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Sample records for dietary energy level

  1. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. S.; Jung, S. W.; Jang, J. C.; Chung, W. L.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (p<0.05) at d 21 of lactation and body weight gain during lactation (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the chemical compositions of colostrum and milk. Therefore, these results indicated that high-energy diets influenced the bodyweight and backfat thickness of sows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other

  2. What is the effect of physical activity level on food consumption, energy deficiency, and dietary diversity?

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Astrid; Hollema, Siemon

    2014-09-01

    Energy deficiency is observed to be at odds with other food security indicators. In wealthier urban areas, the prevalence of energy deficiency is often higher than in poorer rural areas, whereas other food security indicators, such as food diversity, perform much better in urban than in rural areas. To investigate to what extent differences in physical activity levels influence dietary quantity and quality. Central to this analysis is the construction of a household activity index, a single measure that aims to capture the collective workload of the household. This paper uses data from Nepal and Uganda expenditure surveys that contain information on food consumption, as well as detailed information on how individual household members spend their time. Energy deficiency numbers are adjusted by the activity index, and the results are compared with the standard approach for calculating energy deficiency assuming light activity levels. Regressions are estimated to discuss demand for calories and diversity given the activity level. Accounting for differences in activity level has a large effect on energy deficiency figures, particularly in rural areas. The analysis shows that a higher household activity level significantly increases the calories consumed but lessens food diversity, suggesting that households with high activity levels sacrifice diversity for quantity in order to meet their energy requirements. Physical activity levels should be taken into account when interpreting empirical differences in food consumption levels for determining the prevalence of food insecurity and making allocation decisions for food security assistance.

  3. Influence of Protein and Energy Level in Finishing Diets for Feedlot Hair Lambs: Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Rincón, F. G.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Plascencia, A.; López-Soto, M. A.; Castro-Pérez, B. I.; Portillo-Loera, J. J.; Robles-Estrada, J. C.; Calderón-Cortes, J. F.; Dávila-Ramos, H.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-eight Pelibuey×Katahdin male intact lambs (23.87±2.84 kg) were used in an 84-d feeding trial, with six pens per treatment in a 2×2 factorial design arrangement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interaction of two dietary energy levels (3.05 and 2.83 Mcal/kg ME) and two dietary protein levels (17.5% and 14.5%) on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass traits. The dietary treatments used were: i) High protein-high energy (HP-HE); ii) High protein-low energy (HP-LE); iii) Low protein-high energy (LP-HE), and iv) Low protein-low energy (LP-LE). With a high-energy level, dry matter intake (DMI) values were 6.1% lower in the low-protein diets, while with low-energy, the DMI values did not differ between the dietary protein levels. Energy levels did not influence the final weight and average daily gain (ADG), but resulted in lower DMI values and higher gain efficiencies. No effects of protein level were detected on growth performance. The observed dietary net energy (NE) ratio and observed DMI were closer than expected in all treatments and were not affected by the different treatments. There was an interaction (p<0.03) between energy and protein level for kidney-pelvic and heart fat (KPH), KPH was higher in lambs fed high energy and high protein diet but not in high energy and low protein diet. The KPH was increased (20.2%, p = 0.01) in high-energy diets, while fat thickness was increased (21.7%, p = 0.02) in high-protein diets. Therefore, it is concluded that dietary energy levels play a more important role in feed efficiency than protein levels in finishing lambs with a high-energy diet (>2.80 Mcal/kg ME). Providing a level of protein above 14.5% does not improves growth-performance, dietary energetics or carcass dressing percentage. PMID:25049926

  4. The effect of dietary energy and protein levels on production in breeding female ostriches.

    PubMed

    Brand, Z; Brand, T S; Brown, C R

    2003-09-01

    1. In a study spanning two breeding seasons, we assessed the effect of different dietary energy and protein levels on body mass, body condition, and egg production of female ostriches. 2. During the first breeding season, groups were given diets with energy concentrations of 8.5, 9.5 and 10.5 MJ/kg dry mass (DM) metabolisable energy (ME) and protein concentrations of 135, 150 and 165 g/kg. In the second breeding season, groups were given diets with ME of 7.5, 8.5 and 9.5 MJ/kg and protein contents of 105, 120 and 135 g/kg. 3. Body mass of birds on diets of 7.5 and 8.5 MJ/kg ME decreased significantly in the course of the breeding season compared with birds fed on diets with higher energy contents and body measurements decreased, suggesting a loss of body condition. 4. Females fed on diets containing only 7.5 MJ/kg ME produced significantly fewer eggs at significantly longer intervals, resulting in fewer chicks hatched. 5. There was no significant difference in egg mass, initial chick mass, chick survival to one month of age and body mass of chicks at one month. 6. Dietary protein concentrations had no effect on egg production, egg mass, hatchability, initial chick mass, chick survival or chick mass at one month old. 7. The female ostriches regained their original body mass during the 4-month rest period between breeding seasons, but significant differences in some parameters during the second breeding season suggest that they may not have fully recovered their body condition. 8. A dietary energy content of 7.5 MJ/kg proved to have an adverse effect on egg production by breeding female ostriches, and it may be concluded from this study that a diet containing 8.5 MJ ME/kg DM and 105 g/kg protein should be regarded as the minimum that can be used for breeding female ostriches without compromising egg production.

  5. Effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on performance, egg shell quality and bone metabolism in hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sha; Cui, Luying; Shi, Cheng; Ke, Xiao; Luo, Jingwen; Hou, Jiafa

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on laying performance, eggshell quality and bone metabolism of layers. One hundred and sixty-two 19-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens in 54 battery cages were allocated to one of nine dietary treatments with control, middle and high levels of energy (11.50, 12.68 and 13.37 MJ/kg, respectively) and low, control and high levels of calcium (2.62%, 3.7% and 4.4%, respectively) for 60 days, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition and egg weight, decreased feed intake and bone quality and had no effects on eggshell quality. The high-energy diet reduced the serum phosphate concentration and elevated osteocalcin mRNA expression in the keel bone without increasing osteocalcin protein. Dietary calcium intake did not affect fat deposition, feed intake or egg weight. Low dietary calcium resulted in weaker eggshells and poorer bone quality than that from hens fed the control diet. High dietary calcium increased serum calcium concentration, osteoprotegerin mRNA and osteocalcin protein and inhibited serum alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased its mRNA compared with low or control dietary calcium. The high-energy and high-calcium diet significantly reduced egg production. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition but had negative effects on bone metabolic homeostasis. Dietary calcium did not influence fat deposition but a high-calcium diet benefited bone homeostasis, while a low-calcium diet was associated with poorer eggshell quality and bone homeostasis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; Hendriks, W H

    2015-05-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary energy levels (2,800, MEs2; and 3,000, MEh2, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the second phase of lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders. No meaningful interactions for energy and protein treatments within the different phases of the study were found and, therefore, this paper focusses on the main effects. Pullets fed the CPl diet had a 12.8% higher feed intake, 14% lower breast muscle, and 97% higher abdominal fat pad portion at 22 wk age. The increased abdominal fat pad and decreased breast muscle of the CPl compared to the CPh birds increased hatchability during the first phase of lay, due to a decreased embryonic mortality between d 10 to 21 of incubation, and increased egg production during the second phase of lay. Feeding birds the MEh1 and MEl1 diets slightly decreased egg production compared to the MEs1 birds. Birds fed the MEh1 diet showed a higher mortality compared to the birds fed the MEs1 and MEl1 diets. Feeding birds the MEh2 diet did not affect egg production, increased hatchability of fertile eggs, decreased embryonic mortality between d 3 to 21 of incubation, and increased the number of first-grade chicks. It was concluded that a low-protein diet during rearing changed body composition with positive effects on incubation traits during the first phase of lay and improved egg production during the second phase of lay in broiler breeders. A high-energy or low-energy diet compared to a standard diet during the first phase of lay slightly decreased total and settable egg numbers while a high-energy diet during the second phase of lay increased hatchability and number of saleable chicks.

  7. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hong, J S; Lee, G I; Jin, X H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc), averaging 26.62 ± 3.07 kg body weight, were assigned in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg), and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G)-2finishing(F) phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement). In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness (P2) at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06) and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09). In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01) and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07) as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to other treatments. Feeding the low energy diet

  8. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    PubMed

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  9. Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingqiang; Ma, Shen; Dong, Shuanglin

    2006-09-01

    A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 °C, 27°C and 32°C) and dietary carbohydrate ( CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietary CBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15% CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47% CBH, and those with 41.00% CBH had the lowest value.

  10. Effects of dietary protein level on growth and utilization of protein and energy by juvenile mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Abbas; Khalid, Jamil; Rukhsana, Akhtar; Lin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating water system to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization, hepatosomatic index and liver lipid deposition of juvenile red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (average initial wet weight 8.0 ± 0.39 g and total length 3.14 ± 0.3 cm). In the experiment, six fishmeal-based diets were formulated to contain various protein levels (20% to 45% in 5% increments), with dietary energy ranging from 2210.7kJ lOOg to 2250.2kJlOOg dry matter. The protein to energy ratios of diets ranged from 8.58 mg protein kJ-1 to 20.03 mg protein kJ-1. Diets were fed for 90d to triplicate groups of fish stocked in 0.128m3 seawater tanks, 25 individuals each. The daily ration of 2% wet body weight was offered to the fish thrice a day. The fish at the end of the study had more than ten-fold (77.0g) increase in weight compared to the initial (8.0g). Fish fed diets of 40% and 45% protein produced significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain of 77.2g and 76.5g, and specific growth rate (SGR) of 2.65% and 2.62% than those of 67.0 g and 68.3g, and 2.49% and 2.51% of the other diets. The broken-line regression of SGR against dietary protein level yielded an optimum dietary protein requirement of 42.6% (Y=-1.6295 + 0.1114 X 2,P<0.05). Survival remained 100% among groups. Feed conversion ratio decreased from 0.45 for fish fed 20% dietary protein to 0.35 for fish fed 45% dietary protein. Nitrogen intake increased with an increase in dietary protein, which in turn resulted in an increase in nitrogen gain of fish whole body. Fish fed 40% and 45% protein diets showed higher (P<0.05) nitrogen gain (0.27g and 0.26g) than those (0.23g and 025g) fed all other diets. Gross energy intake (GEI) in fish fed 45% protein was lower (600.67kJ) than that (607.97 kJ) of 40% protein diet, though the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05); GEI ranging from 677.31 kJ to 663.20 kJ at remaining four diets (20% to 35% protein

  11. Growth and development of Leghorn pullets subjected to abrupt changes in environmental temperature and dietary energy level.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Caston, L J

    1991-08-01

    Four trials were conducted to note the response of pullets to changes in environmental temperature and energy level at 56 days of age. In each trial, birds were fed diets providing either 2,500 or 3,000 kcal ME/kg throughout rearing, or with a single diet change from 2,500 to 3,000 and 3,000 to 2,500 kcal ME/kg occurring at 56 days. Each of the four diet scenarios was tested with six replicate caged groups each containing 10 pullets. In Trials 1 and 2 environmental temperature was maintained at 18 and 30 C, respectively, to 126 days. In Trials 3 and 4, temperature was changed at 56 days from 18 to 30 C and 30 to 18 C, respectively. Regardless of environmental temperature conditions, diet change per se had minimal effect on growth and development. Rather dietary energy level used from 56 to 126 days had the greatest effect on growth, with birds fed the highest energy content diet generally being heaviest. However, this effect was not significant (P greater than .05) in all trials, which is probably related to a lack of effect on energy intake under such conditions. Final body weight was more closely associated with energy intake than with protein intake and energy intake was maximized when high-energy diets were used after 56 days of age. Consumption of high-energy diets after 56 days, regardless of trial conditions, always resulted in increased carcass fat content at 126 days. It was concluded that abrupt and major changes in environmental temperature or dietary energy as used in these trials have little deleterious effect on pullet development. Conditions prevailing during later stages of growth have a far greater effect than changes per se in these parameters.

  12. Comparison of dietary energy and macronutrient intake at different levels of glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Jun; Jiang, Sheng; Sun, Shi-An; Xie, Zi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate energy and glycolipid metabolism by determining the intake of energy and macronutrients in persons with differing glucose metabolisms. In total, 147 patients who were newly diagnosed with pre-diabetes, 177 patients with diabetes, 139 patients who were previously diagnosed with diabetes, and 140 patients with normal blood sugar were selected from the 103rd Regiment of Xinjiang. All patients had Han nationality and were over 30 years old. Their energy and macronutrient intakes were analyzed from data obtained from a 3-day food weighing household investigation. Compared to the normal group, the patients in the previously and newly diagnosed diabetic groups were older, less educated, and had a greater prevalence of hypertension (P<0.05). Compared to the normal group, patients with abnormal glucose metabolism had larger waist circumferences; higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure; higher postprandial glucose; higher total cholesterol; lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P<0.05); higher intakes of energy, carbohydrates, and fat; and lower intakes of protein and fiber. In addition, the newly and previously diagnosed patients had higher fasting glucose levels (P<0.05). Compared to the normal group, patients with abnormal glucose metabolism in each sex subgroup also had larger waist circumferences, and more men had abdominal obesity (P<0.05). Diabetes or pre-diabetes patients had a higher intake of energy, carbohydrates, and fat, but a lower intake of proteins and fiber. They had severe abdominal obesity, a greater prevalence of hypertension, higher total cholesterol levels, lower HDL-C, and poor blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, especially postprandial plasma glucose levels.

  13. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1β signaling might be of value in terms of controlling

  14. Dietary Curcumin Supplementation Counteracts Reduction in Levels of Molecules Involved in Energy Homeostasis after Brain Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.; Zhuang, Y.; Ying, Z.; Wu, A.; Gomez-Pinilla, F.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is followed by an energy crisis that compromises the capacity of the brain to cope with challenges, and often reduces cognitive ability. New research indicates that events that regulate energy homeostasis crucially impact synaptic function and this can compromise the capacity of the brain to respond to challenges during the acute and chronic phases of TBI. The goal of the present study is to determine the influence of the phenolic yellow curry pigment curcumin on molecular systems involved with the monitoring, balance, and transduction of cellular energy, in the hippocampus of animals exposed to mild fluid percussion injury (FPI). Young adult rats were exposed to a regular diet (RD) without or with 500 ppm curcumin (Cur) for four weeks, before an FPI was performed. The rats were assigned to four groups: RD/Sham, Cur/Sham, RD/FPI, and Cur/FPI. We found that FPI decreased the levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) and cytochrome c oxidase II (COX-II) in RD/FPI rats as compared to the RD/sham rats. The curcumin diet counteracted the effects of FPI and elevated the levels of AMPK, uMtCK, COX-II in Cur/FPI rats as compared to RD/sham rats. In addition, in the Cur/sham rats, AMPK and uMtCK increased compared to the RD/sham. Results show the potential of curcumin to regulate molecules involved in energy homeostasis following TBI. These studies may foster a new line of therapeutic treatments for TBI patients by endogenous upregulation of molecules important for functional recovery. PMID:19393301

  15. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source.

  16. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzyme activities and electrolyte composition in the small intestinal fluid of geese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Yang, Lin; Wang, Yongchang; Zhai, Shuangshuang; Wang, Shenshen; Yang, Zhipeng; Wang, Wence

    2017-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and energy levels on digestive enzymes and electrolyte composition in jejunum of geese. A 3×3 factorial and completely randomized design was adopted with three protein levels and three energy levels. The experiment included four replicates for each treatment, and three geese for each replicate. Isovolumetric supernate from centrifugal jejuna fluid were mixed in each replicate. Activities of digestive enzymes and ions were analyzed. The results showed trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were significantly increased with increasing of dietary protein and energy levels (P<0.05). The concentrations of Ca(2+) and pH value were significantly decreased by increased dietary protein and energy levels. However, no significant differences were found for the activities of amylase and cellulase, as well as the concentration of Na(+) among groups with different protein and energy levels. In conclusion, digesta enzymes and electrolytes in the small intestine adapted to the protein and energy levels. The activities of protease, rather than amylase and cellulase were induced with increasing of protein and energy levels. The imbalance of positive and negative ions was possibly adjusted by the fluctuant concentrations of K(+) , Cl(-) and Ca(2+) for maintaining normal physiological function.

  17. Effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Rasolofomanana, T J; Tang, J; Jiang, Y; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2017-09-01

    A 2 × 6 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels (2,750 and 3,050 Kcal/kg) and 6 supplemental lysine (Lys) levels (0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50%), was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks was randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured, and then 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat, and leg meat. As a result, birds that were fed basal diets with no Lys supplementation showed growth depression, and significant positive effects of dietary Lys supplementation on body weight gain (P < 0.001), feed intake (P < 0.001), and feed/gain (P = 0.002) were observed as dietary Lys increased gradually among all the groups. In addition, increasing energy levels did not affect overall body weight gain (P > 0.05), but feed intake (P = 0.001) and feed/gain (P = 0.009) decreased significantly between the groups. Dietary Lys levels influenced the yields of breast (P < 0.001) and leg (P = 0.001) meat among all the groups, but dietary energy levels had a significant positive effect only on abdominal fat yield (P = 0.014). The interaction between dietary energy and Lys influenced body weight gain of ducks significantly (P = 0.004). According to the broken-line regression analysis, Lys requirements of Pekin ducks for weight gain at 2,750 and 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg were 0.94 and 0.98%, respectively. It suggested that Lys requirement was higher at 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg than at 2,750 Kcal of AME/kg. Dietary energy content determined feed intake of the ducks, and high-energy diets will require a higher amino acid concentration to compensate for a lower feed intake. © 2017 Poultry

  18. The influence of recombinant bovine somatotropin on dietary energy level-related growth of Holstein-Friesian bull calves.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Z; Aharoni, Y; Brosh, A; Orlov, A; Buonomo, F

    2000-03-01

    Our objective for this study was to assess the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in overcoming the biological effects attributed to live weight increase and age on growth and fat deposition in male cattle. Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n = 56; 182.2 +/- 14.7 d old) were allotted to four subtreatments in a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of two levels of rbST: 0 and 500 mg of Posilac, every 2 wk, and two dietary metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations: low metabolizable energy (LME) and high metabolizable energy (HME); 10 vs 11.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The effect of rbST treatment on daily gain was expressed mostly on the HME diets. The rbST treatment had no effect on the animals fed the LME diets before the age of 240 d was reached. Dry matter intake and the effect of rbST treatment on DM intake were inversely related to the energy concentration of the diet. The degree of fatness of the animals was significantly reduced by rbST treatment and significantly increased by energy concentration of the diet. The major effect of rbST, under the experimental conditions, in regards to adipose tissue deposition, was on the fat depots and not on the intramuscular fat. The concentration of bST, IGF-I, and insulin in the plasma was increased (P < .001) owing to rbST treatment. Lower metabolizable energy supply led to a higher (P < .001) plasma bST concentration, nonsignificantly lower plasma IGF-I and thyroid hormone concentrations, and lower (P < .001) plasma insulin concentration. A trend (P = .065) toward an increase in PUFA was found in the muscle of the rbST-treated and the HME diet animals. At a young age, when the natural growth potential is high, rbST treatment will be efficient only when a diet allowing a high digestible energy intake is provided.

  19. Influence of level of dietary protein or energy on effects of ractopamine in finishing swine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A D; Solomon, M B; Steele, N C

    1991-11-01

    The effect of ractopamine, a beta-adrenergic agonist, on growth, nutrient utilization, and carcass composition was studied in pigs fed either 18% CP, 12% CP, or 18% CP restricted (RES = 67% of ad libitum) diets. The 18 and 12% CP diets provided 3.52 and 3.68 Mcal of DE/kg, respectively. All pigs were fed a low-protein (12% CP) diet during pretreatment growth from 15 to 60 kg. Ractopamine at 20 or 30 ppm (30 ppm for RES pigs) in the diet was fed from 60 kg live BW until slaughter at 105 kg (9 pigs/treatment). No ractopamine treatment effect (P greater than .05) was observed for either daily gain or gain/feed, although gain/feed was improved by 8% in both of the ad libitum groups. Ractopamine treatment resulted (P less than .01) in an overall reduction of carcass lipid by 8%, an increase of carcass protein by 5%, and a 21% improvement in the efficiency of protein utilization; the greatest changes occurred in the pigs fed the 12% CP diet (-17%, +11%, and +32%, respectively). The ad libitum daily feed intake was 15% less for pigs fed the 12% CP diet than for those fed the 18% CP diet (P less than .01), and there was a 10% reduction in intake of both diets with the addition of ractopamine (P less than .05). Both carcass lipid and protein deposition seemed to be closely related to energy intake (P less than .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Digestion of carbohydrates and utilization of energy in sows fed diets with contrasting levels and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2008-09-01

    Three experimental diets were used to investigate the digestion of carbohydrates and utilization of energy in sows fed diets with different levels and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber (DF). The low-fiber diet (LF; DF, 16%; soluble DF, 4.8%) was based on wheat and barley. The high-fiber 1 diet (HF1; DF, 41%; soluble DF, 11%) was based on wheat and barley supplemented with the coproducts: sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, and pectin residue, and the high-fiber 2 diet (HF2; DF, 44%; soluble DF, 7.3%) was based on wheat and barley supplemented with approximately 1/3 of the coproducts used in diet HF1 and 2/3 of brewers spent grain, seed residue, and pea hull (1:1:1, respectively). The diets were studied in 2 series of experiments. In Exp. 1, the digestibility and ileal and fecal flow of nutrients were studied in 6 ileal-cannulated sows placed in metabolic cages designed as a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, energy metabolism was measured in respiration chambers using 6 sows in a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. The DF level influenced the ileal flow of most nutrients, in particular carbohydrates, which increased from 190 g/d when feeding the LF diet to 538 to 539 g/d when feeding the HF diets; this was also reflected in the digestibility of OM and carbohydrates (P < 0.05). The ranking of total excretion of fecal materials was HF2 > > HF1 > LF, which also was reflected in the digestibility of OM, protein, and carbohydrates. Feeding HF diets resulted in greater CH(4) production, which was related to the amount of carbohydrates (r = 0.79) and OM (r = 0.72) fermented in the large intestine, but with no difference in heat production (12.2 to 13.1 MJ/kg of DM). Retained energy (MJ/kg of DM) was decreased when feeding HF1 compared with LF and negative when feeding HF2. Feeding sows HF1 reduced the activity of animals (5.1 h/24 h) compared with LF (6.1 h/24 h; P = 0.045).

  1. The influence of dietary fibre source and level on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility and energy metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H; Zhao, X Q; Knudsen, K E; Eggum, B O

    1996-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide detailed information about the effect of fibre source (pea fibre, wheat bran or oat bran) at inclusion levels of 0, 187 and 375 g/kg diet on the development of the digestive tract, nutrient digestibility and energy and protein metabolism in broiler chickens. Heat production was measured using open-air-circuit respiration chambers. Diets with increasing levels of pea fibre decreased the DM in droppings and increased excreta output (2.5-fold) relative to DM intake. Adaptation to increased dietary fibre levels included increases in the size of the digestive system, with pea fibre exerting a stronger impact than wheat bran or oat bran. The length of the intestine, and particularly the length and weight of the caecum, increased with the fibre level. The digestibility of all nutrients also decreased with increasing fibre level. The decrease in the digestibility in relation to NSP for the three fibre sources was bigger for oat bran (0.0020 per g dietary NSP) than for pea fibre and wheat bran (0.0014 and 0.0016 per g dietary NSP) indicating that the cell walls in oat bran (aleurone and subaleurone) had a significant negative effect on the digestibility of cellular nutrients, i.e. protein and fat. The degradation of the NSP constituents was far lower in chickens than found in other animal species such as pigs and rats, thus supporting the view that chickens do not ferment fibre polymers to a great extent. Excretion of organic acids (mainly lactic acid and acetic acid) accounted for up to 2% of metabolizable energy (ME) intake with the highest excretion for the high-fibre diets. H2 excretion was related to the amount of NSP degraded and indicated higher microbial fermentation with increasing fibre levels. The chickens' feed intake responded to a great extent to dietary ME concentration but expressed in terms of metabolic body size (W0.75) ME intake was depressed at the high fibre levels. Dietary NSP was able to explain between 86

  2. Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic

    PubMed Central

    Perween, Shahla; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Chandramoni; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Dey, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding dietary level of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for 56 days on 540 1-day-old chicks, which were individually weighed and distributed into nine groups having 60 birds in each. Each group was further subdivided into triplicates having 20 birds in each. Nine different experimental rations were formulated with three levels of protein, viz., 17%, 19%, and 21%; each with three levels of energy (2600, 2800, and 3000 kcal metabolizable energy [ME]/kg), respectively. Group T8 serves as control fed with 21% protein and 2800 kcal energy as per Project Directorate of Poultry, Hyderabad given requirement. Feed consumption, live weight gain, body weight change, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed every week. All the birds were vaccinated following standard protocol. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test have been performed to assess the immunity potential of birds due to dietary effect, and serum samples were subjected to HI test at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Finally, economics of broiler production was calculated on the cost of feed per kg live weight gain. Results: This study revealed that the effect of feeding different levels of energy and protein on growth parameters such as body weight gain and FCR was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) containing 19% and 21% crude protein with 3000 kcal ME/kg in Vanaraja birds. There was a gradual increase in antibody titer against New castle disease virus as the level of protein and energy increase. It is speculated that the better body weight gain corroborate health and antibody titer. Moreover, the better immune response recorded in the study might be due to better nutrient utilization and its extension toward the better immune response. Higher energy with medium protein diet positively

  3. Effects of breeds and dietary protein levels on the growth performance, energy expenditure and expression of avUCP mRNA in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Qihua; Xu, Zhiqiang; Liu, L; Yu, Hongxin; Rong, Hua; Tao, Linli; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Xiaobo; Gu, Dahai; Fan, Yueyuan; Li, Xiaoqin; Ge, Changrong; Tian, Yunbo; Jia, Junjing

    2013-04-01

    The physiological mechanisms of thermogenesis, energy balance and energy expenditure are poorly understood in poultry. The aim of this study was designed to investigate the physiological roles of avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) regulating in energy balance and thermogenesis by using three chicken breeds of existence striking genetic difference and feeding with different dietary protein levels. Three chicken breeds including broilers, hybrid chickens, and non-selection Wuding chickens were used in this study. Total 150 chicks of 1 day of age, with 50 from each breed were reared under standard conditions on starter diets to 30 days. At 30 days of age, forty chicks from each breed chicks were divided into two groups. One group was fed low protein diet (LP, 17.0 %), and the other group was fed high protein diet (HP, 19.5 %) for 60 days. Wuding chickens showed the lowest feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and the highest expressions of avUCP mRNA association with high plasma T3 and insulin concentrations. Hybrid chickens showed the lowest expressions of avUCP mRNA association with high FCE and energy efficiency. Expressions of avUCP mRNA association with diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were only observed in broiler and hybrid chickens. The expressions of avUCP mRNA were positive association with plasma insulin, T3 and NEFA concentrations. Age influence on the expression of avUCP mRNA were observed only for hybrid and broiler chickens. It seems that both roles of avUCP regulation thermogenesis and lipid utilisation as fuel were observed in the present study response to variation in dietary protein and breeds.

  4. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal).

  5. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased. PMID:23587355

  6. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased.

  7. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  8. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K.; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  9. Dietary energy source and density: effects of roughage source, roughage equivalent, tallow level, and steer type on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bartle, S J; Preston, R L; Miller, M F

    1994-08-01

    The effects of roughage level (10, 20, or 30% roughage equivalent [RE]), roughage source (alfalfa vs cottonseed hulls), roughage regimen (constant RE vs 2% RE during the mid-finishing period), tallow level (1.2 vs 4.6%), and steer type (British crossbred [BRITX] vs Bos indicus crosses [BRX]) were evaluated in three experiments with a common allotment and several overlapping treatments. Steers (n = 432; initial weight = 326 +/- 26 kg) were divided into three BW blocks and allotted randomly to 72 pens and 24 treatments. Steers were fed steam-flaked, sorghum grain-based finishing diets for 124 to 166 d. Diets with 20% RE decreased gain efficiency and 30% RE diets decreased both gain (linear, P < .07) and efficiency (linear, P < .001) compared with 10% RE diets. Reducing roughage level during the mid-finishing period improved overall gain efficiency 2, 7, and 24% (P > .2, < .05, and < .001, respectively) for the 10, 20, and 30% RE diets, respectively. Steers fed cottonseed hulls consumed more feed (9.6 vs 8.8 kg/d, P < .001) but tended to gain less (1.53 vs 1.58 kg/d, P = .11) than steers fed alfalfa, were leaner, and had fewer carcasses grading Choice (62 vs 77%, P < .05). Feeding 4.6% tallow decreased DMI (P < .05) and improved gain efficiency (P < .05) compared with 1.2% tallow. The BRITX steers consumed more feed (6%, P < .001) but were somewhat less efficient (3.5%, P < .05) than BRX steers. Carcasses from BRITX steers tended to be fatter than carcasses from BRX steers and more of them graded Choice (62 vs 37%, P < .01). Commercial BRX steers did not perform as well as BRITX steers on higher-energy-density diets (4.6% tallow or variable roughage regimen). Knowledge of the genetic background of feeder cattle can be important in the selection of dietary energy density and marketing expectations.

  10. PPAR mRNA Levels Are Modified by Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid Restriction and Energy Restriction in the Brain and Liver of Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Johnson, LuAnn; Idso, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Without dietary sources of n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) affects ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces n-3 LCPUFA concentrations in tissues of growing rats fed diets replete with and deficient in ALA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (23 d old) were provided AIN93G diets (4 wk) made with soybean oil (SO; ALA sufficient) or corn oil (CO; ALA deficient) providing 16% of energy as fat. For each dietary oil, ER rats were individually pair-fed 75% of another rat's ad libitum (AL) intake. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in brain regions, liver, and plasma were analyzed. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), uncoupling proteins (UCPs), and mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in the brain and liver. AL rats consuming CO had a 65% lower concentration of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) and a 10% lower DHA concentration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum than did the SO-AL group. ER did not alter cerebral n-3 LCPUFA status. Liver n-3 LCPUFA concentrations were reduced in rats fed CO compared with SO. ER reduced hepatic linoleic acid (18:2n-6), ALA, and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) regardless of oil. ER and n-3 FA deficiency had independent effects on the mRNA levels of Pparα, Pparβ/δ, and Pparγ in the liver, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. ER reduced Ucp3 mRNA by nearly 50% in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and liver, and Ucp5 mRNA was 30% lower in the cerebellum of rats receiving the CO diet. Small perturbations in PUFA concentration and ER modify the mRNA levels of Ppar and Ucp in the juvenile rat brain. More research is needed to identify the long-term physiologic and behavioral impacts of ER and PUFA restriction in the juvenile brain. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Dietary(sensory)variety and energy balance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults is currently 68%, compared with about 47% in the early 1970s. Many dietary factors have been proposed to contribute to the US obesity epidemic, including the percentage of energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and protein; glycemic index; fruit a...

  12. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  13. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans.

    PubMed

    Min, Hye Sook; Kang, Ji Yeon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m(2)). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.

  14. The effect of source of supplemental dietary calcium and magnesium in the peripartum period, and level of dietary magnesium postpartum, on mineral status, performance, and energy metabolites in multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Leno, B M; LaCount, S E; Ryan, C M; Briggs, D; Crombie, M; Overton, T R

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding different supplemental sources of Ca and Mg in the peripartum period, and different dietary levels of Mg postpartum, on plasma mineral status, performance, and aspects of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 41) were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments starting at 28 d before expected parturition. Main effects were source assignments (CS = common sources of supplemental Ca and Mg, or MA = a blend of common and commercial mineral sources with supplemental minerals primarily from a commercial Ca-Mg dolomite source; MIN-AD, Papillon Agricultural Company Inc., Easton, MD) beginning at 21 d before due date; cows were further randomized within source treatments to 1 of 2 levels of Mg supplementation (LM = formulated postpartum diet Mg at 0.30% of dry matter (DM), or HM = formulated postpartum diet Mg at 0.45% of DM) beginning within 1 d after parturition. Final treatment groups included the following: common source, low Mg (CS-LM, n = 11); common source, high Mg (CS-HM, n = 11); MIN-AD, low Mg (MA-LM, n = 10); and MIN-AD, high Mg (MA-HM, n = 9). Treatment diets were fed and data collected through 42 d in milk. Postpartum plasma Mg concentrations tended to be higher for cows fed HM and cows fed CS, but no effects were observed on peripartum plasma Ca concentrations. Peripartum plasma P concentrations were higher for cows fed MA. Dry matter intake (DMI) in the prepartum period was higher for cows fed MA (CS = 15.9 vs. MA = 16.8 kg/d) and postpartum DMI was higher in some groups depending on week. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were lower for cows fed MA during both the prepartum and postpartum periods. A source by level interaction was observed for postpartum plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations such that cows fed CS-LM had numerically higher BHB and cows fed MA-LM had numerically lower BHB

  15. Effects of different dietary energy and protein levels and sex on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The experiment evaluated the effect of nutrition levels and sex on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of F1 Angus × Chinese Xiangxi yellow cattle. Methods During the background period of 184 d,23 steers and 24 heifers were fed the same ration,then put into a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement under two levels of - dietary energy (TDN: 70/80% DM), protein (CP: 11.9/14.3% DM) and sex (S: male/female) during the finishing phase of 146 d. The treatments were - (1) high energy/low protein (HELP), (2) high energy/high protein (HEHP), (3) low energy/low protein (LELP) and (4) low energy/high protein (LEHP). Each treatment used 6 steers and 6 heifers, except for HELP- 5 steers and 6 heifers. Results Growth rate and final carcass weight were unaffected by dietary energy and protein levels or by sex. Compared with the LE diet group, the HE group had significantly lower dry matter intake (DMI, 6.76 vs. 7.48 kg DM/d), greater chest girth increments (46.1 vs. 36.8 cm), higher carcass fat (19.9 vs.16.3%) and intramuscular fat content (29.9 vs. 22.8% DM). The HE group also had improved yields of top and medium top grade commercial meat cuts (39.9 vs.36.5%). The dressing percentage was higher for the HP group than the LP group (53.4 vs. 54.9%). Steers had a greater length increment (9.0 vs. 8.3 cm), but lower carcass fat content (16.8 vs. 19.4%) than heifers. The meat quality traits (shear force value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity) were not affected by treatments or sex, averaging 3.14 kg, 2.5, 31.5 and 52.9%, respectively. The nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acid composition) were not influenced by the energy or protein levels or by sex. Conclusions The dietary energy and protein levels and sex significantly influenced the carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat but not thegrowth performance, meat quality traits and nutritive profiles. PMID:24739901

  16. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57 d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29 d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28 d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) μU/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) μU/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively

  17. A comparative study at two different altitudes with two dietary nutrition levels on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism in Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Qiao, G H; Shao, T; Yu, C Q; Wang, X L; Yang, X; Zhu, X Q; Lu, Y

    2013-10-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of two altitudes (1600 vs. 3600 m) with two nutritional levels [5.88 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) vs. 7.56 MJ/kg DM] on apparent total tract digestibility, rumen fermentation, energy metabolism, milk yield and milk composition in Chinese Holstein cows. Sixteen Chinese Holstein cows in their third lactation with close body weights, days in milk and milk yield were randomly divided into four groups, of which two were directly transferred from Lanzhou (altitude of 1600 m) to Lhasa (altitude of 3600 m). Four treatments (high plateau and high nutrition level, HA-HN; high plateau and low nutrition level, HA-LN; low plateau and high nutrition level, LA-HN; and low plateau and low nutrition level, LA-LN) were randomly arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design. Results indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of a diet's DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre and DM intake were not affected by either altitude or nutrition level (p > 0.05). Milk protein percentage was higher for the diet with the high level of nutrition than for the diet with low nutrition level irrespective of altitude (p < 0.05). Percentages of milk fat and milk lactose were not affected by either altitude or nutrition level (p > 0.05). The metabolizable energy used for milk energy output was decreased by high altitude in comparison with that at low altitude (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in the live body weight or body condition score (BCS) of Chinese Holstein cows among all of the four treatments (p > 0.05).

  18. Dietary factors and fluctuating levels of melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Peuhkuri, Katri; Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Melatonin is secreted principally by the pineal gland and mainly at nighttime. The primary physiological function is to convey information of the daily cycle of light and darkness to the body. In addition, it may have other health-related functions. Melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan, an essential dietary amino acid. It has been demonstrated that some nutritional factors, such as intake of vegetables, caffeine, and some vitamins and minerals, could modify melatonin production but with less intensity than light, the most dominant synchronizer of melatonin production. This review will focus on the nutritional factors apart from the intake of tryptophan that affect melatonin levels in humans. Overall, foods containing melatonin or promoting the synthesis of it by impacting the availability of tryptophan, as well those containing vitamins and minerals which are needed as co-factors and activators in the synthesis of melatonin, may modulate the levels of melatonin. Even so, the influence of daytime diet on the synthesis of nocturnal melatonin is limited, however, the influence of the diet seems to be more obvious on the daytime levels. PMID:22826693

  19. Dietary factors and fluctuating levels of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Peuhkuri, Katri; Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Melatonin is secreted principally by the pineal gland and mainly at nighttime. The primary physiological function is to convey information of the daily cycle of light and darkness to the body. In addition, it may have other health-related functions. Melatonin is synthesized from tryptophan, an essential dietary amino acid. It has been demonstrated that some nutritional factors, such as intake of vegetables, caffeine, and some vitamins and minerals, could modify melatonin production but with less intensity than light, the most dominant synchronizer of melatonin production. This review will focus on the nutritional factors apart from the intake of tryptophan that affect melatonin levels in humans. Overall, foods containing melatonin or promoting the synthesis of it by impacting the availability of tryptophan, as well those containing vitamins and minerals which are needed as co-factors and activators in the synthesis of melatonin, may modulate the levels of melatonin. Even so, the influence of daytime diet on the synthesis of nocturnal melatonin is limited, however, the influence of the diet seems to be more obvious on the daytime levels.

  20. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  1. The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole

    2005-07-01

    Highest rates of obesity and diabetes in the United States are found among the lower-income groups. The observed links between obesity and socioeconomic position may be related to dietary energy density and energy cost. Refined grains, added sugars, and added fats are among the lowest-cost sources of dietary energy. They are inexpensive, good tasting, and convenient. In contrast, the more nutrient-dense lean meats, fish, fresh vegetables, and fruit generally cost more. An inverse relationship between energy density of foods (kilojoules per gram) and their energy cost (dollars per megajoule) means that the more energy-dense diets are associated with lower daily food consumption costs and may be an effective way to save money. However, economic decisions affecting food choice may have physiologic consequences. Laboratory studies suggest that energy-dense foods and energy-dense diets have a lower satiating power and may result in passive overeating and therefore weight gain. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that the low-cost energy-dense diets also tend to be nutrient poor. If the rise in obesity rates is related to the growing price disparity between healthy and unhealthy foods, then the current strategies for obesity prevention may need to be revised. Encouraging low-income families to consume healthier but more costly foods to prevent future disease can be construed as an elitist approach to public health. Limiting access to inexpensive foods through taxes on frowned upon fats and sweets is a regressive measure. The broader problem may lie with growing disparities in incomes and wealth, declining value of the minimum wage, food imports, tariffs, and trade. Evidence is emerging that obesity in America is a largely economic issue.

  2. Dietary energy density and body weight: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marmonier, Corinne; Lluch, Anne

    2004-11-01

    The energy density of foods and beverages is defined as the available energy per unit weight (kJ/g). Energy density of the diet is usually calculated excluding non-caloric beverages and drinking water. Because water contributes more to the weight of foods than any macronutrient, energy-dense foods are not necessarily those high in sugar or fat, but those that are dry. Evidence linking dietary energy density with body weight is critically evaluated in this review. Existing reports of a positive association between dietary energy density, higher energy intakes, and weight gain are based on laboratory and clinical studies. Although some cross-sectional epidemiological studies have linked dietary energy density with higher body mass index (BMI) values, the data are not consistent. At this time, there are no longitudinal cohort data linking dietary energy density with higher obesity risk.

  3. Growth and body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits of developing gilts fed different dietary lysine and metabolizable energy levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to manipulate the lean:fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and ME content to replacement gilts housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (approximately 260 d of age) to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments. Crossbred ...

  4. The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J

    2009-07-14

    Much of the research in ingestive behavior has focused on the macronutrient composition of foods; however, these studies are incomplete, or could be misleading, if they do not consider the energy density (ED) of the diet under investigation. Lowering the ED (kcal/g) by increasing the volume of preloads without changing macronutrient content can enhance satiety and reduce subsequent energy intake at a meal. Ad libitum intake or satiation has also been shown to be influenced by ED when the proportions of macronutrients are constant. Since people tend to eat a consistent weight of food, when the ED of the available foods is reduced, energy intake is reduced. The effects of ED have been seen in adults of different weight status, sex, and behavioral characteristics, as well as in 3- to 5-year-old children. The mechanisms underlying the response to variations in ED are not yet well understood and data from controlled studies lasting more than several days are limited. However, both population-based studies and long-term clinical trials indicate that the effects of dietary ED can be persistent. Several clinical trials have shown that reducing the ED of the diet by the addition of water-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables was associated with substantial weight loss even when patients were not told to restrict calories. Since lowering dietary energy density could provide effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity, there is a need for more studies of mechanisms underlying the effect and ways to apply these findings.

  5. Dietary protein source and level alters growth in neon tetras.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutritional studies for aquarium fish like the neon tetra are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45 and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or ...

  6. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  7. Assessing Vitamin D Levels in Dietary Supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern, particularly in the elderly, and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling and recent research indicates it has other roles in human health, includi...

  8. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  9. A review of dietary energy density and obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in energy intake regulation and weight management remains controversial. Relationships between ED, energy intake, and body weight were determined in a review of pertinent studies examining the effects of ED on energy intake (EI) and/or body weight in non-elder...

  10. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  11. Validity of Energy Intake Reports in Relation to Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shaneshin, Mahboubeh; Jessri, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    The role of under- and overreporting of energy intake in determining the dietary patterns is yet unclear, especially in the Middle Eastern countries. This study identifies the prevalence of misreporting among Tehranian women aged 18-45 years and to compare the dietary intake patterns of plausible and all energy reporters. Dietary intakes and anthropometric data were collected. FitMate™ metabolic analyzer and Goldberg equation were used in determining the under/overreporting of energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be overweight and older compared to plausible reporters. Three dietary patterns emerged for all reporters, and two were identified for plausible reporters. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was not similar to using all reporters. The proportion of underreporters was 59.3% in the mixture cluster, 30.4% in the unhealthy cluster, and 35.3% in the healthy cluster (p<0.05). Underreporting of energy intake is not uniformly distributed among dietary pattern clusters and tends to be less severe among subjects in the unhealthy cluster. Our data suggested that misreporting of energy intake might affect the dietary pattern analysis. PMID:24847591

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  13. EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATE LEVELS ON WEIGHT GAIN AND GONAD PRODUCTION IN THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS.

    PubMed

    Heflin, Laura E; Gibbs, Victoria K; Powell, Mickie L; Makowsky, Robert; Lawrence, John M; Lawrence, Addison L; Watts, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    Adult Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (ranging from 12 to 36%) and carbohydrate (ranging from 21 to 39 %) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily sub-satiation ration of 1.5% of average body weight for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion analysis was used to compare six different hypothesized dietary composition models across eight growth measurements. Dietary protein level and protein: energy ratio were the best models for prediction of total weight gain. Diets with the highest (> 68.6 mg P kcal(--1)) protein: energy ratios produced the most wet weight gain after 9 weeks. Dietary carbohydrate level was a poor predictor for most growth parameters examined in this study. However, the model containing a protein × carbohydrate interaction effect was the best model for protein efficiency ratio (PER). PER decreased with increasing dietary protein level, more so at higher carbohydrate levels. Food conversion ratio (FCR) was best modeled by total dietary energy levels: Higher energy diets produced lower FCRs. Dietary protein level was the best model of gonad wet weight gain. These data suggest that variations in dietary nutrients and energy differentially affect organismal growth and growth of body components.

