 2-4 days prepartum (Days 141-147 of gestation), and declined rapidly to baseline levels within 24 hr of farrowing. Litter size had no effect on progesterone or E2 concentrations. There was no significant dietary effect on litter size or gestation length. During lactation, glucocorticoids and E2 remained stable and did not differ by diet, while progesterone concentrations appeared to be affected by diet. Individuals on the high energy-high protein diet returned to normal ovarian function before animals on the other three diets. Results indicated that the pregnant collared peccary can maintain a reproductive steroid environment that allows for fetal development in the face of moderate caloric or protein restriction and that the lactating peccary can undergo a postpartum ovulation in the presence of good nutrition.

  14. Effects of dietary selenium, sulphur and copper levels on selenium concentration in the serum and liver of lamb.

    PubMed

    Netto, Arlindo Saran; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Correa, Lisia Bertonha; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; Salles, Márcia Saladini Vieira; Vilela, Flávio Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were distributed in eight treatments under 2×2×2 factorial experiment to compare the effects of two levels of selenium (0.2 to 5 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), sulphur (0.25% and 0.37%) and copper (8 and 25 mg/kg DM) levels on selenium concentration in liver and serum of lambs. A liver biopsy was done on all animals and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to the beginning of the treatments. The blood was sampled every thirty days and the liver was sampled after 90 days, at the slaughter. Increasing differences were noticed during the data collection period for the serum selenium concentration, and it was found to be 0.667 mg/L in animals fed with 5 mg Se/kg DM and normal sulphur and copper concentrations in their diet. However, a three-way interaction and a reduction of selenium concentration to 0.483 mg/L was verified when increasing copper and sulphur concentration levels to 25 ppm and 0.37% respectively. The liver selenium concentration was also high for diets containing higher selenium concentrations, but the antagonist effect with the increased copper and sulphur levels remained, due to interactions between these minerals. Therefore, for regions where selenium is scarce, increasing its concentration in animal diets can be an interesting option. For regions with higher levels of selenium, the antagonistic effect of interaction between these three minerals should be used by increasing copper and sulphur dietary concentrations, thus preventing possible selenium poisoning.

  15. Effects of UV-B radiation levels on concentrations of phytosterol, ergothioneine, and polyphenolic compounds in mushroom powder used as dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional changes of powder dietary supplement made from mushrooms previously exposed to different levels of UV-B irradiation were evaluated for the bioactive naturally occurring mushroom anti-oxidant, ergothioneine, other natural polyphenolic anti-oxidants: e.g. flavonoids, lignans, and others,...

  16. Effects of dietary phosphorus, soil ingestion and dietary intake level on performance, phosphorus utilization and serum and alimentary tract mineral concentrations in lambs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Bojalil, C M; Ammerman, C B; Henry, P R; Littell, R C; Blue, W G

    1988-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted with lambs fed concentrate-based diets to study the effects of dietary P and soil ingestion on performance, P utilization and mineral composition of serum and alimentary tract contents. In Exp. 1, 20 wether lambs were fed diets for 21 d in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with .2 or .3% total dietary P and O or 9% added Florida Ultisol (highly weathered soil with high P-fixation capacity) containing 4,600 and 6,400 mg/kg total Al and Fe, respectively. True P absorption increased (P less than .05) from 30 to 42% and from 37 to 54% when soil was added to the basal and high P diets, respectively. In Exp. 2, 24 wether lambs were assigned randomly to a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Lambs were fed during a 70-d period using diets described previously on either a restricted or an ad libitum basis. Soil increased Fe concentration in ruminal fluid (P less than .05) and ash percentage (P less than .001) in ruminal solids and feces. Aluminum concentration in ruminal solids and feces and Fe in ruminal solids were increased (P less than .001) by soil addition, whereas concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Cu and Mn in ruminal solids and feces were decreased (P less than .01) by soil addition. There were time X P interactions on serum inorganic P (P less than .01) and Mg (P less than .05) concentrations. Although high in P-fixing capacity, soil fed to lambs in these experiments improved P utilization. Lambs appeared to be able to adapt to changes in intake of dietary minerals in soil, possibly through adaptation of ruminal microflora or a redistribution of body mineral pools.

  17. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption. PMID:19255890

  18. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N=132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ(13)C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters.

  19. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ameliorate amyloid-beta and tau pathology via a mechanism involving presenilin 1 levels.

    PubMed

    Green, Kim N; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; Khashwji, Hasan; Hall, Eileen B; Yurko-Mauro, Karin A; Ellis, Lorie; LaFerla, Frank M

    2007-04-18

    The underlying cause of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is unknown, but a number of environmental and genetic factors are likely to be involved. One environmental factor that is increasingly being recognized as contributing to brain aging is diet, which has evolved markedly over modern history. Here we show that dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD reduced the intraneuronal accumulation of both amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau. In contrast, combining DHA with n-6 fatty acids, either arachidonic acid or docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6), diminished the efficacy of DHA over a 12 month period. Here we report the novel finding that the mechanism accounting for the reduction in soluble Abeta was attributable to a decrease in steady-state levels of presenilin 1, and not to altered processing of the amyloid precursor protein by either the alpha- or beta-secretase. Furthermore, the presence of DPAn-6 in the diet reduced levels of early-stage phospho-tau epitopes, which correlated with a reduction in phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a putative tau kinase. Collectively, these results suggest that DHA and DPAn-6 supplementations could be a beneficial natural therapy for AD.

  20. Adequate iodine levels in healthy pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Burcu; Akbaba, Gülhan; Yeniçeri, Emine N.; Akın, Melike N.; Akbaba, Eren; Öner, Gökalp; Turhan, Nilgün Ö.; Duru, Mehmet E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current iodine levels and related factors among healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, healthy pregnant women (n=135) were scanned for thyroid volume, provided urine samples for urinary iodine concentration and completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits targeted for iodine consumption at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Muğla, Turkey, between August 2014 and February 2015. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Results: Median urinary iodine concentration was 222.0 µg/L, indicating adequate iodine intake during pregnancy. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 28.1% of subjects had iodine deficiency, 34.1% had adequate iodine intake, 34.8% had more than adequate iodine intake, and 3.0% had excessive iodine intake during pregnancy. Education level, higher monthly income, current employment, consuming iodized salt, and adding salt to food during, or after cooking were associated with higher urinary iodine concentration. Conclusion: Iodine status of healthy pregnant women was adequate, although the percentage of women with more than adequate iodine intake was higher than the reported literature. PMID:27279519

  1. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. )

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  2. Effects of exogenous enzymes and dietary energy on performance and digestive physiology of broilers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the effects of XG with AG and BM at different metabolizable energy diets on growth performance, digestive physiology and energy utilization of broilers fed with corn-SBM diet. A 2 × 4 factorial design was used with two basal diets (the positive control group, PC; negative control with ME reduction 100 kcal/kg, NC) and with or without the addition of three exogenous enzymes (0.02% BM; 0.01% AG; 0.05% XG) respectively. 1,200 one-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to 8 treatments with 10 pens of 15 broilers. There was no significant difference on BW, BWG, and FI at 0-21d, 21-42d or 0-42d for diet, enzymes or their interactions, but FI at 22-42d and 0-42d were tend to be decreased with the addition of enzymes. The F/G was significantly improved by the addition of enzymes especially in NC diet. The dietary AME and TME in PC or NC diet were significantly increased by XG or AG in NC diet. The villus length and V/C of ileum were significantly increased by the addition of BM or XG. XG improved the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase, BM improved the activity of trypsin at 21d, and AG improved the activity of chymotrypsin at 21d. Comparing to PC diet, the addition of enzymes in PC or NC diet decreased feed cost per kg body weight gain especially in NC diet (except AG in PC diet) with the highest profits for XG in NC diet. In conclusion, supplementation of 0.02% BM or 0.01% AG or 0.05% XG could improve feed conversion of broilers in corn-soybean meal diet by improving energy utilization and digestive physiology, and also supplementation of 0.05% XG had a preferable efficacy in low energy diet. PMID:23556436

  3. Testicular biochemicals, sperm reserves and daily sperm production of West African dwarf bucks fed varied levels of dietary aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, E O; Jimoh, O A; Bello, A D; Bolarinwa, A O