  14. Skeletal muscle responses to negative energy balance: effects of dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Carbone, John W; McClung, James P; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2012-03-01

    Sustained periods of negative energy balance decrease body mass due to losses of both fat and skeletal muscle mass. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass are associated with a myriad of negative consequences, including suppressed basal metabolic rate, decreased protein turnover, decreased physical performance, and increased risk of injury. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance are due to imbalanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms contributing to the loss of skeletal muscle during energy deprivation are not well described. Recent studies have demonstrated that consuming dietary protein at levels above the current recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) may attenuate the loss of skeletal muscle mass by affecting the intracellular regulation of muscle anabolism and proteolysis. However, the specific mechanism by which increased dietary protein spares skeletal muscle through enhanced molecular control of muscle protein metabolism has not been elucidated. This article reviews the available literature related to the effects of negative energy balance on skeletal muscle mass, highlighting investigations that assessed the influence of varying levels of dietary protein on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Further, the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance and alterations in dietary protein level are described.

  15. Skeletal Muscle Responses to Negative Energy Balance: Effects of Dietary Protein12

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, John W.; McClung, James P.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained periods of negative energy balance decrease body mass due to losses of both fat and skeletal muscle mass. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass are associated with a myriad of negative consequences, including suppressed basal metabolic rate, decreased protein turnover, decreased physical performance, and increased risk of injury. Decreases in skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance are due to imbalanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms contributing to the loss of skeletal muscle during energy deprivation are not well described. Recent studies have demonstrated that consuming dietary protein at levels above the current recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g·kg−1·d−1) may attenuate the loss of skeletal muscle mass by affecting the intracellular regulation of muscle anabolism and proteolysis. However, the specific mechanism by which increased dietary protein spares skeletal muscle through enhanced molecular control of muscle protein metabolism has not been elucidated. This article reviews the available literature related to the effects of negative energy balance on skeletal muscle mass, highlighting investigations that assessed the influence of varying levels of dietary protein on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Further, the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in response to negative energy balance and alterations in dietary protein level are described. PMID:22516719

  16. Estimation of the metabolizable energy equivalence of dietary proteins.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Lorente, Raquel; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2007-02-01

    Protein contributes significantly to the human daily energy budget. The high diversity in composition, digestibility and dietary proportion complicates the estimation of its actual energy contribution. In practical terms we continue using the energy equivalents estimated by Atwater. This results in a persistent source of imprecision in the calculation of dietary energy that at least can be partially corrected. We used experimentally obtained data to compute an algorithm that will allow to estimate the gross energy content of a protein which composition is known. The relationship between gross energy (i.e. bomb calorimeter-derived) of protein is not a direct correlate of its metabolic efficacy as energy supplier. Thus we estimated the metabolic energy yield (i.e. ATP equivalents) of amino acid residues, using the data to compute the estimated protein metabolic energy yield. Both approaches were to be used to propose a corrected protein energy equivalence factor that will increase the precision in the calculation of dietary protein energy, especially when information on protein composition is available. The gross energy content of amino acids was measured with a bomb-calorimeter, and compared with that of glucose. Amino acid estimated metabolizable energy yield, in moles of ATP per mol of amino acid residue, was also calculated. The net heat yield of all amino acids were used to compute the theoretical heat production of albumin, collagen, gelatin and whole rat protein, which gross energy was also measured experimentally. The mean estimated energy yield (both gross and metabolizable) for each amino acid residue were used to compute the theoretical energy of a number of dietary protein sources which composition was available in the literature. Calculated energy yield of a few selected proteins coincided with the data directly measured in the bomb calorimeter. The computed gross energy yield and metabolizable energy yield for a number of dietary protein sources was

  17. Industrial Trans Fatty Acid and Serum Cholesterol: The Allowable Dietary Level

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Michihiro

    2017-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], levels (<2% E); no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake. A series of our intervention studies in Japanese suggested that an industrial TFA intake at <1% E does not influence the serum cholesterol level. To establish allowable level, we must consider not only the dietary level of TFAs, but also the composition of dietary fats simultaneously consumed, that is, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids strengthen or counteract the adverse effect of TFAs on serum cholesterol levels. In this review we describe the complex situation of the cardiovascular effects of industrial TFAs. The relationship between dietary industrial TFAs and concentration of plasma cholesterol should be evaluated from the viewpoint of dietary patterns rather than TFAs alone. PMID:28951788

  18. Regression analysis to predict growth performance from dietary net energy in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nitikanchana, S; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; White, B J

    2015-06-01

    Data from 41 trials with multiple energy levels (285 observations) were used in a meta-analysis to predict growth performance based on dietary NE concentration. Nutrient and energy concentrations in all diets were estimated using the NRC ingredient library. Predictor variables examined for best fit models using Akaike information criteria included linear and quadratic terms of NE, BW, CP, standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, fat, ash, and their interactions. The initial best fit models included interactions between NE and CP or SID Lys. After removal of the observations that fed SID Lys below the suggested requirement, these terms were no longer significant. Including dietary fat in the model with NE and BW significantly improved the G:F prediction model, indicating that NE may underestimate the influence of fat on G:F. The meta-analysis indicated that, as long as diets are adequate for other nutrients (i.e., Lys), dietary NE is adequate to predict changes in ADG across different dietary ingredients and conditions. The analysis indicates that ADG increases with increasing dietary NE and BW but decreases when BW is above 87 kg. The G:F ratio improves with increasing dietary NE and fat but decreases with increasing BW. The regression equations were then evaluated by comparing the actual and predicted performance of 543 finishing pigs in 2 trials fed 5 dietary treatments, included 3 different levels of NE by adding wheat middlings, soybean hulls, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 8 to 9% oil), or choice white grease (CWG) to a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Diets were 1) 30% DDGS, 20% wheat middlings, and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 2) 20% wheat middlings and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 3) a corn-soybean meal diet (medium energy); 4) diet 2 supplemented with 3.7% CWG to equalize the NE level to diet 3 (medium energy); and 5) a corn-soybean meal diet with 3.7% CWG (high energy). Only small differences were observed

  19. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan; Jovanov, Pavle

    2017-01-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA administration in five healthy men and monitored the prevalence and severity of side effects of the intervention. Volunteers were supplemented daily with 36 mg/kg body weight (BW) of GAA for the first 4 wk of the intervention; afterward GAA dosage was titrated ≤60 mg/kg BW of GAA daily. At baseline, 4, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P < 0.05). Thalamus creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8-wk follow-up in all brain areas evaluated (P < 0.05). No participants reported any neurologic adverse event (e.g., seizures, tingling, convulsions) during the intervention. Supplemental GAA led to a region-dependent increase of the creatine pool in the human brain. This might be relevant for restoring cellular bioenergetics in disorders characterized by low brain creatine and functional enzymatic machinery for creatine synthesis, including neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, or cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures.

  1. Monetary costs of dietary energy reported by young Japanese women: association with food and nutrient intake and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Hosoi, Yoko; Itabashi, Mami

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the relationship of monetary diet costs to dietary intake and obesity, particularly in non-Western populations. This study examined monetary cost of dietary energy in relation to diet quality and body mass index (BMI) among young Japanese women. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated, self-administered, diet history questionnaire. Diet costs were estimated using retail food prices. Monetary cost of dietary energy (Japanese yen 1000 kcal-1) was then calculated. BMI was computed from self-reported body weight and height. A total of 3931 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-20 years. Monetary cost of dietary energy was positively associated with intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish and shellfish, and pulses; however, higher monetary cost of dietary energy was also associated with higher consumption of fat and oil, meat and energy-containing beverages, and lower consumption of cereals (rice, bread and noodles) (all P for trend <0.01). At the nutrient level, monetary cost of dietary energy was positively associated with intakes of dietary fibre and key vitamins and minerals, but also associated positively with intakes of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol and sodium, and negatively with carbohydrate intake (all P for trend <0.0001). After adjustment for possible confounders, monetary cost of dietary energy was quite weakly but significantly negatively associated with BMI (P for trend = 0.0197). Increasing monetary cost of dietary energy was associated with both favourable and unfavourable dietary intake patterns and a quite small decrease in BMI in young Japanese women.

  2. Comparison of dairy beef genetics and dietary roughage levels.

    PubMed

    Lehmkuhler, J W; Ramos, M H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of these trials were to investigate the performance of Jersey steers in relation to Holsteins under current management practices when fed diets differing in energy density and subsequent effects on carcass characteristics. In experiment 1, twelve Jersey and 12 Holstein steers were offered dietary treatments with differing roughage levels. Roughage levels investigated on a dry matter basis were 55% reduced to 25% versus 25% followed by 12.5% (HIGH and LOW, respectively) with all animals receiving the same finishing diet containing 6.5% roughage. Holstein steers were heavier than Jerseys at the initiation of the trial (228 vs. 116 kg). A diet response was observed for gain efficiency during the first period in which LOW was greater than HIGH. Holstein steers had higher dry matter intakes and rates of gain than Jerseys. However, gain efficiency was better for Jersey steers during the first and last periods. Carcass traits were influenced by breed but not diet. Holsteins had heavier hot carcass weights, greater dressing percentages, more backfat, and larger longissimus muscle area, whereas marbling scores were similar to Jerseys. The increased efficiency of Jersey steers and significant reduction in carcass value due to light carcass weights suggested that Jersey steers should be fed to heavier live weights. Experiment 2 utilized 85 steers to investigate continuous feeding of a low-roughage, high-concentrate diet versus a phase-feeding strategy. Jersey (n = 40) and Holstein (n = 45) steers were assigned to a diet containing 20% corn silage on a dry matter basis (HEN) or a phase-feeding program (PHASE) in which corn silage was reduced from 60 to 40% followed by the same diet as HEN. Initial body weights were similar for dietary treatments but differed by breed. A diet response was observed for live weight at the end of the first and second period, first period average daily gain (ADG), overall ADG, and days on feed with HEN having higher ADG than PHASE

  3. Effects of energy deficit, dietary protein, and feeding on intracellular regulators of skeletal muscle proteolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and associated gene expression in normal-23 weight adults consuming varying levels of dietary protein during short-term energy deficit. 24 Using a randomized-bock design, 32 men and 7 women were assigned to diets providing protein 25 at 0.8 (RDA), 1...

  4. Antioxidant enzymatic defenses and oxidative damage in Dentex dentex fed on different dietary macronutrient levels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Arizcun, Marta; Abellán, Emilia; Cardenete, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    A wide range of antioxidant mechanisms are present in fish maintaining an adequate "oxidative balance". When this balance tilts in favor of the oxidant agents "oxidative stress" arises with detrimental effects in molecules of great biological importance. Little has been reported about the influence of different dietary energy sources on antioxidant defenses in fish. The influence of different dietary macronutrient combinations on the key antioxidant enzyme activity, the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and the possible modifications in the SOD isoenzymatic pattern were evaluated in liver, white muscle, heart and erythrocytes of common dentex (Dentex dentex). Four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate ratios (43/16/28; 43/24/4; 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were formulated. In general, neither different dietary macronutrient levels nor the interaction among them induces substantial modifications in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. Two constitutive SOD isoforms, CuZn-SOD I and Mn-SOD, were detected in the tissues analyzed in all experimental groups, independently of diet formulation, but, a third SOD isoenzyme, CuZn-SOD II seems to be induced in white muscle by higher dietary protein levels. Densitometric analyses of western blotting membranes revealed higher CuZn-SOD expression in the heart of dentex fed on lower dietary protein levels, although these differences did not correlate with the SOD activity. Finally, a direct relation exists between the lipid or protein intake level and occurrence of oxidative damage in different tissue components.

  5. The Impact of Dietary Energy Intake on Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Rodents that are insulin resistant and obese as the result of genetic factors, overeating and/or a sedentary lifestyle, exhibit cognitive deficits that worsen with advancing age compared to their more svelte counterparts. Data from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest similar adverse effects of excessive dietary energy intake and insulin resistance on cognition in humans. Our findings from studies of animal models suggest that dietary energy restriction can enhance neural plasticity and reduce the vulnerability of the brain to age-related dysfunction and disease. Dietary energy restriction may exert beneficial effects on the brain by engaging adaptive cellular stress response pathways resulting in the up-regulation of genes that encode proteins that promote neural plasticity and cell survival (e.g., neurotrophic factors, protein chaperones and redox enzymes). Two energy state-sensitive factors that are proving particularly important in regulating energy balance and improving/preserving cognitive function are brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucagon-like peptide 1. Alternate day calorie restriction, novel insulin-sensitizing and neuroprotective agents, and drugs that activate adaptive stress response pathways, are examples of approaches for preserving cognitive function that show promise in preclinical studies. PMID:20552045

  6. Endocannabinoid signaling and energy metabolism: a target for dietary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeffrey; Li, Yong; Watkins, Bruce A

    2011-06-01

    The endocannabinoid (EC) signaling (ECS) system involves the activation of receptors targeted by endogenously produced ligands called endocannabinoids that trigger specific physiologic events in various organs and tissues throughout the body. ECs are lipid mediators that bind to specific receptors and elicit cell signaling. The focus of this review is to discuss the responses that direct pathways of systemic energy metabolism. Recent findings have indicated that an imbalance of the ECS contributes to visceral fat accumulation and disrupts energy homeostasis, which are characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Constant activation of ECS has been linked to metabolic processes that are associated with the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues of obese patients. In contrast, inhibition of ECS results in weight loss in animal and human subjects. Despite these findings, the mechanism involved in the dysregulation of ECS is unclear. Interestingly, the level of endogenous ligands, derived from arachidonic acid, can be directly manipulated by nutrient intervention, in that a diet rich in long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids will decrease the production of ligands to modulate the activation of target receptors. In contrast, a diet that is high in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids will cause an increase in ECS activation and stimulate tissue specific activities that decrease insulin sensitivity in muscle and promote fat accumulation in the adipose tissue. The purpose of this review is to explain the components of ECS, its role in adipose and muscle energy metabolism, and how nutritional approaches with dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may reverse the dysregulation of this system to improve insulin sensitivity and control body fat.

  7. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  9. Dietary energy density and successful weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Van Walleghen, Emily L.; Bachman, Jessica L.; Looney, Shannon M.; Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows a positive relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and body mass index (BMI), but dietary ED of weight loss maintainers is unknown. This preliminary investigation was a secondary data analysis that compared self-reported dietary ED and food group servings consumed in overweight adults (OW: BMI = 27 – 45 kg/m2), normal weight adults (NW: BMI = 19 – 24.9 kg/m2), and weight loss maintainers (WLM: current BMI = 19 – 24.9 kg/m2 [lost ≥ 10% of maximum body weight and maintained loss for ≥ 5 years]) participating in 2 studies, with data collected from July 2006 and March 2007. Three 24-hr phone dietary recalls from 287 participants (OW = 97, NW = 85, WLM = 105) assessed self-reported dietary intake. ED (kcal/g) was calculated by three methods (food + all beverages except water [F + AB], food + caloric beverages [F + CB], and food only [FO]). Differences in self-reported consumption of dietary ED, food group servings, energy, grams of food/beverages, fat, and fiber were assessed using one-way MANCOVA, adjusting for age, sex, and weekly energy expenditure from self-reported physical activity. ED, calculated by all three methods, was significantly lower in WLM than in NW or OW (FO: WLM = 1.39 ± 0.45 kcal/g; NW = 1.60 ± 0.43 kcal/g; OW = 1.83 ± 0.42 kcal/g). Self-reported daily servings of vegetables and whole grains consumed were significantly higher in WLM compared to NW and OW (vegetables: WLM = 4.9 ± 3.1 servings/day; NW = 3.9 ± 2.0 servings/day; OW = 3.4 ± 1.7 servings/day; whole grains: WLM = 2.2 ± 1.8 servings/day; NW = 1.4 ± 1.2 servings/day; OW = 1.3 ± 1.3 servings/day). WLM self-reported consuming significantly less energy from fat and more fiber than the other two groups. Self-reported energy intake per day was significantly lower in WLM than OW, and WLM self-reported consuming significantly more grams of food/beverages per day than OW. These preliminary findings suggest that consuming a diet lower in ED, characterized by

  10. Transient decrements in mood during energy deficit are independent of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Cao, Jay J; Whigham, Leah D; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J; Lieberman, Harris R; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2015-02-01

    Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block design, 39 non-obese young adults (21±1 years, BMI 25±1 kg/m(2)) consumed diets containing 0.8 g, 1.6 g or 2.4 g protein per kg body weight per day for 31 days. Carbohydrate intake was reduced to accommodate higher protein intakes while dietary fat was maintained at 30% of total energy intake. Cognitive performance, mood, self-reported sleep quality, and plasma amino acid concentrations were periodically assessed during a 10-day energy balance period and a subsequent 21-day, 40% energy deficit period. Anger, tension and total mood disturbance increased during the initial ten days of energy deficit (P<0.05), but by the end of the energy deficit returned to levels not different from those measured during energy balance. No effects of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio on cognitive performance, mood or self-reported sleep quality were observed during energy balance or energy deficit. Thus, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diets do not appear to benefit or impair cognition, mood or sleep in non-obese adults during energy deficit. These findings suggest that energy deficit may initially be psychologically difficult for non-obese individuals attempting to lose weight, but that these changes are transient. Employing strategies that alleviate decrements in mood during this initial period of adaptation may help sustain weight loss efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance and nitrogen excretion of dairy heifers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Chong; Liu, He; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Hongyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Protein supplementation is costly and can result in excess nitrogen (N) excretion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of dietary protein on average daily gain, body size, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen excretion of 8 to 10 month-old Holstein heifers. Methods Thirty-six Holstein heifers were divided into 12 blocks according to age (273±6.2 d) and were randomly assigned to diets containing a low (10.2% dry matter [DM]), medium (11.9% DM), or high (13.5% DM) level of dietary crude protein (CP). All diets contained approximately 70% roughage and 30% concentrate with similar dietary metabolizable energy (ME) content (2.47 Mcal/kg). Results Dry matter intake did not differ among the treatments, and average daily gain increased with the increasing dietary protein, 0.79, 0.95, 0.97 kg/d for low, medium, and high group, respectively. Body height increased linearly with increasing dietary CP but no other significant differences in body dimensions were found among the treatments. The increased ratios of dietary CP improved the rate of rear teat length growth remarkably (p<0.05). There was no difference in rumen pH or ruminal major volatile fatty acid (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) concentration among the 3 diets, but rumen ammonia-N concentration increased with the higher dietary CP (p<0.05). Increasing N intake led to increased total N excretion; urinary N excretion was significantly increased (p<0.05) but fecal N excretion was similar among the treatments. Conclusion These data suggest that the diet containing 11.9% CP (ME 2.47 Mcal/kg) could meet the maintenance and growth requirements of 9 to 11 month-old Holstein heifers gaining approximately 0.9 kg/d. PMID:27554361

  12. Dietary energy density in young children across Europe.

    PubMed

    Hebestreit, A; Börnhorst, C; Pala, V; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Veidebaum, T; Hadjigergiou, C; Molnár, D; Claessens, M; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Pigeot, I

    2014-09-01

    To describe energy density (ED; kcal g(-1)) of dietary intake of European children. From 16, 228 children who participated in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) baseline examination, 8551 children with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR), with plausible reported energy intakes and complete covariate information were included in the present analysis. ED was calculated using two methods: (1) ED including solid foods (EDF) and (2) ED including solid foods and energy-containing beverages (EDF&B). Beverage energy was calculated in kcal per day. Dietary characteristics and body mass index (BMI) z-score of children aged 2 to <6 years and 6 to <10 years were compared between children with an overall EDF below the <25th percentile, between the 25th and 75th percentile as well as above the >75th percentile. Standardised regression coefficients were estimated to assess the association between dietary characteristics, BMI z-score and ED of the diet. Children with low EDF and EDF&B diets consumed less energy but higher quantity of food and beverages than children with high EDF and EDF&B diets. Consumption of caloric beverages decreased with increasing EDF&B of the diet owing to the relatively low ED of the beverages, in relation to solid foods. Generally, children with low EDF and EDF&B diets showed healthier food choices than peers with higher EDF and EDF&B diets. In this sample, EDF and EDF&B were not associated with BMI z-score. Health promotion strategies should proclaim lower ED diets by means of foods with high water and low fat content and mainly fruit and vegetable components. Excluding caloric beverages from EDF calculation is a useful method to avoid misinterpretation of true exposure to a high energy dense diet. We recommend excluding caloric beverages from EDF calculation when investigating the effect of ED on a certain (health) outcome.

  13. Magnesium dietary intake modulates blood lipid levels and atherogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Altura, B T; Brust, M; Bloom, S; Barbour, R L; Stempak, J G; Altura, B M

    1990-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the effects of variation in dietary Mg on the atherogenic process. Oral supplementation of rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet (1% or 2%) with the Mg salt magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard) (i) lowers the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in normal (25-35%) as well as atherosclerotic (20-40%) animals and (ii) attenuates the atherosclerotic process markedly. In addition, we found that dietary deficiency of Mg augments atherogenesis markedly and stimulates (or activates) macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Evidence is presented to indicate that the hypercholesterolemic state may cause the loss of Mg from soft tissues to the serum, thereby masking an underlying Mg deficiency. PMID:2308944

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of dietary protein supplementation, on the performance of sows and their litters during first and subsequent parities. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with body weight (BW...

  15. Dietary protein, energy and arginine affect LAT1 expression in forebrain white matter differently.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Yin, Y L; Li, T J; Wang, L; Ruan, Z; Liu, Z Q; Hou, Y Q

    2010-09-01

    L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) transports large, branched-chain, aromatic and neutral amino acids. About 64 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were used to study the effects of dietary crude protein (CP), energy and arginine on LAT1 expression in forebrain. The results showed that LAT1 expression in forebrain was sensitive to different levels of CP, energy and arginine. On the basis of Western blot analysis, a lower level of LAT1 presented in the brain tissues of pigs fed the low dietary CP diet (P < 0.05), a higher level were found in pigs fed the higher CP diet, with moderate to intense staining seen in pigs fed the diet plus 1% arginine. In contrast, pigs fed the control-energy diet had weak LAT1 expression, and those fed the diet supplemented with 1% arginine showed lowest LAT1 expression (P < 0.05). These results showed that LAT1 was highly expressed in the forebrain, and expression of LAT1 was affected by dietary protein, energy and arginine differently.

  16. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.

  17. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  18. Dietary energy density, inflammation and energy balance in palliative care cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Ola; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lundholm, Kent

    2013-02-01

    Diet energy density is correlated with energy intake in patients with advanced cancer. Little information is available about the effects of energy density on energy balance, nor about the influence of other factors, such as systemic inflammation and disease stage. We assessed whether dietary energy density or energy intake predict energy balance over 4 months in patients with advanced cancer. We examined also the influence of systemic inflammation and survival time. Energy balance was calculated from the change in body energy content by repeated dual-energy X-ray scans in 107 patients for a total of 164 4-month measurement periods. A linear mixed model was used to investigate relationships between diet energy density (kcal/g), energy intake (kcal/day) and energy balance with systemic inflammation and survival as covariates. In an unadjusted model, the energy density of solid food and energy intake were positive predictors of energy balance (P < 0.03). A 1-SD increase in energy density and energy intake increased energy balance by 38 and 41 kcal/day, respectively. The total diet energy density did not predict energy balance (P > 0.05). Survival was positively (P < 0.001), and systemic inflammation negatively (P = 0.005) associated with energy balance. Only energy intake remained a significant predictor of energy balance after adjustment for survival and inflammatory status. Dietary energy density is positively associated with energy balance in patients with advanced cancer. Relations between energy intake, energy density and energy balance are affected by systemic inflammation. Thus, targeting systemic inflammation may be important in nutritional interventions in this patient group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients are unable to increase dietary intake to recommended levels.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Debbie; Higgins, Bernie; Stevens, Judith M

    2007-09-01

    This study's objective was to determine whether offering dietary advice was effective in supporting patients in adjusting energy intake. We performed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of dietary intervention involving 59 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis over a 4-month follow-up period. The study involved outpatients on home-based renal replacement therapy. All participants were adult patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. All eligible patients were invited to take part. Subjects were randomized into two groups: control and intervention. Those with diabetes mellitus, malabsorption, malignancy, or eating disorders were excluded. Baseline measurements to assess current dietary intake and nutritional status were performed in all subjects. Measurements included a 5-day food diary, subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometry, and serum biochemistry. After analysis of the food diaries, the participants in the control group were given follow-up dietary advice that would enable them to match intake with current dietary recommendations for this group of 1.2 g of protein per kilogram of ideal body weight, 25 cal/kg ideal body weight. Participants in the intervention group were given follow-up dietary advice that would encourage them to match energy intake with an estimate of total energy expenditure based on their calculated basal metabolic rate and physical activity level as designated using information from SGA, with a significantly lower protein intake of 0.8 to 1.0 g/kg ideal body weight and an emphasis on calories from carbohydrate and fat. Both groups completed further 5-day food diaries at 2 and 4 months to assess their ability to make the recommended changes. SGA, anthropometry, and biochemistry were all remeasured at the end of the study period. Differences in energy and protein intakes between and within the two groups from baseline to 4 months were assessed. Protein and energy intakes did not change during 4

  20. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Aljumaah, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity. PMID:27175130

  1. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, M M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (P<0.05) the total live weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control and T3 groups. Moreover, treatment, time and time × treatment caused a significant change on Co concentration in blood serum with higher value at the end of the experiment. Treatments had a significant effect (P<0.05) on blood serum cholesterol and protein levels. Undegradable methionine supplementation (T3) significantly increased longissimus dorsi weight, fat thickness and omental fat%. In conclusion, feeding Baladi kids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity.

  2. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens.

  3. Metabolism and growth of juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei: effect of salinity and dietary carbohydrate levels.

    PubMed

    Rosas, C; Cuzon, G; Gaxiola, G; Le Priol, Y; Pascual, C; Rossignyol, J; Contreras, F; Sanchez, A; Van Wormhoudt, A

    2001-04-30

    The present study was designed to understand how carbohydrate (CBH) and protein metabolism are related in the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. With this information, we obtained a comprehensive schedule of the protein-carbohydrate metabolism including enzymatic, energetic, and functional aspects. We used salinity to determine its role as a modulator of the protein-carbohydrate metabolism in shrimp. Two experiments were designed. The first experiment evaluated the effect of CBH-salinity combinations in growth and survival, and hemolymph glucose, protein, and ammonia levels, digestive gland glycogen, osmotic pressure, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) of L. vannamei juveniles acclimated during 18 days at a salinity of 15 per thousand and 40 per thousand. The second experiment was done to evaluate the effect of dietary CBH level on pre- and postprandial oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, and the oxygen-nitrogen ratio (O/N) of juvenile L. vannamei in shrimps acclimated at 40 per thousand salinity. We also evaluated the ability of shrimp to carbohydrate adaptation. We made phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PECPK) and hexokinase activity measurements after a change in dietary carbohydrate levels at different times during 10 days. The growth rate depended on the combination salinity-dietary CBH-protein level. The maximum growth rate was obtained in shrimps maintained at 15 per thousand salinity and with a diet containing low CBH and high protein. The protein in hemolymph is related to the dietary protein levels; high dietary protein levels produced a high protein concentration in hemolymph. This suggests hemolymph is able to store proteins after a salinity acclimation. Depending on the salinity, the hemolymph proteins could be used as a source of osmotic effectors or as metabolic energy. The O/N values obtained show that shrimp used proteins as a source of energy, mainly when shrimps were fed with low CBH. The role played by postprandial nitrogen excretion (PPNE

  4. Conserved and differential effects of dietary energy intake on the hippocampal transcriptomes of females and males.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Keselman, Alex; Iyun, Titilola; Carlson, Olga D; Egan, Josephine M; Becker, Kevin G; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; de Cabo, Rafael; Maudsley, Stuart; Mattson, Mark P

    2008-06-11

    The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control), 20% caloric restriction (CR), 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF) or high fat/high glucose (HFG) diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway analyses showed that the 20% CR diet down-regulated genes involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP production in males, whereas these metabolic pathways were up-regulated in females. The 40% CR diet up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, protein deacetylation, PGC-1alpha and mTor pathways in both sexes. IF down-regulated many genes in males including those involved in protein degradation and apoptosis, but up-regulated many genes in females including those involved in cellular energy metabolism, cell cycle regulation and protein deacetylation. Genes involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress responses and cell death were affected by the HFG diet in both males and females. The gender-specific molecular genetic responses of hippocampal cells to variations in dietary energy intake identified in this study may mediate differential behavioral responses of males and females to differences in energy availability.

  5. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  6. Digestibility and metabolic utilisation of dietary energy in adult sows: influence of addition and origin of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, G; Le Groumellec, L; van Milgen, J; Dubois, S; Noblet, J

    2002-04-01

    According to a 4 x 4 Latin square design, four adult ovariectomised sows fed at a similar energy level (516 kJ ME/kg body weight (BW)0.75 per d) received one of four diets successively: a control low-dietary-fibre (DF) diet (diet C, 100 g total DF/kg DM) and three fibre-rich diets (200g total DF/kg DM) that corresponded to a combination of diet C and maize bran (diet MB), wheat bran (diet WB), or sugar-beet pulp (diet SBP). Sows were adapted to the diet for 12 d before an 8 d measurement period. Digestibility of energy and nutrients in the diets, and total heat production (HP) and its components (fasting HP, activity HP and thermic effect of feeding (TEF), were measured. The TEF was partitioned between a short-term component (TEF(st)) and a long-term component (TEF(lt)). Total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy was greater for diet C; among the three other diets, the digestibility coefficients were higher for diet SBP than for diets MB and WB. Energy losses from CH4 were linearly related to the digestible total DF intake (+1.4kJ/g). Fasting HP at zero activity averaged 260 kJ/kg BW(0.75) per d. Activity HP represented 20% total HP, or 83 kJ/kg BW(0.75) per d on average. Total TEF and TEF(lt) were higher (P<0.05) for diet WB than for the other diets. However, total HP (406kJ/kg BW(0.75 per d) was not significantly affected by diet characteristics. Our results suggest that metabolic utilisation of dietary energy is little affected by the addition and origin of DF, at least under the conditions of the present study.

  7. Comparability of weighed dietary records and a self-administered diet history questionnaire for estimating monetary cost of dietary energy.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2008-09-15

    An increasing number of studies have estimated monetary diet cost using various dietary assessment methods, based on databases on retail food prices, for investigating its association with dietary intake and health outcomes. However, information regarding the comparability of monetary diet cost across dietary assessment methods is absolutely lacking. This study compared monetary cost of dietary energy estimated from weighed dietary records (DRs) with that estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ). The subjects were 92 Japanese women aged 31-69 years and 92 Japanese men aged 32-76 years. The DHQ (assessing diet during the preceding month) and 4-day DRs (one weekend day and three weekdays) were completed in each season over a 1-year period (DHQs1-4 and DRs1-4, respectively). An additional DHQ was completed at one year after completing DHQ1 (DHQ5). Monetary cost of dietary energy (Japanese yen/4184 kJ) was calculated using food intake information derived from each dietary assessment method, based on retail food prices. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and mean of DHQs1-4 was 0.64 for women and 0.69 for men. Pearson correlation between the mean of DRs1-4 and DHQ1 was 0.60 for women and 0.52 for men, while intraclass correlation between DHQ1 and DHQ5 was 0.64 for women and 0.51 for men. These data indicate reasonable comparability of monetary cost of dietary energy across DR and a DHQ as well as usefulness of a single administration of the DHQ for estimating monetary cost of dietary energy.

  8. Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Duan, Rui; Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Tan, Linglin; Cheng, Qiang; Liao, Man; Ding, Binying

    2017-06-08

    α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing dietary AKG supplemental levels produced linear positive responses in ATP content and AEC, and negative responses in AMP concentration, the ratio of AMP to ATP and total adenine nucleotide in the ileal mucosa (P < 0.05). All levels of dietary AKG reduced the production of jejunal hydrogen peroxide and hepatic malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). Hepatic and ileal messenger RNA expression of AMP kinase α-1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were linearly up-regulated as dietary AKG supplemental levels increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary AKG supplementation linearly or quadratically enhanced hepatic and intestinal energy storage and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effect of dietary energy on performance and egg composition of Bovans White and Dekalb White hens during phase I.

    PubMed

    Wu, G; Bryant, M M; Voitle, R A; Roland, D A

    2005-10-01

    A 4 x 2 factorial experiment with 4 dietary energy levels (2,719, 2,798, 2,877, and 2,959 kcal of ME/ kg) and 2 strains (Bovans White and Dekalb White) was conducted to determine the effect of dietary energy on reproductive performance, egg composition, and profits of 2 strains of commercial Leghorns. This experiment lasted 16 wk. Bovans White hens (n = 768) and Dekalb White hens (n = 768) in phase I (21 wk of age) were randomly assigned into 8 treatments (16 replicates of 12 birds/treatment). Bovans White had significantly higher feed intake, egg production, egg mass, body weight, percentage egg yolk, and yolk/albumen ratio than Dekalb White. Bovans White had significantly lower feed conversion, egg weight, egg specific gravity, percentage of albumen weight, percentage of shell weight, and Haugh unit than Dekalb White. When dietary energy increased from 2,719 to 2,956 kcal of ME/kg, hens adjusted feed intake from 107.6 to 101.1 g/hen per day to achieve a constant energy intake so that the same amount of dietary energy (5.8 kcal) was used to produce 1 g of egg. Increasing dietary energy by the addition of poultry oil increased early egg weight, which was mostly due to increased yolk weight. Increasing dietary energy by addition of poultry oil significantly decreased feed conversion and egg specific gravity but had no effect on egg production, egg mass, body weight, or mortality. Increasing dietary energy by addition of poultry oil to a ratio of 282 kcal of ME/g lysine maximized egg weight during phase I. The energy per lysine ratio required for optimal profits varied with egg price and feed ingredient prices, which were variable.

  10. Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, Ariëtte T M; van den Brand, Henry; Dijkstra, Jan; Tamminga, Seerp; Kemp, Bas

    2005-01-01

    The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3 products required for milk production. This review compares studies which manipulated dietary energy source and shows that dietary energy source can affect the balance of the C2/C3 ratio, as indicated by plasma NEFA, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose levels. It is shown that glycogenic nutrients increase glucose and insulin concentrations and decrease NEFA and BHBA plasma levels. Extra lipogenic nutrients elevate NEFA and BHBA and decrease plasma glucose concentrations. Lipogenic nutrients generally increase milk fat percentage and decrease milk protein percentage, suggesting a surplus of C2 compounds. The inverse is the case for feeding extra glycogenic nutrients, implying reduced deamination and oxidation of glycogenic amino acids. Feeding extra glycogenic nutrients improved the energy balance (EB), in contrast to ambiguous results of lipogenic nutrients on EB. Moreover, glycogenic feed may reduce the severity of ketosis and fatty liver, but increased the incidence of (sub)clinical acidosis. Since studies are scarce, it seems difficult to draw conclusions on the effects of dietary energy source on reproduction. However, lipogenic nutrients decrease glucose and increase NEFA and BHBA plasma levels. High plasma NEFA and BHBA and low plasma glucose levels are associated with decreased reproductive performance, which might imply the C2/C3 compound balance to be important for reproductive function.

  11. Dietary levels of acrylamide affect rat cardiomyocyte properties.

    PubMed

    Walters, Brandan; Hariharan, Venkatesh; Huang, Hayden

    2014-09-01

    The toxic effects of acrylamide on cytoskeletal integrity and ion channel balance is well-established in many cell types, but there has been little examination regarding the effects of acrylamide on primary cardiomyocytes, despite the importance of such components in their function. Furthermore, acrylamide toxicity is generally examined using concentrations higher than those found in vivo under starch-rich diets. Accordingly, we sought to characterize the dose-dependent effects of acrylamide on various properties, including cell morphology, contraction patterns, and junctional connexin 43 staining, in primary cardiomyocytes. We show that several days exposure to 1-100 μM acrylamide resulted in altered morphology, irregular contraction patterns, and an increase in the amount of immunoreactive signal for connexin 43 at cell junctions. We conclude that dietary levels of acrylamide may alter cellular function with prolonged exposure, in primary cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    PubMed

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  13. Dietary intake based on physical activity level in Korean elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire and was categorized as active, moderately active, and sedentary. Dietary intakes were obtained using a 24-hour food recall method. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test for global significant differences of nutrient intakes by physical activity level. Boys were more active than girls. Daily intakes of energy in moderately active boys were significantly higher than in the sedentary group, but intakes of calcium and iron in moderately active boys were lower than active boys. For girls, physical activity level did not affect nutrient density at all. Intakes of calcium, vitamin C, and folate for both boys and girls were below 50% of recommended intake. Physical activity did not affect nutrient density and our participants were exposed to nutritional imbalance. Therefore, the results suggest that nutrition education regarding balanced diet and optimum physical activity is required for children's health and growth. PMID:20827348

  14. Dietary taurine and nutrient intake and dietary quality by alcohol consumption level in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Kim, So Young; Park, So Yoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is related to various negative healthy consequences. To investigate difference of taurine intake according to the alcohol consumption level, we studied body composition, intake of dietary nutrients including taurine, and dietary quality in Korean male college students that were divided according to their alcohol consumption level. Surveys were conducted using a questionnaire and a 3-day recall method for assessing dietary intake in 220 male college students residing in Incheon, Korea. The subjects were divided into two groups by alcohol consumption level: heavy drinking group (average drinking over 5 cans (355 ml) of beer or 7 shots (45 ml) of soju) and light drinking group (average drinking less than 5 cans of beer or 7 shots of soju or not drinking any alcohol at all at one time during the previous month). The average body mass index (BMI) in the heavy drinking group was significantly higher compared to the light drinking group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between heavy and light drinking group. With regard to the dietary quality evaluation of the subjects, the nutrient densities (ND) of carbohydrate, niacin, vitamin C, and zinc in the heavy drinking group were significantly lower than those of the light drinking group. Therefore, continuous nutrition education for heavy drinking Korean male college students may be needed to improve balanced nutritional status and further studies such as case-control study or taurine intervention study are required to know the relationship between dietary taurine intake and alcohol consumption.

  15. Effects of corticosterone and dietary energy on immune function of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy.

  16. Effects of Corticosterone and Dietary Energy on Immune Function of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy. PMID:25803644

  17. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium.

    PubMed

    Bescós García, R; Rodríguez Guisado, F A

    2011-01-01

    Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OH)D levels were collected after wintertime during the 2008/2009 (April) and 2009/2010 (March) seasons. In addition, athletes completed 4-day dietary records to estimate energy consumption and a food frequency questionnaire to determine dietary vitamin D and calcium intake. Serum 25(OH)D levels were 47.8±21.8 nmol/L, with twelve subjects (57%) being vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L). Vitamin D intake was 139±78 IU/day and calcium intake was 948±419 mg/day. Serum 25(OH)D levels correlated with the daily dietary intake of vitamin D (r=0.65; P=0.001) and calcium (r=0.82; P<0.001). Professional basketball players are at higher risk of hypovitaminosis D after wintertime. Adequate intake of dietary calcium and vitamin D is required if athletes are to avoid low serum 25(OH)D levels when exposure to sunlight is limited.

  18. Dietary tea catechins increase fecal energy in rats.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tomonori; Osada, Chisa; Motoo, Yuki; Suzuki, Yuko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Nozawa, Ayumu

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the beneficial health effect of tea catechins as one of the effective strategies to prevent obesity. The current study was carried out to investigate the role of tea catechins on the utilization of dietary energy sources in rats. The addition of 1% (w/w) tea catechins, mostly in gallate forms, to the diet brought about significant reductions in body weight gains and abdominal adipose tissue weights after 4-wk feeding periods compared to the control. A 2-d output of feces collected at the third week of feeding was significantly increased by a tea catechin diet (average dry weight+/-SD of 7.2+/-1.5 g) over that with a control diet (3.8+/-0.4 g). Only 0.1% of ingested starch appeared in the feces of rats fed the control diet, whereas 4.8% was excreted in the feces of the tea catechin group. Moreover, both apparent digestibility values for lipid and protein in the rats fed tea catechins were also lower than those of the control, suggesting that tea catechins increased the fecal excretion of these energy nutrients. Of the gross energy that the rats consumed from their respective diets during the fecal collection period, 1.6% (for control diet) and 5.8% (for tea catechin diet) were estimated to be excreted in feces. The energy loss originating from carbohydrate should contribute to the overall amount of energy in the feces, followed by protein. Intake of tea catechins suppressed the intestinal absorption of energy nutrients via the inhibition of digestive enzymes, which may at least partially influence the body fat reduction by tea catechins.

  19. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  20. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  1. Independent, additive effects of five dietary variables on ad libitum energy intake in a residential study.

    PubMed

    Urban, Lorien E; McCrory, Megan A; Rasmussen, Helen; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fuss, Paul J; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary characteristics of self-selected foods and energy balance in a cafeteria-style dining hall. Ad libitum dietary intake from a self-selection menu was measured over two days in 151 adults (70% female, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 24.9 kg/m(2) ). The associations of dietary variables with energy balance (calculated as measured energy intake/predicted energy requirements, pER) were assessed. Measured energy intake was significantly correlated with pER (R(2) =0.83, P < 0.001). In mixed multiple regression models, percent energy from protein was negatively associated with energy balance (R(2) =0.04, P = 0.02), and percent energy from liquid sources (R(2)  = 0.02, P = 0.05), total dietary variety in females (R(2)  = 0.39, P < 0.001), and energy density (R(2)  = 0.57, P < 0.001) were positively associated with energy balance. In addition, glycemic index was inversely associated with energy balance in normal-weight individuals (R(2)  = 0.14, P < 0.001) but not in overweight or obese individuals. There are independent associations of dietary protein, liquid calories, energy density, dietary variety, and glycemic index with energy balance, indicating additive effects of these dietary factors on energy intake and energy balance. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether dietary prescriptions combining these dietary factors facilitate long-term prevention of weight gain. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. Transient decrements in mood during energy deficit are independent of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block desi...

  3. Dietary energy intake is associated with type 2 diabetes risk markers in children.

    PubMed

    Donin, Angela S; Nightingale, Claire M; Owen, Christopher G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Jebb, Susan A; Ambrosini, Gina L; Stephen, Alison M; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Energy intake, energy density, and nutrient intakes are implicated in type 2 diabetes risk in adults, but little is known about their influence on emerging type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. We examined these associations in a multiethnic population of children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of 2,017 children predominantly of white European, South Asian, and black African-Caribbean origin aged 9-10 years who had a detailed 24-h dietary recall and measurements of body composition and provided a fasting blood sample for measurements of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and serum insulin; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also derived. RESULTS Energy intake was positively associated with insulin resistance. After the removal of 176 participants with implausible energy intakes (unlikely to be representative of habitual intake), energy intake was more strongly associated with insulin resistance and was also associated with glucose and fat mass index. Energy density was also positively associated with insulin resistance and fat mass index. However, in mutually adjusted analyses, the associations for energy intake remained while those for energy density became nonsignificant. Individual nutrient intakes showed no associations with type 2 diabetes risk markers. CONCLUSIONS Higher total energy intake was strongly associated with high levels of insulin resistance and may help to explain emerging type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. Studies are needed to establish whether reducing energy intake produces sustained favorable changes in insulin resistance and circulating glucose levels.

  4. DIETARY ENERGY INTAKE IS ASSOCIATED WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES RISK MARKERS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Donin, Angela S; Nightingale, Claire M; Owen, Christopher G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Jebb, Susan A; Ambrosini, Gina L; Stephen, Alison M; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Energy intake, energy density and nutrient intakes are implicated in type 2 diabetes risk in adults, but little is known about their influence on emerging type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. We examined these associations in a multi-ethnic population of children. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional study of 2017 children predominantly of white European, South Asian and black African-Caribbean origin aged 9-10 years who had a detailed 24 hour dietary recall, measurements of body composition and provided a fasting blood sample for measurements of plasma glucose, HbA1c and serum insulin; HOMA insulin resistance was also derived. Results Energy intake was positively associated with insulin resistance. After the removal of 176 participants with implausible energy intakes (unlikely to be representative of habitual intake), energy intake was more strongly associated with insulin resistance, and was also associated with glucose and fat mass index. Energy density was also positively associated with insulin resistance and fat mass index. However, in mutually adjusted analyses, the associations for energy intake remained while those for energy density became non-significant. Individual nutrient intakes showed no associations with type 2 diabetes risk markers. Conclusions Higher total energy intake was strongly associated with high levels of insulin resistance and may help to explain emerging type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. Studies are needed to establish whether reducing energy intake produces sustained favourable changes in insulin resistance and circulating glucose levels. PMID:23939542

  5. Apple juice concentrate maintains acetylcholine levels following dietary compromise.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy; Graves, Valerie; Shea, Thomas B

    2006-08-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to age-related cognitive decline. In some instances, consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidant can provide superior protection than supplementation with purified antioxidants. Our prior studies have shown that supplementation with apple juice concentrate (AJC) alleviates oxidative damage and cognitive decline in adult (9-12 months) mice lacking ApoE (as a model of increased oxidative stress) and in normal aged (2-2.5 years) mice when challenged with a vitamin-deficient, oxidative stress-promoting diet. Here, we demonstrate that AJC, administered in drinking water, maintains acetylcholine levels that otherwise decline when adult and aged mice are maintained on the above deficient diet. Normal mice aged either 9-10 months or 2-2.5 years and ApoE-/- mice aged 9-10 months were maintained for 1 month on a complete diet or a diet lacking folate and vitamin E and containing iron as a pro-oxidant, and additional groups received 0.5% AJC ad libitum in drinking water. Spectrophotometric assay of acetylcholine levels revealed a significant decline in homogenates of combined frontal cortex and hippocampus for all mice maintained on the deficient diet, and a prevention of this decline in mice maintained on the deficient diet when supplemented with AJC. These findings provide a likely mechanism by which consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as apples can prevent the decline in cognitive performance that accompanies dietary and genetic deficiencies and aging.

  6. Dietary energy availability affects primary and metastatic breast cancer and metformin efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Kathryn N; Vumbaca, Frank; Fox, Melissa M; Evans, Rebecca; Claffey, Kevin P

    2010-09-01

    Dietary energy restriction has been shown to repress both mammary tumorigenesis and aggressive mammary tumor growth in animal studies. Metformin, a caloric restriction mimetic, has a long history of safe use as an insulin sensitizer in diabetics and has been shown to reduce cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality in humans. To determine the potential impact of dietary energy availability and metformin therapy on aggressive breast tumor growth and metastasis, an orthotopic syngeneic model using triple negative 66cl4 tumor cells in Balb/c mice was employed. The effect of dietary restriction, a standard maintenance diet or a diet with high levels of free sugar, were tested for their effects on tumor growth and secondary metastases to the lung. Metformin therapy with the various diets indicated that metformin can be highly effective at suppressing systemic metabolic biomarkers such as IGF-1, insulin and glucose, especially in the high energy diet treated animals. Long-term metformin treatment demonstrated moderate yet significant effects on primary tumor growth, most significantly in conjunction with the high energy diet. When compared to the control diet, the high energy diet promoted tumor growth, expression of the inflammatory adipokines leptin and resistin, induced lung priming by bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and promoted metastatic potential. Metformin had no effect on adipokine expression or the development of lung metastases with the standard or the high energy diet. These data indicate that metformin may have tumor suppressing activity where a metabolic phenotype of high fuel intake, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes exist, but may have little or no effect on events controlling the metastatic niche driven by proinflammatory events.

  7. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  8. [The level of nutrition knowledge versus dietary habits of diabetes patients treated with insulin].

    PubMed

    Hołyńska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata; Panczyk, Mariusz

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes is one of the fastest spreading XXI century diseases. One of the most important element of diabetes therapy should constitute dietary treatment resulting from thorough nutritional knowledge. The aim of study was to investigate the connection between the level of knowledge and way of feeding among patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes treated with insulin. The research was conducted among 105 patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes treated with insulin. Knowledge level was assessed in accordance with author's questionnaire, way of feeding in accordance with 24 hour nutritional interview. Diet 5 and Statistical 10 has been used to carry out data analysis. The largest correctness has been demonstrated in the question about the carbohydrate content in food (60%), the lowest correctness while carbohydrate exchanges knowledge has been checked (12%). Generally, patients demonstrated medium knowledge level (41% correct answers). Good level of knowledge (>50% corrects answers) has been represented by 26%, medium level of knowledge (30-50% corrects answers) by 49%, low level of knowledge (<30% correct answers) by 25% of responders. Knowledge assessment has shown too high percentage of energy from carbohydrates and saturated fatty acids and too high consumption of cholesterol and sodium. Moreover dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids shortage has been observed in analyzing diets. Interdependence between knowledge level and way of feeding has not been found (exception: lower percentage of energy from fat in patient's with medium level of knowledge diets). Improper way of feeding and low level of knowledge can constitute a obstacle to achieve optimal treatment results. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  9. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Nadia; Rasheed, Parveen

    2011-06-05

    Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998). While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK) and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  10. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998). Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK) and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases. PMID:21645325

  11. Effects of varying dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer fingerlings (Tor tambroides).

    PubMed

    Ishak, Sairatul Dahlianis; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Saad, Che Roos; Yusof, Yus Aniza

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of four iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-caloric (17.6 kJ g(-1)) diets with different dietary carbohydrate levels (15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings in a 10-week feeding trial. Fish (initial weight of 0.8?0.1 g; initial total length 4.2?0.1 cm) were fed twice daily at 4% body mass. Dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects (P<0.05) on weight gain, SGR (specific growth rate), FCR (feed conversion rate), PER (protein efficiency rate), survival percentage and all nutrient retention values (PRV, LRV, CRV, ERV). Protein, carbohydrate and gross energy composition of the fish body were also significantly differed (P<0.05) among treatments. Liver histology showed mild hepatic steatosis and hypertrophy for fishes receiving a higher dietary carbohydrate inclusion. In general, treatments with 20% and 25% dietary carbohydrate levels produced better growth results compared to the rest of the treatments. Using a second-order polynomial regression analysis model, the optimal dietary carbohydrate level of 23.4% was estimated for mahseer fingerlings. ?

  12. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Wijndaele, Katrien; Matton, Lynn; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan; Thomis, Martine; Delecluse, Christophe; Duquet, William

    2007-09-21

    Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH) between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day) were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. This study supports the evidence that carbohydrate, fat, protein and fibre intake are closely related to

  13. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Wijndaele, Katrien; Matton, Lynn; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan; Thomis, Martine; Delecluse, Christophe; Duquet, William

    2007-01-01

    Background Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH) between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Results Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day) were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. Conclusion This study supports the evidence that carbohydrate, fat, protein

  14. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  15. Effects of dietary crude protein level on odour from pig manure.

    PubMed

    Le, P D; Aarnink, A J A; Jongbloed, A W; Peet-Schwering, C M C Van der; Ogink, N W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) level on odour emission, odour intensity, hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure and on manure composition (pH, total nitrogen, ammonium, volatile fatty acids, indolic, phenolic and sulphur-containing compounds). An experiment was conducted with growing pigs (n = 18) in a randomised complete-block design with three treatments in six blocks. Treatment groups were 12%, 15% and 18% CP diets. Barley was exchanged for soya-bean meal. Crystalline amino acids (AA) were included in the 12% CP diet up to the level of pigs' requirement; the same amount of AA was added to the 15% and 18% CP diets. Pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 36.5 ± 3.4 kg (mean ± s.d.) were individually penned in partly slatted floor pens and offered a daily feed allowance of 2.8 × maintenance requirement for net energy (NE: 293 kJ/kg BW0.75). Feed was mixed with water, 1/2.5 (w/w). Faeces and urine of each pig were accumulated together in a separate manure pit under the slatted floor. After an adaptation period of 2 weeks, the manure pits were cleaned and manure was collected. In the 5th week of the collection period, air samples for odour and ammonia analyses, and manure samples were collected directly from each manure pit. Air samples were analysed for odour concentration and for hedonic value and intensity above odour detection threshold. Manure samples were analysed for volatile fatty acids, and indolic, phenolic and sulphurous compounds, ammonium and total nitrogen concentrations. Reducing dietary CP from 18% to 12% lowered odour emission ( P < 0.05) and ammonia emission ( P = 0.01) from pig manure by 80% and 53%, respectively. Reduced dietary CP decreased total nitrogen, methyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, ethanethiol, phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, indole and 3-methyl indole concentrations in the manure ( P < 0.05). Volatile fatty acids and cresols concentrations in the

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of protein, on the performance of sows during first and subsequent parity. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with BW of 195.0 ± 2.1 kg and backfat (BF) thickness of 12.9 ± 0.2 ...

  17. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  18. Association between Dietary Energy Density and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie D; Wertheim, Betsy C; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Howard, Barbara V; Johnson, Karen; Liu, Simin; Phillips, Lawrence S; Qi, Lihong; Sarto, Gloria; Turner, Tami; Waring, Molly E; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Dietary energy density, or energy available in relation to gram intake, can inform disease risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between baseline dietary energy density and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women. Dietary energy density, weight status, and type 2 diabetes incidence were prospectively characterized in a large cohort of postmenopausal women participating in one or more clinical trials or an observational study. The study involved 161,808 postmenopausal women recruited to the Women's Health Initiative observational study or clinical trials at 40 centers across the United States between 1993 and 1998. The primary outcome was incident type 2 diabetes. The association between dietary energy density quintiles and incident diabetes was tested using Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 143,204 participants without self-reported diabetes at enrollment completed baseline dietary assessment and were followed for 12.7±4.6 years. Risk of diabetes developing was 24% greater for women in the highest dietary energy density quintile compared with the lowest after adjusting for confounders (95% CI 1.17 to 1.32). Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumference mediated the relationship between dietary energy density and diabetes. In waist circumference-stratified analysis, women in dietary energy density quintiles 2 to 5 with waist circumferences >88 cm were at 9% to 12% greater risk of diabetes developing compared with women with waist circumference ≤88 cm. In this prospective study, a higher baseline dietary energy density was associated with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women, both overall, and in women with elevated waist circumference. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Physiopathology of obesity. Dietary factors, and regulation of the energy balance].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, O; Quilliot, D; Guerci, B

    2000-12-01

    Energy balance and macronutrient balance are the cornerstones upon which any theories of obesity must be built. Obesity can only occur when energy intake remains higher than energy expenditure for an extended period of time. However the macronutrient composition of the diet can also affect energy balance. Fat is a key nutrient because it is poorly regulated at both the level of consumption and oxidation. Psychological and behavioural profiles of obese subjects are clearly important because they can affect food choice and eating patterns. The role of eating frequency and circadian distribution of food is still debated. Eating disorders could be implicated in the development of obesity, but it is uncertain whether obesity is a direct result or a cause of the eating disorder. There are strong evidence to suggest that dietary restraint is associated with loss of dietary control and excessive eating. Early stages of fat storage involve expansion of existing adipocytes (hypertrophy) and later stages involve the recruitment of new adipocytes (hyperplasia). The mechanisms controlling the transformation of preadipocyte could also involve specific dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or proteins. The age of adiposity rebound, that is a risk factor for later obesity has been found significantly younger in children consuming a high protein diet. These factors could be involved during early infancy or even in utero, according to the hypothesis of fetal programming of adult diseases. There is a need for more longitudinal studies on the role of macronutrient composition, food choice or eating disorders, especially among children, teenagers and young adults.

  20. Household-level dietary quality indicator for countries in nutritional transition: application to vulnerable communities in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Melissa; Houser, Robert F; Messer, Ellen; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Deman, Hedi; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2014-03-01

    To develop a household-level diet quality indicator (HDQI) using the Salvadorian dietary guidelines to assess the dietary quality of households in vulnerable communities in El Salvador. The Salvadorian dietary guidelines were reviewed and eighteen HDQI components were identified (nine foods and nine nutrients). The components were evaluated using a proportional scoring system from 0 to 1, penalizing over- and under-consumption, where appropriate. The HDQI was validated in consultations with experts in El Salvador and by statistical analyses of the study sample data. Dietary variety and energy, nutrient and food intakes were compared among households above and below the median HDQI score using Student's t test. Vulnerable, border communities in El Salvador. Households (n 140) provided food consumption information using an FFQ and sociodemographic data. The mean HDQI score was 63·5, ranging from 43·6 to 90·0. The indicator showed a positive, significant association with the dietary variety components. The statistical associations of the indicator with the energy and nutrient components were as expected. Based on the indicator's demonstrated face validity and the results of the expert consultations, the indicator is suggested as a good measure of diet quality for households in El Salvador.

  1. Dietary supplementation with apple juice decreases endogenous amyloid-beta levels in murine brain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy; Shea, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with age-related neurodegeneration. We demonstrate herein that dietary deficiency in folate and vitamin E, coupled pro-oxidant stress induced by dietary iron, increased amyloid-beta (Abeta) levels in normal adult mice. This increase was potentiated by apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficiency as shown by treatment of transgenic mice homozygously lacking murine ApoE. Dietary supplementation with apple juice concentrate in drinking water alleviated the increase in Abeta for both mouse genotypes. These findings provide further evidence linking nutritional and genetic risk factors for age-related neurodegeneration, and underscore that dietary supplementation may be useful to augment therapeutic approaches.

  2. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  3. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  4. Relationship between dietary energy density and dietary quality in overweight young children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Poole, S A; Hart, C N; Jelalian, E; Raynor, H A

    2016-04-01

    Observational research has found that lower energy density (ED) diets are related to reduced intake of fat and greater intake of fruits and vegetables. No study has examined the relationship between dietary ED and dietary quality, as determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI), in children who are overweight and obese. Examine the relationship between dietary ED and HEI, determined from 3-d food records, in 156 children, aged 4-9 years, who had ≥85th percentile body mass index presenting for family-based obesity treatment. Dietary ED, in kcal/g, was calculated using two methods: food and all beverages consumed (food+bev) and food only consumed (food). For calculation of HEI, all components of the HEI were included except oils. Participants were classified as consuming a low-ED, medium-ED or high-ED diet using tertile cut-off points with ED calculated using food and beverages(food+bev) or food only(food) . After controlling for group difference in child sex and race and parent sex, LOW(food+bev) and LOWfood had significantly (P < 0.05) higher total HEI scores, and total fruit, total vegetable and saturated fat HEI scores than HIGH(food+bev) and HIGHfood , with higher scores indicating greater quality. Lower dietary ED is associated with higher dietary quality in children presenting for obesity treatment. Additional research investigating an ED prescription on dietary quality in children who are overweight or obese is needed to better understand this relationship. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Relationship between dietary energy density and dietary quality in overweight young children: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poole, S. A.; Hart, C. N.; Jelalian, E.; Raynor, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Observational research has found that lower energy density (ED) diets are related to reduced intake of fat and greater intake of fruits and vegetables. No study has examined the relationship between dietary ED and dietary quality, as determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI), in children who are overweight and obese. Objective Examine the relationship between dietary ED and HEI, determined from 3-d food records, in 156 children, aged 4–9 years, who had ≥85th percentile body mass index presenting for family-based obesity treatment. Method Dietary ED, in kcal/g, was calculated using two methods: food and all beverages consumed (food+bev) and food only consumed (food). For calculation of HEI, all components of the HEI were included except oils. Results Participants were classified as consuming a low-ED, medium-ED or high-ED diet using tertile cut-off points with ED calculated using food and beverages(food+bev) or food only(food). After controlling for group difference in child sex and race and parent sex, LOWfood+bev and LOWfood had significantly (P < 0.05) higher total HEI scores, and total fruit, total vegetable and saturated fat HEI scores than HIGHfood+bev and HIGHfood, with higher scores indicating greater quality. Conclusions Lower dietary ED is associated with higher dietary quality in children presenting for obesity treatment. Additional research investigating an ED prescription on dietary quality in children who are overweight or obese is needed to better understand this relationship. PMID:25914331

  6. Effect of dietary fiber on the level of free angiotensin II receptor blocker in vitro.

    PubMed

    Iwazaki, Ayano; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Tamezane, Yui; Tanaka, Kenta; Nakagawa, Minami; Imai, Kimie; Nakanishi, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan potassium (LO), candesartan (CA), and telmisartan (TE), and dietary fiber was studied as to the level of free ARB in vitro. When ARB was incubated with soluble (sodium alginate, pectin, and glucomannan) or insoluble (cellulose and chitosan) dietary fiber, the levels of free LO, TE, and CA decreased. This resulted only from mixing the dietary fiber with the ARBs and differed among the types of dietary fiber, and the pH and electrolytes in the mixture. The levels of free LO and TE tended to decrease with a higher concentration of sodium chloride in pH 1.2 fluid. These results suggest that it is important to pay attention to the possible interactions between ARBs and dietary fiber.

  7. [Dietary patterns among preschoolers and its association with education level of the parents].

    PubMed

    Yan, S Q; Cao, H; Gu, C L; Xu, Y Q; Ni, L L; Tao, H H; Shao, T; Tao, F B

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To identify the dietary patterns among preschoolers in Ma'anshan, and to investigate its association with the education levels of the parents. Methods: A total of 16 439 children aged 3-6 were recruited from 91 kindergartens in Ma'anshan city to participate in the study. Food frequency and socio-demographic information were collected through questionnaire survey. Dietary data was collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and principal-components analysis was used to derive the dietary patterns. Ordinal multinomial logistic regression was employed to explore the association between the education level of parents and the dietary patterns. Results: Five dietary patterns- "processed" , "beverage" , "snack" , "protein" and "vegetarian" were identified. Data showed that the total variance was 48.02% and the cumulative proportion of processed reached 24.78%. Low educational level of the father was positively associated with both "beverage" (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63) and "snack" dietary pattern (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.01-1.43). Low educational level of mother was positively associated with the "processed" (OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.09-1.57) and "beverage" dietary pattern (OR=1.48, 95%CI: 1.23-1.77), and showed a negative correlation with "protein" (OR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.52-0.74) and "vegetarian" dietary pattern (OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.60-0.86). Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that preschoolers in Ma'anshan tend to choose unhealthy dietary pattern. Dietary pattern was directly influenced by the parents, and especially the education level of the mothers.

  8. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  9. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  10. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-01-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150–200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products. PMID:25293539

  11. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-10-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150-200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products.

  12. Effects of dietary protein levels for gestating gilts on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y D; Jang, S K; Kim, D H; Oh, H K; Kim, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary CP levels in gestation under equal lysine content on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition of gilts. A total of 25 gilts (F1, Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments at breeding in a completely randomized design, and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different CP levels (11%, 13%, 15%, or 17%) at 2.0 kg/d throughout the gestation. Body weight of gilts at 24 h postpartum tended to increase linearly (p = 0.09) as dietary CP level increased. In lactation, backfat thickness, ADFI, litter size and weaning to estrus interval (WEI) did not differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in litter and piglet weight at 21 d of lactation (p<0.05) and weight gain of litter (p<0.01) and piglet (p<0.05) throughout the lactation as dietary CP level increased. Plasma urea nitrogen levels of gilts in gestation and at 24 h postpartum were linearly elevated as dietary CP level increased (p<0.05). Free fatty acid (FFA) levels in plasma of gestating gilts increased as dietary CP level increased up to 15%, and then decreased with quadratic effects (15 d, p<0.01; 90 d, p<0.05), and a quadratic trend (70 d, p = 0.06). There were no differences in plasma FFA, glucose levels and milk composition in lactation. These results indicate that increasing dietary CP level under equal lysine content in gestation increases BW of gilts and litter performance but does not affect litter size and milk composition. Feeding over 13% CP diet for gestating gilts could be recommended to improve litter growth.

  13. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Bouwman, Freek G; van Otterdijk, Sanne; Wodzig, Will K W H; Andersen, Malene R; van Baak, Marleen A; Rasmussen, Lone G; Martinez, J Alfredo; Jebb, Susan A; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kafatos, Anthony; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some differences between continued weight losers and weight regainers. Increases in leptin (LEP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with weight regain (P < 0·001 and P = 0·005, respectively), and these relationships were influenced by the diet. Consuming a high-protein and high-GI diet dissociated the positive relationship between the change in LEP concentration and weight regain. CRP increased during the weight-maintenance period only in weight regainers with a high-protein diet (P < 0·001). In addition, testosterone, luteinising hormone, angiotensinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, retinol-binding protein 4, insulin, glucagon, haptoglobin and growth hormone were also affected by the dietary intervention. The blood profile reflects not only the weight change during the maintenance period, but also the macronutrient composition of the dietary intervention, especially the protein level.

  14. High levels of dietary stearate promote adiposity and deteriorate hepatic insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the role of specific saturated fatty acids in the development of high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have studied the effect of stearate in high fat diets (45% energy as fat) on whole body energy metabolism and tissue specific insulin sensitivity. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low stearate diet based on palm oil or one of two stearate rich diets, one diet based on lard and one diet based on palm oil supplemented with tristearin (to the stearate level of the lard based diet), for a period of 5 weeks. Ad libitum fed Oxidative metabolism was assessed by indirect calorimetry at week 5. Changes in body mass and composition was assessed by DEXA scan analysis. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis and Western blot at the end of week 5. Results Indirect calorimetry analysis revealed that high levels of dietary stearate resulted in lower caloric energy expenditure characterized by lower oxidation of fatty acids. In agreement with this metabolic phenotype, mice on the stearate rich diets gained more adipose tissue mass. Whole body and tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and analysis of insulin induced PKBser473 phosphorylation. Whole body insulin sensitivity was decreased by all high fat diets. However, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by peripheral tissues was impaired by all high fat diets, hepatic insulin sensitivity was affected only by the stearate rich diets. This tissue-specific pattern of reduced insulin sensitivity was confirmed by similar impairment in insulin-induced phosphorylation of PKBser473 in both liver and skeletal muscle. Conclusion In C57Bl/6 mice, 5 weeks of a high fat diet rich in stearate induces a metabolic state favoring low oxidative metabolism, increased adiposity and whole body insulin resistance characterized by severe hepatic insulin resistance. These results

  15. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  16. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  18. Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Lampa, Erik; Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Lind, P Monica

    2015-02-01

    Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability. The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population. Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models. A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor. Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accuracy of Dietary Reference Intakes for determining energy requirements in girls.

    PubMed

    Bandini, Linda G; Lividini, Keith; Phillips, Sarah M; Must, Aviva

    2013-09-01

    The most recent Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) (2002) for energy were based on pooled data from convenience samples of individuals with energy expenditure determined by using doubly labeled water (DLW). To our knowledge, the accuracy of these intake estimates has not been assessed in children. We assessed the accuracy of DRI prediction equations for determining daily energy needs in girls by comparing the individual-level prediction of estimated energy requirements with the measured value of total energy expenditure (TEE) from DLW, which is considered the gold standard. In this cross-sectional analysis, we measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by using indirect calorimetry and TEE by using DLW in 161 nonobese premenarcheal girls aged 8-12 y. The activity factor TEE/RMR was used to categorize the physical activity level used in DRI equations. We observed a strong linear relation between TEE by using DLW and estimated energy requirements predicted from DRI equations (Pearson's r = 0.78, P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0. 61). The DRI-predicted energy requirements underestimated measured TEE by ~120 kcal on average. The overall mean (±SD) error in the sample was -121.3 ± 163.9 kcal. The average (±SD) percentage error in the sample was -5.8 ± 7.9%. Seventy percent of participants had predicted TEE values ≤10% of measured TEE. DRI equations for girls predict well for the group. The use of these equations for individuals may result in the underestimation of energy requirements for a significant percentage of girls.

  20. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Han, Gi Ppeum; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-09-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary net energy (NE) concentrations on growth performance and NE intake of growing gilts. Five diets were formulated to contain 9.6, 10.1, 10.6, 11.1, and 11.6 MJ NE/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial with 10 growing pigs (average body weight [BW] = 15.9±0.24 kg) was conducted to determine NE concentrations of 5 diets based on French and Dutch NE systems in a 5×5 replicated Latin square design. A growth trial also was performed with five dietary treatments and 12 replicates per treatment using 60 growing gilts (average BW = 15.9±0.55 kg) for 28 days. A regression analysis was performed to predict daily NE intake from the BW of growing gilts. Increasing NE concentrations of diets did not influence average daily gain and average daily feed intake of growing gilts. There was a quadratic relationship (p = 0.01) between dietary NE concentrations and feed efficiency (G:F), although the difference in G:F among treatment means was relatively small. Regression analysis revealed that daily NE intake was linearly associated with the BW of growing gilts. The prediction equations for NE intake with the BW of growing gilts were: NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.442+(0.562×BW, kg), R(2) = 0.796 when French NE system was used, whereas NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.533+(0.614×BW, kg), R(2) = 0.810 when Dutch NE system was used. Increasing NE concentrations of diets from 9.6 to 11.6 MJ NE/kg have little impacts on growth performance of growing gilts. Daily NE intake can be predicted from the BW between 15 and 40 kg in growing gilts.

  1. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Han, Gi Ppeum; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated the effect of dietary net energy (NE) concentrations on growth performance and NE intake of growing gilts. Methods Five diets were formulated to contain 9.6, 10.1, 10.6, 11.1, and 11.6 MJ NE/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial with 10 growing pigs (average body weight [BW] = 15.9±0.24 kg) was conducted to determine NE concentrations of 5 diets based on French and Dutch NE systems in a 5×5 replicated Latin square design. A growth trial also was performed with five dietary treatments and 12 replicates per treatment using 60 growing gilts (average BW = 15.9±0.55 kg) for 28 days. A regression analysis was performed to predict daily NE intake from the BW of growing gilts. Results Increasing NE concentrations of diets did not influence average daily gain and average daily feed intake of growing gilts. There was a quadratic relationship (p = 0.01) between dietary NE concentrations and feed efficiency (G:F), although the difference in G:F among treatment means was relatively small. Regression analysis revealed that daily NE intake was linearly associated with the BW of growing gilts. The prediction equations for NE intake with the BW of growing gilts were: NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.442+(0.562×BW, kg), R2 = 0.796 when French NE system was used, whereas NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.533+(0.614×BW, kg), R2 = 0.810 when Dutch NE system was used. Conclusion Increasing NE concentrations of diets from 9.6 to 11.6 MJ NE/kg have little impacts on growth performance of growing gilts. Daily NE intake can be predicted from the BW between 15 and 40 kg in growing gilts. PMID:28728390

  2. Effective translation of current dietary guidance: understanding and communicating the concepts of minimal and optimal levels of dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Miller, Sharon L

    2015-04-29

    Dietitians and health care providers have critical roles in the translation of the dietary guidance to practice. The protein content of diets for adults can be based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.80 g/kg per day. Alternatively, the most recent Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for macronutrients reflect expanded guidance for assessing protein needs and consider the relative relation of absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat to total energy intake in the context of chronic disease prevention. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) reflects the interrelation between the macronutrients and affords dietitians and clinicians additional flexibility in diet planning. Accounting for the caloric value of RDAs for carbohydrate and fat, "flexible calories" emerge as an opportunity to create varied eating plans that provide for protein intakes in excess of the RDA but within the AMDR. Protein Summit 2.0 highlighted the growing body of scientific evidence documenting the benefits of higher protein intakes at amounts approximating twice the RDA, which include promotion of healthy body weight and preservation of lean body mass and functional ability with age. The essential amino acid (EAA) density of a food also emerged as a novel concept analogous to "nutrient density," which can enable the practitioner to calculate the caloric cost associated with a specific protein source to attain the daily requirement of EAAs to accomplish various health outcomes because these indispensable nutrients have a significant role in protein utilization and metabolic regulation. Tailoring recommendations unique to an individual's varying goals and needs remains a challenge. However, flexibility within the application of DRIs to include consideration of the AMDR provides a sound framework to guide practitioners in effective translation of current dietary guidance with a specific regard for the documented benefits of higher protein intakes.

  3. Modulation of the human gut microbiota by dietary fibres occurs at the species level.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wing Sun Faith; Walker, Alan W; Louis, Petra; Parkhill, Julian; Vermeiren, Joan; Bosscher, Douwina; Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J

    2016-01-11

    Dietary intake of specific non-digestible carbohydrates (including prebiotics) is increasingly seen as a highly effective approach for manipulating the composition and activities of the human gut microbiota to benefit health. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about the global response of the microbial community to particular carbohydrates. Recent in vivo dietary studies have demonstrated that the species composition of the human faecal microbiota is influenced by dietary intake. There is now potential to gain insights into the mechanisms involved by using in vitro systems that produce highly controlled conditions of pH and substrate supply. We supplied two alternative non-digestible polysaccharides as energy sources to three different human gut microbial communities in anaerobic, pH-controlled continuous-flow fermentors. Community analysis showed that supply of apple pectin or inulin resulted in the highly specific enrichment of particular bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on 16S rRNA gene sequences). Of the eight most abundant Bacteroides OTUs detected, two were promoted specifically by inulin and six by pectin. Among the Firmicutes, Eubacterium eligens in particular was strongly promoted by pectin, while several species were stimulated by inulin. Responses were influenced by pH, which was stepped up, and down, between 5.5, 6.0, 6.4 and 6.9 in parallel vessels within each experiment. In particular, several experiments involving downshifts to pH 5.5 resulted in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii replacing Bacteroides spp. as the dominant sequences observed. Community diversity was greater in the pectin-fed than in the inulin-fed fermentors, presumably reflecting the differing complexity of the two substrates. We have shown that particular non-digestible dietary carbohydrates have enormous potential for modifying the gut microbiota, but these modifications occur at the level of individual strains and species and are not easily predicted a priori

  4. Temperature and dietary starch level affected protein but not starch digestibility in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    PubMed

    Couto, A; Enes, P; Peres, H; Oliva-Teles, A

    2012-06-01

    A study was carried out with gilthead sea bream juveniles to assess the effect of water temperature (18 and 25°C) and dietary pregelatinized starch level (10, 20 and 30%) on digestibility of protein and starch and on the activity of proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes. ADC of pregelatinized starch was very high (>99%) irrespectively of dietary inclusion level, and it was not affected by water temperature. ADC of protein was also high (>90%) but improved at the higher water temperature. Dietary starch interacted with protein digestibility, which decreased as dietary starch level increased. Temperature affected both acid and basic protease activities, with acid protease activity being higher at 25°C and basic protease activity being higher at 18°C. However, total proteolytic activity and amylase activities were not affected by water temperature. Dietary carbohydrate exerted no effect on proteolytic or amylolitic activities. It is concluded that gilthead sea bream juveniles digest pregelatinized starch very efficiently irrespective of water temperature, due to adjustments of amylase activity to cope with temperature differences. Pregelatinized starch interacts negatively with protein digestibility, with the ADC of protein decreasing as dietary starch levels increase.

  5. Effect of level and source of dietary fiber on food intake in the dog.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, R F; Markwell, P J; Thorne, C J

    1994-12-01

    The effects of dietary fiber on challenge meal intake and on the perception of hunger in dogs were evaluated. A program of testing variants of a standard low energy diet, to which one of five fiber containing raw materials was added, was undertaken. Diets were fed to a group of six dogs for 12-d periods in a latin square design and in amounts that corresponded to the food allowance for weight reduction. Behavioral characteristics of dogs were recorded on videotape for 30-min periods after introduction of test diets. On two occasions during each 12-d feeding period dogs were presented with a challenge meal. At the end of each 12-d feeding period all dogs entered a 6-d washout period. There was no significant effect of diet on the intake of the challenge meal or on intake of food during the subsequent washout period. In addition, diet had no apparent effect on the perception of hunger, as represented by behavioral characteristics during the 30-min period after presentation of test diets. It was concluded that inclusion of moderate levels of raw materials, composed primarily of insoluble fiber, in a commercial low energy diet had no apparent beneficial effects on satiety, when fed to dogs on an energy intake corresponding to allowances for weight reduction.

  6. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  7. Effects of dietary level of Leucaena leucocephala on performance of Angora and Spanish doelings.

    PubMed

    Yami; Litherland; Davis; Sahlu; Puchala; Goetsch

    2000-09-01

    Thirty Angora (16+/-2kg initial body weight) and 20 Spanish doelings (19+/-2kg initial body weight), approximately 8 months of age, were used in an 10 week experiment to evaluate effects of dietary level of Leucaena leucocephala on body weight (BW) gain and fiber growth. The control diet (CS) included 9% dry matter (DM) of formaldehyde-treated casein; other diets consisted of 15, 30, 45 or 60% DM of leucaena leaf meal (0.75% mimosine; 15, 30, 45 and 60l, respectively). Diets were formulated to be 2.13Mcal metabolizable energy/kg DM, and ranged in crude protein from 10 to 14% of DM. DM intake was greater (P<0.05) for 45l than for CS and 15l (710, 648, 815, 899 and 811g per day for CS, 15, 30, 45 and 60l, respectively) and similar (P>0.05) between Angora and Spanish doelings. BW gain was similar (P>0.05) among diets (48, 28, 38, 34 and 26g per day for CS, 15, 30, 45 and 60l, respectively) and between breeds. Mohair growth rate was lower (P<0.05) for 60 and 30l than for CS (1.34, 1.18, 0.94, 1.16 and 0.88mgcm(-2) per day, and mohair diameter was greatest (P<0.05) for CS and lowest (P<0.05) for 60l (27.7, 25.9, 25.1, 25.0 and 23.8µm for CS, 15, 30, 45 and 60l, respectively). Cashmere growth rate and fiber diameter for Spanish goats were similar among diets, and primary and secondary follicle activities for both Angora and Spanish goats were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). Diet affected (P<0.05) plasma concentrations of urea, threonine, arginine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine, with concentrations increasing as dietary level of leucaena increased. In conclusion, diets of moderate to high levels (e.g., 45%) of leucaena with 0.75% mimosine can be fed to goats without adverse effects on BW gain or fiber growth. However, further study of the composition of leucaena-based diets appears necessary to achieve most efficient utilization.

  8. [Effect of different dietary fat intake on blood lipids, body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yantong; Zhuo, Qin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Chun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different dietary fat intake on body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats. Forty male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Rats in low fat, normal fat, medium fat and high fat group were fed equal energy diets of low fat diet (5% energy from fat), normal diet (15% energy from fat), medium fat diet (25% energy from fat) and high fat diet (40% energy from fat) respectively. Blood glucose and lipids were analyzed at 0, 5 and 10 weeks. The level of serum adiponectin and leptin was tested at 0 and 10 weeks. At the end of 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, the perirenal and periepididymis fat were separated and weighed. The mRNA of adiponectin and leptin in fat tissues were determined by realtime PCR. After the 5 and 10 weeks, the levels of serum triglyceride of rats in medium fat group and high fat group were lower than those in low fat group and normal fat group. At the end of 10 weeks, the expression of adiponectin mRNA in fat tissues in medium fat group was lower than those in low fat group. There were no significant differences among four groups in body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin, and the expression of leptin mRNA in fat tissues. In energy balance status, different dietary fat intake had no effects on body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin in rats.

  9. Effects of dietary composition of energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced energy expenditure following weight loss is thought to contribute to weight gain. However, the effect of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance has not been studied. To examine the effects of 3 diets differing widely in macronutrient composition and glycemic...

  10. Energy levels of bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    Within a tight binding approach we investigate the energy levels of hexagonal and triangular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We study AA- and AB- (Bernal) stacked BLG QDs and obtain the energy levels in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). Our results show that the size dependence of the energy levels is different from that of monolayer graphene QDs. The energy spectrum of AB-stacked BLG QDs with zigzag edges exhibits edge states which spread out into the opened energy gap in the presence of a perpendicular electric field. We found that the behavior of these edges states is different for the hexagonal and triangular geometries. In the case of AA-stacked BLG QDs, the electron and hole energy levels cross each other in both cases of armchair and zigzag edges as the dot size or the applied bias increases.

  11. [Study on the dietary intake level for indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in China].

    PubMed

    Shao, Y; Yin, S X; Zhang, L; Li, J G; Zhao, Y F; Wang, J; Wu, Y N

    2016-06-01

    To obtain representative data on levels of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods consumed by the general population and to estimate the dietary intake of indicator PCBs in China. The food samples were collected during the fifth China Total Diet Study (2009-2013). Based on the geographical location and dietary habits, China was divided into the south area and the north area, and 10 province regions from each area were chosen. In each province region, one urban site and two rural sites were selected to collect food samples. Considering the food consumption level and the PCBs contaminate rule, a total of 160 samples including meat, eggs, fish, milk, cereals, beans, potatoes and vegetables were selected. The concentration of 7 indicator PCBs in food were determined by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass, and combined with food consumption to calculate the dietary intake of indicator PCBs. The concentration of indicator PCBs in 8 categories of food were in the range of 0.8-1 300.1 pg/g. The levels of indicator PCBs were significantly higher in the aquatic products, averaging (307.8±302.4) pg/g, followed by eggs at (76.6±92.1) pg/g and meat at (63.0±54.9) pg/g. The daily dietary intake of indicator PCBs varied from province to province, ranging from 0.13 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1) to 3.58 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1), averaging (0.67±0.77) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1). Fujian had the highest level (3.58 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) , followed by Shanghai (1.48 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) and Zhejiang (1.09 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) . Compared with the minimum risk level (MRL) value (20 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) proposed by US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the highest dietary intake level was only 17.9% MRL, the average dietary intake level was 3.4%MRL. Aquatic products was still the major contributor to the dietary intake of indicator PCBs in China, 48% of average dietary intake level (0.32 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)/0.67 ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)) . The dietary intake of indicator PCBs in China was

  12. Composition of ruminal bacteria harvested from steers as influenced by dietary forage level and fat supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H S; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary forage level and fat supplementation on the chemical composition of mixed ruminal bacteria (MRB). Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (354 kg +/- 18) were given ad libitum access to six diets (13.2% CP; DM basis) that were offered twice daily in a 6 x 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with two forage levels (70 vs 30% of dietary DM as corn silage) and three forms of fat supplementation including no canola seed or canola seed added at 10% of dietary DM as whole treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide or untreated crushed. Canola seed contributed 5% added fat to the total diet. The remaining dietary ingredients were corn, canola meal, molasses, and urea. No interactions (P > .05) between dietary forage level and canola seed supplementation were observed. Concentrations of OM, N, and all amino acids were higher (P < .05) in MRB from steers fed low forage than in MRB from steers fed high forage. Concentrations of purines and GE and the N:purines ratio in MRB were not affected (P > .05) by dietary forage level or canola seed supplementation. Canola seed supplementation did not affect (P > .05) concentrations of OM, N, or most of the amino acids in MRB. Concentrations of four essential amino acids (i.e., isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) in MRB were decreased (P < .05) due to canola seed supplementation. Dietary forage level did not affect (P > .05) concentrations of long-chain fatty acids in MRB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Association between general self-efficacy level and use of dietary supplements in the group of American football players.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increased nutritional demands of athletes should be covered with a variable well-balanced diet, supported by dietary supplements stimulating synthesis of energy, development of muscle mass and strength, and improving physical capacity. The aim of this study was to analyze an association between the level of general self-efficacy and dietary supplement use among Polish athletes practicing American football on a competitive basis. The study included the group of 100 athletes (20-30 years of age, mean 24.27±2.76 years) who practiced American football on a competitive basis. The popularity of various dietary supplements was determined with an original survey, and the level of general self-efficacy with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) by Schwarzer et al. Statistical analysis, conducted with Statistica 10.0 PL software, included intergroup comparisons with the Chi-square test. Isotonic drinks (74%), vitamin (65%) and mineral supplements (50%) and protein concentrates (53%) turned out to be the most popular ergogenic supplements among the American footballers. The group of less popular supplements included caffeine and/or guarana (44%), joint supporting supplements (40%), BCAA amino acids (39%), creatine (36%), carbohydrate concentrates (30%) and omega-3 fatty acids (30%). Analysis of a relationship between the popularity of ergogenic supplements and general self-efficacy showed that the athletes presenting with lower levels of this trait used multivitamin supplements significantly more often than did the persons characterized by lower self-efficacy levels (p<0.05). The popularity of some dietary supplements varied depending on the general self-efficacy level of the athletes; the popularity of vitamins was significantly higher among the sportsmen who presented with lower levels of this trait.

  14. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species.

    PubMed

    Schrama, J W; Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Heinsbroek, L T N; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (k(gDE)). Furthermore, literature data on k(gDE) across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient composition. A total of twelve groups of fish were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two diets ('fat' v. 'starch') and two feeding levels ('low' v. 'high'). In the 'fat'-diet, 125 g fish oil and in the 'starch'-diet 300 g maize starch were added to 875 g of an identical basal mixture. Fish were fed restrictively one of two ration levels ('low' or 'high') for estimating k(gDE). Nutrient digestibility, N and energy balances were measured. For estimating k(gDE), data of the present study were combined with previous data of Nile tilapia fed similar diets to satiation. The type of NPE affected k(gDE) (0.561 and 0.663 with the 'starch' and 'fat'-diets, respectively; P < 0.001). Across fish species, literature values of k(gDE) range from 0.31 to 0.82. Variability in k(gDE) was related to dietary macronutrient composition, the trophic level of the fish species and the composition of growth (fat:protein gain ratio). The across-species comparison suggested that the relationships of k(gDE) with trophic level and with growth composition were predominantly induced by dietary macronutrient composition. Reported k(gDE) values increased linearly with increasing dietary fat content and decreasing dietary carbohydrate content. In contrast, k(gDE) related curvilinearly to dietary crude protein content. In conclusion, energy utilisation for growth is influenced by dietary macronutrient composition.

  15. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, D. E.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included. PMID:25557670

  16. Characterization of dietary energy in Swine feed and feed ingredients: a review of recent research results.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, D E; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  17. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  18. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  19. Assessing the effect of underreporting energy intake on dietary patterns and weight status.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Mitchell, Diane C; Miller, Carla; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2007-01-01

    To identify misreporting among older rural adults using a prediction algorithm and to compare dietary patterns of underreporters and plausible reporters. In this cross-sectional study, diet information was assessed by five 24-hour recalls collected over 10 months. All foods were classified into 24 food subgroups. Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were collected via home visit. Rural Pennsylvania. One hundred seventy-nine community-dwelling adults, aged 66 to 87 years. Cluster analysis. Underreporters (n=43) were more likely than plausible reporters (n=133) to be overweight and less educated but did not differ by sex. Underreporters consumed fewer servings across the majority of food groups. Two dietary patterns were determined for all and plausible reporters, in both cases one of higher and one of lower nutrient density. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was very similar to using all reporters. The correlation between energy intake and weight status was improved for plausible-reporting women, but not men. Dietary patterns of plausible reporters were generally similar to that of all reporters; however, correlations with energy intake and weight status improved for women using only plausible reporters. Individuals may not accurately report dietary intake. Those obtaining diet reports should be aware of reporting errors before making decisions about dietary adequacy.

  20. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    PubMed

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P < 0.0001). Cellobiose (≈90 %) and glucose (≈10 %) were the major soluble hexoses present in RF. Maltose was not detected. Soluble glucose concentration (13.0 μM) was not modified by either UIPC (P = 0.40) nor DFC (P = 0.61). However, a DFC by post-prandial time interaction was detected (P = 0.02). Pentose concentrations were greater (P = 0.02) in RF of steers fed high DFC (100.2 μM) than steers fed low DFC (177.0 μM). UIPC did not influence (P = 0.35) soluble pentose concentration. The identity of soluble pentoses in ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.

  1. Response of chicks to two diets of differing energy levels under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.; Kese, A. G.