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted with twenty West African dwarf (WAD) bucks (5-6 months old) to assess reproductive potentials of growing WAD bucks to varied dietary aflatoxin of 0 μg/kg, 50 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg and 150 μg/kg containing in diets 1 (control) 2, 3 and 4 respectively, for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of the 12th week, the reproductive tracts of bucks were excised and homogenised in physiological saline for assessment of glucose, total protein and testosterone concentration, gonadal and extra gonadal sperm reserves. Results showed that gonadal and extra-gonadal sperm reserves of goats fed control diet (2.71×10(9) and 3.07×10(9) spermatozoa respectively) were superior (p<0.05) to those fed 50 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg and 15 0μg/kg [(1.59×10(9) and 2.33×10(9)), (1.09×10(9) and 2.45×10(9)) and (1.00×10(9) and 1.41×10(9)) spermatozoa respectively]. Daily sperm production of bucks fed the control diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher (7.60×10(8) spermatozoa/testis) than those fed 50 μg/kg (4.47×10(8)), 100 μg/kg (3.07×10(8)) and 150 μg/kg (2.80×10(8) spermatozoa/testis). Sperm production efficiency also follows the same trend as daily sperm production. Glucose and total protein concentration in the testes declined significantly as the aflatoxin level increases in the diets. Testosterone level was significantly lower in goats fed 100 μg/kg than others. The study suggest that exposure of male goats to dietary aflatoxin up to 50 μg/kg diet will reduced testicular biochemical and testosterone with resultant depression in sperm storage capability and daily sperm production in the animals.

  4. Effect of dietary estrogens from bovine milk on blood hormone levels and reproductive organs in mice.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, N; Koracin, J; Majdic, G; Snoj, T

    2016-08-01

    Cows are often milked until 60 d before their next expected calving. Milk from cows in the third trimester of pregnancy contains up to 20 times more estrogens than milk from nonpregnant cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to known doses of estrogens from bovine milk could affect blood hormone levels in mice and influence their reproductive organs. This study was performed with 30 intact male and 30 ovariectomized female mice. Mice of each sex were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, each with 6 animals of each sex, and a control group with 12 animals of each sex. The first experimental group received 4mL of milk each day from a pregnant cow with natural estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in concentrations 0.093 and 0.065ng/mL, respectively. The second experimental group received 4mL of the same milk each day, with an added 10ng/mL of both E1 and E2. The third experimental group received 4mL of the same milk each day, with an added 100ng/mL of both E1 and E2. The control group received no milk. After 8 d of treatment, mice were euthanized, blood was collected, and the uteruses, testes, and seminal vesicles were weighed. The results of our study demonstrated that consumption of native milk from a pregnant cow did not affect plasma E1 and E2 levels in either sex; uterine weight in females; or testosterone levels and testes and seminal vesicle weights in males. Similarly, we found no changes in the group that received the milk with an added 10ng/mL of E1 and E2. We did observe elevated plasma estrogens in both sexes, increased uterus weight in females, and decreased plasma testosterone levels in males from the group that received milk with an added 100ng/mL of E1 and E2. However, concentrations in the third group exceeded the physiological concentration of milk estrogens by 1,000 times, so it would be extremely unlikely to find such concentrations in native cow milk. PMID:27265162

  5. The effect of dietary cadmium on zinc, copper and iron levels in the bone of rats.

    PubMed

    Bonner, F W; King, L J; Parke, D V

    1980-02-01

    The effect of continuous oral administration of cadium (Cd) (75 ppm) on the concentrations of zinc (ZN), Copper (CU) and iron (Fe) in the bone of rats was investigated. Accumulation of Cd in the femur was low but increased with time. After 8 weeks of Cd exposure, femur Zn and Fe levels were significantly decreased and remained low throughout the period of cadmium treatment. After 48 weeks, Cd exposed animals had Zn and Fe concentrations in the femur of 63% and 51% of controls, respectively. The femur Cu concentration was unchanged at 36 weeks but at 48 weeks it was 76% of control animals.

  6. Does Dietary Iodine Regulate Oxidative Stress and Adiponectin Levels in Human Breast Milk?

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Velasco, Inés; Garcia-Escobar, Eva; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Rodríguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Linares, Francisca; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Cobos-Bravo, Juan Francisco; Priego-Puga, Tatiana; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the association between iodine and human milk composition. In this study, we investigated the association between iodine and different markers of oxidative stress and obesity-related hormones in human breast milk. This work is composed of two cross-sectional studies (in lactating women and in the general population), one prospective and one in vitro. In the cross-sectional study in lactating women, the breast milk iodine correlated negatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and with adiponectin levels. An in vitro culture of human adipocytes with 1 μM potassium iodide (KI, dose similar to the human breast milk iodine concentration) produced a significant decrease in adiponectin, GSH-Px, SOD1, and SOD2 mRNA expression. However, after 2 months of treatment with KI in the prospective study, a positive correlation was found between 24-h urinary iodine and serum adiponectin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that iodine may be a factor directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and adiponectin levels in human breast milk. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 847–853. PMID:24001137

  7. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  8. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-06-05

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations.

  9. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations. PMID:26057750

  10. Plasma selenium levels and dietary selenium intakes of formula-fed (FF) and cow's milk-fed (CMF) infants

    SciTech Connect

    Gropper, S.; Anderson, K.; Landing, W.; Acosta, P. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee Ross Labs., Columbus, OH )

    1990-02-26

    The plasma selenium concentrations of 57 infants eight to 12 months of age ingesting either cow's milk or milk-based infant formula as their primary beverage as part of a mixed diet for at least three months was assessed using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean ({plus minus}SD) daily dietary selenium intake of 26 cow's milk-fed infants (34{plus minus} 13 ug) was significantly greater than that of 31 formula-fed infants (22{plus minus}11 ug). The mean ({plus minus}SD) plasma selenium concentration of infants fed cow's mild (39{plus minus}11 ug/L) was also significantly greater than that of infants fed formula (31{plus minus}12 ug/L). Both groups of infants ingested similar total energy intakes; however, the infants fed cow's milk received more total protein and selenium and a greater percentage of protein and selenium from their primary beverage than the infants receiving formula. Both groups of infants were consuming a mixed diet with similar sources of selenium. These data suggest that cow's milk is a richer source of selenium than infant formulas.

  11. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  12. Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15 percent of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin (GLY) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15% on energy balance in finishing cattle diets were evaluated in 8 steers (BW = 503 kg) using a replicated Latin square design. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and period, and the random effects of square and steer within square were included in the model. Contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Glycerin replaced dry-rolled corn (DRC) at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary DM. Dry matter intake decreased linearly (P = 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. As a proportion of GE intake, fecal energy loss tended to decrease linearly (P < 0.07), and DE also tended to increase linearly (P = 0.07) as dietary level of GLY increased. Urinary energy loss was not different (P > 0.31) as a proportion of GE as GLY increased in the diet. Methane energy loss as a proportion of GE intake tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.10), decreasing from 0 to 10% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter. As a proportion of GE intake, ME tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.10), increasing from 0 to 10% GLY and then decreasing. As a proportion of GE intake, heat production increased linearly (P = 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. Additionally, as a proportion of GE intake, retained energy (RE) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.07), increasing from 0 to 10% GLY inclusion and decreasing thereafter. As a proportion of N intake, urinary and fecal N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.04) as GLY increased in the diet. Furthermore, grams of N retained and N retained as a percent of N intake both decreased linearly (P < 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. Total DM digestibility tended (P < 0.10) to respond quadratically, increasing at a decreasing rate from 0 to 5% GLY

  13. The effect of dietary starch level on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Gilham, Matthew S; Upton, Sarah; Colyer, Alison; Butterwick, Richard; Miller, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    A charge made against feeding dry foods to cats is that the high carbohydrate (i.e. starch) content results in high blood glucose levels which over time may have detrimental health effects. The present study determined the post-meal concentrations of plasma glucose and insulin in adult cats (seven males and four females) and dogs (Labrador retrievers; four males and five females) fed dry diets with low-starch (LS), moderate-starch (MS) or high-starch (HS) levels. In a cross-over design with at least 7 d between the test meals, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured following a single meal of a LS, MS and HS diet (209 kJ/kg bodyweight). Only the HS diet resulted in significant post-meal increases in plasma glucose concentration in cats and dogs although the time-course profiles were different between the species. In cats, plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased above the pre-meal concentration from 11 h until 19 h after the meal, while in dogs, a significant increase above baseline was seen only at the 7 h time point. Plasma insulin was significantly elevated in dogs 4-8 h following the MS diet and 2-8 h after the HS diet. In cats, plasma insulin was significantly greater than baseline from 3-7 and 11-17 h after the HS diet. The time lag (approximately 11 h) between eating the HS diet and the subsequent prolonged elevation of plasma glucose concentration seen in cats may reflect metabolic adaptations that result in a slower digestive and absorptive capacity for complex carbohydrate. PMID:22005401

  14. Dietary factors associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women with the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V), 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Se Young

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Serum ferritin levels are significantly increased after menopause and greatly affect women's health. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary and non-dietary factors associated with high ferritin levels in postmenopausal women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Among adult women in 2010-2012, qualified postmenopausal women (n = 3880) were separated into quartiles of serum ferritin. The variable differences among the quartiles of ferritin were determined using either procsurvey chi-square test (χ2-test) among categorical variables, or GLM (Generalized Linear Model) among continuous variables. The odds ratio for high ferritin in relation to dietary factors was also determined using procsurvery logistic analysis. RESULTS Age, obesity, drinking habit, and blood glucose levels were found to be significant indicators of high serum ferritin level after adjusting for all confounding factors. Among the food groups, grain, milk, vegetable, and seaweed intakes were significantly associated with high ferritin levels, but after adjusting for all confounding factors, only grains and vegetables remained significant factors. Among the nutrient groups, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intake were significant factors, but after adjustment, none of the nutrient groups analyzed were associated with a high risk of ferritin. CONCLUSION Age, obesity, drinking habit, and glucose levels, as well as inadequate intakes of grains and vegetables, were found to be significantly associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:26865920

  15. Dietary proanthocyanidins modulate BMAL1 acetylation, Nampt expression and NAD levels in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Baselga-Escudero, Laura; Casanova, Ester; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Salvadó, M-Josepa; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism follows circadian rhythms, which are driven by peripheral clocks. Clock genes in the liver are entrained by daytime meals and food components. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet, modulate lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether PAs could adjust the clock system in the liver. Male Wistar rats were orally gavaged with 250 mg grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE)/kg body weight at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0 (light turned on), at ZT12 (light turned off), or before a 6 hour jet-lag and sacrificed at different times. The 24 hour rhythm of clock-core and clock-controlled gene expression indicated that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) was the most sensitive gene to GSPE. However, Nampt was repressed or overexpressed after GSPE administration at ZT0 or ZT12, respectively. NAD levels, which are controlled by Nampt and also exhibit circadian rhythm, decreased or increased according to Nampt expression. Moreover, the ratio of acetylated Bmal1, that directly drives Nampt expression, only increased when GSPE was administered at ZT12. Therefore, GSPE modulated the clock system in the liver, suggesting that PAs can regulate lipid and glucose metabolism by adjusting the circadian rhythm in the liver. PMID:26051626

  16. Lactation characteristics of nine breeds of cattle fed various quantities of dietary energy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    1992-06-01

    Milk yield data were collected by weigh-suckle-weigh procedures at approximately 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, 138, 156, 184, and 212 d postpartum for mature Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental cows over a 4-yr period. Individual cows were fed at one of four energy intake levels. Parameters characterizing lactation curves for 431 lactations from 179 cows were estimated by nonlinear regression. Differences due to breed, level of energy intake, and the two-factor interaction between breed and level of ME allowance for scale and shape parameters of lactation curves and derived estimates for time of peak lactation, yield at time of peak lactation, and for total yield for a 210-d lactation period were evaluated. Breed and energy intake level were significant sources of variation for all traits. Pooled over energy levels, daily yields at time of peak lactation of Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, and Pinzgauer were greater (P less than .05) than those of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, and Limousin. Simmental and Red Poll were intermediate. Total lactation yield of the Braunvieh exceeded (P less than .05) that of all other breeds with the exception of Gelbvieh. Hereford produced less milk than (P less than .05) the other breeds. The response in yields at time of peak lactation as energy allowances increased for Braunvieh, Charolis, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Pinzgauer cows were linear and resulted in higher yields at this time. Linear increases in total 210-d yield and times of peak lactation were observed for all breeds with the exception of Hereford.

  17. Effect of various levels of dietary curcumin on meat quality and antioxidant profile of breast muscle in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingfei; Hu, Zhiping; Lu, Changhui; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-04-22

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of curcumin on meat quality and antioxidant profile of breast muscle in broilers. In experiment 1, birds were fed basal diet with an additional 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg curcumin, respectively. The results showed that dietary curcumin significantly increased the redness values of meat, catalase activity, and ABTS radical scavenging activity and decreased drip loss at 48 h. In experiment 2, birds reared under heat stress were assigned to similar treatments as experiment 1. Significant differences in the redox status of breast muscle were observed between the control and heat stress groups. The various levels of curcumin significantly prevented reactive oxygen species overproduction, enhanced the antioxidant defense system, and alleviated the abnormal change of antioxidant-related gene expression of muscle in heat-stressed birds. It was concluded that curcumin, as a potential antioxidant, improved meat quality and oxidant stability of muscle in broilers, whereas the inclusion of 50 and 100 mg/kg would be more efficient. PMID:25823972

  18. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  19. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals. PMID:25829055

  20. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. PMID:24990585

  1. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens.

  2. Effect of group size and maize silage dietary levels on behaviour, health, carcass and meat quality of Mediterranean buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Masucci, F; De Rosa, G; Barone, C M A; Napolitano, F; Grasso, F; Uzun, P; Di Francia, A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different dietary levels of maize silage (10% v. 36% DM) and group size (7 v. 14 animals) were assessed on growth performance and in vivo digestibility of 28 male fattening buffaloes. In addition, the effects of diet on meat quality and group size on behaviour and immune response were separately evaluated. Animals were weighed and assigned to three groups. The high silage - low size group (HL) was fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 36% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 12.7±2.6 months; BW 382.2±67.7 kg at the start of the study). The low silage - low size group (LL) was fed a TMR containing 10% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 13.0±2.7 months; BW 389.4±72.3 kg). The high silage - high size group (HH) was fed the 36% maize silage DM diet and consisted of 14 animals (age 13.9±3.25 months; BW 416.5±73.9 kg). Total space allowance (3.2 indoor+3.2 outdoor m2/animal) was kept constant in the three groups, as well as the ratio of animals to drinkers (seven animals per water bowl) and the manger space (70 cm per animal). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestibility were influenced neither by dietary treatment nor by group size, even if the group fed 36% maize silage diet showed a higher fibre digestibility. No effect of diet was found on meat quality. Group size did not affect the behavioural activities with the exception of drinking (1.04±0.35% v. 2.60±0.35%; P<0.01 for groups HL and HH, respectively) and vigilance (2.58±0.46% v. 1.20±0.46%; P<0.05 for groups HL and HH, respectively). Immune responses were not affected by group size. PMID:26549768

  3. Effect of group size and maize silage dietary levels on behaviour, health, carcass and meat quality of Mediterranean buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Masucci, F; De Rosa, G; Barone, C M A; Napolitano, F; Grasso, F; Uzun, P; Di Francia, A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different dietary levels of maize silage (10% v. 36% DM) and group size (7 v. 14 animals) were assessed on growth performance and in vivo digestibility of 28 male fattening buffaloes. In addition, the effects of diet on meat quality and group size on behaviour and immune response were separately evaluated. Animals were weighed and assigned to three groups. The high silage - low size group (HL) was fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 36% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 12.7±2.6 months; BW 382.2±67.7 kg at the start of the study). The low silage - low size group (LL) was fed a TMR containing 10% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 13.0±2.7 months; BW 389.4±72.3 kg). The high silage - high size group (HH) was fed the 36% maize silage DM diet and consisted of 14 animals (age 13.9±3.25 months; BW 416.5±73.9 kg). Total space allowance (3.2 indoor+3.2 outdoor m2/animal) was kept constant in the three groups, as well as the ratio of animals to drinkers (seven animals per water bowl) and the manger space (70 cm per animal). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestibility were influenced neither by dietary treatment nor by group size, even if the group fed 36% maize silage diet showed a higher fibre digestibility. No effect of diet was found on meat quality. Group size did not affect the behavioural activities with the exception of drinking (1.04±0.35% v. 2.60±0.35%; P<0.01 for groups HL and HH, respectively) and vigilance (2.58±0.46% v. 1.20±0.46%; P<0.05 for groups HL and HH, respectively). Immune responses were not affected by group size.