    1987-12-01

    A 2×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the performance and certain physiological parameters of 200 day-old chicks fed diets containing either 2600 or 3000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram for a period of 28 days under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat in a hot humid tropical area. The results indicated that within each dietary energy level, there was no significant difference in growth rates of chicks brooded with or without supplemental heat, however, the high energy diet significantly (P<0.01) promoted greater weight gains than the low energy diet. Brooding chicks with supplemental heat and with the high energy diet, decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion efficiency. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat consumed significantly (P<0.01) less water than those brooded with heat, irrespective of the dietary energy level. Mortality and blood glucose levels were not affected by the heat and dietary energy treatments. Thyroid weight expressed as percentage of body weight, haemoglobin and hematocrit values were significantly (P<0.01) higher for chicks brooded without supplemental heat. On the other hand, dietary energy levels did not exert any effect on these physiological parameters. No significant heat and dietary energy level interaction effects were noted on all the parameters considered under this trial.

  2. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (P<0.01). Energy restriction induced an increase in exercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of

  3. Maternal dietary patterns are associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic markers during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chantel L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Robinson, Whitney R.; Daniels, Julie L.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Stuebe, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of cardiometabolic markers are characteristic of normal pregnancy; however, insulin resistance and increased glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels can adversely influence maternal and child health. Diet is a modifiable behavior that could have significant impact on maternal cardiometabolic levels during pregnancy. We investigated the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic markers (glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, and cholesterol) during pregnancy. Methods Data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition prospective cohort study (2000-2005) was used (n=513). Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived using latent class analysis (LCA) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Linear regression was used to examine the dietary patterns-cardiometabolic markers association during pregnancy. Results Three dietary patterns evolved from the LCA characterized by high intakes of: 1) hamburgers, hot dogs, bacon, French fries, fried chicken, white bread, and soft drinks; 2) some vegetables, fruit juice, refined grains, mixed dishes, processed meat, and empty calorie foods; and 3) fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat dairy, breakfast bars, and water. After adjustment for potential confounders including pre-pregnancy body mass index, a diet consistent with Latent Class 3 was negatively associated with maternal insulin (μU/mL: β=−0.12; 95% CI: −0.23, −0.01) and HOMA-IR (β=−0.13; 95% CI: −0.25, −0.00). Additionally, DASH scores within Tertile 3 (higher dietary quality) were also negatively associated with maternal triglycerides (mg/dL). Conclusions The study findings suggest an association between maternal dietary patterns and several cardiometabolic markers during pregnancy. PMID:26848932

  4. Maternal Dietary Patterns are Associated with Lower Levels of Cardiometabolic Markers during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Chantel L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Robinson, Whitney R; Daniels, Julie L; Perrin, Eliana M; Stuebe, Alison M

    2016-05-01

    Elevated levels of cardiometabolic markers are characteristic of normal pregnancy, however, insulin resistance and increased glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels can adversely influence maternal and child health. Diet is a modifiable behaviour that could have significant impact on maternal cardiometabolic levels during pregnancy. We investigated the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic markers (glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, and cholesterol) during pregnancy. Data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition prospective cohort study (2000-05) was used (n = 513). Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived using latent class analysis (LCA) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Linear regression was used to examine the dietary patterns-cardiometabolic markers association during pregnancy. Three dietary patterns evolved from the LCA characterised by high intakes of: (1) hamburgers, hot dogs, bacon, French fries, fried chicken, white bread, and soft drinks; (2) some vegetables, fruit juice, refined grains, mixed dishes, processed meat, and empty calorie foods; and (3) fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, breakfast bars, and water. After adjustment for potential confounders including prepregnancy body mass index, a diet consistent with Latent Class 3 was negatively associated with maternal insulin (μU/mL: β = -0.12; 95% CI -0.23, -0.01) and HOMA-IR (β = -0.13; 95% CI -0.25, -0.00). Additionally, DASH scores within Tertile 3 (higher dietary quality) were also negatively associated with maternal triglycerides (mg/dL). The study findings suggest an association between maternal dietary patterns and several cardiometabolic markers during pregnancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%<3 was observed. In mixed diets, the DF energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools.

  7. Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ≥19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

  8. High-level dietary fibre up-regulates colonic fermentation and relative abundance of saccharolytic bacteria within the human faecal microbiota in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Zhao, Lu; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2012-09-01

    Health authorities around the world advise citizens to increase their intake of foods rich in dietary fibre because of its inverse association with chronic disease. However, a few studies have measured the impact of increasing mixed dietary fibres directly on the composition of the human gut microbiota. We studied the impact of high-level mixed dietary fibre intake on the human faecal microbiota using an in vitro three-stage colonic model. The colonic model was maintained on three levels of fibre, a basal level of dietary fibre, typical of a Western-style diet, a threefold increased level and back to normal level. Bacterial profiles and short chain fatty acids concentrations were measured. High-level dietary fibre treatment significantly stimulated the growth of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group, and Ruminococcus group (p < 0.05) and significantly increased clostridial cluster XIVa and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in vessel 1 mimicking the proximal colon (p < 0.05). Total short chain fatty acids concentrations increased significantly upon increased fibre fermentation, with acetate and butyrate increasing significantly in vessel 1 only (p < 0.05). Bacterial species richness changed upon increased fibre supplementation. The microbial community and fermentation output returned to initial levels once supplementation with high fibre ceased. This study shows that high-level mixed dietary fibre intake can up-regulate both colonic fermentation and the relative abundance of saccharolytic bacteria within the human colonic microbiota. Considering the important role of short chain fatty acids in regulating human energy metabolism, this study has implications for the health-promoting potential of foods rich in dietary fibres.

  9. Food preferences do not influence adolescent high-level athletes' dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García-Rovés, Pablo M; García, Angela; Patterson, Angeles M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of preferences on food and nutritional intake in a group of adolescent high-level athletes, 22 male soccer players (14-16 years) were recruited. Individuals were asked to fill in a specific questionnaire including 15 food groups that had to be ranked according to their preferences. Three categories were established: "Like" (ranked 1-5), "Indifferent" (6-10), and "Dislike" (11-15). Dietary intake was assessed using the weighed food method (for nutrient intake) and a quantitative open-ended food frequency questionnaire (for the number of standard portions of each food group ingested daily). The main preferences were Meat, poultry and derivates (ranked 1-5 in 83% of individuals) and Pasta (58%), while Vegetables (ranked 11-15 in 82%) and Fish (64%) were the main dislikes. The most frequently consumed food groups were Fruits and fruit juices (3.9 portions/day), Bread (3.0), and Biscuits, confectionery and sweets (3.0). No statistical differences were found in food consumption between preference groups, and no relation was found between preferences and nutritional intake, except for those individuals who especially like Bread, which had statistically higher energy and carbohydrate intake. Food preferences and food and nutritional intake of adolescent high-level soccer players were, effectively, unrelated.

  10. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  11. Dietary energy density but not glycemic load is associated with gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Background The majority of pregnant women are gaining outside of the recommended weight gain ranges. Excessive weight gains have been linked to pregnancy complications and long term maternal and child health outcomes. Objective To examine the impact of dietary glycemic load and energy density on total gestational weight gain and weight gain ratio (observed weight gain/expected weight gain). Design Data are from 1231 women with singleton pregnancies who participated in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Cohort Study. Dietary information was collected at 26–29 weeks gestation using a semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between glycemic load (in quartiles) and energy density (in quartiles) with total gestational weight gain and weight gain ratio. Results Dietary patterns of pregnant women significantly differed across many sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, with the greatest contrasts seen for glycemic load. After adjustment for covariates, in comparison to women in the first quartile, consuming a mean dietary energy density of 0.77 kcal/g (reference), women in the second quartile, consuming a mean energy density of 0.95 kcal/g, gained an excess of 0.91 kg (95% CI: 0.02–1.79) and women in the third quartile, consuming a mean energy density of 1.09 kcal/g, gained an excess of 1.47 kg (95% CI: 0.58–2.36). All other comparisons of energy intakes were not statistically significant. Glycemic load was not associated with total gestational weight gain or weight gain ratio. Conclusions Dietary energy density is a modifiable factor that may assist pregnant women in managing gestational weight gains. PMID:18779285

  12. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  13. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P<0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P<0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P<0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and

  14. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Q. F.; Cherry, P.; Doster, A.; Murdoch, R.; Adeola, O.; Applegate, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P < 0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P < 0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P < 0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth

  15. Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. )

    1992-01-01

    The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

  16. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Patricia M; Wright, Alan J; Veltien, Andor; van Asten, Jack J A; Tack, Cees J; Jones, John G; Heerschap, Arend

    2014-05-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced hepatic triglyceride (HTG) accumulation can be attributed to both DNL stimulation and dietary lipid absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose diet on HTG and ATP content and the contributions of dietary lipids and DNL to HTG. Measurements were performed in vivo in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and novel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches. Abdominal adipose tissue volume and intramyocellular lipid levels were comparable between 8-wk fructose- and glucose-fed mice. HTG levels were ∼1.5-fold higher in fructose-fed than in glucose-fed mice (P<0.05). Metabolic flux analysis by (13)C and (2)H MRS showed that this was not due to dietary lipid absorption, but due to DNL stimulation. The contribution of oral lipids to HTG was, after 5 h, 1.60 ± 0.23% for fructose and 2.16 ± 0.35% for glucose diets (P=0.26), whereas that of DNL was higher in fructose than in glucose diets (2.55±0.51 vs.1.13±0.24%, P=0.01). Hepatic energy status, assessed by (31)P MRS, was similar for fructose- and glucose-fed mice. Fructose-induced HTG accumulation is better explained by DNL and not by dietary lipid uptake, while not compromising ATP homeostasis.

  17. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  18. Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Najafabadi, Mojgan Mortazavi; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED), renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake of patients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED (in kcal/g) was calculated with the use of energy content and weight of solid foods and energy yielding beverages. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results. Patients in the first tertile of DED consumed more amounts of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B2. After adjusting for confounders, we could not find any significant trend for BUN and Cr across tertiles of DED. In multivariate model, an increased risk of being in the higher stage of CKD was found among those in the last tertile of DED (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.63; P = 0.01). Conclusion. We observed that lower DED was associated with better nutrient intake and lower risk of CKD progression.

  19. Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Najafabadi, Mojgan Mortazavi; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED), renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake of patients was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. DED (in kcal/g) was calculated with the use of energy content and weight of solid foods and energy yielding beverages. Renal function was measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results. Patients in the first tertile of DED consumed more amounts of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, calcium, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin B2. After adjusting for confounders, we could not find any significant trend for BUN and Cr across tertiles of DED. In multivariate model, an increased risk of being in the higher stage of CKD was found among those in the last tertile of DED (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.63; P = 0.01). Conclusion. We observed that lower DED was associated with better nutrient intake and lower risk of CKD progression. PMID:27819022

  20. Dietary composition affect levels of trace elements in the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects require small amounts of dietary minerals because of the roles minerals serve as antioxidants, enzyme co-factors and as constituents of metalloproteins. We measured the levels of ten trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) in the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris rea...

  1. Levels of preservatives (sulfite, sorbate and benzoate) in New Zealand foods and estimated dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Cressey, P; Jones, S

    2009-05-01

    Thirty foods assessed as being the likely major contributors to dietary preservative exposure were purchased, prepared as normally consumed and analyzed for sulfite, sorbate and benzoate. The majority of preservative concentrations (>98%) were within maximum permitted levels (MPLs) specified in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code. Mean population level estimates of dietary exposure were well below the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for all age-gender groups for all preservatives at 7-27%, 1-4% and 1-8% of the ADI for sulfites, sorbates and benzoates, respectively. All population level 95th percentile estimates of dietary exposure were below the ADI, with the exception of estimates for sulfite exposure for 5-12-year-old boys. The results of the current survey indicate that dietary exposure to the preservatives, sulfite, sorbate and benzoate, represent a low level of public health risk. However, it should be noted that the exposure estimates determined in the current survey will be influenced by the assumptions made.

  2. Dietary Predictors of Maternal Prenatal Blood Mercury Levels in the ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Lowery, Tony; Jones, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very high levels of prenatal maternal mercury have adverse effects on the developing fetal brain. It has been suggested that all possible sources of mercury should be avoided. However, although seafood is a known source of mercury, little is known about other dietary components that contribute to the overall levels of blood mercury. Objective: Our goal was to quantify the contribution of components of maternal diet to prenatal blood mercury level. Methods: Whole blood samples and information on diet and sociodemographic factors were collected from pregnant women (n = 4,484) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The blood samples were assayed for total mercury using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry. Linear regression was used to estimate the relative contributions of 103 dietary variables and 6 sociodemographic characteristics to whole blood total mercury levels (TBM; untransformed and log-transformed) based on R2 values. Results: We estimated that maternal diet accounted for 19.8% of the total variation in ln-TBM, with 44% of diet-associated variability (8.75% of the total variation) associated with seafood consumption (white fish, oily fish, and shellfish). Other dietary components positively associated with TBM included wine and herbal teas, and components with significant negative associations included white bread, meat pies or pasties, and french fries. Conclusions: Although seafood is a source of dietary mercury, seafood appeared to explain a relatively small proportion of the variation in TBM in our UK study population. Our findings require confirmation, but suggest that limiting seafood intake during pregnancy may have a limited impact on prenatal blood mercury levels. Citation: Golding J, Steer CD, Hibbeln JR, Emmett PM, Lowery T, Jones R. 2013. Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1214

  3. Effect of short-term high dietary calcium intake on 24-h energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and fecal fat excretion.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, R; Lorenzen, J K; Toubro, S; Krog-Mikkelsen, I; Astrup, A

    2005-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and body weight, and a causal relation is likely. However, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We examined whether high and low calcium intakes from mainly low-fat dairy products, in diets high or normal in protein content, have effects on 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation, fecal energy and fat excretion, and concentrations of substrates and hormones involved in energy metabolism and appetite. In all, 10 subjects participated in a randomized crossover study of three isocaloric 1-week diets with: low calcium and normal protein (LC/NP: 500 mg calcium, 15% of energy (E%) from protein), high calcium and normal protein (HC/NP: 1800 mg calcium, 15E% protein), and high calcium and high protein (HC/HP: 1800 mg calcium, 23E% protein). The calcium intake had no effect on 24-h EE or fat oxidation, but fecal fat excretion increased approximately 2.5-fold during the HC/NP diet compared with the LC/NP and the HC/HP diets (14.2 vs 6.0 and 5.9 g/day; P < 0.05). The HC/NP diet also increased fecal energy excretion as compared with the LC/NP and the HC/HP diets (1045 vs 684 and 668 kJ/day; P < 0.05). There were no effects on blood cholesterol, free fatty acids, triacylglycerol, insulin, leptin, or thyroid hormones. A short-term increase in dietary calcium intake, together with a normal protein intake, increased fecal fat and energy excretion by approximately 350 kJ/day. This observation may contribute to explain why a high-calcium diet produces weight loss, and it suggests that an interaction with dietary protein level may be important.

  4. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure is the primary etiology for excess weight gain. Increased energy expenditure via exercise and energy restriction via diet are commonly used approaches to induce weight loss. Such behavioral interventions, however, have generally resulted in a smaller than expected weight loss, which in part has been attributed to compensatory adaptations in other components contributing to energy balance. Current research points to a loose coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure on a daily basis, and evidence for long-term adaptations has been inconsistent. The lack of conclusive evidence on compensatory adaptations in response to alterations in energy balance can be attributed to differences in intervention type and study population. Physical activity (PA) levels may be reduced in response to aerobic exercise but not in response to resistance exercise. Furthermore, athletic and lean adults have been shown to increase their energy intake in response to exercise, whereas no such response was observed in obese adults. There is also evidence that caloric restriction is associated with a decline in PA. Generally, humans seem to be better equipped to defend against weight loss than avoid weight gain, but results also show a large individual variability. Therefore, individual differences rather than group means should be explored to identify specific characteristics of "compensators" and "noncompensators." This review emphasizes the need for more research with simultaneous measurements of all major components contributing to energy balance to enhance the understanding of the regulation of energy balance, which is crucial to address the current obesity epidemic. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  7. Mapping Energy Levels for Organic Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiying; Li, Peicheng; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-06-01

    An organic semiconductor thin film is a solid-state matter comprising one or more molecules. For applications in electronics and photonics, several distinct functional organic thin films are stacked together to create a variety of devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells. The energy levels at these thin-film junctions dictate various electronic processes such as the charge transport across these junctions, the exciton dissociation rates at donor-acceptor molecular interfaces, and the charge trapping during exciton formation in a host-dopant system. These electronic processes are vital to a device's performance and functionality. To uncover a general scientific principle in governing the interface energy levels, highest occupied molecular orbitals, and vacuum level dipoles, herein a comprehensive experimental research is conducted on several dozens of organic-organic heterojunctions representative of various device applications. It is found that the experimental data map on interface energy levels, after correcting variables such as molecular orientation-dependent ionization energies, consists of three distinct regions depending on interface fundamental physical parameters such as Fermi energy, work function, highest occupied molecular orbitals, and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals. This general energy map provides a master guide in selection of new materials for fabricating future generations of organic semiconductor devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effects of Dietary Methionine Levels on Choline Requirements of Starter White Pekin Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Z. G.; Tang, J.; Xie, M.; Yang, P. L.; Hou, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    A 2×5 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary methionine levels (0.28% and 0.48%) and 5 dietary choline levels (0, 394, 823, 1,239, and 1,743 mg/kg), was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine status on choline requirements of starter white Pekin ducks from 7 to 28 days of age. Four hundred eighty 7-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to ten dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 28 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured and the legs of all ducks from each pen were examined for incidence of perosis. Perosis and growth depression were observed in choline-deficient ducks and supplementation of choline reduced perosis and significantly increased weight gain and feed intake regardless of dietary methionine levels (p<0.05). In addition, significant positive effects of dietary methionine supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were observed at any choline level (p<0.05). Supplementation of 1,743 mg/kg choline in diets alleviated the depression of weight gain and feed intake caused by methionine deficiency at 0.28% methionine level. The interaction between choline and methionine influenced weight gain and feed intake of ducks (p<0.05). At 0.28% methionine level, 1,743 mg/kg choline group caused 4.92% and 3.23% amount of improvement in weight gain and feed intake compared with 1,239 mg/kg choline group, respectively. According to the broken-line regression, the choline requirements of starter Pekin ducks for weight gain and feed intake were 1,472 and 1,424 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 946 and 907 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. It suggested the choline recommendations of starter Pekin ducks on a semi-purified diet were 1448 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 927 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. Compared with the adequate methionine level, menthionine deficiency markedly increased the choline requirements of ducks. PMID

  9. Dietary Energy Balance Modulates Prostate Cancer Progression in Hi-Myc Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blando, Jorge; Moore, Tricia; Hursting, Stephen; Jiang, Guiyu; Saha, Achinto; Beltran, Linda; Shen, Jianjun; Repass, John; Strom, Sara; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-01-01

    Male Hi-Myc mice were placed on three dietary regimens [30% calorie restriction (CR), overweight control (modified AIN76A with 10kcal% fat), and a diet-induced obesity regimen (DIO) 60kcal% fat]. All diet groups had approximately similar incidence of hyperplasia and low grade PIN in the ventral prostate at 3 and 6 months of age. However, 30% CR significantly reduced the incidence of in situ adenocarcinomas at 3 months compared to the DIO group and at 6 months compared to both the overweight control and DIO groups. Furthermore, the DIO regimen significantly increased the incidence of adenocarcinoma with aggressive stromal invasion, as compared to the overweight control group (96% vs. 65% respectively, p=0.02) at the 6 month time point. Additionally, at both 3 and 6 months, only in situ carcinomas were observed in mice maintained on the 30% CR diet. Relative to overweight control, DIO increased, while 30% CR reduced activation of Akt, mTORC1, Stat3 and NFκB (p65) in ventral prostate. DIO also significantly increased (and 30% CR decreased) numbers of T-lymphocytes and macrophages in the ventral prostate compared to overweight control. The mRNA levels for IL1α, IL1β, IL6, IL7, IL23, IL27, NFκB1 (p50), TNFα and VEGF family members were significantly increased in the ventral prostate of the DIO group compared to both the overweight control and 30% CR diet groups. Collectively, these findings suggest that enhanced growth factor (Akt/mTORC1 and Stat3) and inflammatory (NFκB, cytokines) signaling may play a role in dietary energy balance effects on prostate cancer progression in Hi-Myc mice. PMID:21952584

  10. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  11. Muscle respiration in rats is influenced by the type and level of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Early, R J; Spielman, S P

    1995-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to elucidate the role of muscle in the enhanced thermogenic response found in rats fed diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Isolated soleus muscle respiration and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were determined in rats (approximately 128 g wt, 5 wk age) fed diets (minimum 3 wk) containing coconut oil, beef tallow or safflower oil at 20, 40 or 60% of the total dietary energy in a 3 x 3 factorial design (5-6 rats per treatment). Diet type did not affect plasma cholesterol concentrations but plasma triglycerides were lower (P < 0.01) in rats fed safflower oil-based diets. Greater levels of fat in the diet resulted in higher (P < 0.01) plasma cholesterol concentrations and lower (P < 0.01) plasma triglyceride concentrations. Rats fed coconut oil had lower (P < 0.05) rats of soleus muscle respiration compared with rats fed the other two diets. This lower respiration rate was not related to changes in protein synthesis (cycloheximide-sensitive respiration). However, this change may partially be related to enhanced Na+,K+ transport (ouabain-sensitive respiration). The results indicate that muscle is partially responsible for the enhanced thermogenic response found in rats fed diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids and that enhanced ion transport contributes to this response in muscle.

  12. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Felicetti, Laura A; Robbins, Charles T; Shipley, Lisa A

    2003-01-01

    Many fruits contain high levels of available energy but very low levels of protein and other nutrients. The discrepancy between available energy and protein creates a physiological paradox for many animals consuming high-fruit diets, as they will be protein deficient if they eat to meet their minimum energy requirement. We fed young grizzly bears both high-energy pelleted and fruit diets containing from 1.6% to 15.4% protein to examine the role of diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis in dealing with high-energy-low-protein diets. Digestible energy intake at mass maintenance increased 2.1 times, and composition of the gain changed from primarily lean mass to entirely fat when the protein content of the diet decreased from 15.4% to 1.6%. Daily fat gain was up to three times higher in bears fed low-protein diets ad lib., compared with bears consuming the higher-protein diet and gaining mass at the same rate. Thus, bears eating fruit can either consume other foods to increase dietary protein content and reduce energy expenditure, intake, and potentially foraging time or overeat high-fruit diets and use diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis to deal with their skewed energy-to-protein ratio. These are not discrete options but a continuum that creates numerous solutions for balancing energy expenditure, intake, foraging time, fat accumulation, and ultimately fitness, depending on food availability, foraging efficiency, bear size, and body condition.

  13. Dietary energy source in dairy cows in early lactation: metabolites and metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    van Knegsel, A T M; van den Brand, H; Graat, E A M; Dijkstra, J; Jorritsma, R; Decuypere, E; Tamminga, S; Kemp, B

    2007-03-01

    Negative energy balance-related metabolic disorders suggest that the balance between available lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients is important. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a glucogenic or a lipogenic diet on liver triacylglycerides (TAG), metabolites, and metabolic hormones in dairy cows in early lactation and to relate metabolite concentrations to the determined energy retention in body mass (ER). Sixteen dairy cows were fed either a lipogenic or glucogenic diet from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum (pp) and were housed in climate respiration chambers from wk 2 to 9 pp. Diets were isocaloric (net energy basis). Postpartum, cows fed a lipogenic diet tended to have higher nonesterified fatty acid concentration (NEFA; 0.46 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.37 +/- 0.04 mmol/L) and lower insulin concentration (4.0 +/- 0.5 vs. 5.5 +/- 0.6 microIU/mL). No difference was found in plasma glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin-like growth factor-I, and thyroid hormones. Liver TAG was equal between both diets in wk -2 and 2 pp. In wk 4 pp cows fed the glucogenic diet had numerically lower TAG levels, although there was no significant dietary effect. Negative relationships were detected between ER and milk fat and between ER and NEFA. A positive relationship was detected between ER and insulin concentration. Overall, results suggest that insulin plays a regulating role in altering energy partitioning between milk and body tissue. Feeding lactating dairy cows a glucogenic diet decreased mobilization of body fat compared with a lipogenic diet. The relative abundance of lipogenic nutrients, when feeding a more lipogenic diet, is related to more secretion of lipogenic nutrients in milk, lower plasma insulin, and higher plasma NEFA concentration.

  14. Effect of supranutritional level of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate and selenium on rabbit semen.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Cesare; Lattaioli, Paolo; Bosco, Alessandro Dal; Beghelli, Daniela

    2002-12-01

    This research examined the effects of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate (50 or 200 mg/kg diet) and selenium (Se, 0 or 0.5 ppm) supplementation on motion characteristics, oxidative stability and fertilizing ability of rabbit spermatozoa, fresh and stored for 24 h at 5 degrees C. The higher amount of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate increased the level of Vitamin E in the fresh semen (1.75 mmol/l versus 0.95 mmol/l) and its oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS 12.44 nmol malondialdehyde/10(8) sperm versus 21.4 nmol malondialdehyde/10(8) sperm). Dietary Se increased gluthatione peroxidase activity (GPx) in erythrocytes (285 U/g Hb versus 207 U/g Hb), seminal plasma (270 U/l versus 190 U/l) and spermatozoa (1338 mU/10(9) sperm versus 1103 mU/10(9) sperm), whereas it did not show any effect on alpha-tocopherol level and TBARS. No synergy between Vitamin E and Se was shown. Storage for 24 h at 5 degrees C increased the TBARS level in all the experimental groups. Neither live and acrosome reacted spermatozoa, nor kinetic parameters, nor fertility rate were modified by dietary supplementation.

  15. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  16. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  17. Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Diane C; Rolls, Barbara J; Hartman, Terryl J

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in examining dietary energy density (ED, kcal/g) as it relates to various health outcomes. Consuming a diet low in ED has been recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, as well as by other agencies, as a dietary approach for disease prevention. Translating this recommendation into practice; however, is difficult. Currently there is no standardized method for calculating dietary ED; as dietary ED can be calculated with foods alone, or with a combination of foods and beverages. Certain items may be defined as either a food or a beverage (e.g., meal replacement shakes) and require special attention. National survey data are an excellent resource for evaluating factors that are important to dietary ED calculation. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) nutrient and food database does not include an ED variable, thus researchers must independently calculate ED. The objective of this study was to provide information that will inform the selection of a standardized ED calculation method by comparing and contrasting methods for ED calculation. The present study evaluates all consumed items and defines foods and beverages based on both USDA food codes and how the item was consumed. Results are presented as mean EDs for the different calculation methods stratified by population demographics (e.g. age, sex). Using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) food codes in the 2005-2008 NHANES, a standardized method for calculating dietary ED can be derived. This method can then be adapted by other researchers for consistency across studies.

  18. Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in examining dietary energy density (ED, kcal/g) as it relates to various health outcomes. Consuming a diet low in ED has been recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, as well as by other agencies, as a dietary approach for disease prevention. Translating this recommendation into practice; however, is difficult. Currently there is no standardized method for calculating dietary ED; as dietary ED can be calculated with foods alone, or with a combination of foods and beverages. Certain items may be defined as either a food or a beverage (e.g., meal replacement shakes) and require special attention. National survey data are an excellent resource for evaluating factors that are important to dietary ED calculation. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) nutrient and food database does not include an ED variable, thus researchers must independently calculate ED. The objective of this study was to provide information that will inform the selection of a standardized ED calculation method by comparing and contrasting methods for ED calculation. The present study evaluates all consumed items and defines foods and beverages based on both USDA food codes and how the item was consumed. Results are presented as mean EDs for the different calculation methods stratified by population demographics (e.g. age, sex). Using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) food codes in the 2005–2008 NHANES, a standardized method for calculating dietary ED can be derived. This method can then be adapted by other researchers for consistency across studies. PMID:24432201

  19. Effects of dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Gao, T; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs. Ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS), and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with the WMS diet, pigs fed the PS diet exhibited greater creatine kinase activity, higher adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate contents, lower phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine monophosphate and glycogen contents, and lower glycolytic potential (P<0.05). Moreover, the PS diet led to reduced percentage of bound hexokinase activity, decreased level of phosphorylated AKT (P<0.05) and increased level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (P<0.05). In conclusion, diet with high amylose content might promote PCr degradation and inhibit the rate of glycolysis, followed by attenuation of early postmortem glycolysis in finishing pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of reducing dietary energy density via the addition of water to a dry diet, on body weight, energy intake and physical activity in adult neutered cats.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Morris, Penelope J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly domestic cats live in an overfeeding and underexercising environment where obesity is a major health concern. One strategy to aid healthy body weight maintenance is dietary energy dilution. Published data indicate that increasing dietary moisture content leads to a reduction in energy intake and increased activity. However, a number of different methodologies were employed in these studies and associated changes in physical activity have only been measured once. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of diets of three different moisture contents offered in excess of energy requirements, on body weight, energy intake and physical activity in adult neutered cats. Sixty-nine adult cats randomised into three groups, received 100 % of their daily individual maintenance energy requirements (IMER) of dry diet or dry diet hydrated to 40 or 80 % total moisture content (tmc). Baseline activity, intake, body weight and body composition were measured. Following this baseline phase, the cats received the same diets at 200 % of daily IMER and the measurements repeated over the next 28 d. When offered the diets at 200 % IMER, cats fed the dry diet significantly increased body weight and percentage of body fat (P < 0·01), while those offered the hydrated diets did not (P > 0·01). The levels of physical activity in cats offered the hydrated 80 % tmc diet were significantly (P < 0·01) higher than those offered the dry or 40 % tmc diet. We suggest that dietary energy dilution by addition of water may be a useful strategy for healthy body weight maintenance in overfed cats.

  1. Carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diet may influence circulating adiponectin levels by improving insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and plasma adiponectin levels in healthy adults aged 26–81 y (n= 979 men and 1227 women). Dietary intakes were assessed using a FFQ. Fasting...

  2. Changes in serum zinc levels associated with giardiasis and dietary zinc intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; Méndez Estrada, Rosa Olivia; Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe; Moreno-Reyes, Mario Jesús; Cuadras-Romo, Denisse; Canett-Romero, Rafael

    2012-03-01

    The association of giardiasis with the malabsorption of zinc remains controversial. This study investigated changes in serum zinc levels in Giardia-infected mice subjected to different dietary zinc regimens. Thirty-five mice (strain C(3)H/H(e)J) were randomly categorized into two groups. The first group was inoculated with 5 × 10(6) Giardia trophozoites (n = 18), and the second group remained Giardia free (n = 17). Each group (Giardia infected and Giardia free) was randomly classified into three subgroups and given low (9 mg Zn/kg), normal (33 mg Zn/kg), and high levels (288 mg Zn/kg) of dietary zinc over a 2-week period for acclimation. Fourteen days post-Giardia infection, all of the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected. The number of trophozoites was quantified (hematocytometer), and serum zinc levels were determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant increases in the median weights were only found in the Giardia-free mice (p < 0.05). A higher final median weight was found in the Giardia-free group when compared with that of the Giardia-infected group given low dietary zinc (p = 0.013). In the Giardia-infected group with low dietary zinc, the geometric mean of trophozoites was 3,498 ± 101 (SE) per milliliter. The Giardia-infected group had lower serum zinc levels than did the Giardia-free group with the high dietary zinc regimens (p < 0.05). Our results are consistent with studies among human populations, but further studies are required to elucidate the actual mechanism governing the zinc-giardiasis interaction.

  3. Relationship between dietary carbohydrates intake and circulating sex hormone-binding globulin levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mengna; Liu, Jinjie; Lin, Xiaochen; Goto, Atsushi; Song, Yiqing; Tinker, Lesley F; Chan, Kei-Hang Katie; Liu, Simin

    2017-03-17

    Low circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) have been shown to be a direct and strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hormone-dependent cancers, although the relationship between various aspects of dietary carbohydrates and SHBG levels remains unexplored in population studies. Among postmenopausal women with available SHBG measurements at baseline (n = 11 159) in the Women's Health Initiative, a comprehensive assessment was conducted of total dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), fiber, sugar, and various carbohydrate-abundant foods in relation to circulating SHBG levels using multiple linear regressions adjusting for potential covariates. Linear trend was tested across quartiles of dietary variables. Benjamini and Hochberg's procedure was used to calculate the false discovery rate for multiple comparisons. Higher dietary GL and GI (both based on total and available carbohydrates) and a higher intake of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with lower circulating SHBG concentrations (all P trend  < 0.05; Q -values = 0.04,0.01, 0.07, 0.10, 0.01, and <0.0001, respectively). In contrast, women with a greater intake of dietary fiber tended to have elevated SHBG levels (P trend  = 0.01, Q -value = 0.04). There was no significant association between total carbohydrates or other carbohydrate-abundant foods and SHBG concentrations. The findings suggest that low GL or GI diets with low sugar and high fiber content may be associated with higher serum SHBG concentrations among postmenopausal women. Future studies investigating whether lower GL or GI diets increase SHBG concentrations are warranted. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Effect of Energy Under-Reporting on Secular Trends of Dietary Patterns in a Mediterranean Population

    PubMed Central

    Funtikova, Anna N.; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A.; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background Diet is an important factor in the prevention of chronic diseases. Analysis of secular trends of dietary patterns can be biased by energy under-reporting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of energy under-reporting on dietary patterns and secular trends in dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis. Design and methods Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in Spain, in 2000 and 2005, with 3058 and 6352 participants, respectively, aged 25 to 74 years. Validated questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Cluster analysis was run separately for all participants, plausible energy reporters (PER), and energy under-reporters (EUR) to define dietary patterns. Results Three clusters, “healthy”, “mixed” and “western”, were identified for both surveys. The “mixed” cluster was the predominant cluster in both surveys. Excluding EUR reduced the proportion of the “mixed” cluster up to 6.40% in the 2000 survey; this caused secular trend increase in the prevalence of the “mixed” pattern. Cross-classification analysis of all participants and PER’ data showed substantial agreement in cluster assignments: 68.7% in 2000 and 84.4% in 2005. Excluding EUR did not cause meaningful (≥15%) changes in the “healthy” pattern. It provoked changes in consumption of some food groups in the “mixed” and “western” patterns: mainly decreases of unhealthy foods within the 2000 and increases of unhealthy foods within the 2005 surveys. Secular trend effects of EUR were similar to those within the 2005 survey. Excluding EUR reversed the direction of secular trends in consumption of several food groups in PER in the “mixed” and “western” patterns. Conclusions EUR affected distribution of participants between dietary patterns within and between surveys, secular trends in food group consumption and amount of food consumed in all, but not in the “healthy” pattern. Our findings

  5. Revision of Dietary Reference Intakes for energy in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Wong, William W; Wilson, Theresa A; Adolph, Anne L; Puyau, Maurice R; Zakeri, Issa F

    2014-07-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the database was limited in the 3-5-y-old range. We reexamined the DRI for energy for preschool-age children. Ninety-seven healthy, normal-weight, preschool-age children (mean ± SD age: 4.5 ± 0.9 y) completed a 7-d DLW protocol while wearing accelerometer and heart rate-monitoring devices. Mean TEE and physical activity level (PAL) averaged 1159 ± 171 kcal/d and 1.34 ± 0.14, respectively. TEE predicted by DRI equations agreed with observed TEE (+34 kcal/d or 3%) if the sedentary PAL category was assumed but was overestimated by using the low active (+219 kcal/d or 19%), active (398 kcal/d or 34%), and very active (593 kcal/d or 51%) PAL categories. PAL categories were redefined on the basis of the narrower PAL range observed in preschoolers (range: 1.05-1.70) compared with older children and adults (range: 1.0-2.5). Sex-specific nonlinear regression models were newly developed to predict TEE from age, weight, height, and new PAL categories. The mean absolute error of TEE prediction equations was 0.00 ± 35 kcal/d or 0.1 ± 3%. Ancillary measures, such as total accelerometer counts and total daily steps, that were significantly correlated (P = 0.01-0.05) with TEE (r = 0.26-0.38), TEE per kilogram (r = 0.31-0.41), and PAL (r = 0.36-0.48) may assist in the classification of preschoolers into PAL categories. Current DRIs for energy overestimate energy requirements of preschool-age children because of the erroneous classification of children into PAL categories. New TEE prediction equations that are based on DLW and appropriate PAL categories are recommended for preschool-age children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as H12067. © 2014 American Society for

  6. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  7. Water and energy dietary requirements and endocrinology of human space flight.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  8. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  9. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  10. Dietary intake increases serum levels of carboxymethil-lysine (CML) in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Jara, N; Leal, M J; Bunout, D; Hirsch, S; Barrera, G; Leiva, L; de la Maza, M P

    2012-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products are produced endogenously, in association with hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. They can also be generated during cooking or food processing and, once absorbed, alter protein function and promote inflammation. We selected 40 healthy male subjects, 17 patients with type 2 diabetes of both sexes and 15 patients with type 1 diabetes of both sexes. Each participant underwent both a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall specially adapted for measuring CML intake, anthropometry, measurement of blood pressure and biochemical parameters in blood and urine. Serum CML levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes compared to healthy subjects (p 0.04), showing a direct relationship between dietary intake and serum levels of CML in T2D patients (r 0.53 p 0.03). sCML levels correlated positively with length of diabetes mellitus, and inversely with body mass index (BMI). The most important dietary factor contributing to raise CML levels in these patients with diabetes was the consumption of milk powder. Serum levels of CML were found to be higher among diabetic subjects, associated to length of diabetes as expected, but also with the ingestion of foods containing higher amounts of ML. The consumption of milk powder in this group is a major determinant of increased serum levels.

  11. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  12. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:25678749

  13. Inter-related effects of dietary fat and protein level on growth performance in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    Isoenergetic substitution of dietary corn oil for dietary carbohydrates enhances growth in rabbits. It was hypothesized that identical amounts of metabolizable energy in the form of corn oil are more effective than those of carbohydrates in reducing protein catabolism and thus sparing it for growth, which would imply that the fat effect is greater on a marginal than normal protein diet. Young growing rabbits were fed semi-purified diets either relatively high (21.6 energy % protein) or low in casein (13.0 energy % protein) to which extra corn oil (21.1 instead of 5.3 energy %) was added at the expense of an isoenergetic amount of corn starch and dextrose. The addition of corn oil to the diet with 21.6 energy % protein indeed increased weight gain, but the addition to the diet with 13.0 energy % protein left weight gain unchanged. These results refute our hypothesis, because the low-protein intake was not limiting growth. The enrichment of the high-protein diet with extra corn oil did not affect nitrogen retention, whereas urinary nitrogen excretion was increased. These observations also are at variance with the idea that additional fat would spare nitrogen for growth. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Dietary intake and different types of physical activity: full-day energy expenditure, occupational and leisure-time.

    PubMed

    Camões, Miguel; Lopes, Carla

    2008-08-01

    To describe the relationship between dietary intake and different levels and types of physical activity (PA). Cross-sectional evaluation of the EPIPorto study. Energy expenditure (metabolic energy equivalent tasks) and dietary intake during the past year were assessed using a PA questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, respectively. Representative sample of adults in Porto, Portugal. Data were analysed for 2404 Portuguese Caucasian adults, aged between 18 and 92 years. For total PA, males who were active had significantly higher mean intake of energy (10.76 (2570.7) vs. 9.78 (2336.9) MJ/d (kcal/d), P < 0.001) and lower level of protein consumption (16.9 vs. 17.6 % of energy, P < 0.001) compared with sedentary males. In males, the association between total PA and energy intake remained after adjustment for age, education and body mass index. Similar results were observed when occupational activity was analysed. Concerning the energy expended in leisure time, in both genders, after adjustment for the previously described variables, a significant positive association was found between PA and intake of vitamin C (g/d): beta = 0.12, 99 % confidence interval (CI) 0.02, 0.21 for females and beta = 0.13, 99 % CI 0.03, 0.22 for males. Leisure-time activity in females was also positively associated with intakes of fibre, vitamin E, folate, calcium and magnesium, and negatively associated with saturated fat. Higher levels of PA in leisure time were associated with higher intakes of micronutrients and lower intakes of saturated fat, particularly in females. For total and occupational PA, similar nutrient intake was observed between active and sedentary individuals.

  15. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    PubMed

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  16. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    PubMed

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  17. Dietary Leucine - An Environmental Modifier of Insulin Resistance Acting on Multiple Levels of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Macotela, Yazmin; Emanuelli, Brice; Bång, Anneli M.; Espinoza, Daniel O.; Boucher, Jeremie; Beebe, Kirk; Gall, Walter; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor—leucine—can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues and at multiple levels of metabolism. Mice were placed on a normal or high fat diet (HFD). Dietary leucine was doubled by addition to the drinking water. mRNA, protein and complete metabolomic profiles were assessed in the major insulin sensitive tissues and serum, and correlated with changes in glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling. After 8 weeks on HFD, mice developed obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation, as well as alterations in metabolomic profile of amino acid metabolites, TCA cycle intermediates, glucose and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated with a decrease in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in inflammation in adipose tissue. These changes occurred despite an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase indicating enhanced activation of mTOR, a phenomenon normally associated with insulin resistance. These data indicate that modest changes in a single environmental/nutrient factor can modify multiple metabolic and signaling pathways and modify HFD induced metabolic syndrome by acting at a systemic level on multiple tissues. These data also suggest that increasing dietary leucine may provide an adjunct in the management of obesity-related insulin resistance. PMID:21731668

  18. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  19. Energy density of the Scottish diet estimated from food purchase data: relationship with socio-economic position and dietary targets.

    PubMed

    Barton, Karen L; Wrieden, Wendy L; Sherriff, Andrea; Armstrong, Julie; Anderson, Annie S

    2014-07-14

    Frequent consumption of energy-dense foods has been strongly implicated in the global increase of obesity. The World Cancer Research Fund suggests a population-level energy density (ED) goal for diets of 523 kJ/100 g (125 kcal/100 g) as desirable for reducing weight gain and related co-morbidities. However, there is limited information about the ED of diets of contemporary populations. The aims of the present study were to (1) estimate the mean ED of the Scottish diet, (2) assess differences in ED over time by socio-economic position, by household (HH) composition and for HH meeting dietary targets for fat and fruit and vegetables, and (3) assess the relationship between ED and the consumption of foods and nutrients, which are indicative of diet quality. ED of the diet was estimated from food (including milk) from UK food purchase survey data. The average ED of the Scottish diet was estimated as 718 kJ/100 g with no change between the survey periods 2001 and 2009. Individuals living in the most deprived areas had a higher mean ED than those living in the least deprived areas (737 v. 696 kJ/100 g). Single-parent HH had the highest mean ED (765 kJ/100 g) of all the HH surveyed. The mean ED of HH achieving dietary targets for fat and fruit and vegetables was 576 kJ/100 g compared with 731 kJ/100 g for non-achievers. HH within the lowest quintile of ED were, on average, closest to meeting most dietary guidelines. Food purchase data can be used to monitor the quality of the diet in terms of dietary ED of the population and subgroups defined by an area-based measure of socio-economic status.

  20. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-10-31

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input-output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians' dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO₂e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001). Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9%) was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the "lower quality, higher GHGe" diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains), thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one's energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe.

  1. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001). Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9%) was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains), thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe. PMID:27809233

  2. Dietary neutral lipid level and source in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae: effect on growth, lipid metabolism and digestive capacity.