  4. The contribution of school meals to energy and nutrient intake of Swedish children in relation to dietary guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Osowski, Christine Persson; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Barbieri, Heléne Enghardt; Becker, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    Background In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6) and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7). The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Conclusions The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met. PMID:26522664

  5. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  6. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  7. Short-term exposure of laying hens to high dietary sodium chloride levels.

    PubMed

    Damron, B L; Kelly, L S

    1987-05-01

    Four replicate pens, each containing five individually caged hens received a corn-soy basal diet to which .4, 1, 2, 4, or 6% NaCl was added during two 21-day experiments. An additional bilevel treatment, approximating a reported commercial feed production problem, consisted of 6% NaCl for 7 days followed by .4% NaCl for the remaining 2 weeks. Egg production was significantly reduced by 4 and 6% NaCl in Experiment 1 and by 2, 4, and 6% NaCl in Experiment 2. The switchback treatment (6-.4% NaCl) did not statistically alter overall egg production in either experiment. Daily water consumption increased significantly when more than 1% NaCl was added, and subsequently with each feed addition. When 6% NaCl was fed for 7 days feed intake was quickly suppressed; this caused a rapid increase in water intake. Water intake returned to normal levels before the end of the second week. Daily feed intake was significantly reduced by a continuous feeding of 4% or more NaCl. A 1-week exposure to the 6% treatment suppressed feed intake quickly but intake recovered within one week. In both experiments, only the continuous 6% NaCl feeding regime of Experiment 1 resulted in a significant loss of body weight or a significant reduction of overall egg weight averages. Mortality was not a factor in either experiment. These data indicate that at least 2% NaCl in feed was required before any significant effects were noted, and that laying hens recovered from a 1-week exposure to 6% NaCl in feed within the following week.

  8. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of /sup 75/Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Mutanen, M.L.; Mykkaenen, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (/sup 75/Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of (/sup 75/Se)selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium.

  9. Energy Flux in A-Level Electromagentism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, S. F.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests an approach which treats the electric circuit as a channel through which energy flows and to which the application of energy conservation makes the distinction between electromotive force and potential difference unnecessary. Equations, examples, and visual representations are included. (RT)

  10. EFFECTS OF ADMINISTRATION ROUTE, DIETARY CONDITION, AND BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL ON KINETICS AND UPTAKE OF 18F-FDG IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dietary condition and blood glucose level on the kinetics and uptake of 18F-FDG in mice were systematically investigated using intraperitoneal and tail-vein injection. Methods Dynamic PET was performed for 60 min on 23 isoflurane-anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice after intravenous (n = 11) or intraperitoneal (n = 12) injection of 18F-FDG. Five and 6 mice in the intravenous and intraperitoneal groups, respectively, were kept fasting overnight (18 ± 2 h), and the others were fed ad libitum. Serial blood samples were collected from the femoral artery to measure 18F-FDG and glucose concentrations. Image data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with CT-based attenuation correction. The standardized uptake value (SUV) was estimated from the 45- to 60-min image. The metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlu) and 18F-FDG uptake constant (Ki) were derived by Patlak graphical analysis. Results In the brain, SUV and Ki were significantly higher in fasting mice with intraperitoneal injection, but MRGlu did not differ significantly under different dietary states and administration routes. Cerebral Ki was inversely related to elevated blood glucose levels, irrespective of administration route or dietary state. In myocardium, SUV, Ki, and MRGlu were significantly lower in fasting than in nonfasting mice for both routes of injection. Myocardial SUV and Ki were strongly dependent on the dietary state, and Ki did not correlate with the blood glucose level. Similar results were obtained for skeletal muscle, although the differences were not as pronounced. Conclusions Intraperitoneal injection is a valid alternative route, providing pharmacokinetic data equivalent to data from tail-vein injection for small-animal 18F-FDG PET. Cerebral Ki varies inversely with blood glucose level, but the measured cerebral MRGlu does not correlate with blood glucose level or dietary condition. Conversely, the Ki values of the myocardium and skeletal muscle are strongly dependent on

  11. Changing dietary cation-anion difference for dairy cows fed with two contrasting levels of concentrate in diets.

    PubMed

    Apper-Bossard, E; Peyraud, J L; Faverdin, P; Meschy, F

    2006-02-01

    High-producing dairy cows are commonly fed diets containing a high proportion of rapidly degradable starch, which can cause subacute acidosis and reduce dry matter (DM) intake. Because of the properties of nonmetabolizable cations and anions, increasing the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD = Na + K - Cl - S in mEq/kg of DM) may prevent a drop in DM intake. To test this hypothesis, 48 Holstein cows were blocked into 2 groups of 24 and assigned to two 3 x 3 Latin squares in a split-plot design. Each group received one level of concentrate at either 20% or 40% on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diet containing 20% concentrate was formulated to supply 4% rapidly degradable starch, whereas the diet containing 40% concentrate supplied 22% rapidly degradable starch. Diets in each square were formulated to provide a DCAD of 0, 150, or 300 mEq/kg of DM. The 3 values were obtained by manipulating Na and Cl contents. Intake, 4% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk fat percentage, as well as blood nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate increased with DCAD, but only on the diet providing 40% concentrate. The yield of trans-10 C(18:1) and odd-chain fatty acids decreased with increasing DCAD, whereas trans-11 C(18:1) increased. Again, this occurred only with the diet providing 40% concentrate. Blood pH and HCO(3) concentration increased along with DCAD, irrespective of the concentrate level. A positive DCAD led to increasing DM intake and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows fed highly degradable diets. The mechanism involved may be a localized rumen buffering effect, together with the ability of positive DCAD to maintain blood acid-base status in cows faced with a massive acid input.

  12. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  13. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Design Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1 630 069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Setting and population Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. Results In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world’s adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (≥250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega

  14. Histopathological alterations of juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to graded levels of dietary methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (average weight of 30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of four concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg; 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the sensitivity of the two sturgeon species from a histopathological perspective. After 4- and 8-week exposure, histological changes were examined in the kidney, liver, gill, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle of both species using light microscopy. Marked abnormalities were observed in the kidney and liver of both sturgeon species after each exposure period; the abnormalities showed progressive histological alterations in severity with increasing doses and duration of exposure. Renal lesions included tubular epithelium degeneration and necrosis, renal corpuscular disintegration, and interstitial tissue degeneration. The changes observed in the livers of both sturgeon species were glycogen depletion and vacuolar degeneration. In the gill and skeletal and heart muscle of green and white sturgeon fed MeHg-added diets, mild histological changes were observed but did not show pronounced difference between the two species. Although the lowest observed effect concentration in both species was the 25 mg MeHg/kg diet, the histological changes in the kidney and liver were more pronounced at all treatments groups of green sturgeon than those of white sturgeon. The current results on structural changes of kidney and liver (i.e., more severe glycogen depletion and tubular epithelium degeneration in green sturgeon) confirmed our previous results, in that green sturgeon exhibited a higher mortality, lower growth rate, and lower protein, lipid, and energy contents in their whole body than white sturgeon under the same MeHg exposures.

  15. Dietary and environmental determinants of blood and bone lead levels in lactating postpartum women living in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Avila, M; Gonzalez-Cossio, T; Palazuelos, E; Romieu, I; Aro, A; Fishbein, E; Peterson, K E; Hu, H

    1996-10-01

    Despite the recent declines in environmental lead exposure in the United States and Mexico, the potential for delayed toxicity from bone lead stores remains a significant public health concern. Some evidence indicates that mobilization of lead from bone may be markedly enhanced during the increased bone turnover of pregnancy and lactation, resulting in lead exposure to the fetus and the breast-fed infant. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of the interrelationships between environmental, dietary, and lifestyle histories, blood lead levels, and bone lead levels among 98 recently postpartum women living in Mexico City. Lead levels in the patella (representing trabecular bone) and tibia (representing cortical bone) were measured by K X-ray fluorescence (KXRF). Multivariate linear regression models showed that significant predictors of higher blood lead included a history of preparing or storing food in lead-glazed ceramic ware, lower milk consumption, and higher levels of lead in patella bone. A 34 micrograms/g increase in patella lead (from the medians of the lowest to the highest quartiles) was associated with an increase in blood lead of 2.4 micrograms/dl. Given the measurement error associated with KXRF and the extrapolation of lead burden from a single bone site, this contribution probably represents an underestimate of the influence of trabecular bone on blood lead. Significant predictors of bone lead in multivariate models included years living in Mexico City, lower consumption of high calcium content foods, and nonuse of calcium supplements for the patella and years living in Mexico City, older age, and lower calcium intake for tibia bone. Low consumption of milk and cheese, as compared to the highest consumption category (every day), was associated with an increase in tibia bone lead of 9.7 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that patella bone is a significant contributor to blood lead during lactation

  16. Optimal dietary energy and protein for the development of gilts - NPB #12-209

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of this study was to determine three diets for use in a National Pork Board primary trial of dietary effects on gilt development and retention of sows in the breeding herd to fourth parity. A second objective was to examine the influence of litter of origin traits on gilt developm...

  17. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Luo, Yiqiu; Zhang, Bolin; Xing, Shen; Zhu, Yuping; Sun, Hui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg) were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP) levels (14% or 10%) and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg). The low-protein (LP) diets (10% CP) were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA) to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS) (P<0.01) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) (P<0.001), while dietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (P<0.001) and lean percentage (P<0.05), and decreased the feed conversion ratio (P<0.05) and back fat (P<0.05). CS supplementation also increased the concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (P<0.001), and reduced the concentrations of leptin, SS, and PUN (P<0.001). Increased mRNA abundance of Akt1 and IGF-1 signaling (P<0.001) and decreased mRNA abundance of Forkhead Box O (FOXO) 4 (P<0.01) and muscle atrophy F-box (P<0.001) were observed in pigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target

  18. Partitioning of dietary energy of chickens fed maize- or wheat-based diets with and without a commercial blend of phytogenic feed additives.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Beccaccia, A; Rose, S P; Bravo, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a standardized mixture of a commercial blend of phytogenic feed additives containing 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum on utilization of dietary energy and performance in broiler chickens. Four experimental diets were offered to the birds from 7 to 21 d of age. These included 2 basal control diets based on either wheat or maize that contained 215 g CP/kg and 12.13 MJ/kg ME and another 2 diets using the basal control diets supplemented with the plant extracts combination at 100 mg/kg diet. Each diet was fed to 16 individually penned birds following randomization. Dietary plant extracts improved feed intake and weight gain (P < 0.05) and slightly (P < 0.1) improved feed efficiency of birds fed the maize-based diet. Supplementary plant extracts did not change dietary ME (P > 0.05) but improved (P < 0.05) dietary NE by reducing the heat increment (P < 0.05) per kilogram feed intake. Feeding phytogenics improved (P < 0.05) total carcass energy retention and the efficiency of dietary ME for carcass energy retention. The number of interactions between type of diet and supplementary phytogenic feed additive suggest that the chemical composition and the energy to protein ratio of the diet may influence the efficiency of phytogenics when fed to chickens. The experiment showed that although supplementary phytogenic additives did not affect dietary ME, they caused a significant improvement in the utilization of dietary energy for carcass energy retention but this did not always relate to growth performance.

  19. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  20. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group) were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet) for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet dramatically increased (> 9-fold) the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P < 0.05). The phytosterol diet decreased cholesterol levels by 40%, 31%, and 19% in liver, aorta and kidney, respectively (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet decreased cholesterol levels by 15%, 16%, 20% and 14% in plasma, liver, aorta and kidney, respectively (P < 0.05). The phytostanol diet also decreased phytosterol levels by 29% to 54% in plasma and tissues (P < 0.05). Both the phytosterol and phytostanol diets produced significant decreases in the ratios of cholesterol to phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney. Rats that consumed the phytosterol or phytostanol diets displayed significant increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to rats that consumed the control diet (P < 0.05). The phytosterol diet increased renal

  1. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  2. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  3. Metals and PCB levels in some edible marine organisms from the Ionian Sea: dietary intake evaluation and risk for consumers.

    PubMed

    Giandomenico, Santina; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Spada, Lucia; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Di Leo, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of some metals (Cd, Cu, As, Hg, Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in edible marine organisms from different trophic levels and feeding behaviour like bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Chlamys glabra), gastropod molluscs (Hexaplex trunculus) and some commercial species of fish (Trachurus trachurus, Boops boops, Sarpa salpa and Gobius niger). These species were collected in the first inlet of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy), classified as 'Site of National Interest' established by National Law 426 (1998) and included in the 'National Environmental Remediation and Restoration Projects'. The aim of this work was to investigate contamination levels and public health risks, associated with consuming seafood harvested from these areas. Moreover, in this study, was also estimated the weekly intake in children and adults, both for metals and PCBs. In comparison with the permissible limits set by EC Regulations, Cd and Pb levels were over the limit in the H. trunculus (in all sampling stations) and in the fish T. trachurus respectively. PCBs were over the legal limit in all sampled species with the exception of M. galloprovincialis (station 1), C. glabra and the herbivorous fish S. salpa. In the fish T. trachurus, for example, the concentration of six target PCBs was about five times higher than the EC limit. The estimated intakes of those trace elements included in this study through seafood consumption by the population exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for Cd and Hg in the H. trunculus and T. trachurus, especially in children. Moreover, hazard quotience (HQ) for Hg and Cd was >1 in the children for T. trachurus and H. trunculus consumption. As regard non-dioxin-like PCB (NDL-PCB), the estimated intake were always above the 'provisional guidance value' (70 ng/kg body weight) Arnich et al. (Regul Toxicol Pharm 54

  4. Effects of castration age, dietary protein level and lysine/methionine ratio on animal performance, carcass and meat quality of Friesian steers intensively reared.

    PubMed

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2014-09-01

    The effects of castration age, dietary protein level and the dietary lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio on animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were studied in 64 intensively reared Friesian steers. Animals underwent castration procedures at 15 days old or at 5 months old. Dietary treatments started at 90 days old, with eight animals from each castration age randomly allocated to each treatment: 14.6% v. 16.8% CP (DM basis), and 3.0 v. 3.4 lys/met, on a 2×2×2 design. The recommended ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Steers were slaughtered at 443.5±26.2 kg live weight when they reached 12 months old approximately. Average daily gain, cold carcass weight or carcass classification were not affected by any studied effect. Muscle moisture (P=0.024), C18:2n-6 percentage (P=0.047), polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (P=0.049) and n-6/n-3 (P=0.003) were higher in late castrated animals. Both high levels of dietary protein (P=0.008) and lys/met ratio (P=0.048) increased the percentage of muscle in the carcass. A level of 16.8% of CP in the diet also increased the percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids in the intramuscular fat (P=0.032), whereas a ratio lys/met of 3.4 decreased the percentage of saturated fatty acids (P=0.028). Thus, it is recommended using diets with a high protein level (16.8%) and a high lys/met ratio (3.4) in animals slaughtered at a young age, in order to obtain carcasses with high muscle content without negatively affecting productive traits or intramuscular fat composition.

  5. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents average values of levelized costs for generating technologies entering service in 2018, 2022, and 2040 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Reference case.