    PubMed

    Morais, S; Caballero, M J; Conceição, L E C; Izquierdo, M S; Dinis, M T

    2006-05-01

    Contrary to larval essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements, the effect of dietary neutral lipid supply has been little investigated in marine fish larvae. The present work investigates the effect of feeding Senegalese sole larvae on Artemia enriched with higher or lower doses of lipid emulsion. Two lipid sources - soybean oil and fish oil - were compared. From 16 days after hatching (DAH) onwards, larvae were fed one of four experimental treatments: Artemia enriched on a high or low dose of soybean oil emulsion (HS and LS) or Artemia enriched on a high or low dose of fish oil emulsion (HF and LF). In terms of growth, the dietary lipid level did not have a significant effect while the soybean oil treatments induced a lower growth than the fish oil-enriched Artemia. The fatty acid (FA) composition of the larvae closely reflected the dietary quantitative and qualitative FA profile. Only slight dietary effects were noted in the activity of trypsin, lipase and alkaline phosphatase. A higher amount of lipid droplets was noticeable in the posterior intestine epithelia and in the hepatocytes of larvae fed Artemia enriched with higher lipid doses, while LS-Artemia induced the lower lipid accumulation on the basal zone of the enterocytes, in accordance with the lowest total lipid level measured in this treatment. These results suggest an important effect of dietary total lipid level on lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and on FA absorption. At 33 DAH a tube feeding trial was conducted with 14C-labelled oleic acid (OA) or triolein (TRI), showing that the lower accumulation of lipid droplets in the larvae fed LS was associated with a significantly higher absorption and retention in the gut and body tissues of the TRI label. For OA no significant differences between treatments were found. TRI label was considerably more evacuated than OA, indicating that sole larvae may have a lower capacity to incorporate a triacylglycerol, which needs to be digested. Finally, OA appears

  3. Palatability, digestibility, and metabolizable energy of dietary glycerol in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Machado, G S; Pezzali, J G; Marx, F R; Kessler, A M; Trevizan, L

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). It is suggested that cats are able to metabolize glycerol and use it as an energy source without compromising health. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the following characteristics of glycerol in the diet for cats: 1) a preference test, 2) digestibility, ME, and fecal and urinary characteristics, and 3) postprandial plasma glycemia. Twelve healthy adult female cats were randomly distributed among 4 treatments consisting of a basal diet (4,090 kcal ME/kg DM, 32% CP, 11% fat, 2.3% crude fiber, and 7.0% ash) and 3 diets with varying percentages of glycerol, made by replacing the basal diet with 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% purified glycerol (99.5%). The inclusion of glycerol proportionally reduced ( < 0.05) water activity in the diets. The preference test was conducted by observing the contrast between the basal diet and the 5.0% and 10% glycerol diets. Cats did not show a preference for any diet in particular ( > 0.05). The digestibility assays showed that increasing dietary glycerol levels did not affect food intake or the apparent total tract digestibility of macronutrients and energy ( > 0.05). The inclusion of glycerol in the diets did not alter the stool moisture, fecal score, or urine volume. However, glycerol was detected in urine when it was incorporated into the diet at 10%. Glycemia increased up to 900 min following the first meal after the fasting period with no difference between treatments, even when the means were adjusted for food intake. The blood glucose area under the curve also showed no significant difference between treatments ( > 0.05). Cats accepted glycerol under the conditions of the study, and its nutritional value was

  4. Vibrational energy levels of CH5+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2008-12-01

    We present a parallelized contracted basis-iterative method for calculating numerically exact vibrational energy levels of CH5+ (a 12-dimensional calculation). We use Radau polyspherical coordinates and basis functions that are products of eigenfunctions of bend and stretch Hamiltonians. The bend eigenfunctions are computed in a nondirect product basis with more than 200×106 functions and the stretch functions are computed in a product potential optimized discrete variable basis. The basis functions have amplitude in all of the 120 equivalent minima. Many low-lying levels are well converged. We find that the energy level pattern is determined in part by the curvature and width of the valley connecting the minima and in part by the slope of the walls of this valley but does not depend on the height or shape of the barriers separating the minima.

  5. Hypercholesterolemia screening. Does knowledge of blood cholesterol level affect dietary fat intake?

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, M.; Godin, G.; Vézina, L.; Maziade, J.; Desharnais, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowing blood cholesterol test results influences people's intention to lower their dietary fat intake and to assess changes in diet after 3 months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. SETTING: Two hospital-based family medicine centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 patients aged 18 to 65, without prior knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels, were recruited. Seventy did not appear for their appointments, and 37 did not meet study criteria, leaving 419 participants. From that group, 391 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients submitted to cholesterol screening were randomly assigned to one of two groups, completing the study questionnaires either before (control group) or after (experimental group) being informed of their screening test results. All participants were called 3 months after transmission of test results to assess their dietary fat intake at that time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in intention to adopt a low-fat diet reported between the experimental and control groups and differences in dietary fat intake modification after 3 months between patients with normal and abnormal blood cholesterol test results. RESULTS: Knowledge of test results influenced patients' intentions to adopt low-fat diets (F1,417 = 5.4, P = .02). Patients reported lower mean dietary fat intake after 3 months than at baseline (P < .0001). The reduction was greater in patients with abnormal screening results (F2,388 = 3.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Being informed of personal blood cholesterol levels effects an immediate change in eating habits that translates into reduced dietary fat intake. PMID:9640523

  6. Effects of dietary riboflavin levels on antioxidant defense of the juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junwa; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Xiangyun; Yang, Huijun; Liu, Yongjian

    2010-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary riboflavin on antioxidant defense in the juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides. Graded levels of riboflavin (0.9, 1.6, 4.4, 6.7, 12.9 and 19.4 mg kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grouper juveniles (mean weight: 14.90 +/- 0.46 g) for 12 weeks. Higher levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were observed in grouper fed low doses (0.9 and 1.6 mg kg(-1) diet) of riboflavin. Both liver glutathione reductase (GR) activity and its activation coefficient (GR-AC) poorly responded to riboflavin deficiency. In addition, other indices of the glutathione-dependent defense system, including the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the content of glutathione (GSH), were also non-significantly affected by dietary riboflavin levels. However, the activities of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly lower in fish fed 0.9 mg kg(-1) diet, with a positive correlation between the different groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the juvenile grouper fed the riboflavin-unsupplemented diet was susceptible to lipid peroxidation (LPO), with lower SOD and CAT activities in the liver. However, the glutathione-dependent defense system of grouper was not affected by dietary riboflavin levels.

  7. Validation of the effects of small differences in dietary metabolizable energy and feed restriction in first-cycle laying hens.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, G R; Persia, M E

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate energy utilization of laying hens fed diets containing 2 ME concentrations, using response criteria including performance, BW, abdominal fat pad, and energy digestibility. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum and restriction fed), and 2 dietary ME levels [2,880 kcal/kg of ME (CON); and 2,790 kcal/kg of ME (LME)]. A total of 60 Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens were fed experimental diets, resulting in 15 individually caged hens for each of the 4 treatments. Hens in the restriction-fed group were fed 90 g of feed per day. The CON diet was formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) recommendations with 2,880 kcal/kg, whereas the LME diet was similar with the exception of a 90 kcal/kg reduction in ME. Hens were fed experimental diets for 12 wk from hen 28 to 39 wk of age. Hen day egg production, weekly feed intake, and every 2 wk, egg weights and egg mass were recorded, whereas hen BW was measured every 4 wk. Excreta samples were collected over the last 5 d of experiment to determine AMEn. Abdominal fat pads were measured individually for all hens at the end of experiment. There were no interactions between feeding regimens and dietary ME levels throughout the experiment. Feed restriction resulted in reductions (P ≤ 0.01) in hen day egg production, BW, and abdominal fat pad, indicating reduced nutrient availability to partition toward production, maintenance, and storage functions. The reduction in energy intake between CON and LME fed birds (90 kcal/kg) did not change the energy partitioned toward production or maintenance, but reduced (P = 0.03) the energy stored (reduced fat pad) of LME-fed hens. These results suggest that energy is used following the pattern of production and maintenance before storage requirements and that fat pad (energy storage) may be the most sensitive indicator of dietary energy status over short-term in Hy-Line W36 laying hens.

  8. Fermi level stabilization energy in cadmium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Speaks, D. T.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Mao, S. S.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2010-04-08

    We have studied the effects of high concentrations of native point defects on the electrical and optical properties of CdO. The defects were introduced by irradiation with high energy He+, Ne+, Ar+ and C+ ions. Increasing the irradiation damage with particles heavier than He+ increases the electron concentration until a saturation level of 5x1020 cm-3 is reached. In contrast, due to the ionic character and hence strong dynamic annealing of CdO, irradiation with much lighter He+ stabilizes the electron concentration at a much lower level of 1.7x1020 cm-3. A large shift of the optical absorption edge with increasing electron concentration in irradiated samples is explained by the Burstein-Moss shift corrected for electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. The saturation of the electron concentration and the optical absorption edge energy are consistent with a defect induced stabilization of the Fermi energy at 1 eV above the conduction band edge. The result is in a good agreement with previously determined Fermi level pinning energies on CdO surfaces. The results indicate that CdO shares many similarities with InN, as both materials exhibit extremely large electron affinities and an unprecedented propensity for n-type conductivity.

  9. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  10. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and Dietary Energy on Growth and Health of Pre-ruminant Dairy Calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 wks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received moder...

  11. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  12. Effects of D-a-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 weeks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received mod...

  13. Modulation of plasma N-acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; Lin, Lin; Gillingham, Leah G.; Yang, Haifeng; Omar, Jaclyn M.

    2014-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-signaling molecules involved in satiety and energetics; however, how diet impacts circulating NAE concentrations and their downstream metabolic actions in humans remains unknown. Objectives were to examine effects of diets enriched with high-oleic canola oil (HOCO) or HOCO blended with flaxseed oil (FXCO), compared with a Western diet (WD), on plasma NAE levels and the association with energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Using a randomized controlled crossover design, 36 hypercholesterolemic participants consumed three isoenergetic diets for 28 days, each containing 36% energy from fat, of which 70% was HOCO, FXCO, or WD. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS was used to measure plasma NAE levels and indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. After 28 days, compared with WD, plasma oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and alpha-linolenoyl ethanolamide (ALEA) levels were significantly increased in response to HOCO and FXCO (P = 0.002, P < 0.001), respectively. Correlation analysis demonstrated an inverse association between plasma OEA levels and percent body fat (r = −0.21, P = 0.04), and a positive association was observed between the plasma arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA)/OEA ratio and android:gynoid fat (r = 0.23, P = 0.02), respectively. Results suggest that plasma NAE levels are upregulated via their dietary lipid substrates and may modulate regional and total fat mass through lipid-signaling mechanisms. PMID:25262934

  14. Effects of graded levels of dietary phosphorus on bone mineralization in the very young poult.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C A; Linton, S; Brister, R; Creger, C R

    1986-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of dicalcium phosphate on bone mineralization in 1 and 3-week-old poults. Corn-soybean meal diets calculated to contain 1.5% calcium and either .35, .55, .75, .95, or 1.15% available phosphorus were fed to battery brooder reared poults for 3 weeks. Body weights and percent tibia ash were determined at 1 and 3 weeks. Body weight was not significantly affected by dietary phosphorus at either 1 or 3 weeks of age. Percent tibia ash was significantly greater in 1-week-old poults receiving a minimum of .75% available phosphorus. In 3-week-old poults, maximum tibia ash was obtained with with a minimum of .55 available phosphorus. This study suggests the level of dietary phosphorus necessary to achieve maximum tibia ash in 3-week-old poults is not sufficient for maximum tibia ash in 1-week-old poults.

  15. Dietary obesity-induced Egr-1 in adipocytes facilitates energy storage via suppression of FOXC2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jifeng; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Tingwan; Guo, Fang; Huang, Shengping; Chandalia, Menisha; Abate, Nicola; Fan, Daping; Xin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Y Eugene; Fu, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism to regulate energy balance is not completely understood. Here we observed that Egr-1 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) was highly correlated with dietary-induced obesity and insulin resistance both in mice and humans. Egr-1 null mice were protected from diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated pathologies such as fatty liver, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. This phenotype can be largely explained by the increase of energy expenditure in Egr-1 null mice. Characterization of these mice revealed that the expression of FOXC2 and its target genes were significantly elevated in white adipose tissues, leading to WAT energy expenditure instead of energy storage. Altogether, these studies suggest an important role for Egr-1, which, by repressing FOXC2 expression, promotes energy storage in WAT and favored the development of obesity under high energy intake.

  16. Dietary obesity-induced Egr-1 in adipocytes facilitates energy storage via suppression of FOXC2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jifeng; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Tingwan; Guo, Fang; Huang, Shengping; Chandalia, Menisha; Abate, Nicola; Fan, Daping; Xin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Y. Eugene; Fu, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism to regulate energy balance is not completely understood. Here we observed that Egr-1 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) was highly correlated with dietary-induced obesity and insulin resistance both in mice and humans. Egr-1 null mice were protected from diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated pathologies such as fatty liver, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. This phenotype can be largely explained by the increase of energy expenditure in Egr-1 null mice. Characterization of these mice revealed that the expression of FOXC2 and its target genes were significantly elevated in white adipose tissues, leading to WAT energy expenditure instead of energy storage. Altogether, these studies suggest an important role for Egr-1, which, by repressing FOXC2 expression, promotes energy storage in WAT and favored the development of obesity under high energy intake. PMID:23502673

  17. Dietary fat alters the response of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y to subsequent energy intake in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao J; Xu, Shao H; Liu, Lei; Song, Zhi G; Jiao, Hong C; Lin, Hai

    2017-02-15

    Dietary fat affects appetite and appetite-related peptides in birds and mammals; however, the effect of dietary fat on appetite is still unclear in chickens faced with different energy statuses. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fat on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptides in chickens subjected to two feeding states or two diets. In Experiment 1, chickens were fed a high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diet for 35 days, and then subjected to fed (HF-fed, LF-fed) or fasted (HF-fasted, LF-fasted) conditions for 24 h. In Experiment 2, chickens that were fed a HF or LF diet for 35 days were fasted for 24 h and then re-fed with HF (HF-RHF, LF-RHF) or LF (HF-RLF, LF-RLF) diet for 3 h. The results showed that chickens fed a HF diet for 35 days had increased body fat deposition despite decreasing food intake even when the diet was altered during the re-feeding period (P<0.05). LF diet (35 days) promoted agouti-related peptide (AgRP) expression compared with HF diet (P<0.05) under both fed and fasted conditions. LF-RHF chickens had lower neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression compared with LF-RLF chickens; conversely, HF-RHF chickens had higher NPY expression than HF-RLF chickens (P<0.05). These results demonstrate: (1) that HF diet decreases food intake even when the subsequent diet is altered; (2) the orexigenic effect of hypothalamic AgRP; and (3) that dietary fat alters the response of hypothalamic NPY to subsequent energy intake. These findings provide a novel view of the metabolic perturbations associated with long-term dietary fat over-ingestion in chickens.

  18. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes.

  19. Dietary Cholesterol Impairs Memory and Memory Increases Brain Cholesterol and Sulfatide Levels

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Deya S.; Wang, Desheng; Konat, Gregory W.; Schreurs, Bernard G.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol and sulfatides play many important roles in learning and memory. To date, our observations about the effects of cholesterol on learning have been assessed during response acquisition i.e., the learning of a new memory. Here we report for the first time on the effect of a cholesterol diet on a previously formed memory. Rabbits were given trace conditioning of the nictitating membrane response for ten days, then fed a 2% cholesterol diet for eight weeks, and then assessed for memory recall of the initially learned task. We show that dietary cholesterol had an adverse effect on memory recall. Second, we investigated whether dietary cholesterol caused an increase in brain cholesterol and sulfatide levels in four major brain structures (hippocampus, frontal lobe, brainstem, and cerebellum) using a technique for analyzing myelin and myelin-free fractions separately. Although our data confirm previous findings that dietary cholesterol does not directly affect cholesterol and establish that it does not affect sulfatide levels in the brain, these levels did increase rather significantly in the hippocampus and frontal lobe as a function of learning and memory. PMID:20141286

  20. Low-level arsenic exposure: nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children

    PubMed Central

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5–8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-hour dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9 µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45 µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on ”nutrient dense” dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  1. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity.

  2. Prepregnancy Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Blood Lipid Level Changes During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Barros, Erica Guimarães; Emmett, Pauline M; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-07-01

    Physiologic adaptations lead to an increase in blood lipid levels during pregnancy, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary patterns. To identify whether prepregnancy dietary patterns that explain the consumption of fiber, energy, and saturated fat are associated with blood lipid levels throughout pregnancy. Prospective cohort study, with data collection at gestational weeks 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36. A food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline (gestational week 5 to 13). Women with singleton pregnancy (N=299) aged 20 to 40 years, without infectious/chronic disease (except obesity) were enrolled in the study. One hundred ninety-nine women were included in the final analysis. The study took place at a prenatal service of a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the period from 2009 to 2012. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, measured at all trimesters. Dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. Fiber density, dietary energy density, and percent energy from saturated fat were response variables. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to account for confounders and mediators. Interaction terms between dietary pattern and gestational week were tested. Fast Food and Candies; Vegetables and Dairy; and Beans, Bread, and Fat patterns were derived. Our Fast Food and Candies pattern was positively associated with triglyceride level (β=4.961, 95% CI 0.945 to 8.977; P=0.015). In the HDL-C rate of change prediction, significant interactions were observed between both the Fast Food and Candies and Vegetables and Dairy patterns and gestational week (β=-.053, 95% CI -0.101 to -0.004; P=0.035 and β=.055, 95% CI -0.002 to 0.112; P=0.060, respectively). The Beans, Bread, and Fat pattern was not associated with blood lipid levels. Prepregnancy dietary patterns

  3. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    PubMed

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  4. Spectrum and energy levels of Mo VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Joseph

    1998-05-01

    We have photographed the spectrum of the Rb-like ion Mo VI from 200 to 5300 Å with a sliding-spark discharge on our 10.7-m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs and have observed most of the yrast transitions given by Romanov et al.(N. P. Romanov and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosc. 27), 8 (1969). from a Penning discharge. We have obtained improved values for all of the energy levels. We confirm the odd levels of Kancerevicius et al.,(A. Kancerevicius et al.), Lithuanian Phys. J. 31, 143 (1991). but have revised a number of the even levels of Edlén et al.(B. Edlén et al.), Phys. Scr. 32, 215 (1985). The ionization energy of Edlén et al.,footnotemark[4] which had been called into question by Kancerevicius et al.footnotemark[3] as a result of their revision of the odd levels,footnotemark[4] is confirmed.

  5. Effects of source and level of energy on the immune competence and response to an Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy level and source affect immune competence and response to a viral challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by BW within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (8 steers/treatment within period). Treatments we...

  6. Effect of dietary β-mannanase on productive performance, egg quality, and utilization of dietary energy and nutrients in aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Chan; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary β-mannanase on productive performance, egg quality, and utilization of dietary energy and nutrients in aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions. A total of 320 84-wk-old Hy-line Brown aged laying hens were allotted to one of four treatments with eight replicates in a completely randomized design. Two dietary treatments with high energy (HE; 2,800 kcal/kg nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn]) and low energy (LE; 2,700 kcal/kg AMEn) were formulated. Two additional diets were prepared by adding 0.04% (MN4) or 0.08% β-mannanase (MN8) to LE treatment diets. The feeding trial was conducted for 28 d, covering a period from July to August in South Korea. The average daily room temperature and relative humidity were 29.2°C and 83%, respectively. Productive performance, egg quality, and cloacal temperature were not influenced by dietary treatments. The measured AMEn values for MN8 diets were similar to those for HE diets, which were greater (p<0.05) than those for LE and MN4 diets. However, the AMEn values for MN8 diets did not differ from those for LE and MN4 diets. The addition of β-mannanase to low energy diets increases energy values for diets fed to aged laying hens. However, this increase has little positive impacts on performance and egg quality. These results indicate that dietary β-mannanase does not mitigate the heat stress of aged laying hens raised under hot climatic conditions.

  7. Nonequivalent lanthanide defects: Energy level modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Jonas J.; Poelman, Dirk; Smet, Philippe F.

    2016-11-01

    Empirical charge-state transition level schemes are popular tools to model the properties of lanthanide-doped materials and their construction has become standard practice. Typically, it is implicitly assumed that all lanthanide ions form isostructural defects. However, in practice, multiple nonequivalent defects related to the same lanthanide can occur or different lanthanides can even incorporate in different ways. The consequences of these complications on the impurity energy levels are discussed in this article. It seems that small structural differences around the lanthanide dopant can give rise to important spectral differences in its emission. These are not always clearly reproduced by the charge-state transition level schemes. Improvements to the existing procedure are suggested and applied to the lanthanide ions in the well-studied host crystals SrAl2O4, Sr2Si5N8 and SrGa2S4.

  8. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  9. Energy-level alignment at organic heterointerfaces

    PubMed Central

    Oehzelt, Martin; Akaike, Kouki; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Today’s champion organic (opto-)electronic devices comprise an ever-increasing number of different organic-semiconductor layers. The functionality of these complex heterostructures largely derives from the relative alignment of the frontier molecular-orbital energies in each layer with respect to those in all others. Despite the technological relevance of the energy-level alignment at organic heterointerfaces, and despite continued scientific interest, a reliable model that can quantitatively predict the full range of phenomena observed at such interfaces is notably absent. We identify the limitations of previous attempts to formulate such a model and highlight inconsistencies in the interpretation of the experimental data they were based on. We then develop a theoretical framework, which we demonstrate to accurately reproduce experiment. Applying this theory, a comprehensive overview of all possible energy-level alignment scenarios that can be encountered at organic heterojunctions is finally given. These results will help focus future efforts on developing functional organic interfaces for superior device performance. PMID:26702447

  10. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  11. Differential responses of intestinal glucose transporter mRNA transcripts to levels of dietary sugars.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Hase, K; Takagi, T; Fujii, T; Taketani, Y; Minami, H; Oka, T; Nakabou, Y

    1993-10-01

    Dietary sugars are known to stimulate intestinal glucose transport activity, but the specific signals involved are unknown. The Na(+)-dependent glucose co-transporter (SGLT1), the liver-type facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT2) and the intestinal-type facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT5) are all expressed in rat jejunum [Miyamoto, Hase, Taketani, Minami, Oka, Nakabou and Hagihira (1991) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 1110-1117]. In the present study we have investigated the effects of dietary sugars on these glucose transporter genes. A high-glucose diet stimulated glucose transport activity and increased the levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNAs in rat jejunum. 3-O-Methylglucose, D-galactose, D-fructose, D-mannose and D-xylose can mimic the regulatory effect of glucose on the SGLT1 mRNA level in rat jejunum. However, only D-galactose and D-fructose increased the levels of GLUT2 mRNA. The GLUT5 mRNA level was increased significantly only by D-fructose. Our results suggest that the increase in intestinal transport activity in rats caused by dietary glucose is due to an increase in the levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNAs, and that these increases in mRNA may be caused by an enhancement of the transcriptional rate. Furthermore, for expression of the SGLT1 gene, the signal need not be a metabolizable or transportable substrate whereas, for expression of the GLUT2 gene, metabolism of the substrate in the liver may be necessary for signalling. Only D-fructose is an effective signal for expression of the GLUT5 gene.

  12.  Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary energy supplements: use and abuse by young athletes.

    PubMed

    Avelar-Escobar, Giovanni; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Ortiz-Olvera, Nayeli X; Castellanos, Guillermo; Ramos, Roberto; Gallardo-Cabrera, Víctor E; Vargas-Alemán, José de Jesús; Díaz de León, Oscar; Rodríguez, Elda V; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita

    2012-01-01

     In recent years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of dietary energy supplements (DES) associated with the parallel advertising against obesity and favoring high physical performance. We present the case and outcome of a young patient who developed acute mixed liver injury (hepatocellular and cholestatic) after ingestion of various "over the counter" products to increase muscle mass and physical performance (NO Xplode®, creatine, L-carnitine, and Growth Factor ATN®). The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and liver biopsy findings. The dietary supplement and herbal multivitamins industry is one with the highest growth rates in the market, with annual revenues amounting to billions and constantly lacking scientific or reproducible evidence about the efficacy and/or safety of the offered products. Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, different forms of injury associated with these natural substances have been documented particularly in the liver, supporting the need of a more strict regulation.

  13. Perfluorinated compounds: levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E

    2013-11-15

    The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA.

  14. Effects of dietary levels of protein on nitrogenous metabolism of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Bibiano Melo, José Fernando; Lundstedt, Lícia Maria; Metón, Isidoro; Baanante, Isabel Vázquez; Moraes, Gilberto

    2006-10-01

    This manuscript reports changes in key enzymes and metabolites related to protein metabolism and nitrogen excretion in the liver of juveniles jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) fed on isocaloric diets containing 20%, 27%, 34% and 41% of crude protein. The hepatic activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and arginase (ARG) increased with the content of protein in the diet, and the ratios among the aminotransferases and GDH allowed evaluating metabolic preference. The concentration of free amino acids, ammonia and urea also rose with the dietary protein content. Increase of plasma urea and ammonia was the resultant effect of over amino acids catabolism as consequence of dietary protein surplus. Since the increase of protein in the diets resulted in weight gain, the rise in the hepatic activity of protein-metabolising enzymes in the fish fed high protein diets denoted effective use of dietary amino acids for growth and as a substrate for gluconeogenesis. Analysis of changes on metabolite levels and key enzyme activities in amino acid metabolism is proposed as a tool for assessing the proper balance of diet macronutrients.

  15. The effect of incremental levels of dietary nitrate on methane emissions in Holstein steers and performance in Nelore bulls.

    PubMed

    Newbold, J R; van Zijderveld, S M; Hulshof, R B A; Fokkink, W B; Leng, R A; Terencio, P; Powers, W J; van Adrichem, P S J; Paton, N D; Perdok, H B

    2014-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study effects of dietary nitrate on enteric methane production, blood methemoglobin concentration, and growth rate in cattle. In Exp. 1, 36 Holstein steers (288 ± 25 kg BW) were fed increasing levels of dietary nitrate (6 levels; 0 to 3.0% of feed DM) in corn silage-based total mixed rations. Nitrate was introduced gradually in a 25-d adaptation period before methane production was determined in environmentally controlled rooms. In the rooms, feed intake was restricted and similar among all treatments. Methane production (g/d) decreased linearly as dietary nitrate concentration increased (P < 0.01). The apparent efficiency (measured methane reduction divided by potential methane reduction) with which enteric methane was mitigated was 49%. Blood methemoglobin levels increased with increasing nitrate dose. In Exp. 2, 300 Nelore bulls (392 ± 28 kg) were fed increasing levels of nitrate (6 levels; 0 to 2.4% of feed DM) in high-concentrate total mixed rations offered ad libitum. Feed intake decreased linearly with increasing level of dietary nitrate (P < 0.01). However, ADG was not affected by nitrate dose (P = 0.54), resulting in a linear improvement in G:F (P = 0.03) as dietary nitrate level increased. Carcass dressing percentage showed a quadratic response to incremental dietary nitrate, reaching the highest value at 0.96% of NO3/kg DM (P = 0.04).

  16. STATE-LEVEL DIETARY DIVERSITY AS A CONTEXTUAL DETERMINANT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2017-02-20

    This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.

  17. Dietary Energy Density Is Associated with Body Weight Status and Vegetable Intake in U.S. Children12

    PubMed Central

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between dietary energy density (ED; kcal/g) and measured weight status in children. The present study used data from a nationally representative sample of 2442 children between 2 and 8 y old who participated in the 2001–2004 NHANES. Survey measures included 24-h dietary recall data, measurement of MyPyramid servings of various food groups, and anthropometry. The relationship among dietary ED, body weight status as calculated using the 2000 CDC growth charts, and food intake was evaluated using quartiles of ED. Additionally, other dietary characteristics associated with ED among children are described. Specific survey procedures were used in the analysis to account for sample weights, unequal selection probability, and the clustered design of the NHANES sample. In this sample, dietary ED was positively associated with body weight status in U.S. children aged 2–8 y. Obese children had a higher dietary ED than lean children (2.08 ± 0.03 vs. 1.93 ± 0.05; P = 0.02). Diets high in ED were also found to be associated with greater intakes of energy and added sugars, more energy from fat; and significantly lower intake of fruits and vegetables. Interventions that lower dietary ED by means of increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing fat consumption may be an effective strategy for reducing childhood obesity. PMID:22049295

  18. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  19. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  20. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (p<0.05) in CP 15% group among three CP levels. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum and bacterial genera including Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Atopostipes, Peptonphilus, Ruminococcaceae_uc, Bacteroides, and Pseudomonas was lower (p<0.05) in CP 15% than in CP 20% group. There was a positive correlation (p<0.05) between odorous compounds and bacterial genera: phenol, indole, iso-butyric acid, and iso-valeric acid with Atopostipes, p-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  1. Dietary glycemic factors, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Çerman, Aslı Aksu; Aktaş, Ezgi; Altunay, İlknur Kıvanç; Arıcı, Janset Erkul; Tulunay, Aysın; Ozturk, Feyza Yener

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the relationship between acne vulgaris and diet. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations among dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, milk consumption, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, milk consumption, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor)-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, adiponectin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance values of 50 patients with acne vulgaris and 36 healthy control subjects were measured. Glycemic index and glycemic load levels were significantly higher (P = .022 and P = .001, respectively) and serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower (P = .015) in patients with acne than in the control subjects. There was an inverse correlation between serum adiponectin concentration and glycemic index (P = .049, r = -0.212). This study used a cross-sectional design and the study population was limited to young, nonobese adults. A high-glycemic-index/-load diet was positively associated with acne vulgaris. Adiponectin may be a pathogenetic cofactor contributing to the development of the disease. Further research on adiponectin levels in patients with acne in terms of development of insulin resistance might be important in this possible relationship. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The vibrational energy levels of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Nicholas C.

    1999-02-01

    A variational 6-dimensional method is used to determine the low lying vibrational energy levels of ammonia. The six internal coordinates were chosen to be appropriate for the symmetry and inversion motion of the molecule; they were the three NH bond lengths, r1,r2,r3, the unique angle beta which each bond makes with the trisector of them, and two (of the three) angles, theta2 and theta3, between the bonds when projected on to a plane perpendicular to the trisector. The Wilson G matrix was determined for these internal coordinates both by computer algebra and by hand. An appropriate Jacobian for the motion was determined and the full Hermitian kinetic energy operator was obtained using the Podolsky transformation. Expansion functions were in the usual product form. Special attention was given to the , theta2,theta3 expansion functions so that appropriate A1,A2 and E symmetry vibrational modes were obtained explicitly. Matrix elements of the kinetic energy operator were expressed in terms of one-dimensional integrals. Variational calculations have been performed with two six-dimensional surfaces: (i) that due to Martin, Lee and Taylor; and (ii) that due to Spirko and Kraemer. Although some of the vibrational levels for both surfaces are accurate, both have inadequacies: (a) because it is a Taylor expansion about an equilibrium, based on ab initio calculations, with no attention paid to planarity; and (b) because the non-inversion part of the surface was treated perturbatively in its derivation, and in fact some of the quartic displacement powers have negative coefficients. Therefore, neither surface gave good results overall, and there is a need for a refined 6 dimensional NH surface.

  3. The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the intake of DM, OM, EE, ADF, and NDF as a function of dietary protein levels. Dry matter intake average was 1.7% of BW. CP and N intake showed a linear increase as a function of increasing protein level in diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed on the CP and NDF digestibility coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW

  4. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P < 0.01) of the interaction between protein and energy (P < 0.05) on metabolizable energy (ME) intake. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was higher (P < 0.0001) in high-energy groups compared to low-energy groups. The CP digestibility increased with the increased CP and ME of the rations. The absorbed N was improved linearly with an increased level of dietary CP, whereas the N retention was similar among all the groups distributed as per different energy or protein levels. The nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations.

  5. Considerations of dietary sodium/potassium/energy ratios of selected foods.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, M L; Nicklas, T A; Berenson, G S

    1992-04-01

    Various electrolytes and energy intakes have been shown to contribute to the risk of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Further, dietary sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance are important in both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management of various cardiovascular states. Emphasis is also given to weight reduction and electrolyte balance. As an aid to food selection to enhance K intake and decrease Na intake, we have categorized foods according to their electrolyte density as related to caloric content. More than 100 individual food items were assigned to one of four categories. Ratios of individual Na, K, and energy content were calculated, based on USDA-generated food nutrient values. Category 1 includes foods that are low in Na, high in K and low in energy: fresh or frozen vegetable sources with vitamins A and C. Category 2 contains foods low in Na relative to high K and high energy: most fruit, starchy vegetables, nuts, milk and meat products, and chocolate. Category 3 includes foods high in Na that are also high in K in relation to low energy: vegetables (canned, frozen in butter sauce or au gratin), most cheeses, cured or frozen meats. Category 4 contains foods high in Na and low in K relative to high energy: bread, rice, luncheon meats, commercial cookies and pastries, and fast food entrees. Commercial cereals could be differentiated by the guidelines, with bran cereals in Category 1, shredded wheat products in Category 2, fruit-containing cereals in Category 3, and presweetened or instant cereals in Category 4. Identification of the ratio of Na and K to content of foods, compared with relative energy ratio, is useful in selecting foods that will help meet specific dietary criteria for management of essential hypertension and other cardiovascular-renal states, both in the adult and pediatric populations.

  6. Serum potassium level and dietary potassium intake as risk factors for stroke.

    PubMed

    Green, D M; Ropper, A H; Kronmal, R A; Psaty, B M; Burke, G L

    2002-08-13

    Numerous studies have found that low potassium intake and low serum potassium are associated with increased stroke mortality, but data regarding stroke incidence have been limited. Serum potassium levels, dietary potassium intake, and diuretic use in relation to risk for stroke in a prospectively studied cohort were investigated. The study comprised 5,600 men and women older than 65 years who were free of stroke at enrollment. Baseline data included serum potassium level, dietary potassium intake, and diuretic use. Participants were followed for 4 to 8 years, and the incidence and types of strokes were recorded. Low serum potassium was defined as less than 4.1 mEq/L, and low potassium intake as less than 2.4 g/d. Among diuretic users, there was an increased risk for stroke associated with lower serum potassium (relative risk [RR]: 2.5, p < 0.0001). Among individuals not taking diuretics, there was an increased risk for stroke associated with low dietary potassium intake (RR: 1.5, p < 0.005). The small number of diuretic users with lower serum potassium and atrial fibrillation had a 10-fold greater risk for stroke compared with those with higher serum potassium and normal sinus rhythm. A lower serum potassium level in diuretic users, and low potassium intake in those not taking diuretics were associated with increased stroke incidence among older individuals. Lower serum potassium was associated with a particularly high risk for stroke in the small number of diuretic users with atrial fibrillation. Further study is required to determine if modification of these factors would prevent strokes.

  7. Dietary Acid, Age, and Serum Bicarbonate Levels among Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Amodu, Afolarin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Greater dietary acid has been associated with lower serum bicarbonate levels in patients with CKD. Whether this association extends to the general population and if it is modified by age are unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined the association of the dietary acid load, estimated by net endogenous acid production, with serum bicarbonate levels in adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Results The mean serum bicarbonate was 24.9 mEq/L (SEM=0.1), and the mean estimated net endogenous acid production was 57.4 mEq/d (SEM=0.4). Serum bicarbonate was linearly associated with age, such that the oldest participants had the highest serum bicarbonate levels. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of net endogenous acid production had 0.40 mEq/L (95% confidence interval, −0.55 to −0.26) lower serum bicarbonate and a 33% (95% confidence interval, 3 to 72) higher likelihood of acidosis compared with those participants in the lowest quartile. There was a significant interaction by age of the association of net endogenous acid production with serum bicarbonate (P=0.005). Among participants 20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years old, those participants in the highest net endogenous acid production quartile had 0.26 (95% confidence interval, −0.49 to −0.03), 0.60 (95% confidence interval, −0.92 to −0.29), and 0.49 (95% confidence interval, −0.84 to −0.14) mEq/L lower serum bicarbonate, respectively, compared with participants in the lowest quartile. Conclusion Greater dietary acid is associated with lower serum bicarbonate in the general US population, and the magnitude of this association is greater among middle-aged and elderly persons than younger adults. PMID:24052219

  8. Dietary acid, age, and serum bicarbonate levels among adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amodu, Afolarin; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2013-12-01

    Greater dietary acid has been associated with lower serum bicarbonate levels in patients with CKD. Whether this association extends to the general population and if it is modified by age are unknown. This study examined the association of the dietary acid load, estimated by net endogenous acid production, with serum bicarbonate levels in adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. The mean serum bicarbonate was 24.9 mEq/L (SEM=0.1), and the mean estimated net endogenous acid production was 57.4 mEq/d (SEM=0.4). Serum bicarbonate was linearly associated with age, such that the oldest participants had the highest serum bicarbonate levels. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of net endogenous acid production had 0.40 mEq/L (95% confidence interval, -0.55 to -0.26) lower serum bicarbonate and a 33% (95% confidence interval, 3 to 72) higher likelihood of acidosis compared with those participants in the lowest quartile. There was a significant interaction by age of the association of net endogenous acid production with serum bicarbonate (P=0.005). Among participants 20-39, 40-59, and ≥60 years old, those participants in the highest net endogenous acid production quartile had 0.26 (95% confidence interval, -0.49 to -0.03), 0.60 (95% confidence interval, -0.92 to -0.29), and 0.49 (95% confidence interval, -0.84 to -0.14) mEq/L lower serum bicarbonate, respectively, compared with participants in the lowest quartile. Greater dietary acid is associated with lower serum bicarbonate in the general US population, and the magnitude of this association is greater among middle-aged and elderly persons than younger adults.

  9. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    PubMed

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P < 0.05 in at least one experiment. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase activity was decreased due to dietary garlic (P = 0.0369), but not by pharmacological levels of dietary copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  10. Influence of different dietary zinc levels on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone level and zinc status in male Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Liu, H Y; Sun, M H; Yang, G Q; Jia, C L; Zhang, M; Zhu, Y J; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of zinc (Zn) on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone and Zn profile in male Cashmere goats. Twenty-eight male Liaoning Cashmere goats, 3 years old and body weight at 56.2 ± 2.45 kg, were assigned to four groups. The animals were fed a basal diet containing of 45.9 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM) basis and supplemented with 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg Zn (reagent grade ZnSO₄ ·7H₂ O) per kg DM for 90 days. There was no significant effect on growth and diameter of cashmere fibre for Zn supplemented in diets. However, the length and growth rate of wool were improved (p < 0.05) with dietary Zn. The length and growth rate of wool were higher (p < 0.05) for the groups supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with that of 20 mg Zn/kg DM treatment group. Plasma testosterone concentration was increased for Zn supplemented in diets, and the testosterone concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in goats fed on the diet supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with those fed on basal diet. Plasma Zn concentrations increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn and supplemented with 40 and 80 mg Zn/kg DM groups improved plasma Zn concentration (p < 0.05) more than 20 mg Zn/kg DM group. Fibre Zn content was higher (p < 0.05) in groups supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with control group, but no difference between Zn-supplemented groups (p > 0.05). The activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase was increased (p < 0.05) due to dietary Zn supplementation; however, no difference was found between supplemented treatment groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Zn content (45.9 mg Zn/kg DM) in control diet was insufficient for optimal wool growth performance, and we recommended the level of dietary Zn for such goats is 86 mg/kg DM during the breeding season and cashmere fibre growing period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Dietary energy density and body weight changes after 3 years in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Razquin, Cristina; Sanchez-Tainta, Ana; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Luis; Pinto, Xavier; Schröder, Helmut; Tur, Josep; Sorlí, José V; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Bulló, Mónica; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-03-06

    The association of dietary energy density (ED) and overweight is not clear in the literature. Our aim was to study in 4259 of the PREDIMED trial whether an increase in dietary ED based on a higher adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with 3-year weight gain. A validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire was administered. Multivariable-adjusted models were used to analyze the association between 3-year ED change and the subsequent 3-year body weight change. The most important weight reduction after 3-year follow-up was observed in the two lowest quintiles and the highest quintile of ED change. The highest ED increase was characterized by an increased intake of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and nuts and a decreased intake of other oils, vegetable and fruit consumption (p < .001). In conclusion, increased 3-year ED in the PREDIMED study, associated with a higher EVOO and nuts consumption, was not associated with weight gain.

  12. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  13. Effects of dietary tallow level on performance of Alpine does in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown-Crowder, I E.; Hart, S P.; Cameron, M; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L.

    2001-03-01

    Sixty Alpine does (initial BW 47+/-1.3kg) were used to determine effects of dietary inclusion of different levels of partially hydrogenated tallow on performance in early lactation (weeks 3-11). Treatments entailed a 30% concentrate, negative control (NC) diet and five diets higher in concentrate (42-46%) with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 or 6.0% DM of partially hydrogenated tallow (0T, 1.5T, 3.0T, 4.5T and 6.0T, respectively). DM intake was 1.54kg per day for the NC and 1.86, 1.80, 1.99, 2.17 and 1.96kg per day for the five tallow treatments, respectively, BW was similar among treatments and increased as the trial progressed (47.4, 48.4, 49.8, 50.4, 50.8 and 51.3kg at weeks 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13, respectively). Milk yield was lower (P<0.05) for NC (2.61kg per day) compared with the mean of the other diets and changed quadratically (P<0.05) as tallow level increased (2.85, 3.08, 3.14, 3.21 and 2.69kg per day for the five tallow treatments, respectively). Milk fat concentration was lower (P<0.05) for NC (2.94%) than for the mean of other diets and increased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing tallow level (3.00, 3.17, 3.34, 3.48 and 3.58%) whereas, milk protein concentration was not affected by level of tallow (2.72, 2.80, 2.93, 2.85, 2.90 and 2.90% for NC, and the five tallow treatments, respectively). The estimated NE(l):4% fat-corrected milk yield ratio was 0.93Mcal/kg for NC and 1.30, 1.11, 1.21, 1.37 and 1.44Mcal/kg for the five tallow treatments, respectively. The results indicated that in Alpine does, milk yield in early lactation increased as dietary tallow level was increased to 3 and 4.5% but decreased when the level was increased to 6%, although milk fat concentration increased linearly and the protein level was unchanged. These results suggest beneficial usage by lactating Alpine does of low to moderate levels of partially hydrogenated tallow in diets moderate in concentrate level, although ingredient availability and costs will influence ultimate dietary ingredient

  14. Effect of a dietary intervention on growth and energy expenditure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I; Dougherty, Kelly A; Latham, Norma E; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria R; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-09-01

    The study aim was to determine the effect of a dietary intervention on growth, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects (5 to 17 yrs) participated in a 12-month trial of the organized lipid matrix LYM-X-SORB™ (LXS) vs. placebo dietary supplements with similar calories, total fat and fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day weighed food records. Height (HAZ), weight (WAZ), BMI (BMIZ), mid-upper arm muscle (UAMAZ) and fat area (UAFAZ) Z-scores were calculated. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained by whole body DXA. REE (kcal/d) was evaluated by indirect calorimetry at baseline, 3 and 12 months and %REE calculated using Schofield equations. No growth or REE differences were observed between LXS and placebo groups so data were pooled for analysis. 63 children (57% males, age 10.6 ± 2.9 yr, 43% receiving LXS) completed REE measurements. Caloric intake increased from a median of 2502 [1478, 4909] to 2616 [1660, 4125] kcal/d at 12 months. HAZ, WAZ and UAMAZ increased (p < 0.05) over 12 months. Mean REE was 109 ± 8% predicted at baseline and 107 ± 9% at 12 months (p < 0.05). REE (kcal/d) adjusted for FFM and FM decreased over 12 months ([mean ± SE] -31 ± 12 kcals, p < 0.01), significant only in males (-49 ± 16 kcals, p < 0.01). Over a 12 month nutrition intervention with either LXS or placebo, the growth status, muscle stores and REE improved. Sustained increased energy intake improved energy metabolism, growth and nutritional status in school age children with CF, PI and mild lung disease. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dairy product consumption, dietary nutrient and energy density and associations with obesity in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, T A; Bremner, A P; Bremer, H K; Seares, M E; Beilin, L J; Mori, T A; Lyons-Wall, P; Devine, A; Oddy, W H

    2015-10-01

    Dairy intake is likely to influence dietary energy density (ED) and nutrient density (ND), which are factors representing aspects of dietary quality. Although evidence suggests dairy intake is unlikely to contribute to obesity, intake tends to decrease over adolescence, potentially as a result of concerns around weight gain. We examined associations between dairy intake, ED and ND, and investigated relationships with obesity in adolescents. The present study comprised a cross-sectional study of 1613 14-year-olds in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Adolescents completed a 212-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient Rich Food index 9.3 (NRF9.3) was used to estimate ND. Age-specific body mass index (BMI) and waist-height cut-offs were used to categorise obesity risk. Mean (SD) dairy intake was: 2.62 (1.51) servings daily; ED was 4.53 (0.83) (food and beverage) and 6.28 (1.33) (food only); ND was 373 (109). Dairy intake was inversely associated with ED and positively associated with ND. The odds of being overweight (as assessed by BMI) increased by 1.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.42) with each 100-point increase in ND, after adjustment for potential confounders and energy intake. ED measures and dairy intake were inversely associated with obesity after adjustment for confounders; associations became nonsignificant after energy adjustment. The NRF9.3 was originally designed to assess foods, not diets. Further research in other cohorts to determine whether similar findings exist, or investigations into alternate measures of dietary ND, may prove useful. Our findings may be the result of factors such as an excess consumption of refined but fortified foods. Although higher dairy intakes were associated with higher ND, intakes were not associated with higher obesity risk. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Effects of dietary roughage levels on the expression of adipogenic transcription factors in Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Kawakami, S-I; Nakanishi, N

    2009-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary roughage level would alter the expression levels of adipogenic transcription factors in adipose tissue of Japanese black (Wagyu) steers. Steers were fed whole crop rice silage at three levels: (1) high-roughage feeding group, fed 8kg silage and 5kg concentrate (HR); (2) middle roughage feeding group, fed 5kg silage and 6kg concentrate (MR); and (3) low roughage feeding group, fed 2kg silage and 7kg concentrate (LR) from 22 to 30months of age. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, there were no significant differences in the expression of the adipogenic transcription factors and adipocyte size among feeding groups. In mesenteric adipose tissue, the expression of C/EBPα in the LR and MR groups was significantly higher than that in the HR group. Adipocyte size in the mesenteric adipose tissue of the LR group was significantly larger than that of the HR group. In intermuscular adipose tissue, the expression of C/EBPβ-LAP in the LR group was significantly higher than that in the HR group, and the expression of C/EBPβ-LIP in the LR and MR groups was significantly higher than that in the HR group. Adipocyte size in the intermuscular adipose tissue of the LR and MR groups was significantly smaller than that of the HR group. These results suggest that dietary roughage revel affects the adipose tissue depot-specific differences in C/EBP family expression pattern and adipocyte cellularity in Wagyu steers.

  17. Effects of low dietary levels of methyl mercury on mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.

    1974-01-01

    Mallard ducks were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5 ppm or 3 ppm mercury (as methylmercury dicyandiamide). Health of adults and reproductive success were studied. The dietary level of 3 ppm mercury had harmful effects on reproduction, although it did not appear to affect the health of the adults during the 12 months of dosage. Ducks that were fed the diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury reproduced as well as controls, and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury grew faster in the first week of life than did controls....The greatest harm to reproduction associated with the diet containing 3 ppm mercury was an increase in duckling mortality, but reduced egg laying and increased embryonic mortality also occurred....During the peak of egg laying, eggs laid by controls tended to be heavier than eggs laid by ducks fed either level of mercury; however, there seemed to be no eggshell thinning associated with mercury treatment. Levels of mercury reached about 1 ppm in eggs from ducks fed a dietary dosage of 0.5 ppm mercury and between 6 and 9 ppm in the eggs from ducks fed 3 ppm mercury.

  18. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P < 0.001). The BMI of male and female students were 23.4 ± 3.3 and 20.2 ± 2.3, respectively. Most male students were in the range of being overweight. The dietary habits score of female students was significantly higher than that of male students (P < 0.01).The blood cadmium level of male and female students were 0.54 ± 0.23 and 0.52 ± 0.36, respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female students. The blood lead level of male and female students were 1.09 ± 0.49 and 0.59 ± 0.45, respectively. The blood lead level of male students was significantly higher than that of female students (P < 0.001). The blood cadmium level of smokers and nonsmokers were 0.69 ± 0.29 and 0.49 ± 0.29 respectively (P < 0.05). The blood cadmium level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). The blood lead level of smokers and nonsmokers were 1.09 ± 0.43 and 0.80 ± 0.54, respectively. The blood lead level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Therefore, proper nutritional education programs are required for college students in order to improve their dietary and health related living habits. PMID:22977689

  19. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity, increased sedentary time, and frequent consumption of instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted.

  20. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  1. Self-reported changes in dietary calcium and energy intake predict weight regain following a weight loss diet in obese women.

    PubMed

    Ochner, Christopher N; Lowe, Michael R

    2007-10-01

    This study examined relationships between changes in dietary calcium intake, energy intake, and body weight following a weight loss diet. One hundred three overweight or obese women lost weight over 22 wk. Dietary calcium and energy intake were assessed using the Block 98 FFQ (Block) and 5-d food records (FR) at intervention end and 6- and 18-mo follow-up. Pearson correlations were used to relate changes in dietary calcium to energy intake. We used regression analyses to examine relationships between changes in dietary calcium, energy intake, and weight regain. Changes in dietary calcium and energy intake were correlated (r = 0.32; P = 0.033), but neither variable alone predicted weight regain. From 6- to 18-mo follow-up, greater dietary calcium intake inversely predicted weight regain when controlling for changes in energy intake (P = 0.048 Block and 0.025 FR), whereas higher energy intake positively predicted weight regain when controlling for changes in dietary calcium intake (P = 0.009 Block and 0.049 FR) (combined R(2) = 0.153 Block and 0.178 FR). Dietary calcium may oppose weight regain, reducing the effect of greater energy intake. Our results encourage future research on the potential relationship between dietary calcium and weight loss maintenance and suggest that controlling for dietary calcium may increase the ability of energy intake to predict weight change.

  2. Tolerance evaluation of overdosed dietary levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, S J; Weber, G M; Erhardt, A; Höller, U; Wehr, U A; Rambeck, W A

    2016-04-01

    Forty-eight, cross-bred (GL × LW × P) piglets were used in a 42-day tolerance trial to assess the effects of feeding diets supplemented with vitamin D or increasing levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3 ). Six-week-old piglets (24 castrate males, 24 females) were used. Two replicate groups of 6 piglets were randomized by weight and allocated to four dietary treatments. The control group (T1) was supplemented with 50 μg vitamin D3 /kg feed. The experimental groups received 25-OH-D3 at the recommended dose (T2: 50 μg/kg = 1x), at 250 μg/kg (T3: 5x) or at 500 μg/kg (T4: 10x) respectively. Feed intake and daily weight gain were measured weekly, and the animals were examined by a veterinarian daily. After 42 days, body mass, blood, urine, bone and tissue samples were analysed and a pathology examination conducted. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on final body mass or daily weight gain. The 25-OH-D3 plasma concentration in T1 was 17 ± 3 ng/ml (mean ± SD) while the respective values of the experimental groups were significantly increased in T2, T3 and T4. Tissue concentrations of 25-OH-D3 were higher in liver and muscle for T3 and T4 and in skin for T4 than in T1. However, neither gross pathology nor histology, nor blood and urine characteristics, nor bone parameters were affected by dietary treatments. Weight of organs as well as dry matter, ash and calcium content of kidneys remained unaffected by dietary 25-OH-D3 intake. Furthermore, no changes were observed for general indicators of health. The results of this study demonstrated that feeding piglets with 25-OH-D3 at 5 or 10 times the recommended level had no adverse effects on any of the biological parameters measured. It was concluded that 25-OH-D3 can be regarded as a supplement with a very high safety margin when used at the recommended level.

  3. Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction: a Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Barberio, Amanda M; Sumar, Nureen; Trieu, Kathy; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Tarasuk, Valerie; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norman R C; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-02-15

    Worldwide, excessive salt consumption is common and is a leading cause of high blood pressure. Our objectives were to assess the overall and differential impact (by social and economic indicators) of population-level interventions for dietary sodium reduction in government jurisdictions worldwide. This is a Cochrane systematic review. We searched nine peer-reviewed databases, seven grey literature resources and contacted national programme leaders. We appraised studies using an adapted version of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. To assess impact, we computed the mean change in salt intake (g/day) from before to after intervention. Fifteen initiatives met the inclusion criteria and 10 provided sufficient data for quantitative analysis of impact. Of these, five showed a mean decrease in salt intake from before to after intervention including: China, Finland (Kuopio area), France, Ireland and the UK. When the sample was constrained to the seven initiatives that were multicomponent and incorporated activities of a structural nature (e.g. procurement policy), most (4/7) showed a mean decrease in salt intake. A reduction in salt intake was more apparent among men than women. There was insufficient information to assess differential impact by other social and economic axes. Although many initiatives had methodological strengths, all scored as having a high risk of bias reflecting the observational design. Study heterogeneity was high, reflecting different contexts and initiative characteristics. Population-level dietary sodium reduction initiatives have the potential to reduce dietary salt intake, especially if they are multicomponent and incorporate intervention activities of a structural nature. It is important to consider data infrastructure to permit monitoring of these initiatives.

  4. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency.

  5. Dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 is associated with low serum cobalamin levels in non-vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, M N; Dawson, D W; Lewis, M J

    1991-08-01

    A prospective study of 106 patients with low serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels showed that, in 37, it was unexplained. The dietary intake of the vitamin was assessed in these patients by questionnaire and was found to be low in 10 (37%). None of these patients was vegetarian and they were of varying age and social circumstance. Dietary deficiency may be the sole cause of a low serum cobalamin in a significant proportion of non-vegetarians. An assessment of dietary intake should be part of the investigation of cobalamin deficiency.

  6. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2010-03-01

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared energy density after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001-2002) and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting portion sizes of high-fat and high-sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, fat content of foods, and serving of high-fat vegetables like french fries. Energy density (kcal/g): energy density-1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; energy density-2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas policy, students' energy density-1 significantly decreased from 2.80+/-1.08 kcal/g to 2.17+/-0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, energy density-2 significantly decreased from 1.38+/-0.76 kcal/g to 1.29+/-0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in energy density, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids and energy content of nine corn coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Kerr, B J; Zijlstra, R T; Patience, J F

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine a best fitting dietary fiber (DF) component to estimate the effect of DF concentration on the digestibility of energy, DF, and AA and energy value of 9 corn coproducts: corn bran (37.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP]); corn bran with solubles (17.1% NSP); cooked corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20.4% NSP); reduced oil DDGS (25.0% NSP); uncooked DDGS (22.0% NSP); high protein distillers dried grains (21.9% NSP); dehulled, degermed corn (1.1% NSP); corn germ meal (44.4% NSP); and corn gluten meal (4.9% NSP). A total of 20 growing pigs (initial BW: 25.9 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 10 dietary treatment groups in a 4-period incomplete block design with 8 observations per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and 9 diets obtained by mixing 70% of the basal diet with 30% of the test ingredient. In tested ingredients, 11 DF components were determined: 1) ADF, 2) NDF, 3) total dietary fiber, 4) hemicellulose, 5) total NSP, 6) NSP arabinose, 7) NSP xylose, 8) NSP mannose, 9) NSP glucose, 10) NSP galactose, and 11) arabinoxylan. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF and the AID of AA of ingredients were measured. A single best fitting DF component was assessed and ranked for each trait, showing that arabinoxylan concentration best explained variance in AID of GE (R(2) = 0.65; cubic, P < 0.01) and DM (R(2) = 0.67; cubic, P < 0.01). The NSP xylose residue best explained variance in ATTD of GE (R(2) = 0.80; cubic, P < 0.01), DM (R(2) = 0.78; cubic, P < 0.01), and NDF (R(2) = 0.63; cubic, P < 0.01); AID of Met (R(2) = 0.40; cubic, P = 0.02), Met + Cys (R(2) = 0.44; cubic, P = 0.04), and Trp (R(2) = 0.11; cubic, P = 0.04); and DE (R(2) = 0.66; linear, P = 0.02) and ME (R(2) = 0.71; cubic, P = 0.01) values. The AID of Lys was not predictable (P > 0.05) from the DF

  8. The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Boroujeni, Hossein Khosravi; Sarrsfzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Nooshin; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Maghroon, Maryam; Alikhassi, Hassan; Esmailzaded, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women) aged 19–81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak in “Isfahan Healthy Heart Program” (IHHP) (Iran), was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran) and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. RESULTS: Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association. PMID:23205051

  9. The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran.

    PubMed

    Boroujeni, Hossein Khosravi; Sarrsfzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Nooshin; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Maghroon, Maryam; Alikhassi, Hassan; Esmailzaded, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women) aged 19-81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak in "Isfahan Healthy Heart Program" (IHHP) (Iran), was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran) and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association.

  10. Dietary energy requirements of young adult men, determined by using the doubly labeled water method

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.B.; Heyman, M.B.; Evans, W.J.; Fuss, P.; Tsay, R.; Young, V.R. )

    1991-09-01

    The autors examined the hypothesis that current recommendations on dietary energy requirements may underestimate the total energy needs of young adult men, by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in 14 weight-maintaining healthy subjects leading unrestricted lives. TEE and body composition were measured by using 2H(2)18O, and REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry. All subjects had sedentary full-time occupations and participated in strenuous leisure activities for 34 {plus minus} 6 (SE) min/d. TEE and REE were 14.61 {plus minus} 0.76 and 7.39 {plus minus} 0.26 MJ/d, respectively, and 202 {plus minus} 2 and 122 {plus minus} 2 kJ.kg-1.d-1. There were significant relationships between TEE and both body fat-free mass (r = 0.732, P less than 0.005) and measured REE (r = 0.568, P less than 0.05). Measured TEE:REE values were significantly higher than the recommended energy requirement (1.98 {plus minus} 0.09, compared with 1.55 or 1.67, P less than 0.005). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the current recommended energy intake for young adult men may underestimate total energy needs.

  11. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum cow performance.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Day, M L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2010-08-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 144) were used to determine effects of late gestation dietary energy source on pre- and postpartum cow performance in a complete randomized block design experiment. Cows were adapted to diets starting at 167 +/- 9 d of gestation and fed until 1 wk before expected calving date. Cows were fed 1 of 3 dietary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried distillers grains (DDGS). Cows allotted to HY were allowed ad libitum access to round-bale grass hay, and average hay disappearance was 12.4 kg/d. Limit-fed corn and DDGS diets contained 5.3 kg of whole-shelled corn or 4.1 kg of DDGS, respectively, plus 2.1 kg of hay, and 1.0 kg of supplement to meet cow nutritional needs during late gestation and to allow for an energy intake similar to HY. Every 21 d, BW, BCS, and ultrasound measurement of backfat between the 12th and 13th ribs were collected. At 210 d in gestation, jugular blood samples were collected from cows at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea N (BUN) concentrations. After parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed similarly. Milk production was determined by weigh-suckle-weigh procedure on d 31, 100, and 176 postpartum. Cows fed DDGS during late gestation gained more (P = 0.04) BW than cows fed HY or CN; however, no difference in BCS change was detected (P = 0.28) among treatments. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar among treatments (P = 0.64), whereas insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding were greater (P = 0.002) for cows fed DDGS than those fed HY or CN. Plasma BUN concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.02) for cows fed DDGS vs. CN or HY up to 6 h postfeeding. Birth weight was greater (P < 0.001) for calves from cows fed CN and DDGS than for those fed HY, but this did not result in any differences in frequency of dystocia (P = 0.21). Prepartum energy source did not affect conception rates (P = 0.79), milk production (P > or = 0.51), or milk

  12. The effect of different dietary sodium levels on blood mineral concentrations and tibia mineralization in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J; Lichtorowicz, K; Zduńczyk, Z; Juśkiewicz, J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of sodium in diets with and without sodium chloride on mineral metabolism, including blood electrolyte levels and tibia mineralization parameters, in young turkeys (to six weeks of age). The influence of diets with a low (L), medium (M) and high (H) sodium content, at 0.34, 1.34 and 2.82 g/kg respectively, was compared. The content of chloride and potassium in turkey diets (1.7 - 5.9 and 11 g/kg, respectively) was above the recommended levels. The sodium-deficient diet L decreased the serum concentrations of sodium, chloride and phosphorus, and it increased the serum levels of calcium and magnesium in turkeys, compared with groups M and H. Relative to group L, different dietary sodium levels in groups M and H contributed to a similar increase in the body weights of birds (1.06 vs. 1.46 and 1.44 kg, p < 0.001) and in the absolute (4.60 vs. 6.83 and 6.62 g, p < 0.001) and relative tibia weight (0.42 vs. 0.46 and 0.46% body weight, p = 0.031). No significant differences were found between groups with respect to the content of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibia dry matter. Supplemental sodium increased the bone density index (from 50.6 to 68.4 and 66.3 mg/mm in groups L, M and H, respectively, p < 0.001), the maximum bending moment (from 5.27 to 7.40 and 7.33 N/mm, p = 0.002) and the minimum breaking strength of tibia (from 0.136 to 0.191 and 0.189, p = 0.002). In conclusion, our study indicates that the applied dietary treatment with a moderate sodium level (1.34 g/kg) resulted in a rate of bird growth and tibia mineralization similar to those observed with the treatment with much higher Na content (2.82 g/kg).

  13. Postprandial Energy Metabolism in the Regulation of Body Weight: Is there a Mechanistic Role for Dietary Calcium?

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Mario J.; She-Ping-Delfos, Wendy L. Chan

    2010-01-01

    There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes. PMID:22254043

  14. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    An, S. H.; Kim, D. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry. PMID:26954217

  15. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    An, S H; Kim, D W; An, B K

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  16. Effects of dietary energy content on the performance of laying hens in furnished and conventional cages.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, E; Venäläinen, E; Rossow, L; Valaja, J

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary energy content on the egg production and egg quality of hens kept in 3-hen conventional cages or 8-hen furnished cages. A total of 1,088 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens were housed in either furnished or conventional cages and offered low- or high-energy diets (from 2,342 to 2,414 kcal/kg or from 2,581 to 2,629 kcal/kg) during 3 consecutive feeding phases of 20, 16, and 16 wk, respectively. The same dietary energy effects were observed in both cage systems. The hens that received the low-energy diet consumed more feed (P < 0.01) and produced fewer eggs per day (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the high-energy diet. Over the entire experiment, housing had no significant effects on production parameters, but during the third feeding phase, the production rate was smaller in furnished cages than in conventional cages (P < 0.01). Because of the greater live weight of the hens in furnished cages at the beginning of the experiment, these hens consumed more feed during the first feeding phase than the hens in conventional cages. During the third feeding phase, the hens in furnished cages consumed less feed than those in conventional cages (P < 0.01), probably because of their better feather cover. No differences in feed conversion ratio were found between the cage types. The results of this study confirm the results of previous studies providing evidence of equal production rates and feed conversion ratios in furnished and conventional cages.

  17. Energy drinks and other dietary supplement use among adolescents attending secondary schools in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Babwah, Terence J; Maharaj, Rohan G; Nunes, Paula

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the knowledge and practices among Trinidad and Tobago school-attending adolescents towards energy drinks (ED), alcohol combined with energy drinks (AwED), weight-altering supplements (WAS) and vitamin/mineral supplements (VMS) and their experience of adverse effects associated with such use. A cross-sectional, proportionate, stratified sampling strategy was adopted using a self-administered, de novo questionnaire. Secondary schools throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Students aged 15-19 years. Five hundred and sixty-one students participated, an 84% response rate; 43·0% were male, 40·5% East Indian and 34·1% mixed race. VMS, ED, WAS and anabolic steroids were used by 52·4%, 44·0%, 8·9% and 1·4% of students, respectively, with 51·6% of ED users using AwED. Predictors of use of AwED were males and students who played sport for their school (OR = 1·9; 95% CI 1·2, 3·2 and OR = 2·6; 95% CI 1·4, 4·7, respectively). Predictors of ED use were males and attendees of government secondary schools (OR = 1·7; 95% CI 1·1, 2·4 and OR = 1·7; 95% CI 1·2, 2·4, respectively). Side-effects, mainly palpitations, headaches and sleep disturbances, were reported in 20·7% of dietary supplement users. Many adolescent students in Trinidad and Tobago use dietary supplements, including ED and AwED, and about one-fifth of users experience side-effects. Identification of students at risk for ED, AwED and WAS use and education of students about the dangers of using dietary supplements need to be instituted to prevent potential adverse events.

  18. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aluminum exposure for 60days at an equivalent human dietary level promotes peripheral dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Vera, Gema; Ocio, José Antonio Uranga; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Miguel, Marta; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-08-25

    Aluminum (Al) is a neurotoxic associated with a number of chronic human diseases. We investigated the effects of Al exposure at doses similar to human dietary levels and at a high level exposure to Al on the peripheral nervous system. Wistar male rats were divided into two major groups and received orally: 1) First group - Low level - rats were subdivided and treated for 60days: a) Control - received ultrapure water; b) AlCl3 - received Al at 8.3mg/kg body weight (bw) for 60days; and 2) Second group - High level - rats were subdivided and treated for 42days: C) Control - received ultrapure water through oral gavage; d) AlCl3 - received Al at 100mg/kg bw for 42days. Von Frey hair test, plantar test, the presence of catalepsy and the spontaneous motor activity were investigated. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity, immunohistochemistry to investigate the nerve inflammation and, the specific presence of Al in the sciatic nerve fibers were investigated. Al exposure at a representative human dietary level promotes the development of mechanical allodynia, catalepsy, increased inflammation in the sciatic nerve, systemic oxidative stress and, is able to be retained in the sciatic nerve. The effects of low-dose Al were similar to those found in rats exposed to Al at a dose much higher (100mg/kg). Our findings suggest that Al may be considered toxic for the peripheral nervous system, thus inducing peripheral dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Level of acculturation, food intake, dietary changes, and health status of first-generation Filipino Americans in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Felicitas A; Lao, Brigette T; Heinlein, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    This exploratory descriptive study investigates the acculturation level, food intake, dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and diet-related health indicators-body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio-of first-generation Filipino Americans (FAs) in Southern California. Healthy FA adults-20 women and 10 men-were interviewed. Acculturation level was obtained using A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. A 24-h dietary recall elicited their food intake. Survey questions revealed dietary changes and practices, health status perceptions, and sociodemographic characteristics. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. FAs consider themselves more Filipino than American, but their acculturation level reflects transitioning into biculturalism. FAs relinquish, maintain, and adapt elements of both Philippine and U.S. cultures in food intake, dietary changes, and practices. Although FAs perceive their health status as very good to excellent, many exceed the cut-off points for BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study underscores the importance of nurse practitioners and other healthcare givers conducting cultural dietary assessment as a basis for culturally appropriate dietary counseling. The inclusion of waist measurement to regularly monitor abdominal obesity-a predictor of cardiovascular disease and diabetes-is highly recommended. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wanders, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; de Graaf, C; Hulshof, T; Jonathan, M C; Kristensen, M; Mars, M; Schols, H A; Feskens, E J M

    2011-09-01

    Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, β-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration.

  2. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  3. Increased dietary protein attenuates C-reactive protein and creatine kinase responses to exercise-induced energy deficit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined if dietary protein (P) modulates responses of C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK), biomarkers of inflammation and muscle damage, during exercise-induced energy deficit (DEF). Thirteen healthy men (22 +/- 1 y, VO2peak 60 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) balanced energy expenditure (EE...

  4. The metabolizable energy of dietary resistant maltodextrin is variable and alters fecal microbiota composition in adult men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistant maltodextrin (RM) is a novel soluble, nonviscous dietary fiber. Its metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy (NE) values derived from nutrient balance studies are unknown, as is the effect of RM on fecal microbiota. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study was conduct...

  5. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild.

  6. Effects of dietary medium-chain triacylglycerol on mRNA level of gluconeogenic enzymes in malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Keiichi; Kasai, Michio

    2008-12-01

    We have reported previously that dietary medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) improved serum albumin concentration and protein balance in malnourished rats. To clarify the mechanisms for this effect of MCT, hepatic messenger RNA levels of gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in rats fed low-protein diets containing either MCT or isocaloric long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) for 2 wk. The serum albumin concentration in rats fed the MCT diet was significantly higher compared with those fed the LCT diet. Serum free fatty acids and ketone body fraction were higher in rats fed MCT compared with those fed the LCT diet. The hepatic mRNA level of PDH was significantly lower in rats fed MCT than those fed LCT. But, there was no significant difference between the two groups in mRNA of gluconeogenic enzymes or ALT. These results suggest that ketone bodies, which are an alternative energy source and might spare blood glucose, increase by MCT feeding, and the reason for the PEM (protein-energy malnutrition)-improving effect of MCT is not caused by suppression of gluconeogenesis.

  7. Influence of Dietary Cyanide on Immunoglobulin and Thiocyanate Levels in the Serum of Liberian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Linda C.; Bloch, Earl F.; Jackson, Robert T.; Chandler, James P.; Kim, Yong L.; Malveaux, Floyd J.

    1985-01-01

    Serum thiocyanate, antibody titers to thiocyanates, and serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA) were measured in 73 Liberian adults normally consuming diets of low, moderate, high, or no (control) cassava-derived cyanide (CN−). When control and low groups (n = 40; daily intake less than 0.60 mg CN− per kg body weight) were contrasted with moderate and high groups (n = 33; daily intake greater than or equal to 0.60 mg CN− per kg body weight), the authors observed that (1) one-time serum thiocyanate measurements were not sensitive to long-term cyanide intake; however, (2) antibody titers to thiocyanates were positively correlated with cassava-based cyanide intakes (r = .22, P = 0.05); and (3) serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels were elevated in individuals regularly consuming moderate and high levels of dietary cyanide. Possible responsible mechanisms and health implications are discussed. PMID:4057268

  8. Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Energy and Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Laurence S.; Commins, John M.; Moler, James E.; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J.; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Prentice, Ross L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Willett, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing US adult populations from 1999 to 2009. We report on total energy, protein, and protein density intakes. Results were similar across sexes, but there was heterogeneity across studies. Using a FFQ, the average correlation coefficients for reported versus true intakes for energy, protein, and protein density were 0.21, 0.29, and 0.41, respectively. Using a single 24-hour recall, the coefficients were 0.26, 0.40, and 0.36, respectively, for the same nutrients and rose to 0.31, 0.49, and 0.46 when three 24-hour recalls were averaged. The average rate of under-reporting of energy intake was 28% with a FFQ and 15% with a single 24-hour recall, but the percentages were lower for protein. Personal characteristics related to under-reporting were body mass index, educational level, and age. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction. This project establishes that FFQs have stronger correlations with truth for protein density than for absolute protein intake, that the use of multiple 24-hour recalls substantially increases the correlations when compared with a single 24-hour recall, and that body mass index strongly predicts under-reporting of energy and protein intakes. PMID:24918187

  9. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione.

  10. Dietary energy density predicts women’s weight change over 6 y1, 2, 3

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele; Birch, Leann L

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary energy density (ED) is positively associated with energy intake, but little is known about long-term effects on weight change. Objective We assessed whether dietary ED predicts weight change over 6 y among a sample of non-Hispanic, white women. Design Participants were part of a 6-y longitudinal study (n = 186), assessed at baseline and biennially. ED (in kcal/g) was calculated from the energy content of all foods (excluding beverages) with the use of three 24-h recalls. Height and weight were measured in triplicate to calculate body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2). Repeated measures (PROC MIXED) were used to examine the influence of ED on weight change, before and after adjusting for initial weight status. Food choices were examined among subjects consuming low-, medium-, and high-ED diets at study entry. Results ED did not change across time for a subject. ED was positively associated with weight gain and higher BMI over time; this association did not vary by BMI classification. Food group data showed that, compared with women consuming higher-ED diets, women consuming lower-ED diets reported significantly lower total energy intakes and consumed fewer servings of baked desserts, refined grains, and fried vegetables and more servings of vegetables, fruit, and cereal. Women consuming lower-ED diets ate more meals at the table and fewer meals in front of the television. Conclusions Findings indicate that consumption of a lower-ED diet moderates weight gain, which may promote weight maintenance. Consuming lower ED diets can be achieved by consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables and limiting intake of high-fat foods. PMID:18779283

  11. Underreporting of Dietary Energy Intake in Five Populations of the African Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Dugas, Lara R.; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic underreporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among individuals of African ancestry (n=324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index scale, a United Nations statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24-hour recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labeled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values to identify underreporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all countries. The South African cohort displayed the greatest mean % under-reporting: −52.1% ([self-report - expenditure/expenditure]×100) compared to −22.5%, −17.9%, −25.0%, and −18.5%, for, Ghana, Jamaica, Seychelles and the United States cohorts, respectively. Body mass index was the most consistent predictor of underreporting compared to other factors. We conclude that there is substantial under-reporting in populations across the whole range of the human development index and that this systematic error increases according to an individual’s body mass index. PMID:25585294

  12. Dietary Energy Density is Positively Associated with Breast Density among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Terryl J.; Klifa, Catherine J.; Coffman, Donna L.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Snetselaar, Linda; Horn, Linda Van; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Himes, John; Shepherd, John; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast density is an established predictor of breast cancer risk, and there is considerable interest in associations of modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet, with breast density. Objective To determine if dietary energy density (ED) is associated with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in young women. Design A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with women who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study (DISC06). %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diet was assessed by three 24-hour recalls. Dietary ED (kcal/g) was calculated using three methods: (1) food only, (2) food and caloric beverages, and (3) food and all beverages. Participants/setting 172 women (25–29 years) who were enrolled in the DISC06 study. Subjects who reported breast augmentation or reduction surgery or were pregnant or lactating within three months before breast density assessment were excluded. Main outcome measures ADBV and %DBV. Statistical analyses performed Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used. Final models were adjusted for race, smoking status, education, parity, duration of sex hormone use, whole body percent fat, childhood BMI z-score, and energy from beverages. Results After adjustment, each 1 kcal/g unit increase in food-only ED was associated with a 25.9% (95% confidence interval = 6.2 to 56.8%) increase in %DBV (p=0.01). Childhood BMI z-score modified the association between food-only ED and %DBV such that a significant positive association was observed only in women who were heavier as children. Food-only ED was not associated with ADBV in all women, but a borderline significant positive association was observed in women who had higher childhood BMI z-scores. Conclusions This is the first report to suggest a potential role for dietary ED in breast density; the effects of long-term exposure to high ED diets on breast cancer risk remain unknown. PMID

  13. Relationship of dietary lysine level to the concentration of all essential amino acids in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Si, J; Fritts, C A; Burnham, D J; Waldroup, P W

    2001-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the relationship of dietary Lys and other essential amino acids (EAA) in diets for broilers. Diets were formulated based upon NRC (1994) recommendations. Within each age period, diets contained NRC recommended levels of Lys with other EAA at 100, 110, 120, or 130% of NRC. The diets were then supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3% additional Lys, resulting in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement with four levels of Lys (NRC, + 0.1%, + 0.2%, and + 0.3% Lys) and four levels of other EAA (100, 110, 120, and 130% of NRC). Each of the 16 treatments was fed to six replicate pens of 25 male broilers of a commercial strain. At 56 d, five birds per pen were processed to determine dressing percentage and carcass yield. There were no significant interactions between level of Lys and levels of other EAA for live performance or carcass characteristics. The BW was significantly increased at 21 and 42 d by addition of + 0.1% Lys above NRC but not at 56 d. There was no significant effect of other EAA on BW at any age. The effects of Lys on feed conversion were varied. At 21 and 42 d, addition of 0.1% Lys to diets containing the NRC Lys level significantly improved feed conversion; response to 0.2 or 0.3% Lys were varied. No significant effects of Lys on feed conversion were observed at 56 d. Increasing the level of EAA resulted in significant improvements in feed conversion at 21, 42, and 56 d, generally following a linear trend. Dietary Lys levels had no significant effects on dressing percentage, breast meat yield, or abdominal fat content. The level of other EAA significantly influenced dressed yield but had no significant influence on carcass yield. These results indicate that NRC (1994) levels of Lys and other EAA are adequate for optimum performance of male broilers processed at 56 d but may be less than adequate at younger ages.

  14. Interactions of dietary protein and carbohydrate determine blood sugar level and regulate nutrient selection in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Redak, R A

    2000-09-01

    The non-homeostatic regulation of blood sugar concentration in the insect Manduca sexta L. was affected by nutritional status. Larvae maintained on diets lacking sucrose displayed low concentrations of trehalose, the blood sugar of insects, which varied from 5 to 15 mM with increasing dietary casein level between 12.5 and 75 g/l. These insects were glucogenic, as demonstrated by the selective 13C enrichment of trehalose synthesized from [3-13C]alanine, and de novo synthesis was the sole source of blood sugar. The distribution of 13C in glutamine established that following transamination of the 13C substituted substrate, [3-13C]pyruvate carboxylation rather than decarboxylation was the principal pathway of Pyr metabolism. The mean blood trehalose level was higher in insects maintained on diets with sucrose. At the lowest dietary casein level blood trehalose was approximately 50 mM, and declined to 20 mM at the highest casein level. Gluconeogenesis was detected in insects maintained on sucrose-free diets at the higher protein levels examined, but [3-13C]pyruvate decarboxylation and TCA cycle metabolism was the principal fate of [3-13C]alanine following transamination, and dietary carbohydrate was the principal source of glucose for trehalose synthesis. Feeding studies established a relationship between nutritional status, blood sugar level and dietary self-selection. Insects preconditioned by feeding on diets without sucrose had low blood sugar levels regardless of dietary casein level, and when subsequently given a choice between a sucrose diet or a casein diet, selected the former. Larvae preconditioned on a diet containing sucrose and the lowest level of casein had high blood sugar levels and subsequently selected the casein diet. Larvae maintained on the sucrose diet with the highest casein level had low blood sugar and self-selected the sucrose diet. When preconditioned on diets with sucrose and intermediate levels of casein, insects selected more equally

  15. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels.

    PubMed

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60-80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health.

  16. High dietary calcium level decreases colonic phytate degradation in pigs fed a rapeseed diet.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, A S; Larsen, T; Sandström, B

    1993-03-01

    The degradation of phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) in rapeseed meal diet not containing phytase activity was studied in 15 growing ileum-fistulated pigs. Stomach and small intestinal degradation and total gastrointestinal degradation were compared. The effect of addition of calcium carbonate to the rapeseed meal diet at two levels (9.2 and 18.5 g/kg diet) was investigated. A commercial barley-wheat-soybean diet with intrinsic phytase activity was used as reference. Phytate and its hydrolysis products in diets, ileal digesta and feces were determined by HPLC ion-pair chromatography. Hydrolysis of phytate in the stomach and small intestine was 35-45% in pigs fed the rapeseed meal diet independent of calcium addition, and 65% in pigs fed the reference diet. Total gastrointestinal degradation of phytate in pigs fed the rapeseed diet was 97, 77 and 42% (P < 0.001) when calcium intakes were 4.5, 9.9 and 15 g/d, respectively; total gastrointestinal degradation was 72% in pigs fed the reference diet. The intestinal phytate degradation pattern, when rapeseed diet was fed, indicated the activity of an unspecific phosphatase, whereas that of the reference diet indicated intrinsic dietary phytase activity. We conclude that dietary supplementation of calcium carbonate decreases the phytate degradation in the colon of pigs, but not in the stomach and small intestine.

  17. Dependence of intestinal amino acid uptake on dietary protein or amino acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Karasov, W.H.; Solberg, D.H.; Diamond, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    To understand how intestinal amino acid (AA) transport is regulated by dietary substrate levels, the authors measured uptake of seven radioactively-labelled AAs and glucose across the jejunal brush-border membrane of mice kept on one of three isocaloric rations differing in nitrogen content. In the high-protein ration, uptake increased by 77-81% for the nonessential, less toxic AAs, proline, and aspartate but only by 32-61% for the more toxic essential AAs tested. In the nitrogen-deficient ration, uptake decreased for the nonessential aspartate and proline but stayed constant or increased for essential AAs and for the nonessential alanine. These patterns imply independent regulation of the intestine's various AA transporters. With decreasing dietary AA (or protein), the imino acid and acidic AA private transporters are repressed, while activities of the basic AA transporter and the neutral AA public transporter decrease to an asymptote or else go through a minimum. These regulatory patterns can be understood as a compromise among conflicting constraints imposed by protein's multiple roles as a source of calories, nitrogen, and essential AAs and by the toxicity of essential AAs at high concentrations.

  18. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Joanna C.; Melnyk, Stepan; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Starrett, William; Crook, Tina A.; James, S. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs) who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P) Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI) for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling. PMID:24396597

  19. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    PubMed Central

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:27088010

  20. Influence of Dietary Selenium Species on Selenoamino Acid Levels in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Godin, Simon; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Bueno, Maïté; Tacon, Philippe; Prabhu, Philip Antony Jesu; Kaushik, Sachi; Médale, Françoise; Bouyssiere, Brice

    2015-07-22

    Two forms of selenium (Se) supplementation of fish feeds were compared in two different basal diets. A 12-week feeding trial was performed with rainbow trout fry using either a plant-based or a fish meal-based diet. Se yeast and selenite were used for Se supplementation. Total Se and Se speciation were determined in both diets and whole body of trout fry using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two selenoamino acids, selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenocysteine (SeCys), were determined in whole body of fry after enzymatic digestion using protease type XIV with a prior derivatization step in the case of SeCys. The plant-based basal diet was found to have a much lower total Se than the fish meal-based basal diet with concentrations of 496 and 1222 μg(Se) kg(-1), respectively. Dietary Se yeast had a higher ability to raise whole body Se compared to selenite. SeMet concentration in the fry was increased only in the case of Se yeast supplementation, whereas SeCys levels were similar at the end of the feeding trial for both Se supplemented forms. The results show that the fate of dietary Se in fry is highly dependent on the form brought through supplementation and that a plant-based diet clearly benefits from Se supplementation.

  1. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.

  2. Maternal dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids modifies the relationship between lead levels in bone and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Arora, Manish; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Peterson, Karen E; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2008-01-01

    Whereas dietary fats are known to influence bone mineral density, little is known about their effect on the skeletal stores of lead that are a pervasive source of fetal and infant lead exposure from heightened mobilization during pregnancy and lactation. This cross-sectional study examined the potential influence of maternal dietary intake of saturated and unsaturated fats on the relationship of lead levels in bone and breast milk during lactation. Lead was measured in blood, breast milk, and bone (patella and tibia) at 1 mo postpartum in 310 women in Mexico City. Dietary nutrient intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to study the influence of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats on the association between bone and breast milk lead. In multivariate models that included both the dietary intake of SFA and PUFA, an interquartile range increase in patella lead [approximately 20 microg/g (0.097 micromol/g)] was associated with a 24% (95% CI = 5-43) higher increase in breast milk lead in women in the lowest tertile of PUFA intake compared with those in the highest tertile of PUFA intake. Monounsaturated fatty acids did not modify the relationship between lead levels in patella and breast milk. In conclusion, higher maternal dietary intake of PUFA may limit the transfer of lead from bone to breast milk.

  3. High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

    2013-12-14

    Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ≥ 70 % of FM with PP and ≥ 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content.

  4. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina; Harder, Marie N; Taylor, Moira A; Hager, Jörg; Arner, Peter; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Martinez, J Alfredo; Polak, Jan; Rousseau, Francis; Langin, Dominique; Rössner, Stephan; Holst, Claus; MacDonald, Ian A; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kunesova, Marie; Saris, Wim H M; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.

  5. Effects of different dietary fat types on postprandial appetite and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Flint, Anne; Helt, Berit; Raben, Anne; Toubro, Søren; Astrup, Arne

    2003-12-01

    Observational studies suggest that monounsaturated (MUFA) and trans fatty acids (TRANS) are more fattening than polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of intake of PUFA, MUFA, or TRANS on appetite and energy expenditure (EE). Three test meals were randomly given in a cross-over design to 19 overweight (BMI: 26.8 +/- 0.4 kg/m2), young (25.2 +/- 0.7 years) men. The fat-rich breakfasts (0.8 g fat/kg body weight, 60% energy from fat) varied only in the source of C:18-fat. EE was measured continuously in a respiration chamber, and appetite sensations were rated by visual analog scales before and every 30 minutes, for 5 hours, after the meal. After 5 hours, an ad libitum meal was served, and energy intake was registered. Sensory evaluations of all meals were given using visual analog scales. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. There were no differences in basal or postprandial values of appetite ratings and EE, in subsequent ad libitum energy intake, or in the sensory evaluation of the test meals among the 3 test days. Giving acutely large amounts of MUFA, PUFA, or TRANS did not impose any differences in appetite and EE in overweight humans. However, studies with extended protocols and other subject groups are warranted to investigate the long-term effect of dietary fat quality on the regulation of energy balance and body weight.

  6. Agreement between Two Methods of Dietary Data Collection in Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Cockburn, Emma; Russell, Mark; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall) when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h), during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA) and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV) were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01) but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1). For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1). The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under-reporting common to such

  7. Association between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake/blood level and risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwei; Zhang, Honghe; Chen, Jiamin; Shi, Yu; Cai, Jianting; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua

    2014-09-15

    We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between dietary intake/blood levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene) and gastric cancer risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted until April 2013 in Pubmed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall odds ratios (ORs). Dose-response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied. Forty articles were finally included in the present study. Higher dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk (for vitamin C, pooled OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.65; for vitamin E, pooled OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.57-0.74; for β-carotene, pooled OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.70; for α-carotene, pooled OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.93). Subgroup analyses suggested the effects of these antioxidant vitamins were different in gastric cancer subtypes. As indicated by dose-response analysis, a 100 mg/day increment of vitamin C intake conferred an OR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.90); a 15 mg/day increment of vitamin E intake conferred an OR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.94); and a 5 mg/day increment in β-carotene intake conferred an OR of 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.04). No significant association was observed between blood vitamin C, α-tocopherol, γ- tocopherol, β-carotene and α-carotene levels and gastric cancer risk. In conclusion, dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and α-carotene was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk while no such association was observed for blood levels of these antioxidant vitamins, thus the results should be interpreted cautiously.

  8. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus level sequences on performance, structural soundness and bone characteristics of growing-finishing swine.

    PubMed

    Cera, K R; Mahan, D C

    1988-07-01

    The effects of feeding various dietary Ca:P level sequences on gain and feed efficiency, leg structural soundness and bone indices of growing-finishing swine were evaluated as an incomplete 3 X 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a split-plot design. A total of 664 pigs were fed one of three total dietary Ca:P levels (.52:.40, .65:.50, .80:.60%) from 19-kg to 56-kg body weights followed by one of three Ca:P levels (.45:.32, .52:.40, .65:.50%) to market weight. The .80:.60% and .65:.50% Ca:P mineral sequence was not evaluated. Diets were formulated to 14.5% crude protein using a corn-soybean meal mixture with proportions of dicalcium phosphate and limestone altered to attain the desired dietary Ca:P levels. Maximum gains occurred at the .65:.50% and .52:.40% Ca:P level during the grower (P less than .01) and finisher (P less than .01) periods, respectively. No grower X finisher phase pig gain or feed intake interaction resulted, providing evidence of no carry-over response on these measurements from the grower to the finisher period. Serum P concentration increased and plateaued at the same dietary Ca:P level, as did rate of gain at both 56-kg and 95-kg body weights. Leg soundness subjectively evaluated at 56-kg and 95-kg body weights revealed no effect of dietary Ca:P level on soundness scores at 56 kg, but at 95-kg body weight, the interaction between grower and finisher diets was significant. Percentage bone ash of the humerus, shaft thickness and bending moment of the femur increased as dietary Ca:P level increased at both 56-kg and 95-kg body weights.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Dietary protein to metabolizable energy ratios on feed efficiency and structural growth of prepubertal Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Gabler, M T; Heinrichs, A J

    2003-01-01

    Sixty Holstein heifers, 124.5 +/- 1.1 d of age and 124.9 +/- 2.5 kg of BW, were used to evaluate the influence of dietary crude protein to metabolizable energy ratio (CP:ME) on feed efficiency, structural growth, and body condition score. Treatment rations containing a specific CP:ME ratio were assigned to heifers in a complete randomized block design with treatment periods lasting 20 wk. The CP:ME ratios were 48.3, 59.1, 67.5, and 76.5 g of CP per Mcal of ME. The CP:ME ratios were altered by adjusting the concentration of CP (12.0,15.2, 17.4, and 19.7% CP) with similar amounts of ME (2.6 Mcal/kg DM) across all treatment rations. BW was recorded weekly on two consecutive days and used to adjust dry matter intake to allow approximately 0.80 kg/d gain. Average daily gain did not differ between the treatment rations, 0.74, 0.81, 0.81, 0.77 kg/d, low to highest CP:ME ratio, respectively. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic effect for the treatment rations, 3.30, 3.41, 3.48, and 3.39 kg/d, low to highest CP:ME ratio, respectively, and averaged 2.0% BW. Feed efficiency improved linearly with increasing CP:ME ratios, 4.76, 4.42, 4.35, and 4.33, respectively. The increased CP:ME ratios were accompanied by increasing levels of plasma urea N, 9.88, 13.34, 14.94, and 16.57 mg/dl, respectively. A trend toward linear increases in wither and hip height growth resulted with increasing CP:ME. Hip width growth was quadratic with increasing CP:ME ratios. Observed linear effects in feed efficiency and some structural growth measurements demonstrate positive results when feeding CP:ME ratios >48.3 to Holstein heifers between 125 and 234 kg of BW and gaining 0.80 kg/d.