  6. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Jorjong, S; Fievez, V; Kemp, B

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d) and early lactation ration (glucogenic or lipogenic), resulting in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Rations were isocaloric and equal in intestinal digestible protein. The experimental period lasted from 8 wk prepartum to 14 wk postpartum and cows were monitored for milk yield, milk composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and milk fat composition. Prepartum average milk yield for 60 d precalving was 13.8 and 7.7 ± 0.5 kg/d for cows with a 0- and 30-d dry period, respectively. Prepartum DMI and energy intake were greater for cows without a dry period and 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Prepartum EB was greater for cows with a 60-d dry period. Postpartum average milk yield until wk 14 was lower for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period (32.7, 38.7, and 43.3 ± 0.7 kg/d for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively). Postpartum DMI did not differ among treatments. Postpartum EB was greater for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Young cows (parity 2) showed a stronger effect of omission of the dry period, compared with a 60-d dry period, on additional milk precalving (young cows: 15.1 kg/d; older cows: 12.0 kg/d), reduction in milk yield postcalving (young cows: 28.6 vs. 34.8 kg/d; older cows: 41.8 vs. 44.1 kg/d), and improvement of the EB postcalving (young cows: 120 vs. -93 kJ/kg(0.75)·d; older cows: -2 vs. -150 kJ/kg(0.75)·d. Ration did not affect milk yield and DMI, but a glucogenic ration tended to reduce milk fat content and increased EB, compared with a more lipogenic ration. Reduced dry period

  7. Fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy for energy intake at school meals differs by social desirability and body mass index percentile in a study concerning retention interval.

    PubMed

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hardin, James W; Mackelprang, Alyssa J; Smith, Albert F

    2010-05-01

    Data from a study concerning retention interval and school-meal observation on children's dietary recalls were used to investigate relationships of social desirability score (SDS) and body mass index percentile (BMI%) to recall accuracy for energy for observed (n = 327) children, and to reported energy for observed and unobserved (n = 152) children. Report rates (reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS and BMI%. Correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS. Inflation ratios (overreported/observed) correlated negatively with BMI%. The relationship between reported energy and each of SDS and BMI% did not depend on observation status. Studies utilizing children's dietary recalls should assess SDS and BMI%. PMID:20460407

  8. Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Omer S M; Salih, Mustafa A M; Karrar, Zein A; Mohammed, Abdelrahim O; Helsing, Chrestover

    2011-01-01

    A hospital-based case control study was carried out to determine the pattern of infections and immunoblobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The pre-dietary rehabilitation levels of the three major immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM) were compared with those of normal controls, and with the levels after dietary rehabilitation. Eighty one children were included in the study: 49 with severe PEM (23 with marasmus, 17 with marasmic - kwashiorkor and 9 with kwashiorkor), 13 with tuberculosis and 19 healthy children as controls. The study showed high incidence of infections, especially pneumonia and gastrointestinal infections in the malnourished children. Of special concern was the high incidence of urinary tract infection: 13 (26.5%) had significant pyuria and 9 of them had positive urine cultures, mainly Escherichia coli. Eight of the malnourished children also had pulmonary TB, and the ESR and Mantoux tests were not helpful in the diagnosis. The Mantoux test was negative in 88.8% of the malnourished group compared to 62.5% in those malnourished with TB. The malnourished groups had significantly higher plasma levels of the 3 immunoglobulins. While the maramic group attained significantly higher levels of IgG and IgA compared to the marasmic -kwashiorkor and kwashiorkor groups, the 3 groups of PEM showed a uniformly higher level of the IgM. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation, the levels of the 3 immunoglobulins showed no significant changes, except for the IgA which significantly decreased in all malnourished and the oedematous groups, and the IgM which increased significantly in the oedematous group.

  9. Oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and metallothionein (MT) gene expression in juvenile rock fish Sebastes schlegelii under the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile Sebastes schlegelii were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) concentration (0, 30, 60, 120 and 200mg/kg). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and glutathione (GSH) level of liver and gill were evaluated after 4 weeks exposure. The SOD and GST activity of liver and gill was significantly increased in the concentration of 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 120mg/kg after 4 weeks, whereas a considerable decrease in the concentration of 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 120mg/kg after 4 weeks was observed in the GSH levels of liver and gill. In neurotoxicity, AChE activity was significatly inhibited in brain in the concentration of 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 60mg/kg after 4 weeks and muscle in the concentration of 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 120mg/kg after 4 weeks. Metallothionein (MT) gene in liver was considerably increased over 120mg/kg after 2 weeks and at 30, 120, and 240mg/kg after 4 weeks by dietary chromium exposure. The results indicate that dietary Cr exposure over 120mg/kg can induce substantial alterations in antioxidant responses, AChE activity and MT gene expression.

  10. Protein synthesis and retention in some tissues of the young pig as influenced by dietary protein intake after early-weaning. Possible connection to the energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sève, B; Reeds, P J; Fuller, M F; Cadenhead, A; Hay, S M

    1986-01-01

    Changes in fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) of 4 tissues (muscle, liver, intestine and bone) were assessed in 2 groups of young pigs from weaning, 10 days postpartum, to one week later, after feeding equal amounts of dry diets at 2 levels of protein (15 and 30%). In the meantime, protein and energy balance measurements were performed on the whole body partitioned into 4 components (carcass, liver, digestive organs, other organs + blood). Whole body energy balances were strongly negative in both groups as a result of low metabolisable energy (ME) intakes and fat mobilization. Protein balance improved, with the increase in dietary protein, at the expense of additional body fat loss. Parallel to that, an increase in the efficiency of ME for protein deposition was noticed. With the lower protein intake, protein deposition remained significantly positive in digestive tissues but not in liver and carcass. Muscle and liver RNA: protein ratios decreased after weaning at rates consistent with the normal age-dependent variations regardless of diet. FSRs were directly related to protein intake and the high supply allowed these tissues to match the preweaning values. In contrast, intestine RNA: protein ratio did not change after weaning and FSR was increased in both groups, with a trend to a higher value with the lower protein supply. Bone RNA: protein ratio and FSR both decreased after weaning on the low-protein diet; the effect of increasing dietary nitrogen could not be assessed in this tissue. The most typical effect of underfeeding associated with early-weaning seems to be an exaggeration of the normal age-dependent increase in protein synthesis per unit of RNA, provided that an adequate protein diet is fed. The relevance of these findings to the variations in the ME efficiency for protein deposition needs further investigations. PMID:3749602

  11. Effect of dietary phosphorus level and source on productive performance and egg quality of two commercial strains of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Said, N W; Sullivan, T W; Sunde, M L; Bird, H R

    1984-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of dietary total phosphorus (TP) level and source on the performance of two strains of commercial layers for two consecutive production years (26 to 68 and 76 to 116 weeks of age, respectively). Diet 1 contained .4% TP; Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained .5, .6, and .7% TP with supplemental P from dicalcium phosphate (DCP); Diets 5 and 6 contained .5 and .6% TP, respectively, with supplemental P from a sample of raw rock phosphate (RRP-1); Diets 7 and 8 contained .5 and .6% TP, respectively, with supplemental P from a second sample of raw rock phosphate (RRP-2). Calcium level was 2.75% in all diets, and crushed oyster shell provided ad libitum to all birds increased the total calcium to about 3.00%. Diet 1 was inferior to the average of all supplemented diets relative to feed consumption rate (P less than .005) and egg weight (P less than .005) during the first year. Diet 1 was also inferior relative to egg production rate (P less than .01), feed consumption rate (P less than .005), and egg weight (P less than .005) during the second year, whereas it was superior in shell quality (P less than .05) during the first year. Increasing TP from DCP resulted in a significant linear increase in feed consumption (P less than .05), feed conversion ratio, and Haugh units (P less than .005). Increasing TP from DCP also resulted in a significant linear decrease in shell quality (P less than .05) and significant linear and quadratic decreases in egg weight (P less than .005) during the first year. During the second year, increasing TP from DCP resulted in a significant linear decrease in egg production rate (P less than .005) and feed efficiency but significant linear (P less than .01) and quadratic (P less than .05) increases in feed consumption, and significant linear and quadratic increases (P less than .005) in Haugh units. Hens receiving RRP diets responded differently during the first and second years. The DCP supported greater

  12. Effects of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine supplementation on hair growth and pelt quality in mink (Neovision vision).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H H; Jiang, Q K; Sun, W L; Xu, C; Cong, B; Yang, F H; Li, G Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine (Met) supplementation on hair growth and the resulting pelt quality in mink was studied. Four groups of male mink were fed with four isocaloric diets containing 32% (P32), 24% (P24), 16% (P16) or P24+Met (0.8%) crude protein of dry matter (DM) from September to December. Skin biopsies were taken at the pelting. Histological techniques and computer-assisted light microscopy were used to determine the ratio of activity (ROA) of under hairs and guard hairs respectively. The results showed that when the dietary protein level reduced from 32% to 16%, body length, number and diameter of under hairs and guard hairs of minks declined, and pelt length and pelt weight of minks decreased significantly (p < 0.05). These parameters were similar between P32 and P24 with Met supplementation (p > 0.05). The hair follicle density of the winter coat was not influenced by the dietary protein levels and Met supplementation (p > 0.05). Low-protein diets content led to a reduction of hair follicle developing to next phase. It was documented that 24% crude protein of DM with Met supplementation during growing-furring period was sufficient for minks to express their genetic capacity to develop hair follicles and achieve the prime fur characteristics. Overall this study demonstrated that hair growth and hair properties in pelts are very dependent on the dietary protein and Met supply in the growing-furring period of minks.

  13. Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.

  14. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  15. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  16. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Participants: Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Methods: Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3)…

  17. Racial Contrasts in Hemoglobin Levels and Dietary Patterns Related to Hematopoiesis in Children: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Racial differences in hemoglobin were explored in pre-adolescent and adolescent children. After controlling for variations in dietary patterns, race accounted for a notable proportion of hemoglobin variance in both age groups. These differences exist independently of nutrient intake and maturational changes. (Author/VM)

  18. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-02

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.

  19. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  20. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  1. Reduction of High Levels of Internal Radio-Contamination by Dietary Intervention in Residents of Areas Affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Disaster: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130–15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7–216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  2. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakuma, Yu; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Kami, Masahiro; Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body) and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg). All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from medical care

  3. Energy value and digestibility of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol are similar to those of triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, H; Nagao, T; Watanabe, H; Onizawa, K; Matsuo, N; Tokimitsu, I; Itakura, H

    2001-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a component of various vegetable oils. Approximately 70% of the DAG in edible oils are in the configuration of 1,3-DAG. We recently showed that long-term ingestion of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-DAG reduces body fat accumulation in humans as compared to triacylglycerol (TAG) oil with a similar fatty acid composition. As the first step to elucidate the mechanism for this result, we examined the difference in the bioavailabilities of both oils by measuring food energy values and digestibilities in rats. Energy values of the DAG oil and the TAG oil, measured by bomb calorimeter, were 38.9 and 39.6 kJ/g, respectively. Apparent digestibility expressed according to the formula: (absorbed) x (ingested)(-1) x 100 = (ingested - excreted in feces) x (ingested)(-1) x 100 for the DAG oil and the TAG oil were 96.3+/-0.4 and 96.3+/-0.3% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. The similarity in the bioavailabilities of both oils supports the hypothesis that the reduced fat accumulation by dietary DAG is caused by the different metabolic fates after the absorption into the gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11383689

  4. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  5. ORNL takes energy-efficient housing to a new level

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-19

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TVA and the Department of Energy are taking energy-saving research into a West Knox County neighborhood. In the Campbell Creek subdivision, ORNL researchers have helped builders to construct three homes with three different levels of energy-saving features.

  6. ORNL takes energy-efficient housing to a new level

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TVA and the Department of Energy are taking energy-saving research into a West Knox County neighborhood. In the Campbell Creek subdivision, ORNL researchers have helped builders to construct three homes with three different levels of energy-saving features.

  7. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  8. Dietary fiber-rich colloids from apple pomace extraction juices do not affect food intake and blood serum lipid levels, but enhance fecal excretion of steroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymatic liquefaction on food intake, levels of blood serum lipids, and fecal excretion of bile acids (BA) and neutral sterols (NS) in vivo. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets containing either no apple dietary fiber (DF) (control), a 5% supplementation with juice colloids, or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Apple DF in diets led to lower weight gain in rats fed with B-juice colloids (P< 0.05). For these rats, food intake was not affected but was highest with feeding AIS (10% more than control) to cover energy requirements. The supplementation of diet with apple DF from extraction juices or AIS had minor effects on blood serum lipids. In rats fed either juice colloids or AIS, up to 30% (5.31 micromol/g dry weight) and 88% (7.69 micromol/g dry weight) more primary BA were excreted in feces, respectively, as compared to that in the control group (4.10 micromol/g dry weight) (P < 0.05). In cecal contents, a 15% (juice colloids) to 37% (AIS) increase in primary BA was found. In contrast, concentrations of secondary BA were lower in feces of test groups (P < 0.05). Excretion of total BA and NS was higher in rats fed apple DF (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to prove that there are beneficial physiologic effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymatic liquefaction. These results may help to develop such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin for diminishing the lack of DF intake.

  9. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    PubMed

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish.

  10. Double Burden of Malnutrition in Rural West Java: Household-Level Analysis for Father-Child and Mother-Child Pairs and the Association with Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Jiang, Hong Wei; Gunawan, Budhi; Dewanti, Linda; Honda, Ryo; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Abdoellah, Oekan S; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-10-02

    Indonesia is facing household-level double burden malnutrition. This study aimed at examining (1) household-level double burden for the mother-child and father-child pairs; (2) risk of adiposity of double burden households; and (3) associated dietary factors. Subjects were 5th and 6th grade elementary school children (n = 242), their mothers (n = 242), and their fathers (n = 225) in five communities (1 = urban, 4 = rural) in the Bandung District. Questionnaires on socioeconomic factors, blood hemoglobin measurements, and anthropometric measurements were administered. For adults, body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BF%-BI) and by converting skinfold thickness (ST) data using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) formula (BF%-ST). Food frequency questionnaires were also completed. Double burden was defined as coexistence of maternal or paternal overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23) and child stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2) within households. Maternal-child double burden occurred in 30.6% of total households, whereas paternal-child double burden was only in 8.4%. Mothers from double burden households showed high adiposity; 87.3% with BF%-BI and 66.2% with BF%-ST had BF% >35%, and 60.6% had waists >80 cm. The major dietary patterns identified were "Modern" and "High-animal products". After controlling for confounding factors, children in the highest quartile of the "High-animal products" dietary pattern had a lower risk of maternal-child double burden (Adjusted OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21-1.04) than those in the lowest quartile. Given that the "High-animal products" dietary pattern was associated with the decreased risk of maternal-child double burden through a strong negative correlation with child stunting, improving child stunting through adequate intake of animal products is critical to solve the problem of maternal-child double burden in Indonesia.

  11. Influence of the forms and levels of dietary selenium on antioxidant status and oxidative stress-related parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry.

    PubMed

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Godin, Simon; Liu, Haokun; Antony Jesu Prabhu, Philip; Bouyssière, Brice; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Médale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2015-06-28

    Se is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth, development and antioxidant defence. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary Se sources and levels on the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. First-feeding fry (initial body weight: 91 mg) were fed either a plant- or fishmeal-based diet containing 0·5 or 1·2 mg Se/kg diet supplemented or not with 0·3 mg Se/kg diet supplied as Se-enriched yeast or sodium selenite for 12 weeks at 17°C. Growth and survival of rainbow trout fry were not significantly affected by dietary Se sources and levels. Whole-body Se was raised by both Se sources and to a greater extent by Se-yeast. The reduced:oxidised glutathione ratio was raised by Se-yeast, whereas other lipid peroxidation markers were not affected by dietary Se. Whole-body Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was enhanced in fish fed Se-yeast compared to fish fed sodium selenite or non-supplemented diets. Activity and gene expression of this enzyme as well as gene expression of selenoprotein P (SelP) were reduced in fish fed the non-supplemented plant-based diet. Catalase, glutamate-cysteine ligase and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expressions were reduced by Se-yeast. These results suggest the necessity to supplement plant-based diets with Se for rainbow trout fry, and highlight the superiority of organic form of Se to fulfil the dietary Se requirement and sustain the antioxidant status of fish. GPX and SelP expression proved to be good markers of Se status in fish. PMID:25990817

  12. Effects of dietary wheat middlings, corn dried distillers grains with solubles, and net energy formulation on nursery pig performance.