  10. Relationship between dietary exposure and serum perfluorochemical (PFC) levels--a case study.

    PubMed

    Kärrman, Anna; Harada, Kouji H; Inoue, Kayoko; Takasuga, Takumi; Ohi, Etsumasa; Koizumi, Akio

    2009-05-01

    Daily dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in relation to serum levels was assessed by determination of nine PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in matched daily diet duplicates and serum samples. Diet and serum were collected in year 2004 from 20 women in Osaka and Miyagi, Japan. Only PFOS and PFOA were detected in the diet samples and no significant difference between cities was seen. After adjusted by water content, diet concentration of PFOA was significantly higher in Osaka. The median daily intake calculated using the measured diet concentrations was 1.47 ng PFOS/kg b.w. and 1.28 ng PFOA/kg b.w. for Osaka, and 1.08 ng PFOS/kg b.w. and 0.72 ng PFOA/kg b.w. for Miyagi. A significant difference between cities was seen for the serum concentrations with median of 31 ng/mL PFOS and PFOA in Osaka, compared to 14 ng/mL PFOS and 4.6 ng/mL PFOA in Miyagi. Carboxylates such as perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were also detected in serum at median levels 6.9 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL (Osaka), and 2.8 ng/mL and 5.1 ng/mL (Miyagi). Based on one-compartment model under steady state, dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA accounted for only 22.4% and 23.7% of serum levels in Osaka females, and in contrast 92.5% and 110.6% in Miyagi females, respectively.

  11. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  12. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B.; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K.; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21−/− mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine’s beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  13. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Lerin, Carles

    2016-04-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine's beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. Trends in dietary energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein intake in Chinese children and adolescents from 1991 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhaohui; Dibley, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined nutrition transition in children in China. Our aim, in the present study, was to examine temporal trends in dietary energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein intake in Chinese children aged 7–17 years. The analysis used individual level, consecutive 3 d dietary recall data from seven rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys in 1991 (n 2714), 1993 (n 2542), 1997 (n 2516), 2000 (n 2142), 2004 (n 1341), 2006 (n 1072) and 2009 (n 996). Mixed-effect models were constructed to obtain adjusted means and to examine trends after adjusting for intra-class correlation within clusters and for covariates including age, sex, urban/rural residence and income. From 1991 to 2009, daily energy intake steadily declined from 9511·0 to 7658·2 kJ (P < 0·0001). There was a steady decline in daily carbohydrate intake from 382·5 to 254·1 g (P < 0·0001), and in the proportion of energy from carbohydrate from 66·7 to 56·8 % (P < 0·0001). In contrast, daily fat intake steadily increased from 54·8 to 66·0 g (P < 0·0001), as did the proportion of energy from fat from 21·5 to 30·0 % (P < 0·0001). The proportion of children who consumed a diet with more than 30 % of energy from fat increased from 20·1 to 49·4 % (P < 0·0001). The proportion of energy from protein increased from 11·8 to 13·1 % (P < 0·0001), although daily protein intake dropped from 66·2 to 58·0 g (P < 0·0001). Our data suggest that Chinese children have been undergoing a rapid nutrition transition to a high-fat diet. PMID:22244308

  15. Dietary fiber intake and endogenous serum hormone levels in naturally postmenopausal Mexican American women: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Kristine R; Murphy, Suzanne P; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Adlercreutz, Herman; Pike, Malcolm C

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated dietary fiber intake in association with serum estrogen levels in naturally postmenopausal Latina women with a wide range of fiber intake. Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in 242 women. Associations between estrogen levels and intake of dietary fiber, including insoluble and soluble fractions, quantified from a food frequency questionnaire, were examined. The biomarker enterolactone was also measured. After adjustment for age, weight, and other nondietary factors, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with E1 and E2; there was a 22% and 17% decrease (2Ptrend=0.023 and 0.045) among subjects in the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest. Fitting dietary fiber together with soluble and insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) showed a much greater decrease in E1 and E2 (47% and 41%, respectively) while increased soluble NSP intake showed increases in E1 and E2 (64% and 69%, respectively). Two foods, avocado and grapefruit, showed significant positive associations with E1 (2Ptrend=0.029 and 0.015, respectively). This study suggests that different components of dietary fiber may have very significant different effects on serum estrogen levels. The suggestive findings relating increased estrogen levels to avocado and grapefruit intakes need confirmation.

  16. Adverse effects of wide calcium:phosphorus ratios on supplemental phytase efficacy for weanling pigs fed two dietary phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Qian, H; Kornegay, E T; Conner, D E

    1996-06-01

    Ninety-six weanling pigs (initial BW = 9.3 kg, initial age = 37 d) were used in a 4-wk experiment to evaluate the response to three Ca: total (t) P ratios (1.2:1, 1.6:1, or 2.0:1) fed in combination with two P levels (.07 or .16% available that correspond to .36 or .45% tP) and two phytase levels (PY; 700 or 1,050 units/kg of diet). A 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed using a corn-soybean meal diet. Performance, serum mineral concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Ca and P digestibility and excretion, and bone mechanical measurements were examined. Average daily gain (P < .001), average daily feed intake (P < .01), and gain:feed (P < .05) were decreased linearly as the Ca:tP ratio became wider. The digestibility of P and Ca were decreased (P < .001) linearly as the Ca:tP ratio became wider. The digestibility of P (P < .001) and fecal P excretion (P < .01) were increased at the higher level of P. Increasing PY from 700 to 1,050 units (U)/kg of diet increased (P < .05) P digestibility and decreased (P < .01) P excretion but did not improve bone measurements. Shear force, stress and energy, and percentage of ash of both metacarpal and 10th rib linearly decreased (P < .001 to .05) as the Ca:tP ratio became wider, and bone measurements were generally greater for pigs fed the higher P level. Serum Ca concentration increased (P < .01) and the P concentration decreased (P < .001) as the Ca:tP ratio increased, but Mg, Zn, and ALP activity were not influenced by the Ca:tP ratio. Serum Ca and P concentrations were affected by PY supplementation over the 4-wk trial, but serum Mg and Zn concentrations were not affected by dietary treatments. Adverse effects of a wide Ca:tP ratio were greater at the low P diet for all responses. In addition, the activity of supplemental PY in diets seemed to be decreased as the Ca:tP ratio became wider and this negative effect of Ca:tP ratio seemed greater at the low P level, and seemed to parallel the

  17. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mayasari, N; Chen, J; Ferrari, A; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; Parmentier, H K; van Knegsel, A T M; Trevisi, E

    2017-03-29

    Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 107 multiparous) were assigned randomly to a 3 × 2 factorial design with 3 DP length (0, 30, or 60 d) and 2 early lactation rations (glucogenic or lipogenic). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic ration from 10 d before the expected calving date. Blood was collected in wk -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Dry period length affected inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress, especially in wk 1 and 2 after calving. Cows with a 0-d DP had higher levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites, and they tended to have higher haptoglobin levels compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d DP. Cows with a 0-d DP had a lower plasma paraoxonase and bilirubin in the first 2 wk after calving and a lower liver functionality index compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows of parity >3 fed a glucogenic ration had higher cholesterol levels compared with cows of parity >3 fed a lipogenic ration. No interaction between DP length and ration was present for inflammatory biomarkers or oxidative stress variables. Plasma bilirubin levels for cows with a 0-d DP were negatively related to energy balance and metabolic status in these cows. Moreover, occurrence of clinical health problems (fever, mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta) was 41, 27, and 30% for cows with 0-, 30-, and 60-d DP, respectively. High levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites in cows with 0-d DP were related to the occurrence of health problems in these cows. In conclusion, omitting the DP increased levels of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and reactive oxygen metabolites, and decreased levels of

  18. Dietary selenomethionine exposure alters swimming performance, metabolic capacity and energy homeostasis in juvenile fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    McPhee, D Landon; Janz, David M

    2014-10-01

    Selenium (Se) is known to cause chronic toxicity in aquatic species. In particular, dietary exposure of fish to selenomethionine (SeMet), the primary form of Se in the diet, is of concern. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure to elevated dietary SeMet alters energy and endocrine homeostasis in adult fish. However, little is known about the direct effects of dietary SeMet exposure in juvenile fish. The objective of the present study was to investigate sublethal physiological effects of dietary SeMet exposure in juvenile fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Twenty days-post-hatch fathead minnow were exposed for 60 days to different measured concentrations (2.8, 5.4, 9.9, 26.5 μg Se/g dry mass [dm]) of Se in food in the form of SeMet. After exposure, samples were collected for Se analysis and fish were subjected to a swimming performance challenge to assess critical swim speed (Ucrit), tail beat frequency and tail beat amplitude, oxygen consumption (MO2), cost of transport (COT), standard metabolic rate (SMR), active metabolic rate (AMR), and factorial aerobic scope (F-AS). Ucrit was decreased in the 26.5 μg Se/g dm exposure group compared to the control group. Tail beat frequency and tail beat amplitude were significantly reduced in fish fed 9.9 and 26.5 μg Se/g. An increase in MO2 and COT was observed in the 9.9 and 26.5 μg Se/g exposure groups compared to the control group. While the AMR of the high dose group was increased relative to control, there were no significant differences in SMR and F-AS. Energy storage capacity was measured via whole body triglyceride and glycogen concentrations. Triglyceride concentrations in non-swam fish were elevated in the 5.4 μg Se/g group relative to controls. Fatigued (swam) fish had significantly lower whole body triglycerides than non-swam fish. All non-swam SeMet exposure groups had significantly decreased whole body glycogen concentrations compared to controls, while the 5.4 and 26.5 μg Se/g exposure groups had

  19. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  20. Dietary copper level affects copper metabolism during lipopolysaccharide-induced immunological stress in chicks.

    PubMed

    Koh, T S; Peng, R K; Klasing, K C

    1996-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of dietary Cu level on Cu metabolism during the acute phase response in broiler chicks with adequate (Experiment 1) or deficient (Experiment 2) Cu. Diets based on cornstarch and isolated soybean protein were used to formulate a basal diet, and basal diet plus either 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg additional Cu as either CuO or CuSO4. Each diet was fed to six pens of five chicks per pen (Experiment 1) or eight pens of five chicks (Experiment 2). Half of the chicks on each diet were injected with Salmonella typhymurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on alternate days. In Experiment 1, LPS significantly decreased daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency (P < 0.01) and increased the concentration of Cu in blood plasma (P < 0.01). In the uninjected birds, adding 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg Cu as CuO or 15 mg/kg Cu as CuSO4 increased the rate of gain over that of chicks fed the basal diet. In the birds challenged with LPS, 10 mg/kg Cu as CuO increased the rate of gain and efficiency compared to those of chicks fed the basal diet. Addition of CuSO4 to the diet of chicks challenged with LPS did not affect gain, intake, or feed efficiency compared to those of chicks fed the basal diet. Ceruloplasmin levels were higher in chicks challenged with LPS than in control chicks (P = 0.03), and this difference tended to be greater in chickens fed CuO than in chickens fed CuSO4 (P = 0.07). In chicks challenged with LPS, feeding CuO at all levels and feeding CuSO4 to give 10 or 15 mg/kg Cu increased ceruloplasmin levels above that of chicks fed the basal diet. Hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD were not influenced by dietary Cu level or source or LPS. Results of Experiment 2 were similar to those of Experiment 1 except that supplemental CuSO4 and CuO gave similar increases in gain and CuSO4 was more effective at increasing ceruloplasmin levels. Chicks given supplemental Cu had higher ceruloplasmin levels following challenge with LPS than

  1. Energy and nutrient intakes and adherence to dietary guidelines among Finnish adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Aila J; Mikkilä, Vera; Mäkimattila, Sari; Forsblom, Carol; Freese, Riitta; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes are instructed to eat a healthy, balanced diet. Implementation of diet is an under-studied phenomenon. We aimed to describe the nutrient intake of a large sample of adult Finnish patients with type 1 diabetes and assess whether they meet the recommendations. Cross-sectional data from a total of 817 patients are presented. Data on food intake were collected with a 3-day food record completed twice with a 2-3-month interval. Compliance with dietary guidance was self-reported. Patients frequently reported a diet low in carbohydrates and fibre but high in fat. Only 28% restricted saturated fatty acid to less than 10% of their daily energy intake. One-fourth of the patients reported higher than recommended sucrose intake. Salt recommendations were frequently exceeded. Of the micronutrients, the recommendations for vitamin A, vitamin D, folate, and iron were most frequently unmet. Although self-reported compliance was associated with a higher frequency of meeting the recommendations for some of the macronutrients, the actual frequencies were modest. In general, those compliant were observed to consume more vitamin and mineral-dense food. Dietary intake among patients with type 1 diabetes does not, for many nutrients, meet the recommendations.

  2. Healthy Dietary Interventions and Lipoprotein (a) Plasma Levels: Results from the Omni Heart Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Bernhard; Wyler von Ballmoos, Moritz C.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a) are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a) concentration. Methods Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites) individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each. Plasma Lp(a) concentration was assessed at baseline and after each diet. Results Compared to baseline, all interventional diets increased mean Lp(a) by 2 to 5 mg/dl. Unsat Fat increased Lp(a) less than Prot with a difference of 1.0 mg/dl (95% CI, −0.5, 2.5; p = 0.196) in whites and 3.7 mg/dl (95% CI, 2.4, 5.0; p<0.001) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.008); Unsat Fat increased Lp(a) less than Carb with a difference of −0.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, −2.1, 0.9; p = 0.441) in whites and −1.5 mg/dl (95% CI, −0.2, −2.8; p = 0.021) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.354). Prot increased Lp(a) more than Carb with a difference of 0.4 mg/dl (95% CI, −1.1, 1.9; p = 0.597) in whites and 2.2 mg/dl (95%CI, 0.9, 3.5; p = 0.001) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.082). Conclusion Diets high in unsaturated fat increased Lp(a) levels less than diets rich in carbohydrate or protein with greater changes in blacks than whites. Our results suggest that substitutions with dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy diets may be preferable over protein or carbohydrates with regards to Lp(a). Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00051350 PMID:25506933

  3. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet.

  4. Tools for quantifying isotopic niche space and dietary variation at the individual and population level.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsome, Seth D.; Yeakel, Justin D.; Wheatley, Patrick V.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly using stable isotope analysis to inform questions about variation in resource and habitat use from the individual to community level. In this study we investigate data sets from 2 California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) populations to illustrate the advantages and potential pitfalls of applying various statistical and quantitative approaches to isotopic data. We have subdivided these tools, or metrics, into 3 categories: IsoSpace metrics, stable isotope mixing models, and DietSpace metrics. IsoSpace metrics are used to quantify the spatial attributes of isotopic data that are typically presented in bivariate (e.g., δ13C versus δ15N) 2-dimensional space. We review IsoSpace metrics currently in use and present a technique by which uncertainty can be included to calculate the convex hull area of consumers or prey, or both. We then apply a Bayesian-based mixing model to quantify the proportion of potential dietary sources to the diet of each sea otter population and compare this to observational foraging data. Finally, we assess individual dietary specialization by comparing a previously published technique, variance components analysis, to 2 novel DietSpace metrics that are based on mixing model output. As the use of stable isotope analysis in ecology continues to grow, the field will need a set of quantitative tools for assessing isotopic variance at the individual to community level. Along with recent advances in Bayesian-based mixing models, we hope that the IsoSpace and DietSpace metrics described here will provide another set of interpretive tools for ecologists.

  5. Modulation of intestinal mucin composition and mucosal morphology by dietary phytogenic inclusion level in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tsirtsikos, P; Fegeros, K; Kominakis, A; Balaskas, C; Mountzouris, K C

    2012-07-01

    The effect of a dietary phytogenic feed additive (PFA) inclusion level in mucin monosaccharide composition, mucosal morphometry and mucus histochemistry along the broiler intestinal tract was studied. Cobb male broilers (n = 525) were allocated into five experimental treatments that, depending on the type of addition in the basal diet (BD), were labeled as follows: C (BD based on maize-soybean meal with no other additions), E1 (80 mg PFA/kg BD), E2 (125 mg PFA/kg BD), E3 (250 mg PFA/kg of BD) and A (2.5 mg avilamycin/kg BD). Samples from duodenum, ileum and cecum of 14- and 42-day-old broilers were collected and analyzed. In 14-day-old broilers, treatments E2 and E3 had higher (P < 0.01) duodenal mannose than treatments C, E1 and A. Ileal mannose was lower (P < 0.05) in treatment C compared with PFA treatments, and ileal galactose (Gal) was higher (P < 0.01) in treatments E2 and E3 compared with C and A. Polynomial contrast analysis with respect to PFA inclusion level showed that in 14-day-old broilers there was a linear increase (P = 0.001) in duodenal mannose and a quadratic effect (P = 0.038) in duodenal N-acetyl-galactosamine with increasing PFA level. Ileal Gal and mannose increased linearly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.012, respectively) with PFA inclusion level. There were no significant differences between treatments in mucin monosaccharide molar ratios of 42-day-old broilers. However, increasing PFA inclusion level resulted in a linear decrease of ileal fucose (P = 0.021) and cecal N-acetylgalactosamine (P = 0.036). Experimental treatments did not differ (P > 0.05) regarding duodenal villus height (Vh), crypt depth (Cd) and Vh/Cd ratio, irrespective of broiler age and the intestinal segment examined. However, increasing dietary PFA inclusion level showed a pattern of linear increase of duodenal Vh/Cd ratio in 14-day-old broilers and ileal Vh in 42-day-old broilers (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039, respectively). Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid-Schiff (pH 2.5) staining of

  6. Vitamin D levels, dietary intake, and photoprotective behaviors among patients with skin cancer.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Laura K; Wetherington, Sarah; Hill, Nikki; Kumari, Meena; Gammon, Bryan; Dunbar, Scott; Tangpricha, Vin; Chen, Suephy C

    2010-09-01

    Photoprotection against ultraviolet light is an important part of our armamentarium against actinically derived skin cancers. However, there has been concern that adherence to photoprotection may lead to low vitamin D status, leading to negative effects on patients' health. In this work we discuss previous findings in this area, which do not give a clear picture as to the relationship between vitamin D levels and photoprotection measures, as well as research performed by the authors, who did not detect a relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adherence to photoprotection measures in subjects with skin cancer, as assessed by the use of sunscreen, clothing, hats, sunglasses, and umbrellas/shade through the Sun Protection Habits Index. Subjects who took vitamin D oral supplementation had greater serum 25(OH)D levels than those who did not, whereas dietary intake through foods did not predict 25(OH)D levels in the authors' study. However, there was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in the authors' study population, highlighting the importance of assessing vitamin D status and recommending oral vitamin D supplementation when indicated.

  7. Aluminum exposure for 60days at human dietary levels impairs spermatogenesis and sperm quality in rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Escobar, Alyne Gourlart; Uranga-Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Exley, Christopher; Miguel, Marta; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-08-18

    Concerns about environmental aluminum (Al) and reproductive health have been raised. We investigated the effects of Al exposure at a human relevant dietary level and a high level exposure to Al. Experiment 1 (Lower level) rats were treated orally for 60 days: a) controls - ultrapure water; b) aluminum at 1.5mg/kg bw/day and c) aluminum at 8.3mg/kg bw/day. Experiment 2 (High level) rats were treated for 42 days: a) controls - ultrapure water; b) aluminum at 100mg/kg bw/day. Al decreased sperm count, daily sperm production, sperm motility, normal morphological sperm, impaired testis histology; increased oxidative stress in reproductive organs and inflammation in testis. Our study shows the specific presence of Al in the germinative cells and, that low concentrations of Al in testes (3.35μg/g) are sufficient to impair spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Our findings provide a better understanding of the reproductive health risk of Al. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of dietary factors on serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Sim, J S; Bragg, D B

    1977-09-01

    Effects of dietary lipid factors (saturated and unsaturated oil, cholesterol and plant sterols) on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels of the laying hen were investigated. Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens, at thirty weeks of age, were used in two trials by feeding two basal diets containing 8.0% hydrogenated coconut oil or safflower oil, with or without supplemental cholesterol (1.0%), soysterols (2.0%) or combinations of both. Safflower oil, per se, had a superior property to hydrogenated coconut oil in suppressing cholesterol levels, in both serum and egg yolk. Cholesterol supplementation to the safflower oil basal diet resulted in a significant (P less than 0.01) elevation of serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels, whereas cholesterol in combination with hydrogenated coconut oil did not change the serum level. Cholesterol lowering effect of soysterols was clearly demonstrated in both serum and egg yolk by feeding soysterols alone as well as by feeding soysterols in combination with cholesterol.

  9. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within

  10. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  11. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  12. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence.

  13. Effects of altering dietary cation-anion difference on calcium and energy metabolism in peripartum cows.

    PubMed

    Moore, S J; VandeHaar, M J; Sharma, B K; Pilbeam, T E; Beede, D K; Bucholtz, H F; Liesman, J S; Horst, R L; Goff, J P

    2000-09-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of varying dietary cation-anion differences (DCAD: meq[(Na + K) - (Cl + S)]/100 g of dry matter) in prepartum diets on Ca, energy, and endocrine status prepartum and postpartum. Holstein cows (n = 21) and heifers (n = 34) were fed diets with varying amounts of CaCl2, CaSO4, and MgSO4 to achieve a DCAD of +15 (control), 0, or -15 meq/100 g of dry matter for the last 24 d before expected calving. Dietary Ca concentration was increased (by CaCO3 supplementation) with decreasing DCAD. Plasma ionized Ca concentrations prepartum and at calving in both cows and heifers increased with reduced DCAD in the diet. At calving, plasma ionized Ca concentration was 3.67, 3.85, and 4.35 for cows and 4.44, 4.57, and 4.62 mg/dl for heifers fed diets containing +15, 0, and -15 DCAD, respectively. All heifers had normal concentrations of plasma ionized Ca (>4 mg/dl) at calving. Also at calving, plasma concentrations ofparathyroid hormone and calcitriol were less in cows and heifers fed diets containing reduced DCAD, but the plasma concentration of hydroxyproline was not affected by diet. Prepartum dry matter intake, energy balance, and body weight gains were lower and concentration of liver triglyceride was higher for heifers but not cows fed the -15 DCAD diet. Also, nonesterified fatty acids the last week prepartum were positively correlated with liver triglyceride for heifers but not cows. Feeding of anionic salts plus CaCO3 to reduce DCAD to -15 and increase Ca in prepartum diets prevents hypocalcemia at calving in cows, but decreases prepartum dry matter intake and increases the concentration of liver triglyceride in heifers. That heifers maintained calcium homeostasis at calving regardless of diet but ate less when fed the -15 DCAD diet suggests that they should not be fed anionic salts before calving.

  14. Dietary Intake Estimates and Urinary Cadmium Levels in Danish Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Levine, Keith; McElroy, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Harrington, James M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cadmium is a known carcinogen that can disrupt endocrine signalling. Cigarette smoking and food are the most common routes of non-occupational exposure to cadmium. Cadmium accumulates in the kidney and can be measured in urine, making urine cadmium (U-Cd) a biomarker of long-term exposure. However dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake estimates are often used as surrogate indicator of cadmium exposure in non-smoking subjects. It is therefore important to investigate the concordance between D-Cd estimates obtained with Food Frequency Questionnaires and U-Cd. Methods U-Cd levels were compared with estimated dietary-cadmium (D-Cd) intake in 1764 post-menopausal women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. For each participant, a food frequency questionnaire, and measures of cadmium content in standard recipes were used to judge the daily intake of cadmium, normalized by daily caloric intake. Cadmium was measured by ICP-MS in spot urine sampled at baseline and normalized by urinary creatinine. Information on diet, socio-demographics and smoking were self-reported at baseline. Results Linear regressions between U-Cd and D-Cd alone revealed minimal but significant positive correlation in never smokers (R2 = 0.0076, β = 1.5% increase per 1 ng Cd kcal-1, p = 0.0085, n = 782), and negative correlation in current smokers (R2 = 0.0184, β = 7.1% decrease per 1 ng Cd kcal-1 change, p = 0.0006, n = 584). In the full study population, most of the variability in U-Cd was explained by smoking status (R2 = 0.2450, n = 1764). A forward selection model revealed that the strongest predictors of U-Cd were age in never smokers (Δ R2 = 0.04), smoking duration in former smokers (Δ R2 = 0.06) and pack-years in current smokers (Δ R2 = 0.07). Food items that contributed to U-Cd were leafy vegetables and soy-based products, but explained very little of the variance in U-Cd. Conclusions Dietary-Cd intake estimated from food frequency questionnaires correlates only minimally

  15. Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Sumar, Nureen; Barberio, Amanda M; Trieu, Kathy; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Tarasuk, Valerie; Webster, Jacqui; Campbell, Norman Rc

    2016-09-16

    Excess dietary sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Currently, dietary sodium consumption in almost every country is too high. Excess sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure, which is common and costly and accounts for significant burden of disease. A large number of jurisdictions worldwide have implemented population-level dietary sodium reduction initiatives. No systematic review has examined the impact of these initiatives. • To assess the impact of population-level interventions for dietary sodium reduction in government jurisdictions worldwide.• To assess the differential impact of those initiatives by social and economic indicators. We searched the following electronic databases from their start date to 5 January 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register; MEDLINE; MEDLINE In Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; EMBASE; Effective Public Health Practice Project Database; Web of Science; Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) databases; and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We also searched grey literature, other national sources and references of included studies.This review was conducted in parallel with a comprehensive review of national sodium reduction efforts under way worldwide (Trieu 2015), through which we gained additional information directly from country contacts.We imposed no restrictions on language or publication status. We included population-level initiatives (i.e. interventions that target whole populations, in this case, government jurisdictions, worldwide) for dietary sodium reduction, with at least one pre-intervention data point and at least one post-intervention data point of comparable jurisdiction. We included populations of all ages and the following types of study designs: cluster-randomised, controlled pre-post, interrupted time series

  16. Cataract formation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolt relative to dietary pro- and antioxidants and lipid level.

    PubMed

    Waagbø, R; Hamre, K; Bjerkås, E; Berge, R; Wathne, E; Lie, O; Torstensen, B

    2003-04-01

    The development of cataracts in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was studied in 16 groups of smolts fed diets differing in prooxidant (iron, copper, manganese) and antioxidant (vitamin E, vitamin C, astaxanthin) composition and lipid level for 23 weeks in sea water, using a 2(7-3) reduced factorial design. The seven dietary variables were systematically varied at low (requirement level and 150 g lipid kg(-1)) and high levels (below known toxic levels and 320 g lipid kg(-1)). A mean endpoint cataract incidence of approximately 36% was observed. High dietary levels of vitamin C and astaxanthin reduced cataract frequency, whereas high dietary lipid level, iron and manganese were associated with increased cataract frequencies. Considering the nutritional status of selected organs of the fish, only the status of ascorbic acid correlated negatively to cataract development (P < 0.05). The lens glutathione (GSH) status was not correlated to cataract frequency, nor statistically explained by the dietary variables. However, the study shows that balancing the diet with respect to pro- and antioxidant nutrients may significantly protect Atlantic salmon against development of cataracts. An incidence of reversible osmotic cataract observed at week 14 was positively correlated to plasma glucose concentration.

  17. Effects of dietary saturated or unsaturated fatty acids and calcium levels on performance and mineral metabolism of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Atteh, J O; Leeson, S

    1984-11-01

    The effects of inclusion of 8% oleic, palmitic, or a 50/50 mixture of oleic and palmitic acids as the major source of fat in the presence of .8, 1.2, or 1.6% calcium in broiler diets was investigated using broiler chicks from day-old to 3 weeks of age. Supplementation of broiler diets with oleic acid reduced feed intake (P less than .05) and improved feed efficiency (P less than .01) compared to other treatments. Chicks fed diets supplemented with oleic acid or a mixture of oleic and palmitic acid gained more weight (P less than .01) over a 3-week period. Significant interactions were observed between type of dietary fatty acid and calcium level on metabolizable energy of diets (P less than .01), magnesium retention (P less than .05), calcium and fat retention (P less than .01), and proportion of excreta fatty acid that was present as soap (P less than .01). Although all fatty acids tested formed soap in the small intestine, soaps of oleic acid were efficiently utilized as opposed to soaps of palmitic acid. There was a significant (P less than .05) reduction in bone ash and bone calcium content of chicks fed diets supplemented with palmitic acid. There was a significant interaction (P less than .05) between type of fatty acid and calcium level on bone magnesium content. Increasing the calcium content of diets aggravated the decrease in calcium retention and bone calcium content associated with addition of fat.

  18. Effects of dietary enrichment with conventional foods on energy and protein intake in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Trabal, Joan; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-09-01

    Decreased food intake is a common problem among older adults; it is a known cause of weight loss and may lead to malnutrition. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effects of dietary enrichment with conventional foods on energy and protein intake in older adults. Studies were identified through systematic searches of the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, via PubMed; CINAHL, via EBSCO; Web of Science; Scopus; and Google Scholar. Studies in older adults were included without restrictions for sample size, length of follow-up, comparators, or date or status of publication. Eligible studies were dietary-enrichment interventions with conventional foods and powdered modules that aimed to increase the energy and protein density of meals without significantly increasing the final volume of the meals. Outcomes assessed included changes in energy intake, protein intake, nutritional status, body weight, functional status, and episodes of infection. Nine studies were included. The results suggest that dietary enrichment can improve energy intake in older adults. While dietary enrichment seems to increase protein intake, there is not enough evidence of sufficient quality to confirm this observation or to determine whether dietary enrichment improves other outcomes assessed in this population. Additional large clinical trials with long-term interventions are needed to establish the effects of dietary enrichment in older people at risk of malnutrition. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effects of urea treatment of straw and dietary level of vegetable oil on lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mapato, Chaowarit; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2010-12-01

    Four crossbreds (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows were used to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil (SFO) levels and roughage source on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Four milking cows with average liveweight of 410 ± 25 kg and 18 ± 11 days in milk were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with SFO levels (3% or 6%) in the concentrate and the roughage source [rice straw (RS) or urea-treated RS (UTRS)] being the main factors. Four dietary treatments as (1) 3% SFO + RS, (2) 6% SFO + RS, (3) 3% SFO + UTRS, and (4) 6% SFO + UTRS were offered ad libitum total mixed ration, with a concentrate/roughage ratio of 60:40. The results were found that UTRS as a roughage source significantly increased feed intake, digestibility, concentration of acetic acid in rumen fluid, rumen ammonia-nitrogen, blood-urea nitrogen, milk urea-nitrogen, and milk yield (3.5% fat-corrected milk) compared with cows fed on untreated RS. Supplementation of SFO at 3% in the concentrate-supplemented group having increased dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, and milk yield (3.5% fat-corrected milk) compared with 6% SFO supplementation. However, there were no interaction effects between level of SFO in the concentrate and roughage source in any of the factors studied.

  20. Localizing PRL-2 expression and determining the effects of dietary Mg(2+) on expression levels.

    PubMed

    Gungabeesoon, Jeremy; Tremblay, Michel L; Uetani, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of protein tyrosine phosphatases that play a key role in cancer progression and metastasis. We previously showed that PRL-2 modulates intracellular Mg(2+) levels and sustains cancer phenotypes by binding to the Mg(2+) transporter CNNM3. However, the physiological functions of PRL-2 in animals remain largely unknown. To better understand which cell types are associated with PRL-2 function, we characterized its expression in mouse tissues using a PRL-2 β-galactosidase reporter mouse model. Our results demonstrated that PRL-2 was ubiquitously expressed, with the highest expression levels observed in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons, ependymal cells, cone and rod photoreceptor cells, endocardium, vascular and bronchial smooth muscle, and collecting ducts in the kidney. On the other hand, PRL-2 expression was undetectable or very low in the parenchymal cells of the liver and pancreas. Our results also indicated that PRL-2 is involved in cell-type-specific Mg(2+) homeostasis and that PRL-2 expression is potentially inversely regulated by dietary Mg(2+) levels.

  1. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods from Catalonia, Spain: estimated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Teixidó, Angel; Casas, Conrad; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities in Catalonia, Spain. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 108 samples of vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Levels of 11 PCB congeners (IUPAC 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 138, 153, 169, and 180) were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. For toxic equivalent (TEQ) calculations, World Health Organization (WHO) toxicity equivalent factors (WHO-TEFs) were used. The highest levels of most congeners were found in fish and shellfish (11,864.18 ng/kg [wet weight]), and the next highest levels, which were substantially lower, were found in milk and dairy products (674.50 ng/kg [wet weight]). For the general population of Catalonia, the total dietary intake of PCBs was found to be 150.13 pg WHO-TEQ/day. The largest contribution to this intake came from fish and shellfish (82.87 pg WHO-TEQ/day) and dairy products (29.38 pg WHO-TEQ per day). A relatively large contribution was also noted for cereals (11.36 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Among the PCB congeners determined in this study, PCB 126 showed the largest contribution to total TEQ intake (50.56%). The data obtained in this study should be useful in risk assessment with regard to human PCB exposure through food in Catalonia.

  2. Dietary whey reduces energy intake and alters hypothalamic gene expression in obese phyto-oestrogen-deprived male rats.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María F; Stoker, Cora; Lazzarino, Gisela P; Canesini, Guillermina; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2016-09-01

    Removing dietary phyto-oestrogens in adult male rats causes obesity and diabetes. As whey proteins have been reported to reduce food intake and improve glucose homoeostasis, we investigated whether they could attenuate susceptibility to obesity and diabetes due to phyto-oestrogen deprivation. To this end, thirty male Wistar rats were fed a high-phyto-oestrogen (HP) or a phyto-oestrogen-free (PF) diet for 10 weeks; six rats from each group were killed. The remaining HP animals (six animals) continued receiving the HP diet for 6 weeks. The remaining PF rats (twelve rats) were divided in two groups: one was given the PF diet and the other a variation of the PF diet plus whey protein (PF-W). Body weight, food intake and adipose tissue weights were recorded. Hypothalamic mRNA expressions of orexigenic (neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein (AgRP)) and anorexigenic (pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine-amphetamine-related transcript (CART)) neuropeptides were quantified by real-time PCR. Serum glucose, insulin and total thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and oestradiol were assessed. After 10 weeks of PF diet, increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake, with up-regulation of AgRP and down-regulation of POMC', were observed. Longer treatment exacerbated these results, increased total T4 levels, reduced oestradiol levels and impaired glucose homoeostasis. PF-W reduced energy intake and increased POMC expression; however, body weight and adiposity remained unchanged. PF-W could not prevent the hormonal changes or the high circulating glucose levels induced by phyto-oestrogen deprivation, but reduced fasting insulin. These data demonstrate that, although 6 weeks of whey administration could not prevent obesity in phyto-oestrogen-deprived rats, the reduction in energy intake and circulating insulin could be beneficial with longer treatments.

  3. Caregiver's education level, not income, as determining factor of dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals cared for at home.

    PubMed

    Correa, B; Leandro Merhi, V A; Pagotto Fogaca, K; Marques de Oliveira, M R

    2009-08-01

    Home care should intervene in the nutritional status of the elderly. To analyze the nutritional status of the elderly assisted by a Home Care Program (PAD) and associate it with income and education level of the caregiver. Thirty-four individuals of both genders who received home care from PAD. The MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) was used along with arm circumference. Dietary intake assessment was done with three 24-hour recalls in non-consecutive days. We collected data on income, education level of the caregiver and user in years of formal education and autonomy of user. The differences between the proportions of the nominal variables were tested by the chi-square test. The continuous variables were tested for normality and if normal, the Student's t-test or ANOVA was applied. The adopted significance level was P < 0.05. The studied sample represented individuals older than 65 years, assisted by PAD and 100% dependent on the caregiver. MNA revealed that 38.2% of the users were malnourished and 61.8% were at risk for malnourishment. Energy, fiber, vitamin E, calcium and zinc intakes were inadequate. Education level of the caregivers was a determining factor (P=0.01) for the nutritional status of the elderly while no association was found with respect to income. These findings allows us to conclude that the nutritional status of this population is worrisome and that it may be associated with low quality of life influenced by the education level of the caregiver, but also by age, economic conditions and limited autonomy of this population.

  4. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J; Aars, Jon; Born, Erik W; Branigan, Marsha; Dietz, Rune; Evans, Thomas J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Muir, Derek C G; Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonne, Christian

    2011-02-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska, Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted δ(15)N and δ(13)C, lower proportions of C(20) and C(22) monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C(18) and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan and Canadian Arctic signatures were intermediate. Between-subpopulation dietary differences predominated over interannual, seasonal, sex, or age variation. Among various brominated and chlorinated contaminants, diet signatures significantly explained variation in adipose levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants (14-15%) and legacy PCBs (18-21%). However, dietary influence was contaminant class-specific, since only low or nonsignificant proportions of variation in organochlorine pesticide (e.g., chlordane) levels were explained by diet. Hudson Bay diet signatures were associated with lower PCB and PBDE levels, whereas East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were associated with higher levels. Understanding diet/food web factors is important to accurately interpret contaminant trends, particularly in a changing Arctic.

  5. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  6. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  7. Dietary energy density affects fat mass in early adolescence and is not modified by FTO variants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Emmett, Pauline M; Rogers, Imogen S; Ness, Andy R; Hattersley, Andrew T; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Jebb, Susan A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary energy density (DED) does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609) variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants. We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g) was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609) variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (beta = 0.005, p = 0.51), suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35+/-0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16+/-0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity. This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain.

  8. Dietary Energy Density Affects Fat Mass in Early Adolescence and Is Not Modified by FTO Variants

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Rogers, Imogen S.; Ness, Andy R.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Smith, George Davey; Jebb, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Dietary energy density (DED) does not have a simple linear relationship to fat mass in children, which suggests that some children are more susceptible than others to the effects of DED. Children with the FTO (rs9939609) variant that increases the risk of obesity may have a higher susceptibility to the effects of DED because their internal appetite control system is compromised. We tested the relationship between DED and fat mass in early adolescence and its interaction with FTO variants. Methods and Findings We carried out a prospective analysis on 2,275 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Diet was assessed at age 10 y using 3-day diet diaries. DED (kJ/g) was calculated excluding drinks. Children were genotyped for the FTO (rs9939609) variant. Fat mass was estimated at age 13 y using the Lunar Prodigy Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scanner. There was no evidence of interaction between DED at age 10 y and the high risk A allele of the FTO gene in relation to fat mass at age 13 y (β = 0.005, p = 0.51), suggesting that the FTO gene has no effect on the relation between DED at 10 y and fat mass at 13 y. When DED at 10 y and the A allele of FTO were in the same model they were independently related to fat mass at 13 y. Each A allele of FTO was associated with 0.35±0.13 kg more fat mass at 13 y and each 1 kJ/g DED at 10 y was associated with 0.16±0.06 kg more fat mass at age 13 y, after controlling for misreporting of energy intake, gender, puberty, overweight status at 10 y, maternal education, TV watching, and physical activity. Conclusions This study reveals the multi-factorial origin of obesity and indicates that although FTO may put some children at greater risk of obesity, encouraging a low dietary energy density may be an effective strategy to help all children avoid excessive fat gain. PMID:19259258

  9. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    lower glucokinase activity (-15%; P < 0.05) in the liver. These results show that dietary energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  10. Energy Levels of 'Hydrogen Atom' in Discrete Time Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Volovich, Yaroslav

    2006-01-04

    We analyze dynamical consequences of a conjecture that there exists a fundamental (indivisible) quant of time. In particular we study the problem of discrete energy levels of hydrogen atom. We are able to reconstruct potential which in discrete time formalism leads to energy levels of unperturbed hydrogen atom. We also consider linear energy levels of quantum harmonic oscillator and show how they are produced in the discrete time formalism. More generally, we show that in discrete time formalism finite motion in central potential leads to discrete energy spectrum, the property which is common for quantum mechanical theory. Thus deterministic (but discrete time{exclamation_point}) dynamics is compatible with discrete energy levels.

  11. Impacts of acute imipramine treatment on plasma and brain amino acid metabolism in mice given graded levels of dietary chicken protein.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Murakami, Tatsuro; Tomonaga, Shozo; Sato, Mikako; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have shown a relationship between depression and animal protein intake. To evaluate whether the difference of dietary chicken protein levels induces an antidepressant-like effect and potentiates acute antidepressant effects, three levels of dietary chicken protein were used as the representative animal protein with imipramine used as the antidepressant. In addition, the effects of dietary chicken protein on brain metabolism were evaluated. Open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted on the 27th and 28th days, respectively. OFT and FST were not influenced by both imipramine and dietary protein levels. However, characteristic effects of imipramine treatment on brain monoamine metabolism were observed in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. In addition, dietary protein significantly increased taurine and L-ornithine levels even though these amino acids were not contained in the diets. In conclusion, the metabolism of several amino acids in the plasma and brain were altered by dietary chicken protein.

  12. Effects of level of dietary intake and physical form of protein supplement on the digestibilities of different dietary carbohydrates between mouth and abomasum of young steers.

    PubMed

    McAllan, A B; Smith, R H

    1983-09-01

    Steers fitted with simple rumen and abomasal cannulas were given isoenergetic diets of rolled barley and chopped straw, pelleted together with some tapioca alone (B) or with some tapioca replaced by coarse soyabean meal (M) or finely ground soyabean flour (F). The diets were given at two levels to support 0.5 (L) and 1.0 (H) kg/d live weight gain. Chromic oxide and PEG were given as digesta flow markers. Mouth to abomasum digestibilities of different dietary sugars at the low level of intake (LB) were 0.65, 0.68, 0.59, 0.56 and 0.94 for arabinose, galactose, xylose, cellulose-glucose and starch-glucose respectively. Corresponding values at the higher level of intake (HB) were 0.55, 0.66, 0.55, 0.44 and 0.93 respectively. Supplementation with either soya bean meal or flour had no significant effects on the mouth to abomasum of dietary carbohydrate digestibilities at either level of feeding.

  13. Hardee County Energy Activities - Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Described are over 70 activities designed to help students develop writing skills by examining energy issues. Intended for middle school students, the lessons were developed by Hardee County, Florida teachers. Learning strategies employed include class discussions, analogies, word puzzles, letter writing, sentence completions, vocabulary building…

  14. The effects of low levels of dietary trace minerals on the plasma levels, faecal excretion, health and performance of pigs in a hot African climate.