    PubMed

    De Jong, J A; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D

    2014-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine effects of dietary wheat middlings (midds), corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and NE formulation on nursery pig performance and caloric efficiency. In Exp. 1, 180 nursery pigs (11.86 ± 0.02 kg BW and 39 d of age) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d, with 6 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Diets were corn-soybean meal based and included 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% wheat midds. Increasing wheat midds decreased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI. Caloric efficiency improved (linear; P < 0.05) on both an ME (NRC, 1998) and NE (Sauvant et al., 2004) basis as dietary wheat midds increased. In Exp. 2, 210 pigs (6.85 ± 0.01 kg BW and 26 d of age) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 35 d, with 7 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Diets were corn-soybean meal based and contained 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% wheat midds. Increasing wheat midds did not affect overall ADG or ADFI but decreased (quadratic; P < 0.013) G:F at 20%. Caloric efficiency for both ME and NE improved (quadratic; P < 0.05) as dietary wheat midds increased. In Exp. 3, 180 pigs (12.18 ± 0.4 kg BW and 39 d of age) were fed 1 of 6 experimental diets arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of DDGS (0 or 20%) and wheat midds (0, 10, or 20%) for 21 d, with 6 pigs per pen and 5 replications per treatment. No DDGS × wheat midds interactions were observed, and DDGS did not influence ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but increasing dietary wheat midds decreased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, and final BW. In Exp. 4, 210 pigs (6.87 kg BW and 26 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments, with 7 pigs per pen and 6 replications per treatment. Wheat middlings (0, 10, or 20%) were added to the first 3 diets without balancing for energy. In diets 4 and 5, soybean oil was added (1.4 and 2.8%) to 10 and 20% wheat midds diets to balance to the same NE as the positive control (0% wheat midds). Overall, no wheat midds × fat interactions occurred. Regardless of

  13. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  14. Calculation of Rydberg energy levels for the francium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Jin-Min

    2010-06-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of the np2Po1/2 (n = 7-50) and np2Po3/2 (n = 7-50) spectrum series for the francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 48 measured levels, and 40 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  15. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. PMID:21859669

  16. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%–8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  17. Dietary carbohydrates for diabetics.

    PubMed

    Rivellese, Angela A; Giacco, Rosalba; Costabile, Giuseppina

    2012-12-01

    The literature on the impact of dietary carbohydrates in the regulation of blood glucose levels and other metabolic abnormalities in diabetic patients over the last 3 years is reviewed. We try to differentiate the metabolic effects due to the amount of carbohydrates from those due to their different types. The review comprises a part dealing with the effects of diets having low or high carbohydrate content on body weight reduction, and a part in which the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are discussed in relation to isoenergetic diets. Overall, the data accumulated in the period considered seem to confirm that the decrease in energy intake is more important than the qualitative composition of the diet to reduce body weight, but that both the amount and the quality of carbohydrates are important in modulating blood glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in both the fasting and the postprandial phases in diabetic individuals. PMID:22847773

  18. A low level of dietary selenium has both beneficial and toxic effects and is protective against Cd-toxicity in the least killifish Heterandria formosa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Dong, Wu; Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-10-01

    As an essential element, selenium (Se) is beneficial at low levels yet toxic at high levels. The present study assessed the effects of dietary exposure to Se in the least killifish Heterandria formosa, and investigated how this exposure influences the effects of a subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd). The fish were pre-exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (2 μg g(-1) dry wt) of dietary selenite (Se(4+)) or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) for 10 d. The same fish were then exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of Cd for 5 d. Both Se(IV) and Se-Met rapidly accumulated in H. formosa. Results for the two Se species were generally similar in this study. Fish exposed to Se had lower levels of lipid peroxidation (measured as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS) and a higher catalase (CAT) activity. In contrast, their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced. The Cd exposure resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of catalase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The Cd-exposed H. formosa that were pre-exposed to Se had lower Cd body burdens, less lipid peroxidation, and higher catalase activity, than did fish not pre-exposed to Se. The Se exposure did not have a protective effect on the Cd-induced reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrate that a Se-enriched diet reduces some (but not all) forms of Cd-toxicity and that Se can simultaneously have beneficial and detrimental effects, making it difficult to predict the net outcome of changes in dietary Se levels for fish.

  19. A low level of dietary selenium has both beneficial and toxic effects and is protective against Cd-toxicity in the least killifish Heterandria formosa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Dong, Wu; Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-10-01

    As an essential element, selenium (Se) is beneficial at low levels yet toxic at high levels. The present study assessed the effects of dietary exposure to Se in the least killifish Heterandria formosa, and investigated how this exposure influences the effects of a subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd). The fish were pre-exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (2 μg g(-1) dry wt) of dietary selenite (Se(4+)) or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) for 10 d. The same fish were then exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) of Cd for 5 d. Both Se(IV) and Se-Met rapidly accumulated in H. formosa. Results for the two Se species were generally similar in this study. Fish exposed to Se had lower levels of lipid peroxidation (measured as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS) and a higher catalase (CAT) activity. In contrast, their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced. The Cd exposure resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of catalase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The Cd-exposed H. formosa that were pre-exposed to Se had lower Cd body burdens, less lipid peroxidation, and higher catalase activity, than did fish not pre-exposed to Se. The Se exposure did not have a protective effect on the Cd-induced reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrate that a Se-enriched diet reduces some (but not all) forms of Cd-toxicity and that Se can simultaneously have beneficial and detrimental effects, making it difficult to predict the net outcome of changes in dietary Se levels for fish. PMID:27448316

  20. Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Harold M; Lu, Jing; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-07-14

    We have previously shown nutritional intervention with fish oil (n-3 PUFA) to reduce numerous complications associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the JCR:LA-corpulent (cp) rat. In the present study, we sought to explore the potential role of fish oil to prevent glomerulosclerosis in JCR:LA-cp rats via renal eicosanoid metabolism and lipidomic analysis. Male lean and MetS JCR:LA-cp rats were fed a lipid-balanced diet supplemented with fish oil (5 or 10 % of total fat). After 16 weeks of feeding, albuminuria was significantly reduced in MetS rats supplemented with 5 or 10 % fish oil ( - 53 and - 70 %, respectively, compared with the untreated MetS rats). The 5 % fish oil diet resulted in markedly lower glomerulosclerosis ( - 43 %) in MetS rats and to a lesser extent in those supplemented with 10 % fish oil. Interestingly, untreated MetS rats had higher levels of 11- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) v. lean rats. Dietary fish oil reduced these levels, as well as other (5-, 9- and 15-) HETE. Whilst genotype did not alter prostanoid levels, fish oil reduced endogenous renal levels of 6-keto PGF1α (PGI2 metabolite), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), PGF2α and PGD2 by approximately 60 % in rats fed 10 % fish oil, and TxB2 ( - 50 %) and PGF2α ( - 41 %) in rats fed 5 % fish oil. In conclusion, dietary fish oil prevented glomerular damage in MetS rats and mitigated the elevation in renal HETE levels. These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS.

  1. A randomized controlled trial for obesity and binge eating disorder: low-energy-density dietary counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined a dietary approach - lowering energy density - for producing weight loss in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who also received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to address binge eating. Fifty consecutive participants were randomly assigned to either a six-month individual treatment of CBT plus a low-energy-density diet (CBT+ED) or CBT plus General Nutrition counseling not related to weight loss (CBT+GN). Assessments occurred at six- and twelve-months. Eighty-six percent of participants completed treatment, and of these, 30% achieved at least a 5% weight loss with rates of binge remission ranging from 55% to 75%. The two treatments did not differ significantly in weight loss or binge remission outcomes. Significant improvements were found for key dietary and metabolic outcomes, with CBT+ED producing significantly better dietary outcomes on energy density, and fruit and vegetable consumption, than CBT+GN. Reductions in energy density and weight loss were significantly associated providing evidence for the specificity of the treatment effect. These favorable outcomes, and that CBT+ED was significantly better at reducing energy density and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption compared to CBT+GN, suggest that low-energy-density dietary counseling has promise as an effective method for enhancing CBT for obese individuals with BED.

  2. Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

    2013-12-14

    In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through