    PubMed

    Boma, M H; Bilkei, G

    2009-09-01

    The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of lower than usual industry levels of dietary trace minerals on plasma levels, faecal excretion, performance, mortality and morbidity in growing-finishing pigs in a hot African climate. Group 1 (n = 100 pigs) received a diet with common industry levels of trace minerals. Group 2 (n = 100 pigs) received reduced dietary trace mineral levels but were fed the same basic diet as Group 1. Mortality, morbidity, pig performance and carcass measurements were evaluated. Two pigs in Group 1 and three pigs in Group 2 died. Thirteen pigs in Group 1 and 27 pigs in Group 2 were medically treated (P < 0.05). Carcass masses, back fat depth, loin depth, and lean percent were not significantly different between the groups. However, the carcasses when evaluated revealed a non-significant higher back fat thickness, lower loin eye area and percentage of fat-free lean in barrows compared to gilts within each group. Despite lower initial masses, pigs fed diets containing industry levels of trace minerals were heavier (P < 0.05) and had a higher (P< 0.05) than average daily gains compared to those that received a diet containing lower levels of trace minerals. Faecal zinc excretion was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed with lower dietary zinc levels. Copper, manganese and iron excretion were not affected (P > 0.05) by the dietary levels of these trace minerals. Plasma trace mineral concentrations were not affected by the dietary treatment.

  15. Optimizing dietary levels of menhaden and soybean oils and soybean lecithin for pre-gonadal somatic growth in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Victoria K; Heflin, Laura E; Jones, Warren T; Powell, Mickie L; Lawrence, Addison L; Makowsky, Robert; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary lipids serve as important sources of energy and essential fatty acids for aquatic animals. Sources of animal and plant oils are increasingly limited as well as expensive, and dietary requirements associated with the inclusion of these oils must be carefully evaluated to facilitate sustainable and affordable formulations. In this study, we investigated quantities of menhaden oil (MO) with and without soybean lecithin or soybean oil (SO) to determine appropriate levels for optimal somatic growth for pre-gonadal juvenile Lytechinus variegatus. We prepared semi-purified diets that varied in neutral lipid content (0, 2, 4, or 8% dry matter) and soy lecithin (0 or 2%) and exchanged lipids reciprocally with purified starch while holding constant all other nutrients. We maintained laboratory-reared juvenile L. variegatus (average initial wet weight 82 ± 0.7 mg, mean ± SE , n = 9 treatment(-1)) in recirculating seawater systems and fed each daily a sub-satiation ration for five weeks. We assessed wet weights and test diameters every two weeks and at the end of the experiment (5 wk). Level of MO with or without soybean lecithin did not significantly affect wet weight gain; however, increasing levels of SO in the diet reduced wet weight gain and dry matter production efficiency and increased feed conversion ratio. Dry gut weight was positively correlated with level of MO. Lipid level in the gut increased with increasing dietary lipid level, regardless of source. These data suggest the composition of the SO is inhibitory for either nutrient absorption or metabolic processes associated with growth at this life stage. Diets containing total lipid levels of approximately 5 to 6% that include sources of n-3 fatty acids may support optimal growth for pre-gonadal juvenile L. variegatus.

  16. Optimizing dietary levels of menhaden and soybean oils and soybean lecithin for pre-gonadal somatic growth in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Victoria K.; Heflin, Laura E.; Jones, Warren T.; Powell, Mickie L.; Lawrence, Addison L.; Makowsky, Robert; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary lipids serve as important sources of energy and essential fatty acids for aquatic animals. Sources of animal and plant oils are increasingly limited as well as expensive, and dietary requirements associated with the inclusion of these oils must be carefully evaluated to facilitate sustainable and affordable formulations. In this study, we investigated quantities of menhaden oil (MO) with and without soybean lecithin or soybean oil (SO) to determine appropriate levels for optimal somatic growth for pre-gonadal juvenile Lytechinus variegatus. We prepared semi-purified diets that varied in neutral lipid content (0, 2, 4, or 8% dry matter) and soy lecithin (0 or 2%) and exchanged lipids reciprocally with purified starch while holding constant all other nutrients. We maintained laboratory-reared juvenile L. variegatus (average initial wet weight 82 ± 0.7 mg, mean ± SE , n = 9 treatment−1) in recirculating seawater systems and fed each daily a sub-satiation ration for five weeks. We assessed wet weights and test diameters every two weeks and at the end of the experiment (5 wk). Level of MO with or without soybean lecithin did not significantly affect wet weight gain; however, increasing levels of SO in the diet reduced wet weight gain and dry matter production efficiency and increased feed conversion ratio. Dry gut weight was positively correlated with level of MO. Lipid level in the gut increased with increasing dietary lipid level, regardless of source. These data suggest the composition of the SO is inhibitory for either nutrient absorption or metabolic processes associated with growth at this life stage. Diets containing total lipid levels of approximately 5 to 6% that include sources of n-3 fatty acids may support optimal growth for pre-gonadal juvenile L. variegatus. PMID:26146422

  17. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2014-04-28

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19-64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003-8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P = 0.002), a lower waist circumference (P = 0.001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P = 0.087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (P< 0.001); this was independent of whether data on beverage or water consumption were included. Diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005, was significantly better in soup consumers (P = 0.008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P < 0.05 for all). However, it was also associated with a higher intake of Na (P < 0.001). The relationship between soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet.

  18. Interaction between dietary levels of victamin C and E on growth and immune responses in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of vitamins C and E on growth performance, liver contents of vitamins C and E, hematology and immune response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. A basal practical diet containing 32% protein and 2,900 kcal DE kg-1 was supplemen...

  19. Influence of dietary iron level and form on biochemical, hematological, and immunological changes in copper deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Leu, H.; Gallaher, D.D.; Kramer, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Weanling male Lewis rats (N = 10/group) were fed ad-libitum for 42 days diets based on AIN standards containing 21% casein, 5% safflower oil, deficient (0.6 ..mu..g/g) or adequate (5.6 ..mu..g/g) levels of Cu, and adequate (50 ..mu..g/g) or high (300 ..mu..g/g) levels of Fe/sup +2/ or Fe/sup +3/. Cu-deficient rats, regardless of Fe level or form, exhibited depressed (p < 0.05) serum Cu, Fe and ceruloplasmin activity, and hemoglobin levels; and elevated (p < 0.05) unsaturated serum Fe binding capacity. Except for high Fe/sup +3/ fed rats, Cu-deficient rats showed decreased hematocrits. Decreased proliferation was exhibited by concanavalin-A (Con-A) stimulated spleen lymphoid cells (SLC) of Cu-deficient rats fed adequate dietary Fe, but not by SLC of Cu-deficient rats fed high dietary Fe. High Fe fed rats exhibited reduced proliferation and increased variability in proliferation by Con-A stimulated SLC, which apparently caused a lack of difference in proliferation by SLC of Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats fed high Fe. Thus, high dietary Fe did not correct biochemical and hematological parameters in Cu-deficient rats, but because of lowered proliferation and increased variability of SLC proliferation, high dietary Fe did alleviate suppressed Con-A stimulated SLC proliferation in Cu-deficiency.

  20. The effect of dietary methionine levels on endogenous nitrogen and endogenous amino acids flows in growing goats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C S; Tan, Z L; Tang, S X; Sun, Z H; Han, X F; Wang, M; Tayo, G O

    2010-10-01

    The effect of dietary methionine (Met) levels on endogenous N and amino acids (AA) flows at different part of the digestive tract of growing goats was determined using a (15)N isotope dilution technique. Three goats (25 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with the ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae and allocated to three dietary treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The dietary treatments consisted of a total mixed ration containing three levels of Met (0.15%, 0.25% and 0.35%) respectively. It was found that at 0.15% Met level, the lowest flow in endogenous N and total AA at the duodenum and ileum occurred. The endogenous N secretion contributed to 26% and 23% of the duodenal and ileal total N flows, respectively, and the proportions were not affected by the dietary Met levels. The duodenal and ileal flows of endogenous total AA were 11.1, 11.8, 11.3 g/d and 2.9, 3.9, 4.1 g/d respectively. The average real digestibility of N was 65%, 87% and 95% in the forestomach, intestine and whole digestive tract respectively.

  1. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL DIETARY METABOLIZABLE PROTEIN LEVEL AND DRY MATTER INTAKE ON SUBSEQUENT PRODUCTION TRAITS IN PRIMIPAROUS HEIFERS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous h...

  2. Effects of gestational dietary metabolizable protein level and dry matter intake on subsequent production traits in primiparous heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous heifers. Tw...

  3. Regional contamination versus regional dietary differences: Understanding geographic variation in brominated and chlorinated contaminant levels in polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, M.A.; Letcher, R.J.; Aars, Jon; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contribution of regional contamination versus dietary differences to geographic variation in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) contaminant levels is unknown. Dietary variation between Alaska Canada, East Greenland, and Svalbard subpopulations was assessed by muscle nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (?? 15N, ?? 13C) and adipose fatty acid (FA) signatures relative to their main prey (ringed seals). Western and southern Hudson Bay signatures were characterized by depleted ?? 15N and ??13C, lower proportions of C20 and C22 monounsaturated FAs and higher proportions of C18 and longer chain polyunsaturated FAs. East Greenland and Svalbard signatures were reversed relative to Hudson Bay. Alaskan ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Contextual and environmental influences on reported dietary energy intake at evening eating occasions.

    PubMed

    Lock, Chelsea; Brindal, Emily; Hendrie, Gilly A; Cox, David N

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to determine the simultaneous effect of immediate eating environment variables; portion size, plate size, proximity to food, variety of food, side serves of salad/vegetables and presence of distraction on dietary energy intake (EI), of a reported evening meal, in the participants' real world setting. A retrospective computer assisted telephone interview collected data on ten immediate eating environment variables, covariates and a 24-hour dietary recall of EI at an evening meal. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine relationships of these variables with EI. Significant (P<0.05) standardised beta coefficients (β) are reported. Australia wide, participants' homes. Australian adult males and females (n 150) aged 18-65years. Of the immediate eating environment variables, the absence of salads/vegetables (β=0.237), increased food variety (β=0.208), presence of music (β=0.207), and the consumption of pre-plated (as opposed to self-served) meals (β=0.195) had a positive association with EI, explaining 16.3% of the variance. Of the covariates, being male was the strongest predictor of EI (β=0.242); and hunger score also had a positive relationship with EI (β=0.190), explaining 17.5% of the variance. This study provides evidence that some immediate food environment variables at an evening eating occasion are associated with EI. Findings suggest there are several strategies that people could implement to assist in controlling their EI and help address over consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  6. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  7. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students.

    PubMed

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3) approximately 6 weeks apart. A food frequency- and dietary pattern-related questionnaire was administered and numerically coded responses were analyzed. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were also collected at V1, V2, and V3. Body weight, fasting blood glucose level, and blood pressure of study participants were also determined at each time period. Total sample population (TSP) had a significant increase in mean weight of 2.79 lb from visit 1 (V1) to visit 3 (V3) (p = .0082). Ten participants gained an average of 9.0 lb (participants who gained weight; n = 10). There was also an increase in the frequency of consumption of high-calorie American food items from V1 to V3. However, there were no significant changes in mean systolic blood pressure and mean fasting blood glucose was significantly lower at V3 than at V1. There was a gradual shift in the dietary patterns of international students towards the American diet. Dietary acculturation led to weight gain among some of the students, which may potentially have a negative impact on their health status if continued for longer time periods.

  8. Effects of chronic dietary and waterborne cadmium exposures on the contamination level and reproduction of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Geffard, Olivier; Geffard, Alain; Chaumot, Arnaud; Vollat, Bernard; Alvarez, Cathy; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Garric, Jeanne

    2008-05-01

    Regulatory assessments of metal toxicity on freshwater organisms assume that toxic effects are caused by dissolved metals. In aquatic systems, organisms are exposed to both dissolved and particulate-bound metals. In this study, the chronic toxicity of dietary cadmium (Cd) on the reproduction and Cd body burden of Daphnia magna was investigated. Daphnids (<24 h) were successively exposed to dissolved Cd (8 h) and then to uncontaminated or contaminated algae (16 h) for 21 d. The results show a higher Cd burden in daphnids because of the addition of contaminated food and reveal that Cd uptake by D. magna from water and food was additive for the lowest Cd concentrations tested. Similar Cd distributions (cytosolic and insoluble fractions) were observed in the two groups of organisms, showing similar potential toxicity of Cd accumulated from the two exposure routes. Dietary Cd induces deleterious effects on D. magna reproduction. On the basis of Cd body burden of daphnids, the results support the claim that waterborne and dietary Cd exposures were additive in causing toxicity for Cd concentrations lower than 25 microg/L. At the highest Cd concentrations, the importance of dietary Cd on the daphnid contamination level decreases and confounding factors such as feeding rate reduction seem to appear, which induce an effect on neonate reproduction. In this study, we illustrate the need to take the dietary pathway into account in regulatory assessments and to establish effective concentrations with particulate-bound metals.

  9. Effect of dietary energy and protein on bovine follicular dynamics and embryo production in vitro: associations with the ovarian insulin-like growth factor system.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D G; McEvoy, T G; Baxter, G; Robinson, J J; Hogg, C O; Woad, K J; Webb, R; Sinclair, K D

    2001-06-01

    Heifers were assigned either low or high (HE) levels of energy intake and low or high concentrations of dietary crude protein. The effect of these diets on the plasma concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and urea on follicular growth and early embryo development is described. We propose that the observed dietary-induced changes in the ovarian IGF system increase bioavailability of intrafollicular IGF, thus increasing the sensitivity of follicles to FSH. These changes, in combination with increased peripheral concentrations of insulin and IGF-I in heifers offered the HE diet, contribute to the observed increase in growth rate of the dominant follicle. In contrast to follicular growth, increased nutrient supply decreased oocyte quality, due in part to increased plasma urea concentrations. Clearly a number of mechanisms are involved in mediating the effects of dietary energy and protein on ovarian function, and the formulation of diets designed to optimize cattle fertility must consider the divergent effects of nutrient supply on follicular growth and oocyte quality.

  10. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008-9 Nationwide Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-04-14

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-9, food records were collected from 25 753 individuals aged 10 years or older, living in urban areas of Brazil. Foods were grouped into thirty-three food groups, and the mean energy intake provided by away-from-home food consumption was estimated. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between away-from-home food consumption and total energy intake. All analyses considered the sample design effect. Of the total population, 43 % consumed at least one food item away from home. The mean energy intake from foods consumed away from home was 1408 kJ (337 kcal), averaging 18 % of total energy intake. Eating away from home was associated with increased total energy intake, except for men in the highest income level. The highest percentage of away-from-home energy sources was for food with a high content of energy, such as alcoholic beverages (59 %), baked and deep-fried snacks (54 %), pizza (42 %), soft drinks (40 %), sandwiches (40 %), and sweets and desserts (30 %). The consumption of foods away from home was related to a greater energy intake. The characterisation of away-from-home food habits is necessary in order to properly design strategies to promote healthy food consumption in the away-from-home environment.

  11. Effect of dietary adherence on the body weight plateau: a mathematical model incorporating intermittent compliance with energy intake prescription123

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M; Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lettieri, Steven; Levine, James A; Bouchard, Claude; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical weight loss in individuals typically stabilizes at 6 mo. However, validated models of dynamic energy balance have consistently shown weight plateaus between 1 and 2 y. The cause for this discrepancy is unclear. Objective: We developed 2 mathematical models on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics to investigate plausible explanations for reaching an early weight plateau at 6 mo. Design: The first model was an energy-expenditure adaptation model and was applied to determine the degree of metabolic adaptation required to generate this plateau. The second model was an intermittent lack-of-adherence model formulated by using a randomly fluctuating energy intake term accounting for intermittent noncompliance in dietary intake to reach this plateau. To set model variables, validate models, and compare free-living weight-loss patterns to in-residence supervised programs, we applied the following 4 different studies: The US NHANES 1999–2004, Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) weight-loss study, the Bouchard Twin overfeeding study, and the Minnesota Starvation Experiment. Results: The metabolic adaptation model increased final weight but did not affect the predicted plateau time point. The intermittent lack-of-adherence model generated oscillating weight graphs that have been frequently observed in weight-loss studies. The model showed that a 6-mo weight-loss plateau can be attained despite what can be considered as high diet adherence. The model was programmed as a downloadable application. Conclusions: An intermittent lack of diet adherence, not metabolic adaptation, is a major contributor to the frequently observed early weight-loss plateau. The new weight-loss prediction software, which incorporates an intermittent lack of adherence, can be used to guide and inform patients on realistic levels of adherence on the basis of patient lifestyle. The CALERIE study was registered at clinicaltrials

  12. Effect of dietary adherence on the body weight plateau: a mathematical model incorporating intermittent compliance with energy intake prescription.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Diana M; Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lettieri, Steven; Levine, James A; Bouchard, Claude; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-09-01

    Clinical weight loss in individuals typically stabilizes at 6 mo. However, validated models of dynamic energy balance have consistently shown weight plateaus between 1 and 2 y. The cause for this discrepancy is unclear. We developed 2 mathematical models on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics to investigate plausible explanations for reaching an early weight plateau at 6 mo. The first model was an energy-expenditure adaptation model and was applied to determine the degree of metabolic adaptation required to generate this plateau. The second model was an intermittent lack-of-adherence model formulated by using a randomly fluctuating energy intake term accounting for intermittent noncompliance in dietary intake to reach this plateau. To set model variables, validate models, and compare free-living weight-loss patterns to in-residence supervised programs, we applied the following 4 different studies: The US NHANES 1999-2004, Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) weight-loss study, the Bouchard Twin overfeeding study, and the Minnesota Starvation Experiment. The metabolic adaptation model increased final weight but did not affect the predicted plateau time point. The intermittent lack-of-adherence model generated oscillating weight graphs that have been frequently observed in weight-loss studies. The model showed that a 6-mo weight-loss plateau can be attained despite what can be considered as high diet adherence. The model was programmed as a downloadable application. An intermittent lack of diet adherence, not metabolic adaptation, is a major contributor to the frequently observed early weight-loss plateau. The new weight-loss prediction software, which incorporates an intermittent lack of adherence, can be used to guide and inform patients on realistic levels of adherence on the basis of patient lifestyle. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Dietary fiber intake is associated with HbA1c level among prevalent patients with type 2 diabetes in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junyi; Qiu, Hua; Zhao, Genming; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Zhijie; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Qingwu; Sun, Qiao; Wu, Hongyan; Yang, Liming; Ruan, Xiaonan; Xu, Wang-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Dietary factors play an important role in glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, little is known about their effects among Chinese diabetic patients, whose diets are typically abundant in fiber and high in glycemic index (GI) values. 934 patients with type 2 diabetes and 918 healthy volunteers from Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China, were interviewed during the period of Oct-Dec, 2006 to elicit demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, bio-specimen collection and biochemical assays were conducted at the interview according to a standard protocol. In this population, diabetic patients consumed lower levels of energy and macronutrients but had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycolated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglyceride and body mass index than healthy adults. While the average consumption levels of the nutrients among diabetic patients did not vary along duration of the disease, the average levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with increasing duration. Regardless of diabetes duration, HbA1c level was observed lower in patients having a higher fiber or lower GI intake. Compared with those with the lowest tertile intake of fiber, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for poor glycemic control reduced from 0.75 (95%CI: 0.54-1.06) to 0.51 (95%CI: 0.34-0.75) with increasing tertile intake (P for trend <0.001). Dietary fiber may play an important role in reducing HbA1c level. Increasing fiber intake may be an effective approach to improve glycemic control among Chinese diabetic patients.

  14. Dietary diversity and 14-year decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Rei; Kato, Yuki; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Nakamoto, Mariko; Tomida, Makiko; Imai, Tomoko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of dietary diversity on a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly subjects in Japan. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1317 men and women aged 40 to 79 at baseline (1997-2000) who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013). Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology index of competence (total score and 3 subscales). Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-d dietary record, and dietary diversity was determined using the Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity (QUANTIDD). The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to quartiles of QUANTIDD at baseline were estimated, controlling for age, sex, higher-level functional capacity scores at baseline, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, depressive score, household income, education, smoking, and disease history. A total of 214 (16%), 145 (11%), 70 (5%), and 136 (10%) subjects showed a decline in total score for higher-level functional capacity (≥2), instrumental self-maintenance (≥1), intellectual activity (≥2), and social role (≥2), respectively. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the score for intellectual activity decline according to the lowest through highest quartiles of QUANTIDD were 1.00 (reference), 0.47 (0.23-0.95), 0.44 (0.22-0.90), and 0.41 (0.20-0.83), respectively (P for trend = 0.06). Daily intake of various foods may protect against a decline in intellectual activity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary gap assessment: an approach for evaluating whether a country's food supply can support healthy diets at the population level.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Edye M; Engle-Stone, Reina; Arsenault, Joanne E; Arimond, Mary; Adams, Katherine P; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-09-01

    Dietary diversity, and in particular consumption of nutrient-rich foods including fruits, vegetables, nuts, beans and animal-source foods, is linked to greater nutrient adequacy. We developed a 'dietary gap assessment' to evaluate the degree to which a nation's food supply could support healthy diets at the population level. Design/Setting In the absence of global food-based dietary guidelines, we selected the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet as an example because there is evidence it prevents diet-related chronic disease and supports adequate micronutrient intakes. We used the DASH guidelines to shape a hypothetical 'healthy' diet for the test country of Cameroon. Food availability was estimated using FAO Food Balance Sheet data on country-level food supply. For each of the seven food groups in the 'healthy' diet, we calculated the difference between the estimated national supply (in kcal, edible portion only) and the target amounts. In Cameroon, dairy and other animal-source foods were not adequately available to meet healthy diet recommendations: the deficit was -365 kcal (-1527 kJ)/capita per d for dairy products and -185 kcal (-774 kJ)/capita per d for meat, poultry, fish and eggs. Adequacy of fruits and vegetables depended on food group categorization. When tubers and plantains were categorized as vegetables and fruits, respectively, supply nearly met recommendations. Categorizing tubers and plantains as starchy staples resulted in pronounced supply shortfalls: -109 kcal (-457 kJ)/capita per d for fruits and -94 kcal (-393 kJ)/capita per d for vegetables. The dietary gap assessment illustrates an approach for better understanding how food supply patterns need to change to achieve healthier dietary patterns.

  16. The effect of supplementary bacterial phytase on dietary metabolisable energy, nutrient retention and endogenous losses in precision fed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bedford, M R; Oduguwa, O; Acamovic, T; Allymehr, M

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-two Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used in a precision feeding assay to investigate the effect of exogenous phytase (EC 3.1.3.26) on dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AME), dry matter digestibility (DMD) coefficient, nitrogen (NR), amino acid and mineral retentions. The excretion of endogenous losses measured as sialic acid (SA) was also determined. Four dietary treatments (control (C), C + 250 FTU (phytase units per kg feed), C + 500 FTU, and C + 2500 FTU) were studied with each treatment replicated eight times in randomised complete block design. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate with the exception of available P content (2.3 g/kg non-phytate P). Over the 48-h collection period, the phytase fed birds retained 29.3 mg more Na and 2.3 mg more Zn (p < 0.05) than the control fed birds, with the relationship between phytase dose and Na and Zn retention being best described by a linear function (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, for Na and Zn, respectively). Phytase supplementation did not have an effect on dietary AME, DMD and NR. However, increasing the dose of phytase led to a linear increase in dietary amino acid retention (p < 0.05). Dietary phytase decreased total sialic acid excretion in a linear fashion (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that supplementary phytase increases the retention (reduces the excretion) of dietary Zn and Na in broiler chickens. The beneficial effects of the addition of exogenous phytases to poultry diets seems to be mediated through improved dietary nutrients absorption and reduced endogenous losses.

  17. Effect of dietary mineral level and inulin inclusion on phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen utilisation, intestinal microflora and bone development.

    PubMed

    Varley, Patrick F; McCarney, Catherine; Callan, James J; O'Doherty, John V

    2010-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the interaction between dietary phosphorus (P) level (4 vs 6 g total P kg(-1)) and inulin inclusion (0 vs 20 g kg(-1)) on coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility, nitrogen (N), P and calcium (Ca) utilisation, bone mineralisation, selected gastrointestinal microflora, intestinal volatile fatty acid concentrations and digesta pH in the ileum, caecum and proximal colon. Owing to the design of the experiment, as dietary P level increased, there was also an increase in dietary Ca level in order to maintain a sustainable dietary Ca/P ratio. Entire male finisher pigs (n = 10 per treatment) with a similar initial body weight (51 kg, standard deviation 2.4 kg) were used. Inulin inclusion lowered (P < 0.01) Enterobacteriaceae populations in the proximal colon compared with pigs offered diets without added inulin. However, intestinal bacterial populations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. were unaffected. Inulin inclusion had no effect on mineral digestibility or bone mineralisation. Pigs offered low P and Ca diets had lower (P < 0.01) bone mineralisation than pigs offered high P and Ca diets. Intestinal bacterial populations of Enterobacteriaceae in the proximal colon were lowered by inulin inclusion. Inulin inclusion did not affect P, Ca or N utilisation or bone mineralisation in the finisher pig when offered either a low or a high P diet. Increasing the P and Ca content of the diet led to an increase in bone mineralisation. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  18. Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andrea S; Lombardo, Yolanda B; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chicco, Adriana G; Rouault, Christine; Slama, Gérard; Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2005-08-01

    Insulin resistance and adiposity induced by a long-term sucrose-rich diet (SRD) in rats could be reversed by fish oil (FO). Regulation of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as their gene expression, by FO might be implicated in these findings. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term regulation of leptin and adiponectin by dietary FO in a dietary model of insulin resistance induced by long-term SRD in rats and to determine their impact on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Rats were randomized to consume a control diet (CD; n = 25) or an SRD (n = 50) for 7 mo. Subsequently, the SRD-fed rats were randomized to consume SRD+FO or to continue on SRD for an additional 2 mo. Long-term SRD induced overweight and decreased both plasma leptin and adiponectin levels without change in gene expression. Dyslipidemia, adiposity, and insulin resistance accompanied these modifications. Shifting the source of fat to FO for 2 mo increased plasma levels of both adipokines, reversed insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, and improved adiposity. These results were not associated with modifications in gene expression. These results suggest that increasing both adipokines by dietary FO might play an essential role in the normalization of insulin resistance and adiposity in dietary-induced, insulin-resistant models.

  19. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (β = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (β = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI -0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (β = -1·7 E%, 95 % CI -3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (β = -0·9, 95 % CI -2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  20. Effects of dietary fibre on serum lipid levels and fecal bile acid excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, R M

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that dietary fibre protects humans against coronary heart disease, but interpretation of the data is confounded by coexisting differences in both dietary and environmental variables. The hypocholesterolemic action of dietary fibre varies: in general mucilaginous fibres such as pectin and oat bran are more effective than particulate fibres such as wheat bran. Although the mechanism of action of mucilaginous fibres is not completely understood, there is evidence that they induce small increases in the fecal excretion of bile acids and neutral steroids that are not fully compensated for by de novo cholesterol synthesis. PMID:6257368

  1. Consequences of radiotherapy on nutritional status, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels in patients with gastrointestinal tract and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Ghaeammaghami, Jamal; Jabbari, Morteza V

    2007-03-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in cancer patients and is multifactorial and can lead to negative outcomes. So we studied the effect of radiotherapy on nutritional status, weight changes, dietary intake, serum zinc and copper levels. During the period of October to March 2005, 45 cancer patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran were recruited. We assessed the nutritional status of patients using Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) questionnaire. Patients on the basis of location of radiotherapy classified to mediastinum, head and neck and pelvic groups. Changes in dietary intake (using 24-hour recall method) and body weight were evaluated prior to and during radiotherapy. At the onset and the end of radiotherapy, serum levels of zinc, copper and albumin were determined. After treatment malnutrition increased significantly in all patients (p=0.01) and in head and neck (p=0.007) and pelvic groups (p=0.04). The decreased body weight of patients was significant in the head and neck (p=0.02), and pelvic groups (p=0.005). The mean daily energy and protein intake of head and neck and pelvic groups decreased during radiotherapy while energy intake increased significantly in mediastinum group (p=0.01). After treatment, significant decreases also observed in mean serum zinc, copper and albumin levels (p<0.05). Because of the negative effect of radiotherapy on oral feeding, nutritional assessment and intervention should be an integral part of treatment. Also, it would be worthwhile studying the effect of zinc supplementation on dietary intake and nutritional status of patients.

  2. In silico approach to safety of botanical dietary supplement ingredients utilizing constituent-level characterization.

    PubMed

    Little, Jason G; Marsman, Daniel S; Baker, Timothy R; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Botanicals used in dietary supplements industry can have toxicology concerns related to endpoint gaps that cannot be fully resolved by a history of use, or existence of conflicting safety data. However, traditional toxicological studies on botanicals are scientifically and pragmatically challenging due to testing of complex mixtures of constituents, cost, time, and animal usage. Alternatively, we developed an in silico decision-tree approach to address data gaps and inform need for further studies by toxicologically evaluating the chemical composition of botanicals. Following advanced multi-detector analytical characterization of a botanical, each chemical constituent is: (a.) quantitatively benchmarked against similar constituents in commonly consumed foods or botanicals with well-established safety profiles, (b.) systematically evaluated for toxicity data utilizing structure-activity relationships, and, (c.) compared to established thresholds of toxicological concern in absence of safety data or structural analogs. Finally, where safety endpoint gaps are identified which cannot be resolved without additional in vitro or in vivo studies, the botanical compositional data are critical to inform on study design. Results with three herbal preparations demonstrate the utility of this novel approach to identify potential hazards and establish safe human use levels for botanicals in a cost efficient and informative manner that minimizes animal use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma sodium levels and dietary sodium intake in manual workers in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Nicola A; Miller, Veronica S; Schneider, John; Hasan, Omer; Bates, Graham P

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that workers who consume a predominantly rice-based, low-sodium diet and perform long periods of manual work in the heat are at risk of chronic hyponatraemia due to inadequate replacement of sweat sodium losses. Plasma sodium levels were assessed at the end of both the summer and winter periods in 44 male dockyard workers in the Middle East. The dietary intake of these workers was recorded and analysed by an Accredited Practicing Dietitian to determine average daily sodium intake. 55% of workers were found to be clinically hyponatraemic during the summer period compared with only 8% during the winter period. Assessment of the daily diet of workers in the labour camp revealed it to be predominantly starch based with low total sodium content. The majority of the fluids provided to workers are also low in sodium content. Manual labourers working in the heat and eating a low-sodium starch-based diet are at risk of chronic hyponatraemia. Increasing the sodium content of fluid and food provided to workers is warranted and may reduce the incidence of work-related illness and accidents in this population. The results of this study identify a need for sodium replacement guidelines specific for prolonged work in the heat to be developed.

  4. Impact of Increasing Dietary Calcium Levels on Calcium Excretion and Vitamin D Metabolites in the Blood of Healthy Adult Cats

    PubMed Central

    Paßlack, Nadine; Schmiedchen, Bettina; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J.; Stumpff, Friederike; Kohn, Barbara; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary calcium (Ca) concentrations might affect regulatory pathways within the Ca and vitamin D metabolism and consequently excretory mechanisms. Considering large variations in Ca concentrations of feline diets, the physiological impact on Ca homeostasis has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, diets with increasing concentrations of dicalcium phosphate were offered to ten healthy adult cats (Ca/phosphorus (P): 6.23/6.02, 7.77/7.56, 15.0/12.7, 19.0/17.3, 22.2/19.9, 24.3/21.6 g/kg dry matter). Each feeding period was divided into a 10-day adaptation and an 8-day sampling period in order to collect urine and faeces. On the last day of each feeding period, blood samples were taken. Results Urinary Ca concentrations remained unaffected, but faecal Ca concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Ca levels. No effect on whole and intact parathyroid hormone levels, fibroblast growth factor 23 and calcitriol concentrations in the blood of the cats were observed. However, the calcitriol precursors 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, which are considered the most useful indicators for the vitamin D status, decreased with higher dietary Ca levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.033). Increasing dietary levels of dicalcium phosphate revealed an acidifying effect on urinary fasting pH (6.02) and postprandial pH (6.01) (P < 0.001), possibly mediated by an increase of urinary phosphorus (P) concentrations (P < 0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, calcitriol precursors were linearly affected by increasing dietary Ca concentrations. The increase in faecal Ca excretion indicates that Ca homeostasis of cats is mainly regulated in the intestine and not by the kidneys. Long-term studies should investigate the physiological relevance of the acidifying effect observed when feeding diets high in Ca and P. PMID:26870965

  5. An Optimal Dietary Zinc Level of Brown-Egg Laying Hens Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shizhen; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xichun; Liao, Xiudong; Zhang, Liyang; Guo, Yanli; Luo, Xugang

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary zinc (Zn) level of brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 120 20-week-old Beijing Red commercial laying hens were randomly allotted by bodyweight to one of five treatments with six replicates of four birds each in a completely randomized design, and fed a Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 27.95 mg Zn/kg by analysis and the basal diets supplemented with 30, 60, 90, or 120 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate (reagent grade ZnSO4·7H2O) for a duration of 20 weeks. Laying performance, egg quality, tissue Zn concentrations, and activities of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and liver copper-Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) were measured. Regression analyses were performed to estimate an optimal dietary Zn level whenever a significant quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed. Tibia Zn concentration (P = 0.002) and serum AKP activity (P = 0.010) showed significant quadratic responses to dietary supplemental Zn levels. The estimates of dietary Zn requirements for brown-egg laying hens from 20 to 40 weeks of age were 71.95 and 64.63 mg/kg for tibia Zn concentration and serum AKP activity, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the tibia Zn might be a more suitable and reliable parameter for Zn requirement estimation, and the optimal dietary Zn level would be about 72 mg/kg for brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age.

  6. Dietary intake, resting energy expenditure, and eating behavior in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ingrid; Hulthén, Lena; Landén, Mikael; Pålsson, Erik; Janson, PerOlof; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2016-02-01

    Data on dietary intake, meal patterns, and eating attitudes from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is limited despite the fact that PCOS is associated with obesity. We aimed to test the hypothesis that women with PCOS display altered dietary intakes and eating behaviors compared to controls. Women with PCOS (n = 72) as defined according to the modified Rotterdam criteria were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). Anthropometry included measurement of waist circumference and determination of the resting metabolic rate via indirect calorimetry. All women completed questionnaires regarding eating behavior; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) and eating attitudes; Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Group comparisons were done by Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis was used for adjustments of age and BMI in a non-parametric way. BMI was higher in women with PCOS compared to controls. Resting metabolic rate did not differ between women with women with and without PCOS after adjustment for age and BMI [1411 ± 229 kcal/day versus 1325 ± 193 kcal per day (P = 0.07)], whereas the respiratory exchange ratio was higher in women with PCOS than in controls [0.83 ± 0.07 versus 0.78 ± 0.08 (P = 0.02 after adjustments for age and BMI)]. Energy percent (E%) carbohydrates was higher in women with PCOS compared to controls (P = 0.017), but E% alcohol was lower (P = 0.036) after adjustment for age and BMI. The average total EAT scores and EAT dieting subscale scores were higher in women with PCOS compared with controls (P = 0.001 and P = 0.024, respectively) after adjustment for age and BMI. No difference was found for previous or current symptoms of bulimia nervosa. Independent of BMI and age, the resting metabolic rate did not differ between women with and without PCOS indicating that women with PCOS should have equal abilities in terms of energy metabolism to lose weight as women without PCOS. Women with PCOS showed greater concerns about their

  7. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Kitvorapat, Wanicha

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in Thailand's nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs). The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females) was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females' median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand's rapidly growing sedentary workforce. PMID:25525512

  8. The effect of a dietary carbohydrase enzyme system on blood glucose levels when combined with foods of varying glycemic index in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that physical performance and recovery can be improved by maintaining or enhancing glucose availability. Carbogen(®) (Triarco Industries, Wayne, NJ, USA), a patented dietary fungal carbohydrase enzyme system, converts complex carbohydrates and fiber into simpler carbohydrates when ingested. Supplementing the enzymatic digestion of complex carbohydrates and fiber that may be digested very slowly or not at all in vivo may increase the availability of glucose. This may be reflected by increased absorption rates and higher measurable levels of whole blood glucose (WBG) that may be bioavailable for extended energy production. These preliminary investigations evaluate the ability of Carbogen to produce a rapid and more sustained increase in WBG levels when combined with a variety of food substrates commonly used by athletes and non-athletes to increase levels of physical activity. To investigate this, food substrates having a low, moderate, or high glycemic index (GI) with various amounts of total carbohydrates and dietary fiber were used. The individually tested substrates include soy nuts, cooked pasta, meal replacement bars, a nutrition shake, and a carbohydrate sports supplement. The investigations presented here consist of seven separate preclinical rat feasibility studies conducted over a period of approximately 12 months. The collective results presented here identify specific attributes of a category of food substrates common to sports nutrition enthusiasts that may significantly increase WBG levels over an extended time when dosed with Carbogen. Specifically, using Carbogen with a food substrate having a low or moderate GI and containing dietary fiber may increase the rate of glucose absorption and maintain significant increases in WBG levels.

  9. Dietary probiotic inclusion level modulates intestinal mucin composition and mucosal morphology in broilers.

    PubMed

    Tsirtsikos, P; Fegeros, K; Balaskas, C; Kominakis, A; Mountzouris, K C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary probiotic inclusion level on mucin composition (monosaccharide ratio), mucosal morphometry, mucus layer staining intensity, and mucus layer thickness along the broiler intestinal tract. One-day-old male Cobb broilers were administered maize-soybean meal basal (BD) diets for 42 d and depending on the feed additive used, broilers were allocated into the following 5 experimental treatments: control C (BD, no additive), treatment P1 (10(8) colony forming units of probiotic/kg of BD), treatment P2 (10(9) cfu of probiotic/kg of BD), treatment P3 (10(10) cfu of probiotic/kg of BD), and treatment A (2.5 mg avilamycin/kg of BD). Intestinal samples from duodenum, ileum, and cecum of 14- and 42-d-old broilers were collected and analyzed. Mannose (Man) decreased linearly with increasing probiotic level in duodenum (P=0.015) and ileum (P=0.042) of 14-d-old broilers. N-Acetyl-glucosamine and galactose decreased linearly (P=0.012 and P=0.001, respectively), while fucose increased linearly (P<0.001) with increasing probiotic feed inclusion level in 42-d-old broiler cecum, with treatment A not differing from treatment C (P≥0.05). Cecal villus height and crypt depth increased linearly (P=0.016 and P=0.003, respectively) with probiotic inclusion level, with treatment A having higher (P≤0.05) values only from treatment C. Mucus layer thickness increased linearly with probiotic inclusion level in duodenum at 14 d and 42 d (P=0.007 and P=0.030, respectively). Finally, mucus layer staining intensity was influenced (P<0.001) by villus fragment (i.e., tip, midsection, and base) but not from the treatment, age, and intestinal segment examined. As a conclusion, this study provides evidence that probiotic inclusion level affects intestinal mucin monosaccharide composition, mucus layer thickness, and intestinal morphology in broilers.

  10. Reliability and predictive validity of energy intake measures from the 24-hour dietary recalls of homebound older adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L; Ritchie, Christine S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Locher, Julie L

    2010-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults' eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total energy intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. Two hundred thirty homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two subsamples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n=52), sufficient test-retest reliability of energy intake was observed (r=0.59), but energy intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r=0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n=143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient energy intake (odds ratio 3.49, P=0.009), and in white participants compared to African-American participants (odds ratio 3.13, P=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals is needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of energy intake measures for this population.

  11. Effects of temperature and dietary protein level on hepatic oxidative status of Senegalese sole juveniles (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Castro, C; Pérez-Jiménez, A; Guerreiro, I; Peres, H; Castro-Cunha, M; Oliva-Teles, A

    2012-11-01

    Effects of 55 and 45% dietary protein levels (55P and 45P diets, respectively) and temperature (12 and 18 °C) on hepatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of Solea senegalensis juveniles were studied. Further, effects of acute thermal shocks provoked by a drop (18 °C to 12 °C) or a rise (12 °C to 18 °C) of water temperature on sole oxidative state was also evaluated. Dietary protein reduction increased LPO levels though no major alterations were found on antioxidant enzyme activities between dietary treatments. At 12 °C GR activity was higher and SOD activity was lower than 18 °C but LPO levels were not affected. In both thermal shock cases, LPO levels increased in 55P group, probably due to insufficient antioxidant enzyme activation. In contrast, fish of 45P group under acute exposition to warmer and colder temperature exhibited no substantial changes and a significant decrease on LPO levels, respectively, along with no major changes in antioxidant enzymes. Overall, results suggest that independently of rearing temperatures 45P group was more susceptible to oxidative stress than 55P group. Thermal shock either due to rise or drop of temperature seemed to induce oxidative stress in 55P group.

  12. In vitro effect of dietary protein level and nondigestible oligosaccharides on feline fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Pinna, C; Stefanelli, C; Biagi, G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of some prebiotic substances and 2 dietary protein levels on the composition and activity of feline fecal microbiota. Two in vitro studies were conducted. First, 6 nondigestible oligosaccharides were studied; treatments were control diet (CTRL), gluconic acid (GA), carrot fiber (CF), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), lactitol (LAC), and pectins from citrus fruit (PEC). Substrates were added to feline fecal cultures at 2 g/L for 24 h incubation. Compared with the CTRL, ammonia had been reduced (P<0.05) by GOS (-9%) after 6 h and by GA (-14%), LAC (-12%), and PEC (-10%) after 24 h. After 24 h, all treatments had resulted in a lower pH versus the CTRL. Putrescine concentrations at 24 h were greater (P<0.05) in cultures treated with FOS (+90%), GOS (+96%), and LAC (+87%). Compared with the CTRL, total VFA were higher (P<0.05) in bottles containing CF (+41%), whereas the acetic to propionic acid ratio was reduced by LAC (-51%; P<0.05). After 24 h, Enterobacteriaceae had been reduced (P<0.05) by LAC and PEC. In a second study, LAC and FOS were selected to be tested in the presence of 2 diets differing in their protein content. There were 6 treatments: low-protein (LP) CTRL with no addition of prebiotics (CTRL-LP), high-protein (HP) CTRL with no addition of prebiotics (CTRL-HP), LP diet plus FOS, CTRL-HP plus FOS, LP diet plus LAC, and CTRL-HP plus LAC. Both FOS and LAC were added to feline fecal cultures at 2 g/L for 24 h incubation. Ammonia at 24 h was affected (P<0.05) by the protein level (36.2 vs. 50.2 mmol/L for LP and HP, respectively). The CTRL-HPs resulted in a higher pH and increased concentrations of biogenic amines were found after 6 and 24 h of incubation (P<0.05); putrescine at 24 h showed an increase (P<0.05) in cultures treated with FOS. Total VFA were influenced (P<0.05) by the protein level (40.9 vs. 32.6 mmol/L for LP and HP, respectively). At 24 h, the CTRL

  13. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance123

    PubMed Central

    Drenowatz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure is the primary etiology for excess weight gain. Increased energy expenditure via exercise and energy restriction via diet are commonly used approaches to induce weight loss. Such behavioral interventions, however, have generally resulted in a smaller than expected weight loss, which in part has been attributed to compensatory adaptations in other components contributing to energy balance. Current research points to a loose coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure on a daily basis, and evidence for long-term adaptations has been inconsistent. The lack of conclusive evidence on compensatory adaptations in response to alterations in energy balance can be attributed to differences in intervention type and study population. Physical activity (PA) levels may be reduced in response to aerobic exercise but not in response to resistance exercise. Furthermore, athletic and lean adults have been shown to increase their energy intake in response to exercise, whereas no such response was observed in obese adults. There is also evidence that caloric restriction is associated with a decline in PA. Generally, humans seem to be better equipped to defend against weight loss than avoid weight gain, but results also show a large individual variability. Therefore, individual differences rather than group means should be explored to identify specific characteristics of “compensators” and “noncompensators.” This review emphasizes the need for more research with simultaneous measurements of all major components contributing to energy balance to enhance the understanding of the regulation of energy balance, which is crucial to address the current obesity epidemic. PMID:26374181

  14. Dietary fiber and lipid peroxidation: effect of dietary fiber on levels of lipids and lipid peroxides in high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P

    1991-06-01

    Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrea