Science.gov

Sample records for dietary energy requirements

  1. Water and Energy Dietary Requirements and Endocrinology of Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid and energy metabolism and related endocrine changes have been studied nearly from the beginning of human space flight in association with short- and long-duration flights. Fluid and electrolyte nutrition status is affected by many factors including the microgravity environment, stress, changes in body composition, diet, exercise habits, sleep cycles, and ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Space flight exposes astronauts to all these factors and consequently poses significant challenges to establishing dietary water, sodium, potassium, and energy recommendations. The purpose of this article is to review the results of ground-based and space flight research studies that have led to current water, electrolyte, and energy dietary requirements for humans during space flight and to give an overview of related endocrinologic changes that have been observed in humans during short- and long-duration space flight.

  2. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community.

    PubMed

    Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S

    2009-05-04

    Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60-100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (>or= 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (>or= 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (>or= 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only approximately 65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only approximately 24-51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though

  3. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    PubMed Central

    Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S

    2009-01-01

    Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (≥ 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (≥ 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only ~65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only ~24–51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy

  4. Dietary fat and carbohydrate have different effects on body weight, energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis and behaviour in adult cats fed to energy requirement.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Margaret A; Atkinson, Jim L; Duncan, Ian J H; Niel, Lee; Shoveller, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary carbohydrate and fat on feline health are not well understood. The effects of feeding diets moderately high in fat (HF; n 10; 30 % fat, 26 % carbohydrate as fed) or carbohydrate (HC; n 10; 11 % fat, 47 % carbohydrate), for 84 d, were investigated in healthy, adult cats (3·5 (sd 0·5) years). Data on indirect calorimetry, blood biomarkers, activity, play and cognition were collected at baseline, and at intervals throughout the study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and on day 85. There were no significant main effects of diet on body weight and composition. When data were analysed over study day within diet, cats fed HF diets experienced a significant increase in body fat (P = 0·001) and body weight (P = 0·043) in contrast to cats consuming the HC diet that experienced no change in body fat or body weight (P = 0·762) throughout the study. Overall, energy expenditure was similar between diets (P = 0·356 (fasted), P = 0·086 (postprandial)) and respiratory quotient declined with exposure to the HF diet and increased with exposure to the HC diet (P < 0·001; fasted and postprandial). There was no difference in insulin sensitivity as an overall effect of diet (P = 0·266). Activity declined from baseline with exposure to both diets (HC: P = 0·002; HF: P = 0·01) but was not different between diets (P = 0·247). There was no effect of diet on play (P = 0·387) and cats consuming either the HF or HC diet did not successfully learn the cognitive test. Overall, cats adapt to dietary macronutrient content, and the implications of feeding HC and HF diets on risk for adiposity as driven by metabolic and behavioural mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Dietary requirements of seaweed flies ( Coelopa frigida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Sally J.; Young, Alison M.; Day, Thomas H.

    1987-05-01

    The seaweed fly, Coelopa frigida (Fabricius), is mostly found in piles of decomposing seaweed deposited on the seashore which form its only breeding sites. It is shown that C. frigida can complete its life cycle in a wide variety of marine algae, and that the larvae are unable to survive without some, as yet unidentified, consituent of seaweed. The larvae also have a requirement for a microbial gut flora which probably derives from the bacterial flora naturally associated with algae growing in the sea. After deposition of the seaweed on the shore, the bacterial population increases enormously, and is ingested by the feeding Coelopa larvae. The dietary requirement for bacteria can be satisfied by a variety of pure bacterial cultures of marine origin, and also by pure cultures of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is suggested that the microbial cells are being used by the larvae as their principal source of energy. The bacterial populations naturally found on stranded seaweed are grazed by the feeding larvae. It is the combined activities of microbial and insect populations that result in rapid decomposition of the seaweed. The ecological relationships between marine algae, the microbial flora, and dipteran larvae are discussed.

  6. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P < 0.05). Specific growth rate ( SGR) of turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P < 0.05), and then kept stable when dietary protein content was higher than 51.0%. Fish which were fed the diet containing 63.6% protein showed the highest SGR while those fed the diet containing 59.3% protein showed the highest feed efficiency rate. No significant difference of feed intake and protein efficiency ratio was found among experimental diets ( P > 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  7. Dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Cheng, Zhenyan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-02-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to examine the dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass in seawater floating net cages (1.5 m × 1.5 m × 2.0 m). Six isonitrogenous (crude protein 40%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) diets were formulated to contain different concentrations of leucine (0.9%, 1.49%, 2.07%, 2.70%, 3.30% and 3.88% of dry matter). Crystalline L-amino acids were supplemented to simulate the whole body amino acid pattern of Japanese seabass except for leucine. Three groups (30 fish individuals each, 8.0 g ± 0.20 g in initial weight) were fed to apparent satiation at 5:00 and 17:30 every day. During the experimental period, the water temperature ranged from 26 to 32δC and salinity from 26 to 30, and the dissolved oxygen was maintained at 7 mg L-1. The results showed that weight gain ( WG), nitrogen retention ( NR), feed efficiency ( FE) and protein efficiency ratio ( PER) were significantly increased when dietary leucine was increased from 0.90% to 2.70% of dry matter, and then declined. WG was the highest when fish were fed D4 containing 2.70% of leucine. No significant differences were observed in body composition among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). Considering the change of WG, the optimum dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass was either 2.39% of dry matter or 5.68% of dietary protein.

  8. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to metabolic advantage.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2006-12-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) specify that the requirement for dietary protein for all individuals aged 19 y and older is 0.8 g protein.kg-1.d-1. This Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is cited as adequate for all persons. This amount of protein would be considered by many athletes as the amount to be consumed in a single meal, particularly for strength-training athletes. There does exist, however, published data to suggest that individuals habitually performing resistance and (or) endurance exercise require more protein than their sedentary counterparts. The RDA values for protein are clearly set at "...the level of protein judged to be adequate... to meet the known nutrient needs for practically all healthy people...". The RDA covers protein losses with margins for inter-individual variability and protein quality; the notion of consumption of excess protein above these levels to cover increased needs owing to physical activity is not, however, given any credence. Notwithstanding, diet programs (i.e., energy restriction) espousing the virtue of high protein enjoy continued popularity. A number of well-controlled studies are now published in which "higher" protein diets have been shown to be effective in promoting weight reduction, particularly fat loss. The term "higher" refers to a diet that has people consuming more than the general populations' average intake of approximately 15% of energy from protein, e.g., as much as 30%-35%, which is within an Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) as laid out in the DRIs. Of relevance to athletes and those in clinical practice is the fact that higher protein diets have quite consistently been shown to result in greater weight loss, greater fat loss, and preservation of lean mass as compared with "lower" protein diets. A framework for understanding dietary protein intake within the context of weight loss and athletic performance is laid out.

  9. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Stuart M; Van Loon, Luc J C

    2011-01-01

    Opinion on the role of protein in promoting athletic performance is divided along the lines of how much aerobic-based versus resistance-based activity the athlete undertakes. Athletes seeking to gain muscle mass and strength are likely to consume higher amounts of dietary protein than their endurance-trained counterparts. The main belief behind the large quantities of dietary protein consumption in resistance-trained athletes is that it is needed to generate more muscle protein. Athletes may require protein for more than just alleviation of the risk for deficiency, inherent in the dietary guidelines, but also to aid in an elevated level of functioning and possibly adaptation to the exercise stimulus. It does appear, however, that there is a good rationale for recommending to athletes protein intakes that are higher than the RDA. Our consensus opinion is that leucine, and possibly the other branched-chain amino acids, occupy a position of prominence in stimulating muscle protein synthesis; that protein intakes in the range of 1.3-1.8 g · kg(-1) · day(-1) consumed as 3-4 isonitrogenous meals will maximize muscle protein synthesis. These recommendations may also be dependent on training status: experienced athletes would require less, while more protein should be consumed during periods of high frequency/intensity training. Elevated protein consumption, as high as 1.8-2.0 g · kg(-1) · day(-1) depending on the caloric deficit, may be advantageous in preventing lean mass losses during periods of energy restriction to promote fat loss.

  10. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  11. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration. ...

  12. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration. ...

  13. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration. ...

  14. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.470 What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? You must distribute dietary supplements under conditions that will protect the dietary supplements against contamination and deterioration. ...

  15. Nutritional genomics: defining the dietary requirement and effects of choline.

    PubMed

    Zeisel, Steven H

    2011-03-01

    As it becomes evident that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in humans can create metabolic inefficiencies, it is reasonable to ask if such SNPs influence dietary requirements. Epidemiologic studies that examine SNPs relative to risks for diseases are common, but there are few examples of clinically sized nutrition studies that examine how SNPs influence metabolism. Studies on how SNPs influence the dietary requirement for choline provide a model for how we might begin examining the effects of SNPs on nutritional phenotypes using clinically sized studies (clinical nutrigenomics). Most men and postmenopausal women develop liver or muscle dysfunction when deprived of dietary choline. More than one-half of premenopausal women may be resistant to choline deficiency-induced organ dysfunction, because estrogen induces the gene [phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)] that catalyzes endogenous synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which can subsequently yield choline. Those premenopausal women that do require a dietary source of choline have a SNP in PEMT, making them unresponsive to estrogen induction of PEMT. It is important to recognize differences in dietary requirements for choline in women, because during pregnancy, maternal dietary choline modulates fetal brain development in rodent models. Because choline metabolism and folate metabolism intersect at the methylation of homocysteine, manipulations that limit folate availability also increase the use of choline as a methyl donor. People with a SNPs in MTHFD1 (a gene of folate metabolism that controls the use of folate as a methyl donor) are more likely to develop organ dysfunction when deprived of choline; their dietary requirement is increased because of increased need for choline as a methyl donor.

  16. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Khor, G L; Mirnalini, K; Norimah, A K; Ang, M

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To

  17. Optimum dietary protein requirement of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerling.

    PubMed

    Misieng, Josephine Dorin; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Musa, Mazlinda

    2011-02-01

    The optimum dietary protein requirement of the Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings was determined in this study. In this completely randomized designed experiment, formulated diets of five levels of dietary protein (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50%) were tested on the T. tambroides fingerlings (initial body weight of 5.85 +/- 0.40 g), reared in aquarium fitted with a biofiltering system. The fingerlings were fed twice daily at 5% of biomass. The fingerling body weight and total length was taken at every two weeks. Mortality was recorded daily. The dietary protein had significant effects on the body weight gain and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of the fingerlings. The body weight gain and SGR of fingerlings fed with the diet with the dietary protein level of 40% was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 30, 35 and 50%. The feed conversion ratio of the 40% dietary protein was the significantly lowest at 2.19 +/- 0.163. The dietary protein level of 40% was the most optimum for T. tambroides fingerlings.

  18. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Griffin, M E; Wilson, K A; White, M R; Brown, P B

    1994-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to estimate the dietary choline requirement and to determine the effects of dietary choline on liver lipid deposition in juvenile hybrid striped bass (Monrone saxatilis x M. chrysops). Experimental diets contained 0.73 g total sulfur amino acids/100 g diet (0.47 g methionine + 0.26 g cyst(e)ine/100 g diet), thus meeting, but not exceeding, the requirement. Graded levels of choline bitartrate in Experiment 1 and choline chloride in Experiment 2 were added to the basal diet, resulting in eight dietary treatments in each experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 mg choline/kg dry diet. Diets were fed for 12 and 10 wk in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Dietary choline concentrations significantly affected weight gain, feed efficiency, survival and total liver lipid concentrations in each experiment. Weight gain and feed efficiency were greatest in fish fed 500 mg choline/kg dry diet as choline bitartrate. Total liver lipid concentrations were variable but tended to be lowest in fish fed diets containing at least 2000 mg choline/kg diet. Survival was significantly lower in the group of fish fed 8000 mg choline/kg diet supplied by choline bitartrate. Weight gain and feed efficiency were greatest and total liver lipid concentration was lowest in groups of fish fed at least 500 mg choline/kg diet as choline chloride; survival was unaffected by dietary treatment. Therefore, choline chloride seems to be a better source of dietary choline than choline bitartrate and 500 mg choline/kg diet is adequate for maximum weight gain and prevention of increased liver lipid concentration in juvenile hybrid striped bass.

  19. The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole

    2005-07-01

    Highest rates of obesity and diabetes in the United States are found among the lower-income groups. The observed links between obesity and socioeconomic position may be related to dietary energy density and energy cost. Refined grains, added sugars, and added fats are among the lowest-cost sources of dietary energy. They are inexpensive, good tasting, and convenient. In contrast, the more nutrient-dense lean meats, fish, fresh vegetables, and fruit generally cost more. An inverse relationship between energy density of foods (kilojoules per gram) and their energy cost (dollars per megajoule) means that the more energy-dense diets are associated with lower daily food consumption costs and may be an effective way to save money. However, economic decisions affecting food choice may have physiologic consequences. Laboratory studies suggest that energy-dense foods and energy-dense diets have a lower satiating power and may result in passive overeating and therefore weight gain. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that the low-cost energy-dense diets also tend to be nutrient poor. If the rise in obesity rates is related to the growing price disparity between healthy and unhealthy foods, then the current strategies for obesity prevention may need to be revised. Encouraging low-income families to consume healthier but more costly foods to prevent future disease can be construed as an elitist approach to public health. Limiting access to inexpensive foods through taxes on frowned upon fats and sweets is a regressive measure. The broader problem may lie with growing disparities in incomes and wealth, declining value of the minimum wage, food imports, tariffs, and trade. Evidence is emerging that obesity in America is a largely economic issue.

  20. Estimation of dietary arginine requirements for Longyan laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Xia, Weiguang; Fouad, Ahmed Mohamed; Chen, Wei; Ruan, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Fan, Qiuli; Wang, Ying; Cui, Yiyan; Zheng, Chuntian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the arginine requirements of Longyan ducks from 17 to 31 wk of age based on egg production, egg quality, plasma, and ovarian indices, as well as the expression of vitellogenesis-related genes. In total, 660 Longyan ducks with similar body weight at 15 wk of age were assigned randomly to 5 treatments, each with 6 replicates of 22 birds, and fed a corn-corn gluten meal basal diet (0.66% arginine) supplemented with either 0, 0.20%, 0.40%, 0.60%, or 0.80% arginine. Dietary arginine did not affect egg production by laying ducks, but it increased (linear, P < 0.01) the egg weight at 22 to 31 and 17 to 31 wk of age. Dietary arginine increased the yolk color score (linearly, P < 0.05) and the yolk percentage (quadratic, P < 0.05), where the maximum values were obtained with 1.26% arginine. Dietary arginine affected the total shell percentage and shell thickness, with the highest values using 1.46% arginine (P < 0.01). The weight and number of small yellow follicles (SYFs) increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) with the dietary arginine level and there was a quadratic response (P < 0.05) in terms of the SYFs weight/ovarian weight; the highest values were obtained in ducks fed 1.26% arginine. The plasma arginine concentration exhibited a quadratic (P < 0.05) response to dietary arginine. The plasma progesterone concentration decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary arginine increased. The mRNA abundance of the very low density lipoprotein receptor-b increased in the second large yellow follicle membranes (quadratic, P < 0.05) with the dietary arginine level, where the highest value occurred with 1.26% arginine. According to the regression model, the dietary arginine requirements for Longyan laying ducks aged 17 to 31 wk are 1.06%, 1.13%, 1.22%, and 1.11% to obtain the maximum yolk percentage, SYFs number, SYFs weight, and SYFs weight/ovarian weight, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Common Genetic Variants Alter Metabolism and Influence Dietary Choline Requirements.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Ariel B; Klatt, Kevin C; Caudill, Marie A

    2017-08-04

    Nutrient needs, including those of the essential nutrient choline, are a population wide distribution. Adequate Intake (AI) recommendations for dietary choline (put forth by the National Academies of Medicine to aid individuals and groups in dietary assessment and planning) are grouped to account for the recognized unique needs associated with age, biological sex, and reproductive status (i.e., pregnancy or lactation). Established and emerging evidence supports the notion that common genetic variants are additional factors that substantially influence nutrient requirements. This review summarizes the genetic factors that influence choline requirements and metabolism in conditions of nutrient deprivation, as well as conditions of nutrient adequacy, across biological sexes and reproductive states. Overall, consistent and strong associative evidence demonstrates that common genetic variants in choline and folate pathway enzymes impact the metabolic handling of choline and the risk of nutrient inadequacy across varied dietary contexts. The studies characterized in this review also highlight the substantial promise of incorporating common genetic variants into choline intake recommendations to more precisely target the unique nutrient needs of these subgroups within the broader population. Additional studies are warranted to facilitate the translation of this evidence to nutrigenetics-based dietary approaches.

  2. Common Genetic Variants Alter Metabolism and Influence Dietary Choline Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Ariel B.; Klatt, Kevin C.; Caudill, Marie A.

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient needs, including those of the essential nutrient choline, are a population wide distribution. Adequate Intake (AI) recommendations for dietary choline (put forth by the National Academies of Medicine to aid individuals and groups in dietary assessment and planning) are grouped to account for the recognized unique needs associated with age, biological sex, and reproductive status (i.e., pregnancy or lactation). Established and emerging evidence supports the notion that common genetic variants are additional factors that substantially influence nutrient requirements. This review summarizes the genetic factors that influence choline requirements and metabolism in conditions of nutrient deprivation, as well as conditions of nutrient adequacy, across biological sexes and reproductive states. Overall, consistent and strong associative evidence demonstrates that common genetic variants in choline and folate pathway enzymes impact the metabolic handling of choline and the risk of nutrient inadequacy across varied dietary contexts. The studies characterized in this review also highlight the substantial promise of incorporating common genetic variants into choline intake recommendations to more precisely target the unique nutrient needs of these subgroups within the broader population. Additional studies are warranted to facilitate the translation of this evidence to nutrigenetics-based dietary approaches. PMID:28777294

  3. The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research in ingestive behavior has focused on the macronutrient composition of foods; however, these studies are incomplete, or could be misleading, if they do not consider the energy density (ED) of the diet under investigation. Lowering the ED (kcal/g) by increasing the volume of preloads without changing macronutrient content can enhance satiety and reduce subsequent energy intake at a meal. Ad libitum intake or satiation has also been shown to be influenced by ED when the proportions of macronutrients are constant. Since people tend to eat a consistent weight of food, when the ED of the available foods is reduced, energy intake is reduced. The effects of ED have been seen in adults of different weight status, sex, and behavioral characteristics, as well as in 3- to 5-year-old children. The mechanisms underlying the response to variations in ED are not yet well understood and data from controlled studies lasting more than several days are limited. However, both population-based studies and long-term clinical trials indicate that the effects of dietary ED can be persistent. Several clinical trials have shown that reducing the ED of the diet by the addition of water-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables was associated with substantial weight loss even when patients were not told to restrict calories. Since lowering dietary energy density could provide effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity, there is a need for more studies of mechanisms underlying the effect and ways to apply these findings. PMID:19303887

  4. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.510 What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? You must identify and quarantine returned dietary supplements until quality control personnel conduct a material review and make a...

  5. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.155 What requirements apply to components of dietary... components before you use them in the manufacture of a dietary supplement until: (1) You collect...

  6. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.155 What requirements apply to components of dietary... components before you use them in the manufacture of a dietary supplement until: (1) You collect...

  7. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production... are required for returned dietary supplements? Quality control operations for returned dietary...

  8. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.510 What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? You must identify and quarantine returned dietary supplements until quality control personnel conduct a material review and make a...

  9. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production... are required for returned dietary supplements? Quality control operations for returned dietary...

  10. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.155 What requirements apply to components of dietary... components before you use them in the manufacture of a dietary supplement until: (1) You collect...

  11. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production... are required for returned dietary supplements? Quality control operations for returned dietary...

  12. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production... are required for returned dietary supplements? Quality control operations for returned dietary...

  13. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... or Labeling as a Dietary Supplement § 111.155 What requirements apply to components of dietary... components before you use them in the manufacture of a dietary supplement until: (1) You collect...

  14. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.510 What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? You must identify and quarantine returned dietary supplements until quality control personnel conduct a material review and make a...

  15. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.510 What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? You must identify and quarantine returned dietary supplements until quality control personnel conduct a material review and make a...

  16. 21 CFR 111.130 - What quality control operations are required for returned dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... returned dietary supplements? 111.130 Section 111.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production... are required for returned dietary supplements? Quality control operations for returned dietary...

  17. 21 CFR 111.510 - What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.510 What requirements apply when a returned dietary supplement is received? You must identify and quarantine returned dietary supplements until quality control personnel conduct a material review and make a...

  18. Optimum dietary protein requirement in nondiabetic maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Sakae; Kaizu, Yukiko; Odamaki, Mari; Ikegaya, Naoki; Hibi, Ikuo; Miyaji, Kunihiko; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2004-03-01

    There is controversy about whether the dietary protein requirement of 1.2 g/kg/d for hemodialysis (HD) patients, in the nutritional guidelines recommended by the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI), is reasonable. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 129 stable HD patients without diabetes (84 men, 45 women) to investigate the association between the protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance normalized by ideal body weight (nPNAibw), an index of protein intake, and skeletal muscle mass or other metabolic consequences. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to nPNAibw index. Midthigh muscle area (TMA), midthigh subcutaneous fat area (TSFA), abdominal muscle area (AMA), abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA), and visceral fat area (AVFA) were measured using computed tomography, and various nutritional parameters were compared among these groups. TMA and AMA values increased with increasing dietary protein intake from less than 0.7 g/kg/d to 0.9-1.1 g/kg/d and showed a plateau at greater than 0.9 to 1.1 g/kg/d of dietary protein intake. Conversely, fat mass, including TSFA, ASFA, and AVFA, and serum potassium concentration increased with graded protein intake, and no plateau was formed. Patients with nPNAibw greater than 1.3 g/kg/d satisfied the criterion of visceral obesity. Although serum prealbumin levels showed a trend similar to that of muscle mass, there was no significant difference in serum albumin levels among the study groups. Optimal dietary protein requirement for patients undergoing maintenance HD in a stable condition appears to be less than the level recommended by the NKF-KDOQI nutritional guidelines.

  19. Maintenance energy requirement of llamas.

    PubMed

    Carmean, B R; Johnson, K A; Johnson, D E; Johnson, L W

    1992-09-01

    Five castrated male llamas (mean body weight, 94 kg) were studied in an energy balance trial to determine maintenance energy requirement of llamas. Llamas were fed a 50% oat hay-50% pelleted concentrate diet (2.43 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg of diet dry matter) at approximately 1.6% of body weight (BW). An 8-day total collection digestion trial was used to determine fecal and urine energy losses. Heat production and methane emissions were determined via indirect respiration calorimetry measurements on each llama fed at the same level of intake as during the digestion trial and subsequently on days 3 and 4 of a period of nonfeeding. Fecal, urine, and methane energy losses of the llamas fed near-maintenance intake were 32.5, 3.5, and 7.1% of gross energy intake, respectively. The postabsorptive metabolic rate, commonly called nonfed (fasting) heat production, was 59.3 kcal/BW0.75. Using a linear relation between postabsorptive and maintenance energy requirement and efficiency of energy use below maintenance of 0.702, metabolizable energy requirement at maintenance was determined to be 84.5 kcal/BW0.75.

  20. Choline: Dietary Requirements and Role in Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lisa M; Zeisel, Steven H

    2007-01-01

    Choline is needed for the maintenance of the structural integrity and signaling functions of cell membranes, for neurotransmission, and for transport of lipids and as a source of methyl groups. Choline can be made de novo in the body, but some individuals must also obtain choline in the diet to prevent deficiency symptoms. A number of environmental and genetic factors influence dietary requirements for choline, and average intakes in the population vary widely. Therefore, certain individuals may be at greater risk of choline deficiency. Choline is critical during fetal development, particularly during the development of the brain, where it can influence neural tube closure and lifelong memory and learning functions.

  1. Dietary carbohydrates, components of energy balance, and associated health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Harry A; Gonzalez, Javier T; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2017-10-01

    The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health. PubMed was searched for all published trials that had a minimum follow-up period of 3 months and were designed to manipulate dietary carbohydrate intake, irrespective of resultant differences in absolute carbohydrate dose (grams per day). Dietary carbohydrate manipulation has little effect on the individual components of energy balance that have been assessed. However, the role of dietary carbohydrates in influencing physical activity has yet to be assessed using gold-standard measurement tools. Moreover, adherence to a diet of modified carbohydrate content has not been found to result in a consistent pattern of changes in weight or indirect measures of metabolic health. However, certain markers of cardiovascular disease risk (ie, blood triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) may respond positively to a reduction in dietary carbohydrates. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Officemore » of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.« less

  3. Extrusion energy and pressure requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Hanna, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Corn gluten meal samples at moisture contents of 14, 20 and 26% dry basis were extruded at barrel temperatures of 120, 145 and 170/sup 0/C with screw speeds of 100, 150 and 200 rpm. The specific energy requirements and specific operating pressure decreases as the moisture content and temperature were increased. The effect of screw speed on specific energy and pressure was inconclusive.

  4. The nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of the dietary requirement for choline.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Karen D; Zeisel, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Advances in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have been instrumental in demonstrating that nutrient requirements vary among individuals. This is exemplified by studies of the nutrient choline, in which gender, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, estrogen status, and gut microbiome composition have been shown to influence its optimal intake level. Choline is an essential nutrient with a wide range of biological functions, and current studies are aimed at refining our understanding of its requirements and, importantly, on defining the molecular mechanisms that mediate its effects in instances of suboptimal dietary intake. This chapter introduces the reader to challenges in developing individual nutrition recommendations, the biological function of choline, current and future research paradigms to fully understand the consequences of inadequate choline nutrition, and some forward thinking about the potential for individualized nutrition recommendations to become a tangible application for improved health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy requirements of military personnel.

    PubMed

    Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J; Delany, James P; Hoyt, Reed W

    2005-02-01

    Energy requirements of military personnel (Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines) have been measured in garrison and in field training under a variety of climatic conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ (3109-7131 kcal) per day. The overall mean was 19.3+/-2.7 MJ (mean+/-SD) (4610+/-650 kcal) per day measured over an average of 12.2 days (range 2.25-69 days). For the 77 female military personnel studied, mean total energy expenditures for individual experimental groups ranged from 9.8 to 23.4 MJ (2332-5597 kcal) per day, with an overall mean of 11.9+/-2.6 MJ (2850+/-620 kcal) per day, measured over an average of 8.8 days (range 2.25-14 days). Women, presumably due to their lower lean body mass, resting metabolic rate, and absolute work rates, had lower total energy expenditures. Combat training produced higher energy requirements than non-combat training or support activities. Compared to temperate conditions, total energy expenditures did not appear to be influenced by hot weather, but tended to be higher in the cold or high altitude conditions.

  6. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.465 What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must...

  7. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.455 What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements...

  8. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected dietary...

  9. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected dietary...

  10. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.465 What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must...

  11. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.455 What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements...

  12. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.465 What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must...

  13. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.455 What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements...

  14. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.455 What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements...

  15. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected dietary...

  16. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected dietary...

  17. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Holding and Distributing § 111.465 What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must...

  18. 21 CFR 111.370 - What requirements apply to rejected dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control... disposition any dietary supplement that is rejected and unsuitable for use in manufacturing, packaging, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to rejected dietary...

  19. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  20. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures.

  1. Characterization of dietary energy in Swine feed and feed ingredients: a review of recent research results.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, D E; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  2. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, D. E.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included. PMID:25557670

  3. Food-related energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E

    1974-04-12

    I have used data from input-output studies to determine the quantities of primary and electric energy consumed in the agricultural, processing, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and household sectors for personal consumption of food. Before one draws conclusions from these results, it is important to note the assumptions and approximations used in this analysis. First, the economic input-output data published by the Department of Commerce are subject to a number of inaccuracies, including lack of complete coverage for an industry, restriction of data for proprietary reasons, and use of different time periods for different data. Second, aggregation can combine within the same sector industries whose energy intensities differ widely. For example, eating and drinking establishments probably consume more energy per dollar of sales (because of refrigerators, stoves, and freezers) than do department stores. However, both types of establishment are included in retail trade. Thus energy use for food-related retail trade may be underestimated because of aggregation. Third, the energy coefficients are subject to error. In particular, the coefficients for the agricultural and trade sectors are vulnerable because energy use within these sectors is not well documented. Finally, the scaling factor used to estimate food-related energy use for the 1960's is approximate, in that it neglects the possibility that these energy coefficients changed differently with time. Because of these limitations, which are described more fully by Herendeen (6), a number of important issues were not addressed here. such as relative energy requirements for fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables; and for soybeans as compared to beef. This analysis shows that the U.S. food cycle consumes a considerable amount of energy, about 12 percent of the total national energy budget. The residential sector, which accounts for 30 percent of the total, is the most energy-intensive sector in terms of energy

  4. Dietary energy density: Applying behavioural science to weight management.

    PubMed

    Rolls, B J

    2017-09-01

    Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake. Other studies show that consuming a large volume of a low-energy-dense food such as soup, salad, or fruit as a first course preload can enhance satiety and reduce overall energy intake at a meal. Current evidence suggests that energy density influences intake through a complex interplay of cognitive, sensory, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neural influences. Other studies that focus on practical applications show how the strategic incorporation of foods lower in energy density into the diet allows people to eat satisfying portions while improving dietary patterns. This review discusses studies that have led to greater understanding of the importance of energy density for food intake regulation and weight management.

  5. Molecular mechanism of dietary phospholipid requirement of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, fry.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, G; Taylor, J F; Martinez-Rubio, L; Tocher, D R

    2015-11-01

    The phospholipid (PL) requirement in fish is revealed by enhanced performance when larvae are provided PL-enriched diets. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying PL requirement in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, were fed a minimal PL diet and tissue samples from major lipid metabolic sites were dissected from fry and parr. In silico analysis and cloning techniques demonstrated that salmon possess a full set of enzymes for the endogenous production of PL. The gene expression data indicated that major PL biosynthetic genes of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) display lower expression in intestine during the early developmental stage (fry). This is consistent with the hypothesis that the intestine of salmon is immature at the early developmental stage with limited capacity for endogenous PL biosynthesis. The results also indicate that intact PtdCho, PtdEtn and PtdIns are required in the diet at this stage. PtdCho and sphingomyelin constitute the predominant PL in chylomicrons, involved in the transport of dietary lipids from the intestine to the rest of the body. As sphingomyelin can be produced from PtdCho in intestine of fry, our findings suggest that supplementation of dietary PtdCho alone during early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon would be sufficient to promote chylomicron formation. This would support efficient transport of dietary lipids, including PL precursors, from the intestine to the liver where biosynthesis of PtdEtn, PtdSer, and PtdIns is not compromised as in intestine facilitating efficient utilisation of dietary energy and the endogenous production of membrane PL for the rapidly growing and developing animal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  7. Dietary energy density and successful weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Bachman, Jessica L; Looney, Shannon M; Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R

    2011-04-01

    Research shows a positive relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and body mass index (BMI), but dietary ED of weight loss maintainers is unknown. This preliminary investigation was a secondary data analysis that compared self-reported dietary ED and food group servings consumed in overweight adults (OW: BMI=27-45kg/m(2)), normal weight adults (NW: BMI=19-24.9 kg/m(2)), and weight loss maintainers (WLM: current BMI=19-24.9kg/m(2) [lost≥10% of maximum body weight and maintained loss for ≥5years]) participating in 2 studies, with data collected from July 2006 to March 2007. Three 24-h phone dietary recalls from 287 participants (OW=97, NW=85, WLM=105) assessed self-reported dietary intake. ED (kcal/g) was calculated by three methods (food+all beverages except water [F+AB], food+caloric beverages [F+CB], and food only [FO]). Differences in self-reported consumption of dietary ED, food group servings, energy, grams of food/beverages, fat, and fiber were assessed using one-way MANCOVA, adjusting for age, sex, and weekly energy expenditure from self-reported physical activity. ED, calculated by all three methods, was significantly lower in WLM than in NW or OW (FO: WLM=1.39±0.45kcal/g; NW=1.60±0.43 kcal/g; OW=1.83±0.42 kcal/g). Self-reported daily servings of vegetables and whole grains consumed were significantly higher in WLM compared to NW and OW (vegetables: WLM=4.9±3.1 servings/day; NW=3.9±2.0 servings/day; OW=3.4±1.7 servings/day; whole grains: WLM=2.2±1.8 servings/day; NW=1.4±1.2 servings/day; OW=1.3±1.3 servings/day). WLM self-reported consuming significantly less energy from fat and more fiber than the other two groups. Self-reported energy intake per day was significantly lower in WLM than OW, and WLM self-reported consuming significantly more grams of food/beverages per day than OW. These preliminary findings suggest that consuming a diet lower in ED, characterized by greater intake of vegetables and whole grains, may aid with weight loss

  8. Associations of Dietary Protein and Energy Intakes With Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Boucher, Robert; Kiani, Rabia; Raj, Dominic; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2017-09-01

    The associations of dietary protein and/or energy intakes with protein or energy wasting in patients on maintenance hemodialysis are controversial. We examined these in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. In 1487 participants in the HEMO Study, baseline dietary protein intake (grams per kilogram per day) and dietary energy intake (kilocalories per kilograms per day) were related to the presence of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome at month 12 (defined as the presence of at least 1 criteria in 2 of the 3 categories of low serum chemistry, low body mass, and low muscle mass) in logistic regression models. In additional separate models, protein intake estimated from equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) was also related to the PEW syndrome. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of baseline dietary protein intake was paradoxically associated with increased risk of the PEW syndrome at month 12 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79-6.05). This relationship was completely attenuated (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.88-2.06) with adjustment for baseline body weight, which suggested mathematical coupling. Results were similar for dietary energy intake. Compared with the lowest quartile of baseline enPCR, the highest quartile was not associated with the PEW syndrome at 12 months (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.54-1.12). These data do not support the use of dietary protein intake or dietary energy intake criteria in the definition of the PEW syndrome in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

  9. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  10. Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in examining dietary energy density (ED, kcal/g) as it relates to various health outcomes. Consuming a diet low in ED has been recommended in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, as well as by other agencies, as a dietary approach for disease prevention. Translating this recommendation into practice; however, is difficult. Currently there is no standardized method for calculating dietary ED; as dietary ED can be calculated with foods alone, or with a combination of foods and beverages. Certain items may be defined as either a food or a beverage (e.g., meal replacement shakes) and require special attention. National survey data are an excellent resource for evaluating factors that are important to dietary ED calculation. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) nutrient and food database does not include an ED variable, thus researchers must independently calculate ED. The objective of this study was to provide information that will inform the selection of a standardized ED calculation method by comparing and contrasting methods for ED calculation. The present study evaluates all consumed items and defines foods and beverages based on both USDA food codes and how the item was consumed. Results are presented as mean EDs for the different calculation methods stratified by population demographics (e.g. age, sex). Using United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) food codes in the 2005–2008 NHANES, a standardized method for calculating dietary ED can be derived. This method can then be adapted by other researchers for consistency across studies. PMID:24432201

  11. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? (a) You must ensure that any returned dietary supplements that are reprocessed meet all product specifications established in accordance...

  12. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? (a) You must ensure that any returned dietary supplements that are reprocessed meet all product specifications established in accordance...

  13. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? (a) You must ensure that any returned dietary supplements that are reprocessed meet all product specifications established in accordance...

  14. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? (a) You must ensure that any returned dietary supplements that are reprocessed meet all product specifications established in accordance...

  15. 21 CFR 111.525 - What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Returned Dietary Supplements § 111.525 What requirements apply to a returned dietary supplement that quality control personnel approve for reprocessing? (a) You must ensure that any returned dietary supplements that are reprocessed meet all product specifications established in accordance...

  16. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in space and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  17. Metabolic energy required for flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews data available from U.S. and U.S.S.R. studies on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. Energy utilization and energy availability in space seem to be similar to those on Earth. However, negative nitrogen balances in space in the presence of adequate energy and protein intakes and in-flight exercise, suggest that lean body mass decreases in space. Metabolic studies during simulated (bed rest) and actual microgravity have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids, and insulin levels, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet, and exercise in spaced and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  18. Energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union perform human space research. This paper reviews data available on energy metabolism in the microgravity of space flight. The level of energy utilization in space seems to be similar to that on earth, as does energy availability. However, despite adequate intake of energy and protein and in-flight exercise, lean body mass was catabolized, as indicated by negative nitrogen balance. Metabolic studies during simulated microgravity (bed rest) and true microgravity in flight have shown changes in blood glucose, fatty acids and insulin concentrations, suggesting that energy metabolism may be altered during space flight. Future research should focus on the interactions of lean body mass, diet and exercise in space, and their roles in energy metabolism during space flight.

  19. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on energy metabolism in group-housed sows.

    PubMed

    Rijnen, M M; Verstegen, M W; Heetkamp, M J; Haaksma, J; Schrama, J W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dietary nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) content on the metabolic rate in group-housed sows was studied. Twelve groups of six nonpregnant sows were each fed one of four experimental diets similar in composition except for the starch and NSP content. Exchanging sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) for tapioca created the difference in starch and NSP ratio in the diet. On a DM basis, diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS. Sows were group-housed and fed at 1.30 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per group during a 7-d experimental period, which was preceded by a 33-d adaptation period. Both digestibility and metabolizability of energy decreased with increasing dietary SBPS content (P < 0.05). Heat production and energy retention were unaffected by the exchange of starch for NSP (P > 0.1). Based on energy retention data and apparent fecal digestibilities of crude protein, crude fat, starch, and NSP, the estimated net energy value of fermented NSP was 13.4 kJ/g. The present study shows that group-housed sows are capable of using energy from fermented NSP (i.e., NSP from SBPS) as efficiently as energy from digested starch (i.e., starch from tapioca).

  20. Dietary selenium requirements based on tissue selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activities in old female rats.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Roger A; Thompson, Kevin M

    2009-01-01

    Dietary nutrient requirements for older animals have been studied far less than have requirements for young growing animals. To determine dietary selenium (Se) requirements in old rats, we fed female weanling rats a Se-deficient diet (0.007 microg Se/g) or supplemented rats with graded levels of dietary Se (0-0.3 microg Se/g) as Na(2)SeO(3) for 52 weeks. At no point did Se deficiency or level of Se supplementation have a significant effect (P>0.05) on growth. To determine Se requirements, Se response curves were determined for 7 Se-dependent parameters. We found that minimum dietary Se requirements in year-old female rats were at or below 0.05 microg Se/g diet based on liver Se, red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1) activity, plasma Gpx3 activity, liver and kidney Gpx1 activity, and liver and kidney Gpx4 activity. In conclusion, this study found that dietary Se requirements in old female rats were decreased at least 50% relative to requirements found in young, rapidly growing female rats. Collectively, this indicates that the homeostatic mechanisms related to retention and maintenance of Se status are still fully functional in old female rats.

  1. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Ndahimana, Didace; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  2. Equilibrium energy intake estimated by dietary energy intake and body weight changes in young Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Kodama, Naoko; Yoshitake, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    To determine the energy intake (EI) required to maintain body weight (equilibrium energy intake: EEI), we investigated the relationship between calculated energy intake and body weight changes in female subjects participating in 14 human balance studies (n=149) conducted at the National Institute of Health and Nutrition (Tokyo). In four and a half studies (n=43), sweat was collected from the arm to estimate loss of minerals through sweating during exercise on a bicycle ergometer; these subjects were classified in the exercise group (Ex G). In nine and a half experiments (n=106) subjects did not exercise, and were classified in the sedentary group (Sed G). The relationship between dietary energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW) changes (ΔBW) was analyzed and divided by four variables: body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM), standard body weight (SBW), and body surface area (BSA). Equilibrium energy intake (EEI) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for EEI in Ex G were 34.3 and 32.8-35.9 kcal/kg BW/d, 32.0 and 30.8-33.1 kcal/kg SBW/d, 46.3 and 44.2-48.5 kcal/kg LBW/d, and 1,200 and 1,170-1,240 kcal/m(2) BSA/d, respectively. EEI and 95% CI for EEI in Sed G were 34.5 and 33.9-35.1 kcal/kg BW/d, 31.4 and 30.9-32.0 kcal/kg SBW/d, 44.9 and 44.1-45.8 kcal/kg LBM/d, and 1,200 and 1,180-1,210 kcal/m2 BSA/d, respectively. EEIs obtained in this study are 3 to 5% higher than estimated energy requirement (EER) for Japanese. In five out of six analyses, EER in a population (female, 18-29 y, physical activity level: 1.50) was under 95% CI of EEI obtained in this study.

  3. Transient decrements in mood during energy deficit are independent of dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block desi...

  4. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998). Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK) and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases. PMID:21645325

  5. [Energy requirements in adolescents playing basketball in Russian Olympic reserve team].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M

    2003-01-01

    The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.

  6. 21 CFR 111.425 - What requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? 111.425 Section 111.425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS... requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? You must...

  7. 21 CFR 111.425 - What requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? 111.425 Section 111.425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS... requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? You must...

  8. 21 CFR 111.425 - What requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? 111.425 Section 111.425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS... requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? You must...

  9. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System... as a Dietary Supplement § 111.165 What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or...

  10. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System... as a Dietary Supplement § 111.165 What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or...

  11. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System... as a Dietary Supplement § 111.165 What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or...

  12. 21 CFR 111.425 - What requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? 111.425 Section 111.425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS... requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? You must...

  13. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement (and for distribution rather than for return to the supplier..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System... as a Dietary Supplement § 111.165 What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or...

  14. 21 CFR 111.425 - What requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? 111.425 Section 111.425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS... requirements apply to a packaged and labeled dietary supplement that is rejected for distribution? You must...

  15. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance.

    PubMed

    Bandegan, Arash; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul B; Lemon, Peter Wr

    2017-05-01

    Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise." Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1- 13 C]phenylalanine to 13 CO 2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique]. Methods: Eight men (means ± SDs: age, 22.5 ± 1.7 y; weight, 83.9 ± 11.6 kg; 13.0% ± 6.3% body fat) were studied at rest on a nontraining day, on several occasions (4-8 times) each with protein intakes ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 , for a total of 42 experiments. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each individual's measured resting energy expenditure and were isoenergetic across all treatments. Protein was fed as an amino acid mixture based on the protein pattern in egg, except for phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained at constant amounts across all protein intakes. For 2 d before the study, all participants consumed 1.5 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 On the study day, the protein requirement was determined by identifying the breakpoint in the F 13 CO 2 with graded amounts of dietary protein [mixed-effects change-point regression analysis of F 13 CO 2 (labeled tracer oxidation in breath)]. Results: The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of protein and the upper 95% CI RDA for these young male bodybuilders were 1.7 and 2.2 g · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. Conclusion: These IAAO data suggest that the protein EAR and recommended intake for male bodybuilders at rest on a nontraining day exceed the current recommendations of the Institute of Medicine by ∼2.6-fold

  16. Vitamin K: dietary intake and requirements in different clinical conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose of review: Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDP). Functions include coagulation and regulation of calcification. Different clinical conditions may alter vitamin K requirements by affecting vitamin K status and VKDP carboxylation, which a...

  17. Soluble dietary fiber improves energy homeostasis in obese mice by remodeling the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyuan; Hong, Tao; Li, Na; Zang, Bin; Wu, Xingmao

    2018-03-25

    Intervention with dietary fibers is an important strategy to combat the global epidemic of obesity which is a consequence of energy imbalance. However, a possible role of the gut microbiota in effects of dietary fibers on energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we treated a high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model with soluble dietary fiber. Our results showed that soluble dietary fiber reduced body weight gain and the excessive accumulation of white fat tissue in DIO mice. Notably, soluble dietary fiber increased energy expenditure, but not change energy intake in DIO mice. In accordance, 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the diversity of the gut microbiota was restored by soluble dietary fiber. Moreover, compared with controls, soluble dietary fiber resulted in a decreased ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes at the phylum level, and an increased relative abundance of the genera Roseburia at the genus level. Taken together, these findings indicate that soluble dietary fiber improves energy homeostasis and prevents obesity by increasing the diversity of the gut microbiota and the colonization of beneficial bacteria. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of a Required Health-Related Fitness Course on Dietary Behaviors among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Melissa S.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Denson, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to: (a) evaluate the effectiveness of a required Health-Related Fitness (HRF) course in changing dietary behaviors among community college (CC) students, and (b) explore student perceptions about the effectiveness of HRF curriculum activities in changing behaviors. Methods: Pre- and…

  19. 21 CFR 111.470 - What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to distributing dietary supplements? 111.470 Section 111.470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  20. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  1. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? 111.465 Section 111.465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  2. 21 CFR 111.155 - What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to components of dietary supplements? 111.155 Section 111.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  3. Association between Dietary Energy Density and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie D; Wertheim, Betsy C; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Howard, Barbara V; Johnson, Karen; Liu, Simin; Phillips, Lawrence S; Qi, Lihong; Sarto, Gloria; Turner, Tami; Waring, Molly E; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Dietary energy density, or energy available in relation to gram intake, can inform disease risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between baseline dietary energy density and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women. Dietary energy density, weight status, and type 2 diabetes incidence were prospectively characterized in a large cohort of postmenopausal women participating in one or more clinical trials or an observational study. The study involved 161,808 postmenopausal women recruited to the Women's Health Initiative observational study or clinical trials at 40 centers across the United States between 1993 and 1998. The primary outcome was incident type 2 diabetes. The association between dietary energy density quintiles and incident diabetes was tested using Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 143,204 participants without self-reported diabetes at enrollment completed baseline dietary assessment and were followed for 12.7±4.6 years. Risk of diabetes developing was 24% greater for women in the highest dietary energy density quintile compared with the lowest after adjusting for confounders (95% CI 1.17 to 1.32). Body mass index (calculated as kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference mediated the relationship between dietary energy density and diabetes. In waist circumference-stratified analysis, women in dietary energy density quintiles 2 to 5 with waist circumferences >88 cm were at 9% to 12% greater risk of diabetes developing compared with women with waist circumference ≤88 cm. In this prospective study, a higher baseline dietary energy density was associated with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women, both overall, and in women with elevated waist circumference. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing dietary crude protein does not increase the methionine requirement in kittens.

    PubMed

    Strieker, M J; Morris, J G; Kass, P H; Rogers, Q R

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the methionine (met) requirement of kittens is correlated with the concentration of dietary crude protein (CP). The study used 48 male kittens in two replications of six 4 x 4 Latin squares, each representing one concentration of met (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 6.0 or 9.0 g/kg diet) with four CP concentrations (150, 200, 300 and 500 g/kg diet) in 2-week periods. Cystine was present in the lowest CP diet at 5.3 g/kg diet and increased as dietary CP increased. Body weight gain, food intake, nitrogen balance and plasma amino acids, glucose, insulin, cortisol, somatomedin C, T(3) and T(4) concentrations on day 12 were measured. From breakpoint analysis of the nitrogen retention curves, the met requirement of kittens was found to be 3.1, 3.8, 3.1 and 2.4 g met/kg for the 150, 200, 300 and 500 g CP/kg diets, respectively. When met was limiting (1.5 or 2.5 g/kg diet), increasing dietary CP did not decrease, but rather increased food intake, body weight gain and nitrogen retention. Plasma met concentrations increased as dietary met increased and at 2.5-3.5 g met/kg diet were not different among kittens fed the various CP diets. Total plasma T(3) and T(4) increased significantly as dietary CP increased in kittens given the 2.5 and 4.5 g met/kg diets. Results indicate that food intake and possibly altered hormonal secretion play a role in this growth response. In conclusion, the met requirement of growing kittens, unlike omnivores and herbivores studied, was not positively correlated with the concentration of dietary CP.

  5. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    PubMed

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  6. Maternal Dietary Counseling Reduces Consumption of Energy-Dense Foods among Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: Sao Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home…

  7. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  8. Dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson, 1846)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyan; He, Zhigang

    2010-12-01

    Dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson 1846 (initial body weight 6.0 g ± 0.1 g) was determined using dose-response method. Six isonitogenous (crude protein 43%) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1) practical diets containing six levels of leucine (Diets 1-6) ranging from 1.23% to 4.80% (dry matter) were made at about 0.7% increment of leucine. Equal amino acid nitrogen was maintained by replacing leucine with glutamic acid. Triplicate groups of 60 individuals were fed to apparent satiation by hand twice daily (05:00 and 17:30). The water temperature was 26-32°C, salinity 26-30 and dissolved oxygen approximately 7 mg L-1 during the experimental period. Final weight (FW) of large yellow croaker initially increased with increasing level of dietary leucine but then decreased at further higher level of leucine. The highest FW was obtained in fish fed diet with 3.30% Leucine (Diet 4). FW of fish fed the diet with 4.80% Leucine (Diet 6) was significantly lower than those fed Diet 4. However, no significant differences were observed between the other dietary treatments. Feed efficiency (FE) and whole body composition were independent of dietary leucine contents ( P > 0.05). The results indicated that leucine was essential for growth of juvenile large yellow croaker. On the basis of FW, the optimum dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker was estimated to be 2.92% of dry matter (6.79% of dietary protein).

  9. Dietary Energy Density in the Australian Adult Population from National Nutrition Surveys 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be <1.25 kcal/g to prevent weight gain. The aim of this research was to determine whether the dietary energy density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density <1.25 kcal/g. The mean (standard deviation) dietary energy density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (P<0.0001) in 1995 and 2011/2012, respectively, with 13% and 5% (P<0.0001) of the population meeting dietary energy-density recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density <1.25 kcal/g decreased from 22% to 6% (P<0.0001) for men and from 33% to 11% (P<0.0001) for women in 1995 and 2011/2012, respectively. Among those aged 18 to 29 years, 1% of men in both surveys (P=0.8) and 4% of women in 1995 and 2% in 2011/2012 (P=0.01) reported energy density <1.25 kcal/g. Dietary energy density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations

  10. Energy Cost Impact of Non-Residential Energy Code Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-08-22

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code contains 396 separate requirements applicable to non-residential buildings; however, there is no systematic analysis of the energy cost impact of each requirement. Consequently, limited code department budgets for plan review, inspection, and training cannot be focused on the most impactful items. An inventory and ranking of code requirements based on their potential energy cost impact is under development. The initial phase focuses on office buildings with simple HVAC systems in climate zone 4C. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance. A preliminary estimate of themore » probability of occurrence of each level of non-compliance was combined with the estimated lost savings for each level to rank the requirements according to expected savings impact. The methodology to develop and refine further energy cost impacts, specific to building type, system type, and climate location is demonstrated. As results are developed, an innovative alternative method for compliance verification can focus efforts so only the most impactful requirements from an energy cost perspective are verified for every building and a subset of the less impactful requirements are verified on a random basis across a building population. The results can be further applied in prioritizing training material development and specific areas of building official training.« less

  11. Choline: Clinical Nutrigenetic/Nutrigenomic Approaches for Identification of Functions and Dietary Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics (the study of the bidirectional interactions between genes and diet) is a rapidly developing field that is changing research and practice in human nutrition. Though eventually nutrition clinicians may be able to provide personalized nutrition recommendations, in the immediate future they are most likely to use this knowledge to improve dietary recommendations for populations. Currently, estimated average requirements are used to set dietary reference intakes because scientists cannot adequately identify subsets of the population that differ in requirement for a nutrient. Recommended intake levels must exceed the actual required intake for most of the population in order to assure that individuals with the highest requirement ingest adequate amounts of the nutrient. As a result, dietary reference intake levels often are set so high that diet guidelines suggest almost unattainable intakes of some foods. Once it is possible to identify common subgroups that differ in nutrient requirements using nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic profiling, targeted interventions and recommendations can be refined. In addition, when a large variance exists in response to a nutrient, statistical analyses often argue for a null effect. If responders could be differentiated from nonre-sponders based on nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic profiling, this statistical noise could be eliminated and the sensitivity of nutrition research greatly increased. PMID:20436254

  12. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  13. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens.

  14. Energy requirements, protein-energy metabolism and balance, and carbohydrates in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D; Denne, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Energy is necessary for all vital functions of the body at molecular, cellular, organ, and systemic levels. Preterm infants have minimum energy requirements for basal metabolism and growth, but also have requirements for unique physiology and metabolism that influence energy expenditure. These include body size, postnatal age, physical activity, dietary intake, environmental temperatures, energy losses in the stool and urine, and clinical conditions and diseases, as well as changes in body composition. Both energy and protein are necessary to produce normal rates of growth. Carbohydrates (primarily glucose) are principle sources of energy for the brain and heart until lipid oxidation develops over several days to weeks after birth. A higher protein/energy ratio is necessary in most preterm infants to approximate normal intrauterine growth rates. Lean tissue is predominantly produced during early gestation, which continues through to term. During later gestation, fat accretion in adipose tissue adds increasingly large caloric requirements to the lean tissue growth. Once protein intake is sufficient to promote net lean body accretion, additional energy primarily produces more body fat, which increases almost linearly at energy intakes >80-90 kcal/kg/day in normal, healthy preterm infants. Rapid gains in adiposity have the potential to produce later life obesity, an increasingly recognized risk of excessive energy intake. In addition to fundamental requirements for glucose, protein, and fat, a variety of non-glucose carbohydrates found in human milk may have important roles in promoting growth and development, as well as production of a gut microbiome that could protect against necrotizing enterocolitis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  16. Dietary supplement labeling and advertising claims: are clinical studies on the full product required?

    PubMed

    Villafranco, John E; Bond, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Whether labeling and advertising claims for multi-ingredient dietary supplements may be based on the testing of individual, key ingredients--rather than the actual product--has caused a good deal of confusion. This confusion stems from the dearth of case law and the open-endedness of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on this issue. Nevertheless, the relevant regulatory guidance, case law and self-regulatory case law--when assessed together--indicate that the law allows and even protects "key ingredient claims" (i.e., claims based on efficacy testing of key ingredients in the absence of full product testing). This article provides an overview of the relevant substantiation requirements for dietary supplement claims and then reviews FTC's and FDA's guidance on key ingredient claims; relevant case law; use of key ingredient claims in the advertising of other consumer products; and the National Advertising Division of the Better Business Bureau, Inc.'s (NAD's) approach to evaluating key ingredient claims for dietary supplements. This article concludes that key ingredient claims--provided they are presented in a truthful and non-deceptive manner--are permissible, and should be upheld in litigation and cases subject to industry self-regulation. This article further concludes that the NAD's approach to key ingredient claims provides practical guidance for crafting and substantiating dietary supplement key ingredient claims.

  17. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  18. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Leslie M; daCosta, Kerry Ann; Kwock, Lester; Stewart, Paul W; Lu, Tsui-Shan; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Zeisel, Steven H

    2007-05-01

    Although humans require dietary choline for methyl donation, membrane function, and neurotransmission, choline can also be derived from the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is up-regulated by estrogen. A recommended Adequate Intake (AI) exists for choline; however, an Estimated Average Requirement has not been set because of a lack of sufficient human data. The objective of the study was to evaluate the dietary requirements for choline in healthy men and women and to investigate the clinical sequelae of choline deficiency. Fifty-seven adult subjects (26 men, 16 premenopausal women, 15 postmenopausal women) were fed a diet containing 550 mg choline x 70 kg(-1) x d(-1) for 10 d followed by <50 mg choline x 70 kg(-1) x d(-1) with or without a folic acid supplement (400 microg/d per randomization) for up to 42 d. Subjects who developed organ dysfunction during this diet had normal organ function restored after incremental amounts of choline were added back to the diet. Blood and urine were monitored for signs of toxicity and metabolite concentrations, and liver fat was assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging. When deprived of dietary choline, 77% of men and 80% of postmenopausal women developed fatty liver or muscle damage, whereas only 44% of premenopausal women developed such signs of organ dysfunction. Moreover, 6 men developed these signs while consuming 550 mg choline x 70 kg(-1) x d(-1), the AI for choline. Folic acid supplementation did not alter the subjects' response. Subject characteristics (eg, menopausal status) modulated the dietary requirement for choline, and a daily intake at the current AI was not sufficient to prevent organ dysfunction in 19 of the subjects.

  19. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline2

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; daCosta, Kerry Ann; Kwock, Lester; Stewart, Paul W; Lu, Tsui-Shan; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Zeisel, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Background Although humans require dietary choline for methyl donation, membrane function, and neurotransmission, choline can also be derived from the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is up-regulated by estrogen. A recommended Adequate Intake (AI) exists for choline; however, an Estimated Average Requirement has not been set because of a lack of sufficient human data. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the dietary requirements for choline in healthy men and women and to investigate the clinical sequelae of choline deficiency. Design Fifty-seven adult subjects (26 men, 16 premenopausal women, 15 postmenopausal women) were fed a diet containing 550 mg choline · 70 kg−1 · d−1 for 10 d followed by <50 mg choline · 70 kg−1 · d−1 with or without a folic acid supplement (400 μg/d per randomization) for up to 42 d. Subjects who developed organ dysfunction during this diet had normal organ function restored after incremental amounts of choline were added back to the diet. Blood and urine were monitored for signs of toxicity and metabolite concentrations, and liver fat was assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results When deprived of dietary choline, 77% of men and 80% of postmenopausal women developed fatty liver or muscle damage, whereas only 44% of premenopausal women developed such signs of organ dysfunction. Moreover, 6 men developed these signs while consuming 550 mg choline · 70 kg−1 · d−1, the AI for choline. Folic acid supplementation did not alter the subjects’ response. Conclusion Subject characteristics (eg, menopausal status) modulated the dietary requirement for choline, and a daily intake at the current AI was not sufficient to prevent organ dysfunction in 19 of the subjects. PMID:17490963

  20. Energy requirements of Texel crossbred lambs.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, C C; Kozloski, G V; Wommer, T P

    2008-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the energy requirements of feedlot Texel crossbred lambs. In a comparative slaughter trial, thirty 11/16 Texel x 5/16 Ile de France crossbred noncastrated male lambs, weaned at 42 d of age (16.2 +/- 2.1 kg of shrunk BW; SBW), were used. Five lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered after 10 d of experimental management and diet adaptation (baseline group). Fifteen lambs then were fed for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 25, 30, or 35 kg of SBW. The remaining 10 lambs were randomly assigned to 2 levels of DMI, either 70 or 55% of the ad libitum intake, and were slaughtered concomitantly with lambs of the 35 kg of SBW group. Total body N, fat, and energy contents were determined. In a digestibility trial, 6 Texel x Ile de France crossbred lambs (30.4 +/- 2.6 kg of SBW) were housed in metabolic cages and used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment to evaluate the energetic value of the diet at different feed intake levels. Net and ME requirements for maintenance were 58.6 and 91 kcal/kg(0.75) of SBW, respectively. Consequently, partial efficiency of energy use for maintenance was 0.64. Body fat content varied from 72.7 to 125.9 g/kg of empty BW, respectively, for 13.1 and 28.2 kg of empty BW. Net energy requirements for growth of lambs at 15 and 35 kg of SBW at an ADG of 250 g were 424 and 553 kcal/d, respectively. Partial efficiency of energy use for growth was 0.47. Texel x Ile de France crossbred growing lambs used in this study showed decreased nutritional requirements than those reported by most nutritional systems.

  1. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  2. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    PubMed

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking.

  3. Calcium requirements of the modern broiler chicken as influenced by dietary protein and age.

    PubMed

    Driver, J P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Edwards, H M

    2005-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the calcium requirements of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diets. Experiment 1 used a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement and was conducted with broilers in floor pens during the grower phase (19 to 42 d). Diets were mixed with 6 levels of dietary Ca (0.325, 0.4, 0.475, 0.55, 0.625, and 0.9%) and 17 or 23% CP and fed to males and females separately. Experiment 2 was a 6 x 2 factorial design conducted using Petersime battery brooders during the starter phase (0 to 16 d). The same 6 levels of dietary Ca used in experiment 1 were fed separately to each sex, but only at the 23% level of CP. The diets used in both experiments were formulated to contain 0.45% nonphytin phosphorus. In experiment 1, grower chickens did not demonstrate significant body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) response (g of feed per g of gain) to the different levels of Ca at either level of protein. The percentage tibia ash did not respond to increasing Ca levels beyond 0.625% Ca at either protein level. In experiment 2, BWG increased linearly up to 0.55 and 0.625% dietary Ca for males and females, respectively. Feed conversion ratio decreased linearly with increasing dietary Ca up to 0.625% Ca, and tibia ash was highest at 0.9% Ca for both sexes. These results suggest that the current NRC Ca requirements for the broiler starter (1.0%) are sufficient for maximum bone ash, but that Ca requirements for grower birds (0.9%) may be excessive for optimum BWG, FCR, and tibia ash.

  4. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of energy requirement equations for estimation of breast milk consumption in infants.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Stefanie; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Kersting, Mathilde

    2009-12-01

    To test equations for calculating infants' energy requirements as a simple and reliable instrument for estimating the amount of breast milk consumed in epidemiological studies where test-weighing is not possible. Infants' energy requirements were calculated using three different equations based on reference data and compared with actual energy intakes assessed using the 3 d weighed dietary records of breast-fed infants from the DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. A sub-sample of 323 infants from the German DONALD Study who were predominantly breast-fed for at least the first four months of life, and who had 3 d weighed dietary records and repeated body weight measurements within the first year of life. Healthy, term infants breast-fed for at least 4 months, 0-12 months of age. The overall differences between measured energy intake and calculated energy requirements were quite small, never more than 10 % of total energy intake, and smaller than the mean variance of energy intake between the three days of recording. The equation of best fit incorporated body weight and recent growth, while the worst fit was found for the equation not considering body weight. Breast milk consumption in fully and partially breast-fed infants can be reasonably quantified by calculating the infants' individual energy requirements via simple equations. This provides a feasible approach for estimating infant energy intake in epidemiological studies where test-weighing of breast milk is not possible.

  6. Nutritional requirements and actual dietary intake of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chow, Vincent C; Yong, Rose M; Li, Alice L; Lee, Chi-wai; Ho, Eva H; Chan, Ching-kit; Lo, Stanley H; Mo, Stephen K; Wong, Kin-shing

    2003-12-01

    Nutritional status is related to morbidity and mortality in the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) population. In the present study, we compared the dietary intake of CAPD patients with their requirements for calorie and protein nutrition and with the recommended intakes of potassium and phosphate. Patients were recruited from the CAPD clinic. Desirable body weight was derived from the height of the individual patients and the desirable body mass index (BMI) for adult Asians. The calorie requirement was calculated by multiplying desirable body weight by 30 kcal. The protein requirement was calculated by multiplying desirable body weight by 1.2 - 1.5, according to serum albumin level. The K requirement was set at 3500 mg daily, and the PO(4) requirement, at 1000 mg daily. The actual dietary intake of individual patients was estimated from dietary history by a computer software program. The study included 57 patients who had been on CAPD for 22.1 +/- 23.5 months. Of the 57 patients, 8 patients (14.0%) were below the desirable BMI range, 20 (35.1%) were within the range, and 29 (50.9%) were above the range. By subjective global assessment (SGA), 45 patients (78.9%) were mildly-to-moderately malnourished, and 12 (21.1%) well nourished. Serum albumin was 32.1 +/- 4.7 g/L. Patients met 98% +/- 35.7% (range: 33% - 224%) of their nutritional requirement for calories and 92.1% +/- 37.7% (range: 22% - 202%) of their nutritional requirement for protein. Only 23 patients (40.4%) reached the target for calorie intake, and only 22 (38.6%) reached the target for protein intake. Excess K intake was seen in 1 patient (1.8%), and excess PO(4) intake, in 6 patients (10.5%). Actual dietary intake was not related to BMI or SGA score. Most CAPD patients had inadequate calorie and protein intakes. Calorie and protein intakes were not related to BMI and SGA scores. Compliance with recommended K and PO(4) intakes was good.

  7. EURRECA-Estimating vitamin D requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    The time course of the EURRECA from 2008 to 2012, overlapped considerably with the timeframe of the process undertaken by the North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) to revise dietary reference intakes for vitamin D and calcium (published November 2010). Therefore the aims of the vitamin D-related activities in EURRECA were formulated to address knowledge requirements that would complement the activities undertaken by the IOM and provide additional resources for risk assessors and risk management agencies charged with the task of setting dietary reference values for vitamin D. A total of three systematic reviews were carried out. The first, which pre-dated the IOM review process, identified and evaluated existing and novel biomarkers of vitamin D status and confirmed that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations is a robust and reliable marker of vitamin D status. The second systematic review conducted a meta-analysis of the dose-response of serum 25(OH)D to vitamin D intake from randomized controlled trials (RCT) among adults to explore the most appropriate model of the vitamin D intake-serum 25(OH)D) relationship to estimate requirements. The third review also carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate evidence of efficacy from RCT using foods fortified with vitamin D, and found they increased circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in a dose-dependent manner but identified a need for stronger data on the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified food on deficiency prevention and potential health outcomes, including adverse effects. Finally, narrative reviews provided estimates of the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamin D in adults and children from international dietary surveys, as well as a compilation of research requirements for vitamin D to inform current and future assessments of vitamin D requirements. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's onilne edition of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrion for

  8. The role and requirements of digestible dietary carbohydrates in infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, A; Alles, M; de Graaf, C; Fleith, M; Hadjilucas, E; Isaacs, E; Maffeis, C; Zeinstra, G; Matthys, C; Gil, A

    2012-01-01

    Digestible carbohydrates are one of the main sources of dietary energy in infancy and childhood and are essential for growth and development. The aim of this narrative review is to outline the intakes of digestible carbohydrates and their role in health and disease, including the development of food preferences, as well the consequences of excess carbohydrate. Key experts in these fields provided up-to-date reviews of the literature. A search of available information on dietary intakes of children below the age of 4 years was conducted from 1985 up to 2010. Articles and reports including information about sugars and/or starch intakes were selected. A number of factors limit the ability to obtain an overall picture of carbohydrate intakes and food sources in this age group. These include small numbers of intake studies, differing approaches to analysing carbohydrate, a variety of terms used to describe sugars intakes and a dearth of information about starch intakes. Data suggest that sweet taste is preferred in infancy and later food choices. There are few established adverse consequences of high intakes of digestible carbohydrate for young children. The greatest evidence is for dental caries, although this is influenced by high intake frequency and poor oral hygiene. Evidence for detrimental effects on nutrient dilution, obesity, diabetes or cognition is limited. In infants, minimum carbohydrate (mainly lactose) intake should be 40% of total energy, gradually increasing to 55% energy by the age of 2 years. PMID:22473042

  9. Energy required to pinch a DNA plectoneme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barde, Céline; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel

    2018-03-01

    DNA supercoiling plays an important role from a biological point of view. One of its consequences at the supramolecular level is the formation of DNA superhelices named plectonemes. Normally separated by a distance on the order of 10 nm, the two opposite double strands of a DNA plectoneme must be brought closer if a protein or protein complex implicated in genetic regulation is to be bound simultaneously to both strands, as if the plectoneme was locally pinched. We propose an analytic calculation of the energetic barrier, of elastic nature, required to bring closer the two loci situated on the opposed double strands. We examine how this energy barrier scales with the DNA supercoiling. For physically relevant values of elastic parameters and of supercoiling density, we show that the energy barrier is in the kBT range under physiological conditions, thus demonstrating that the limiting step to loci encounter is more likely the preceding plectoneme slithering bringing the two loci side by side.

  10. Dietary copper in excess of nutritional requirement reduces plasma and breast muscle cholesterol of chickens.

    PubMed

    Bakalli, R I; Pesti, G M; Ragland, W L; Konjufca, V

    1995-02-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed from hatching to 42 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 250 mg copper/kg diet from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (for 35 or 42 d). Hypocholesterolemia (11.8% reduction) and decreased breast muscle cholesterol (20.4% reduction) were observed in copper-supplemented birds. There was a slight increase (P > .05) in breast muscle copper (14.5%), and all levels were very low (< .5 mg/kg). Feeding copper for 42 vs 35 d resulted in lower levels of cholesterol in the plasma (12.9 vs 10.8% reduction) and breast muscle (24.6 vs 16.2% reduction). Very similar results were found in two additional experiments in which hypocholesterolemia and reduced breast muscle cholesterol were associated with reduced plasma triglycerides and blood reduced glutathione. It is well known that hypercholesterolemia is a symptom of dietary copper deficiency. The data presented here indicate that blood and breast muscle cholesterol are inversely related to dietary copper in excess of the dietary requirement for maximal growth. The cholesterol content of the edible muscle tissue of broiler chickens can be reduced by approximately 25% after feeding a supranormal level of copper for 42 d without altering the growth of the chickens or substantially increasing the copper content of the edible meat.

  11. The relationship between dietary intake and energy availability, eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees.

    PubMed

    Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship of total energy and macronutrient intake, energy balance and energy availability to eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees. Energy and micronutrient intake was assessed in 63 students (n = 50 nutrition, and n = 13 occupation therapy degrees; n = 51 females, n = 12 males) using three 24-h dietary recalls. Energy requirements were calculated based on measured resting metabolic rate, estimated exercise energy expenditure, and dietary induced thermogenesis. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were measured using previously validated tools. Eighteen percent of nutrition students were classified as having low energy availability (<30 kcal kgFFM -1 d -1 ) and 38% were in negative energy balance. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were not associated with total energy or macronutrient intake. However, female nutrition students with high cognitive restraint had greater exercise energy expenditure and thus lower energy availability than those with low cognitive restraint (371 (302) kcal d -1 compared to 145 (206) kcal d -1 , P < 0.01, and 35 (7) kcal d -1 compared to 41 (10) kcal d -1 of fat free mass, P = 0.005). Additionally, in females, disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint negatively correlated with energy availability (r s  = -0.37, P = 0.02 and r s  = -0.51, P < 0.01 respectively). There were no differences in outcomes between nutrition and non-nutrition students. The current study suggests that those students with disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint may be controlling their energy balance through exercise, as opposed to restricting food intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    PubMed

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  13. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  14. Dietary calcium requirements do not differ between Mexican-American boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Cristina; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2014-08-01

    Mexican Americans are an understudied ethnic group for determinants of bone health, although the risk of age-related osteoporosis is high in this rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to establish the dietary calcium requirements for bone health in Mexican-American adolescents by measuring calcium retention calculated from balance in response to a range of dietary calcium intakes and to determine predictors of skeletal calcium retention. Adolescents aged 12-15 y were studied twice on paired calcium intakes ranging from 600 to 2300 mg/d using randomized-order, crossover 3-wk balance studies. Skeletal calcium retention was calculated as dietary calcium intake minus calcium excreted in feces and urine over the last 2 wk of balance. A linear model was developed to explain the variation in calcium retention. Boys (n = 20) were taller and had higher lean mass, usual dietary calcium intake, bone mineral content, and serum alkaline phosphatase compared with girls, whereas girls (n = 20) had higher Tanner scores and greater fat mass. Calcium retention increased with calcium intake (P < 0.0001) and did not differ by sex (P = 0.66). In boys and girls considered together, calcium intake explained 33% of the variation in calcium retention. Serum alkaline phosphatase explained an additional 11% of the variation in calcium retention. Other variables measured, including the urine N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine ratio, Tanner score, serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, weight, height, and body mass index, did not contribute to the variance in calcium retention. In adolescence, calcium retention in both Mexican-American boys and girls was higher than determined previously in adolescent nonHispanic white girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01277185. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Comparing the water, energy, pesticide and fertilizer usage for the production of foods consumed by different dietary types in California.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Harold J; Harwatt, Helen; Soret, Samuel; Sabaté, Joan

    2015-09-01

    To compare the use of water, energy, pesticides and fertilizer to produce commodities for two dietary patterns that vary in the content of plant and animal products. A unique analysis using 'real-world' data was performed, in contrast to previous analyses which applied simulated data. Consumption data from the Adventist Health Study were used to identify two dietary patterns with a markedly different consumption of several plant and animal products. State agricultural data were collected and applied to commodity production statistics. Indices were created to allow a comparison of the resource requirements for each dietary pattern. California, USA. None. The diet containing more animal products required an additional 10 252 litres of water, 9910 kJ of energy, 186 g of fertilizer and 6 g of pesticides per week in comparison to the diet containing less animal products. The greatest contribution to the difference came from the consumption of animal products, particularly beef. Consuming a more plant-based diet could to an extent alleviate the negative environmental impacts related to food production. As a method to feed ourselves more sustainably, behavioural adjustments appear to be a very important tool.

  16. Maintenance energy requirements in miniature colony dogs.

    PubMed

    Serisier, S; Weber, M; Feugier, A; Fardet, M-O; Garnier, F; Biourge, V; German, A J

    2013-05-01

    There are numerous reports of maintenance energy requirements (MER) in dogs, but little information is available about energy requirements of miniature dog breeds. In this prospective, observational, cohort study, we aimed to determine MER in dogs from a number of miniature breeds and to determine which factors were associated with it. Forty-two dogs participated in the study. MER was calculated by determining daily energy intake (EI) during a period of 196 days (28-359 days) when body weight did not change significantly (e.g. ±2% in 12 weeks). Estimated median MER was 473 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-766 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, median 113 kcal/kg(0.75) /day (68-183 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). In the obese dogs that lost weight, median MER after weight loss was completed was 360 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-515 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, 86 kcal/kg(0.75) /day, (68-123 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). Simple linear regression analysis suggested that three breeds (e.g. Chihuahua, p = 0.002; Yorkshire terrier, p = 0.039; dachshund, p = 0.035) had an effect on MER. In addition to breed, simple linear regression revealed that neuter status (p = 0.079) and having previously been overweight (p = 0.002) were also of significance. However, with multiple linear regression analysis, only previous overweight status (MER less in dogs previously overweight p = 0.008) and breed (MER greater in Yorkshire terriers [p = 0.029] and less in Chihuahuas [p = 0.089]) remained in the final model. This study is the first to estimate MER in dogs of miniature breeds. Although further information from pet dogs is now needed, the current work will be useful for setting energy and nutrient requirement in such dogs for the future. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance.

  18. Effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Rasolofomanana, T J; Tang, J; Jiang, Y; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2017-09-01

    A 2 × 6 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels (2,750 and 3,050 Kcal/kg) and 6 supplemental lysine (Lys) levels (0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50%), was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks was randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured, and then 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat, and leg meat. As a result, birds that were fed basal diets with no Lys supplementation showed growth depression, and significant positive effects of dietary Lys supplementation on body weight gain (P < 0.001), feed intake (P < 0.001), and feed/gain (P = 0.002) were observed as dietary Lys increased gradually among all the groups. In addition, increasing energy levels did not affect overall body weight gain (P > 0.05), but feed intake (P = 0.001) and feed/gain (P = 0.009) decreased significantly between the groups. Dietary Lys levels influenced the yields of breast (P < 0.001) and leg (P = 0.001) meat among all the groups, but dietary energy levels had a significant positive effect only on abdominal fat yield (P = 0.014). The interaction between dietary energy and Lys influenced body weight gain of ducks significantly (P = 0.004). According to the broken-line regression analysis, Lys requirements of Pekin ducks for weight gain at 2,750 and 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg were 0.94 and 0.98%, respectively. It suggested that Lys requirement was higher at 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg than at 2,750 Kcal of AME/kg. Dietary energy content determined feed intake of the ducks, and high-energy diets will require a higher amino acid concentration to compensate for a lower feed intake. © 2017 Poultry

  19. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Dietary vitamin D3 requirement of Chinese yellow-feathered broilers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shouqun; Jiang, Zongyong; Yang, Kuanmin; Chen, Fang; Zheng, Chuntian; Wang, Li

    2015-09-01

    Three experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary levels of vitamin D3 ( VD3: ) on growth performance, metabolic regulation of calcium (CA), phosphorus (P), and bone development of Chinese yellow-feathered broilers during 3 growth phases: 1 to 21 d, 22 to 42 d, and 43 to 63 d. Dietary Ca and P in the corn-soybean-based diet were adequate. A total of 2,000 1-day-old, 1,600 22-day-old, and 1,600 43-day- old Lingnan yellow male broilers were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 dietary treatments with 5 replicates per treatment (50 birds per replicate for 1 to 21 d, 40 birds for both 22 to 42 d and 43 to 63 d). Dietary levels of VD3 were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 IU/kg for treatments 2 to 8 through the addition of VD3 to the basal mash diet which otherwise lacked detectable VD3. Graded doses of VD3 from 0 to 700 IU/kg in the diet produced linear (P<0.01) positive responses in ADG, ADFI, tibial weight, and breaking strength, and quadratic (P<0.01) responses in tibial length, bone density, ash, the levels of Ca and P in the ash , and the ratio of Ca to P. Serum concentrations of Ca, P, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, osteocalcin, and calcitonin increased, and concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23, Klotho protein, and parathyroid hormone all decreased with the increasing level of dietary VD3 (P<0.05). Adding VD3 improved meat color a* value and decreased shear force and drip loss of birds at 63 d (P<0.05). Considering bone characteristics and composition under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the VD3 requirements of Chinese yellow-feathered broilers from 1 to 21 d for optimal tibial ash content were estimated from regression analysis to be 464 IU/kg from 1 to 21 d, 539 IU/kg from 22 to 42 d, and 500 IU/kg from 43 to 63 d. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%<3 was observed. In mixed diets, the DF energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic energy requirements for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1992-01-01

    The international space community, including the USSR, Japan, Germany, the European Space Agency, and the US, is preparing for extended stays in space. Much of the research planned for space will be tended by humans, thus, maintaining adequate nutritional status during long stays in space has lately become an issue of much interest. Historically, it appears that minimum nutritional requirements are being met during stays in space. Thus far, crewmembers have been able to consume food adequate for maintaining nominal performance in microgravity. The physiological data obtained from ground-based and flight research that may enable us to understand the biochemical alterations that effect energy utilization and performance. Focus is on energy utilization during the Apollo lunar missions, Skylab's extended space lab missions, and Space Shuttle flights. Available data includes those recorded during intra- and extravehicular activities as well as during microgravity simulation (bed rest). Data on metabolism during flight and during bed rest are discussed, with a follow-up on human gastrointestinal function.

  4. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Q. F.; Cherry, P.; Doster, A.; Murdoch, R.; Adeola, O.; Applegate, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P < 0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P < 0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P < 0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth

  5. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (P<0.05) between dietary metabolizable energy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (P<0.01). Conversely, increasing metabolizable energy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (P<0.01). In Experiment 2, the determined AMEn for diets formulated to contain 11.8, 12.8, or 13.8 MJ ME/kg were 11.66, 12.68, and 13.75 MJ/kg, respectively; determined standardized ileal digestible Lys was 0.95, 1.00, and 1.21% for diets formulated to contain 15, 17, or 19% crude protein, respectively. The best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio was obtained when ducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and

  6. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; ...

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography wasmore » used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm 2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.« less

  7. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography wasmore » used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm 2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.« less

  8. Dietary fiber intakes and insulin requirements in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalkwarf, H J; Bell, R C; Khoury, J C; Gouge, A L; Miodovnik, M

    2001-03-01

    To determine whether higher dietary fiber intake (water soluble and insoluble) is associated with lower insulin requirements and better glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes consuming a self-selected diet. A longitudinal, observational study. Pregnant women (n=141) with type 1 diabetes participating in an interdisciplinary program examining the effects of glycemic control on pregnancy outcome (Diabetes and Pregnancy Program, University of Cincinnati Medical Center). We determined total, water soluble and insoluble fiber intakes from 3-day food records kept each trimester during pregnancy. Outcome measures were insulin dose, pre-meal blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin concentrations. Correlation coefficients, multiple regression, mixed-model analysis of variance. Mean intakes (g/day) of total, water soluble fiber, and insoluble fiber were 14.0 (range, 1.8-33.1), 4.8 (range, 0.6-10.5) and 9.0 (range, 1.1-24.0), respectively. In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, insulin requirements were inversely associated with total, water soluble, and insoluble fiber intakes; the correlation coefficients ranged from -0.22 to -0.17 (P=.02 to .08). Insulin requirements associated with a higher fiber intake (20.5 g/day) were 16% to 18% lower than for a lower fiber intake (8.1 g/day). These relations remained after adjustment for body weight, disease severity and duration, insulin type, and study year in the second (P=.03 to .10) but not in the third trimester. Pre-meal blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations were not associated with fiber intake. Among pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, higher fiber intake is associated with lower daily insulin requirements. Dietary fiber intake should be considered when counseling patients about the management of blood glucose concentrations.

  9. Sri Lankan rice mixed meals: effect on glycaemic index and contribution to daily dietary fibre requirement.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-04-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks starchy foods according to the blood glucose responses following ingestion. When considering commonly consumed Sri Lankan meals, only a few can be categorised as low GI. However, a significant negative correlation between the GI of Sri Lankan meals and fibre content has been observed indicating the potential to reduce the GI of meals by incorporating naturally occurring sources of fibre. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the effect of increased edible quantities of fibre on the GI of rice meals consumed in Sri Lanka. Meal 1 consisted of rice with several meal accompaniments (lentil curry, boiled egg, coconut gravy and Centella asiatica (gotukola) leaves salad). Meal 2 contained similar constituents as meal 1 and a Lasia spinosa (kohila) rhizome salad. The composition of meal 3 was similar to meal 2 but contained Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd) salad instead of Lasia spinosa salad. Meal 3 contained similar fibre contents as meal 1 and similar meal size as meal 2. The glycaemic indices of the three meals were determined with healthy individuals (n=10, age=20-30 yrs, BMI=24 +/- 3 kg/m2) using bread as the standard. Meals 1 and 3 contained total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of 15.2g. Meal 2 contained 16.3g TDF. The GI values of the three meals were 63 +/- 5, 57 +/- 5, 61 +/- 5 respectively and were not significantly different from one another (p>0.05). The GI of the rice mixed meal 2 was reduced by 9% when total edible dietary fibre content of the actual meal was increased by 7.2%. The study results show that the GI of rice mixed meals may be reduced by including naturally occurring sources of fibre with starchy staples while fulfilling daily dietary fibre requirement of an adult at low cost.

  10. Effects of energy deficit, dietary protein, and feeding on intracellular regulators of skeletal muscle proteolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and associated gene expression in normal-23 weight adults consuming varying levels of dietary protein during short-term energy deficit. 24 Using a randomized-bock design, 32 men and 7 women were assigned to diets providing protein 25 at 0.8 (RDA), 1...

  11. Physical activity levels from a meta-analysis of doubly labeled water studies for validating energy intake as measured by dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Black, A E

    1996-06-01

    Studies using doubly labeled water have identified underreporting of food intake as a problem of dietary surveys. However, reported energy intakes may be evaluated by comparison with energy requirements expressed as multiples of the basal metabolic rate, and a formula for calculating the value below which reported intake cannot be either a valid measure of habitual intake or a true low intake obtained by chance is presented. The energy requirements of different age-sex groups needed for the comparison with energy intakes have been obtained from a meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data.

  12. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each PHA...

  13. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each PHA...

  14. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each PHA...

  15. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each PHA...

  16. 24 CFR 965.302 - Requirements for energy audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for energy audits. 965... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.302 Requirements for energy audits. All PHAs shall complete an energy audit for each PHA...

  17. Effects of dietary energy density on serum adipocytokine levels in diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Tabesh, M; Hosseinzadeh, M J; Tabesh, M; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2013-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum levels of adipocytokines of type 2 diabetic women. In this randomized parallel design clinical trial, a total of 60 diabetic women (aged 30-60 years; BMI>25 kg/m²) were assigned to consume either a low-energy dense (LED) (65% of energy from carbohydrates and 25% from fats), normal-energy dense (NED) (60% from carbohydrates, 30% from fats), or high-energy dense (HED) diet (55% from carbohydrates and 35% from fats) for 8 weeks. The low-energy dense diet was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and water, while the high-energy dense diet was rich in fats and oils and limited in fruits and vegetables as compared with the normal-dense diet. At baseline and at the end of intervention fasting blood samples were taken to assess metabolic profile. Women in the LED group consumed significantly more dietary fiber (p<0.001), fruits (p<0.001) and vegetables (p<0.001) than those in the NED and HED groups. We failed to find a significant effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum adiponectin and visfatin levels. Even the within-group changes in serum adiponectin and visfatin levels were not significant. Consumption of LED and NED diets resulted in a significant increase in serum chemerin levels (p=0.04). Comparison of mean changes of serum chemerin levels across 3 groups revealed a significant difference (p=0.04). Our study provides evidence indicating that consumption of HED diet for 8 weeks among diabetic patients prevented the increase in serum chemerin levels compared with LED and NED diets. Furthermore, we found no significant effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum adiponectin and visfatin concentrations in the current study. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. Optimized dietary strategies to protect skeletal muscle mass during periods of unavoidable energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Margolis, Lee M; Orr, Jeb S

    2015-04-01

    Interactions between dietary protein and energy balance on the regulation of human skeletal muscle protein turnover are not well described. A dietary protein intake above the recommended dietary allowance during energy balance typically enhances nitrogen retention and up-regulates muscle protein synthesis, which in turn may promote positive protein balance and skeletal muscle accretion. Recent studies show that during energy deficit, muscle protein synthesis is down-regulated with concomitant increases in ubiquitin proteasome-mediated muscle proteolysis and nitrogen excretion, reflecting the loss of skeletal muscle mass. However, consuming high-protein diets (1.6-2.4 g/kg per day), or high-quality, protein-based meals (15-30 g whey) during energy deficit attenuates intracellular proteolysis, restores muscle protein synthesis, and mitigates skeletal muscle loss. These findings are particularly important for physically active, normal-weight individuals because attenuating the extent to which skeletal muscle mass is lost during energy deficit could prevent decrements in performance, reduce injury risk, and facilitate recovery. This article reviews the relationship between energy status, protein intake, and muscle protein turnover, and explores future research directives designed to protect skeletal muscle mass in physically active, normal-weight adults. © FASEB.

  20. Maternal dietary counseling reduces consumption of energy-dense foods among infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, Marcia Regina; Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bo; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a dietary counseling in reducing the intake of energy-dense foods by infants. A randomized controlled trial. São Leopoldo, Brazil. Mothers and infants of a low-income-group population were randomized into intervention (n = 163) and received dietary counseling during 10 home visits, or control (n = 234) groups. Child consumption of sugar-dense (SD) and lipid-dense (LD) foods at 12 to 16 months. The effect of the intervention was expressed by relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the association between exclusive breastfeeding and the energy-dense foods intake. A smaller proportion of infants from the intervention group consumed candy, soft drinks, honey, cookies, chocolate, and salty snacks. In the intervention group, there was a reduction of 40% and 50% in the proportion of infants who consumed LD and SD foods, respectively. Being breastfed up to 6 months reduced the risk for consumption of LD and SD foods by 58% and 67%, respectively. Dietary counseling to mothers may be effective in reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods among infants, and it is helpful in improving early dietary habits. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  2. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Felicetti, Laura A; Robbins, Charles T; Shipley, Lisa A

    2003-01-01

    Many fruits contain high levels of available energy but very low levels of protein and other nutrients. The discrepancy between available energy and protein creates a physiological paradox for many animals consuming high-fruit diets, as they will be protein deficient if they eat to meet their minimum energy requirement. We fed young grizzly bears both high-energy pelleted and fruit diets containing from 1.6% to 15.4% protein to examine the role of diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis in dealing with high-energy-low-protein diets. Digestible energy intake at mass maintenance increased 2.1 times, and composition of the gain changed from primarily lean mass to entirely fat when the protein content of the diet decreased from 15.4% to 1.6%. Daily fat gain was up to three times higher in bears fed low-protein diets ad lib., compared with bears consuming the higher-protein diet and gaining mass at the same rate. Thus, bears eating fruit can either consume other foods to increase dietary protein content and reduce energy expenditure, intake, and potentially foraging time or overeat high-fruit diets and use diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis to deal with their skewed energy-to-protein ratio. These are not discrete options but a continuum that creates numerous solutions for balancing energy expenditure, intake, foraging time, fat accumulation, and ultimately fitness, depending on food availability, foraging efficiency, bear size, and body condition.

  3. The influence of labile dietary methyl donors on the arginine requirement of young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chamruspollert, M; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    2002-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Ross x Ross boiler chicks in battery brooders from 1 to 14 d of age to determine the influence of dietary methyl donors on the Arg requirement of young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 had a 6 x 2 factorial design, with six levels of Arg supplementation (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%) and two levels of DL-Met supplementation (0 and 0.2% of the diet). The design of Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1, except that a second source of labile methyl groups was added, 0.2% betaine (6 x 3 factorial arrangement). Both experiments had four replicate pens of 10 chicks each per treatment. The basal diet was based on corn (34.52%), whey (26.96%), corn gluten meal (16.53%), soybean meal (11.74%), and poultry fat (23% CP and 3.20 kcal/g of ME). At 14 d, three chicks per replicate were randomly killed, and breast muscle was collected and pooled for creatine analysis. The broken-line linear model was used to estimate the Arg requirements of the chicks. There were no differences in Arg requirements due to methyl source so the data were pooled. In Experiment 1, the Arg requirements were 1.17 +/- 0.04% for gain, 1.23 +/- 0.03% for feed conversion ratio (FCR), and 1.18 +/- 0.03% for muscle creatine, when the diet contained 0.45 or 0.65% Met. In Experiment 2, the Arg requirements were 1.20 +/- 0.05% for gain, 1.23 +/- 0.03% for FCR, and 1.26 +/- 0.02% for muscle creatine. There was no apparent difference in the Arg requirement of young broilers due to methyl donor supplementation.

  4. Overconsumption of Energy and Excessive Discretionary Food Intake Inflates Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Baird, Danielle; Ridoutt, Brad; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Population dietary guidelines have started to include information about the environmental impacts of food choices, but more quantifiable evidence is needed, particularly about the impacts associated with discretionary foods. This paper utilised the 2011–2012 Australian Health Survey food intake data along with a highly disaggregated input–output model to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) of Australians’ dietary intake, and compare current patterns of eating which vary in diet quality and GHGe to the recommended diet. The average dietary GHGe were 18.72 ± 12.06 and 13.73 ± 8.72 kg CO2e/day for male and female adults, respectively. The correlation between total energy and GHGe was r = 0.54 (p < 0.001). Core foods contributed 68.4% and discretionary foods 29.4%. Within core foods, fresh meat and alternatives (33.9%) was the greatest contributor. The modelling of current dietary patterns showed the contribution of discretionary foods to GHGe was 121% greater in the average diet and 307% greater in the “lower quality, higher GHGe” diet compared to the recommended diet. Reducing discretionary food intake would allow for small increases in emissions from core foods (in particular vegetables, dairy and grains), thereby providing a nutritional benefit at little environmental expense. Public health messages that promote healthy eating, eating to one’s energy needs and improved diet quality will also contribute to lowering GHGe. PMID:27809233

  5. Determination of Dietary Iron Requirements by Full Expression of Iron-Containing Enzymes in Various Tissues of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinyan; Liao, Xiudong; Lu, Lin; Li, Sufen; Zhang, Liyang; Luo, Xugang

    2016-11-01

    The current dietary iron requirement (80 mg/kg) of broilers is mainly based on growth, hemoglobin concentration, or hematocrit data obtained in a few early studies; however, expressions of iron-containing enzymes might be more sensitive novel criteria to evaluate dietary iron requirements. The objective of this study was to determine dietary iron requirements of broilers for the full expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), catalase, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in various tissues. A total of 336 1-d-old Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates and fed a basal corn and soybean-meal diet (control, containing 67 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 mg Fe/kg from FeSO 4 ⋅ 7H 2 O for 21 d. Regression analysis was performed to estimate the optimal dietary iron concentration with the use of broken-line or quadratic models. SDH activity in the liver and heart, COX and catalase activity in the liver, Sdh mRNA levels in the liver, and Cox mRNA levels in the liver and heart of broilers were affected (P < 0.027) by supplemental iron concentration, and increased quadratically (P < 0.004) as dietary iron concentration increased. Dietary iron requirements estimated on the basis of fitted broken-line or quadratic-curve models (P < 0.005) of the above indexes were 97-136 mg/kg. SDH activity in the liver and heart, COX and catalase activity in the liver, Sdh mRNA levels in the liver, and Cox mRNA levels in the liver and heart are, to our knowledge, new and sensitive criteria to evaluate the dietary iron requirements of broilers, and the dietary iron requirements would be 97-136 mg/kg to support the full expression of the above iron-containing enzymes in various tissues of broiler chicks from 1 to 21 d of age, which are higher than the current NRC iron requirement. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Dietary magnesium reduction to 25% of nutrient requirement disrupts bone and mineral metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rude, Robert K; Gruber, Helen E; Norton, H James; Wei, Livia Y; Frausto, Angelica; Kilburn, Jeremy

    2005-08-01

    Low dietary magnesium (Mg) may be a risk factor for osteoporosis. In animals, severe Mg deficiency (0.04% of nutrient requirement [NR]) results in bone loss. We have also found that a more moderate dietary Mg restriction (10% of NR) also resulted in loss of bone. We now report the effect of Mg intake of 25% NR on bone and mineral metabolism in the rat. Serum Mg, Ca, PTH, 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and pyridinoline were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months in control and Mg-deficient animals. Femurs and tibias were collected for mineral content, micro-computerized tomography, histomorphometry, and immunocytochemical localization. Profound Mg deficiency developed as assessed by marked hypomagnesemia and 27% reduction in bone Mg content. Serum calcium was not significantly different between groups. Mg depletion resulted in a significantly lower serum PTH concentrations. Serum 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D was also significantly lower. No difference was noted in markers of bone turnover. Histomorphometry and micro-computerized tomography demonstrated decreased bone volume and trabecular thickness. No difference was observed for osteoclast or osteoblast number. Inflammatory cytokines may contribute to bone loss. We found that immunocytochemical localization of TNFalpha in osteoclasts was increased 138-150%. This increase in TNFalpha may be due to increased substance P as it was found to be elevated from 179% to 432%. These data demonstrate that Mg intake of 25% NR in the rat causes lower bone mass which may be related to increased release of substance P and TNFalpha.

  7. Energy requirements for waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2011-01-01

    The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant.

  8. Effects of D-a-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 weeks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received mod...

  9. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and Dietary Energy on Growth and Health of Pre-ruminant Dairy Calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 wks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received moder...

  10. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  11. Conserved and Differential Effects of Dietary Energy Intake on the Hippocampal Transcriptomes of Females and Males

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Keselman, Alex; Iyun, Titilola; Carlson, Olga D.; Egan, Josephine M.; Becker, Kevin G.; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; de Cabo, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control), 20% caloric restriction (CR), 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF) or high fat/high glucose (HFG) diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to energy restriction diets in females, but not in males. Functional physiological pathway analyses showed that the 20% CR diet down-regulated genes involved in glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP production in males, whereas these metabolic pathways were up-regulated in females. The 40% CR diet up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, protein deacetylation, PGC-1α and mTor pathways in both sexes. IF down-regulated many genes in males including those involved in protein degradation and apoptosis, but up-regulated many genes in females including those involved in cellular energy metabolism, cell cycle regulation and protein deacetylation. Genes involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress responses and cell death were affected by the HFG diet in both males and females. The gender-specific molecular genetic responses of hippocampal cells to variations in dietary energy intake identified in this study may mediate differential behavioral responses of males and females to differences in energy availability. PMID:18545695

  12. Self-reported dietary energy intake of normal weight, overweight and obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vance, Vivienne A; Woodruff, Sarah J; McCargar, Linda J; Husted, Janice; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to assess dietary energy reporting as a function of sex and weight status among Ontario and Alberta adolescents, using the ratio of energy intake (EI) to estimated BMR (BMRest). Data were collected using the FBQ, a validated web-based dietary assessment tool (including a 24 h dietary recall, FFQ, and food and physical activity behavioural questions). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight and participants were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese. BMR was calculated using the WHO equations (based on weight). Reporting status was identified using the ratio EI:BMRest. Data were collected in public, Catholic and private schools in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A total of 1917 (n 876 male and n 1041 female) students (n 934 grade 9 and n 984 grade 10) participated. The mean EI:BMRest ratio across all participants was 1.4 (sd 0.6), providing evidence of under-reporting for the total sample. Females under-reported more than males (t = 6.27, P < 0.001), and under-reporting increased with increasing weight status for both males (F = 33.21, P < 0.001) and females (F = 14.28, P < 0.001). After removing those who reported eating less to lose weight, the EI:BMRest was 1.56 (sd 0.6) for males and 1.4 (sd 0.6) for females. The present study highlights methodological challenges associated with self-reported dietary data. Systematic differences in under-reporting of dietary intake by gender and weight status were observed using a web-based survey, similar to observations made using paper-based 24 h recalls and dietitian interviews.

  13. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Energy Storage Requirements & Challenges for Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-18

    Titinate Evaluation Cell Evaluation Battery Aging Phenomenon Battery SOC/SOH Determination Modeling ARM 100 LiIon APU Lion Cell Evaluation Cell...Advanced Batteries Fuels Th er m al Ma na ge m en t Radiators Heat Recovery Thermal Interface Materials Phase Change Cooling Advanced Electronics...in all energy storage Energy Storage Team Mission Battery Technology Evaluation Lab Module Test & Eval Cell Test & Eval 6UNCLASSIFIED Pacing Vehicle

  15. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia

    PubMed Central

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    Background There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. Objective To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. Design A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. Results The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat – from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy – from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p=0.02) and in Yakutsk (p=0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p<0.03) in Native women living in Yakutsk compared with the intake of Native women living in rural settlements and small towns. Conclusions The dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit. PMID:23971015

  16. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    PubMed

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p < 0.03) in Native women living in Yakutsk compared with the intake of Native women living in rural settlements and small towns. The dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  17. Dietary energy source and density modulate the expression of immunologic stress in chicks.

    PubMed

    Benson, B N; Calvert, C C; Roura, E; Klasing, K C

    1993-10-01

    To determine how dietary energy level and source influence feed intake, growth and energy partitioning drug immunologic stress, growing chicks were fed diets based on cornstarch and casein with varying energy densities and injected every other day for 6 d with either saline (control), Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide decreased growth and feed consumption at low energy densities. When the dietary energy density was increased above 13.4 kJ/g using cornstarch, but not corn oil, the growth depressing effect of immunogens was eliminated. Immunologically stressed chicks had a greater proportion of gain in visceral organs and less in the carcass, regardless of the nutrient density of the diet. Immunologic stress decreased intake of metabolizable energy of chicks fed a diet with low nutrient density and increased it for those fed a diet with high nutrient density. Chicks injected with S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide lost more energy as heat than controls when differences in metabolizable energy intakes were accounted for and modified their preference between two diets differing in metabolizable energy density and fat content as a result of the challenge. Control chicks selected between the 11.7 and 14.2 kJ/g diets to obtain an energy density of 13.2 kJ/g compared with 12.5 kJ/g in the S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide-challenged chicks. The S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide-challenged chicks consumed similar amounts of the low energy diet but decreased intake of the high energy diet.

  18. Urban-rural difference in the determinants of dietary and energy intake patterns: A case study in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Satoko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Gunawan, Budhi; Raksanagara, Ardini; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored differences in the determinants of individual dietary/energy intake patterns between urban and rural areas. To examine whether the associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake patterns differ between urban and rural areas in West Java, Indonesia. A 3-day weighed food record, interviews, and anthropometric measurements were conducted in Bandung (urban area; n = 85) and Sumedang (rural area; n = 201). Total energy intake and intake from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were calculated. Food items were grouped into dietary categories based on the main ingredients to calculate their share of total energy intake. The associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake were examined by fitting regression models. Models that also included education and body mass index (BMI) were fitted to adult samples only. In Sumedang, the total energy intake and energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and grain/tubers were significantly associated with age and occupation. In Bandung, energy intake from grain/tubers and vegetables/legumes was related to sex and occupation, while other indicators showed no associations. Among adults, BMI was associated with the total energy intake and educational level was associated with energy intake from vegetables/legumes (both only in Sumedang). The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and dietary/energy intake patterns differs in rural versus urban areas in West Java. These results suggest that different strategies are needed in rural and urban areas to identify and aid populations at risk of diet-related diseases.

  19. Energy requirements of US Army Special Operation Forces during military training.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Crombie, Aaron P; McClung, Holly L; McGraw, Susan M; Rood, Jennifer C; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2014-05-12

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) regularly engage in physically demanding combat operations and field training exercises, resulting in high daily energy expenditure, and thus increased energy requirements. However, the majority of studies assessing energy requirements of SOF have been conducted on soldiers going through intense SOF initiation training. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the energy expenditure of SOF conducting military training operations. Thirty-one soldiers taking part in Pre-Mission Training (PMT n = 15) and Combat Diver Qualification Courses (CDQC n = 16) volunteered to participate in this observational study. Energy expenditure was determined using doubly labeled water. Body weight (83 ± 7 kg) remained stable during both training periods. Overall energy expenditure adjusted for body composition was 17,606 ± 2326 kJ·day(-1). Energy expenditure was 19,110 ± 1468 kJ·day(-1) during CDQC and 16,334 ± 2180 kJ·day(-1) during PMT, with physical activity levels of 2.6 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 during CDQC and PMT, respectively. Compared to the Military Dietary Reference Intakes for energy (13,598 kJ·day(-1)), these data are in agreement with previous reports that energy requirement for SOF Soldiers exceed that of the average soldier.

  20. Energy Requirements of US Army Special Operation Forces During Military Training

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Crombie, Aaron P.; McClung, Holly L.; McGraw, Susan M.; Rood, Jennifer C.; Montain, Scott J.; Young, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) regularly engage in physically demanding combat operations and field training exercises, resulting in high daily energy expenditure, and thus increased energy requirements. However, the majority of studies assessing energy requirements of SOF have been conducted on soldiers going through intense SOF initiation training. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the energy expenditure of SOF conducting military training operations. Thirty-one soldiers taking part in Pre-Mission Training (PMT n = 15) and Combat Diver Qualification Courses (CDQC n = 16) volunteered to participate in this observational study. Energy expenditure was determined using doubly labeled water. Body weight (83 ± 7 kg) remained stable during both training periods. Overall energy expenditure adjusted for body composition was 17,606 ± 2326 kJ·day−1. Energy expenditure was 19,110 ± 1468 kJ·day−1 during CDQC and 16,334 ± 2180 kJ·day−1 during PMT, with physical activity levels of 2.6 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 during CDQC and PMT, respectively. Compared to the Military Dietary Reference Intakes for energy (13,598 kJ·day−1), these data are in agreement with previous reports that energy requirement for SOF Soldiers exceed that of the average soldier. PMID:24824290

  1. Energy Requirements of Squash and Racquetball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montpetit, Richard R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and heart rate were monitored in 32 male adults playing racquetball and squash. Results indicated that energy expenditure in racquetball was only slightly less than for squash, suggesting that either sport is appropriate for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. (Author/CB)

  2. Dietary energy availability affects primary and metastatic breast cancer and metformin efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Phoenix, Kathryn N.; Vumbaca, Frank; Fox, Melissa M.; Evans, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Dietary energy restriction has been shown to repress both mammary tumorigenesis and aggressive mammary tumor growth in animal studies. Metformin, a caloric restriction mimetic, has a long history of safe use as an insulin sensitizer in diabetics and has been shown to reduce cancer incidence and cancer-related mortality in humans. To determine the potential impact of dietary energy availability and metformin therapy on aggressive breast tumor growth and metastasis, an orthotopic syngeneic model using triple negative 66cl4 tumor cells in Balb/c mice was employed. The effect of dietary restriction, a standard maintenance diet or a diet with high levels of free sugar, were tested for their effects on tumor growth and secondary metastases to the lung. Metformin therapy with the various diets indicated that metformin can be highly effective at suppressing systemic metabolic biomarkers such as IGF-1, insulin and glucose, especially in the high energy diet treated animals. Long-term metformin treatment demonstrated moderate yet significant effects on primary tumor growth, most significantly in conjunction with the high energy diet. When compared to the control diet, the high energy diet promoted tumor growth, expression of the inflammatory adipokines leptin and resistin, induced lung priming by bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and promoted metastatic potential. Metformin had no effect on adipokine expression or the development of lung metastases with the standard or the high energy diet. These data indicate that metformin may have tumor suppressing activity where a metabolic phenotype of high fuel intake, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes exist, but may have little or no effect on events controlling the metastatic niche driven by proinflammatory events. PMID:20204498

  3. Effect of dietary energy and polymorphisms in BRAP and GHRL on obesity and metabolic traits.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Takahiro; Ando, Masahiko; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Kato, Sawako; Kondo, Takaaki; Iwata, Masamitsu; Nakashima, Toru; Yasui, Hiroshi; Takamatsu, Hideki; Okajima, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuko; Maruyama, Shoichi

    Obesity, a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, is a major health concerns among middle-aged men. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of dietary habits and obesity related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity and metabolic abnormalities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using annual health examination data of 5112 male workers, obtained between 2007 and 2011. Average dietary energy was estimated using electronically collected meal purchase data from cafeteria. We examined 8 SNPs related to obesity: GHRL rs696217, PPARG rs1175544, ADIPOQ rs2241766, ADIPOQ rs1501299, PPARD rs2016520, APOA5 rs662799, BRAP rs3782886, and ITGB2 rs235326. We also examined whether SNPs that were shown to associate with obesity affect other metabolic abnormalities such as blood pressure (BP), glucose, and lipid profile. Average dietary energy significantly associated with increased abdominal circumference (AC) and body mass index (BMI). The odds ratios (ORs) of overweight and obesity also increased. The major allele of rs696217 significantly increased BMI and an increased OR with obesity, while the minor allele of rs3782886 was associated with significantly decreased AC and the decreased ORs with overweight and obesity. The minor allele of rs3782886 was also associated with significantly decreased systolic BP (SBP), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and fasting blood sugar (FBS), while rs696217 was not associated with other metabolic abnormalities. Average dietary energy in lunch, rs3782886, and rs696217 were associated with obesity, and rs3782886 was associated with other metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary factors in relation to daily activity energy expenditure and mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Danit R.; Harris, Tamara B.; Houston, Denise K.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Lee, Jung-Sun; Rubin, Susan M.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Yu, Binbing

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between dietary factors to daily activity energy expenditure (DAEE) and mortality among older adults. Design and setting A sub-study of Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Participants 298 older participants (aged 70–82 years) in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Energy Expenditure sub-study. Measurements Dietary factors, DAEE, and all-cause mortality were measured in 298 older participants. Dietary factors include dietary intake assessed by the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and self-reported appetite and enjoyment of eating. DAEE was assessed using doubly labeled water. All-cause mortality was evaluated over a 9 year period. Results Participants in the highest tertile of DAEE were more likely to be men and to report having a ‘good’ appetite; BMI among men, proportion married, IL-6 and CRP levels and energy intake were also higher. Fewer black participants were in the ‘good’ HEI category. Participants in the ‘good’ HEI category had higher cognitive scores and a higher education level. Participants who reported improvement in their appetite as well as participants who reported a ‘good’ appetite were at lower risk for mortality (HR (95% CI): 0.42 (0.24–0.74) and 0.50 (0.26–0.88), respectively) even after adjusting for DAEE, demographic, nutritional and health indices. Conclusions We showed an association between DAEE and appetite and mortality among well-functioning, community-dwelling older adults. These findings may have some practical use for the health providers. Inclusion of a question regarding appetite of an elderly patient may provide important information regarding risk for health deterioration and mortality. PMID:19390747

  5. Ethnic disparities in the dietary requirement for vitamin D during pregnancy: considerations for nutrition policy and research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Karen M; Kiely, Mairead E

    2018-05-01

    Despite the inverse association between skin colour and efficiency of cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, in addition to the widely accepted racial disparity in vitamin D status, populations of ethnic minority are understudied in terms of setting target serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and corresponding dietary requirements for vitamin D. In minority groups, prevention of vitamin D deficiency on a population basis is challenging due to the lack of clarity surrounding the metabolism and transport of vitamin D. Authoritative agencies have been unable to define pregnancy-specific dietary recommendations for vitamin D, owing to an absence of sufficient evidence to confirm whether nutritional requirements for vitamin D are altered during pregnancy. While the question of setting race- and pregnancy-specific dietary reference values for vitamin D has not been addressed to date, endemic vitamin D deficiency has been reported among gravidae worldwide, specifically among ethnic minorities and white women resident at high latitude. In light of the increased risk of nutritional rickets among infants of ethnic minority, coupled with growing evidence for potential non-skeletal roles of vitamin D in perinatal health, determination of the dietary vitamin D requirement that will prevent deficiency during pregnancy is a research priority. However, systematic approaches to establishing dietary requirements are limited by the quality of the available evidence and the under-representation of minority groups in clinical research. This review considers the evidence for racial differences in vitamin D status and response to vitamin D supplementation, with particular application to pregnancy-specific requirements among ethnic minorities resident at high latitudes.

  6. Intestinal IRE1 Is Required for Increased Triglyceride Metabolism and Longer Lifespan under Dietary Restriction.

    PubMed

    Luis, Nuno Miguel; Wang, Lifen; Ortega, Mauricio; Deng, Hansong; Katewa, Subhash D; Li, Patrick Wai-Lun; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-10-25

    Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the most robust lifespan-extending interventions in animals. The beneficial effects of DR involve a metabolic adaptation toward increased triglyceride usage. The regulatory mechanism and the tissue specificity of this metabolic switch remain unclear. Here, we show that the IRE1/XBP1 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling module mediates metabolic adaptation upon DR in flies by promoting triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in enterocytes (ECs) of the Drosophila midgut. Consistently, IRE1/XBP1 function in ECs is required for increased longevity upon DR. We further identify sugarbabe, a Gli-like zinc-finger transcription factor, as a key mediator of the IRE1/XBP1-regulated induction of de novo lipogenesis in ECs. Overexpression of sugarbabe rescues metabolic and lifespan phenotypes of IRE1 loss-of-function conditions. Our study highlights the critical role of metabolic adaptation of the intestinal epithelium for DR-induced lifespan extension and explores the IRE1/XBP1 signaling pathway regulating this adaptation and influencing lifespan. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between the effect of dietary fat on swimming endurance and energy metabolism in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guihua; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary fats on alterations in endurance, energy metabolism, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and minerals in mice. Male mice (aged 58 weeks) were fed diets containing 6% safflower oil, fish oil, or lard for 12 weeks. Swimming time to exhaustion, energy metabolism, and plasma IL-6 levels were subsequently determined. Mice fed safflower oil exhibited a marked increase in swimming time compared to the baseline level. Mice fed lard exhibited a significant decrease in swimming time, while mice on a fish oil diet exhibited a small decrease in swimming time. The final swimming time of mice fed safflower oil was significantly longer than that of animals fed lard. This improvement in endurance with dietary safflower oil was accompanied by decreased accumulation of lactate and less glycogen depletion during swimming. In the safflower oil group, muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity increased significantly after swimming, while the plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration decreased significantly. A trend to increased plasma IL-6 levels was observed in sedentary animals on a safflower oil diet compared to those on a lard diet. These results suggest that dietary safflower oil improves the swimming endurance of aged mice to a greater extent than lard, and that this effect appears to involve glycogen sparing through increased fatty acid utilization. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Dietary choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variation123

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Kwock, Lester; Galanko, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Background: Choline is obtained from the diet and from the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which is induced by estrogen. Because they have lower estrogen concentrations, postmenopausal women are more susceptible to the risk of organ dysfunction in response to a low-choline diet. A common genetic polymorphism (rs12325817) in the PEMT gene can also increase this risk. Objective: The objective was to determine whether the risk of low choline–related organ dysfunction increases with the number of alleles of rs12325817 in premenopausal women and whether postmenopausal women (with or without rs12325817) treated with estrogen are more resistant to developing such symptoms. Design: Premenopausal women (n = 27) consumed a choline-sufficient diet followed by a very-low-choline diet until they developed organ dysfunction (or for 42 d), which was followed by a high-choline diet. Postmenopausal women (n = 22) were placed on the same diets but were first randomly assigned to receive estrogen or a placebo. The women were monitored for organ dysfunction and plasma choline metabolites and were genotyped for rs12325817. Results: A dose-response effect of rs12325817 on the risk of choline-related organ dysfunction was observed in premenopausal women: 80%, 43%, and 13% of women with 2, 1, or 0 alleles, respectively, developed organ dysfunction. Among postmenopausal women, 73% who received placebo but only 18% who received estrogen developed organ dysfunction during the low-choline diet. Conclusions: Because of their lower estrogen concentrations, postmenopausal women have a higher dietary requirement for choline than do premenopausal women. Choline requirements for both groups of women are further increased by rs12325817. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00065546. PMID:20861172

  9. Dietary choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Kwock, Lester; Galanko, Joseph; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-11-01

    Choline is obtained from the diet and from the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which is induced by estrogen. Because they have lower estrogen concentrations, postmenopausal women are more susceptible to the risk of organ dysfunction in response to a low-choline diet. A common genetic polymorphism (rs12325817) in the PEMT gene can also increase this risk. The objective was to determine whether the risk of low choline-related organ dysfunction increases with the number of alleles of rs12325817 in premenopausal women and whether postmenopausal women (with or without rs12325817) treated with estrogen are more resistant to developing such symptoms. Premenopausal women (n = 27) consumed a choline-sufficient diet followed by a very-low-choline diet until they developed organ dysfunction (or for 42 d), which was followed by a high-choline diet. Postmenopausal women (n = 22) were placed on the same diets but were first randomly assigned to receive estrogen or a placebo. The women were monitored for organ dysfunction and plasma choline metabolites and were genotyped for rs12325817. A dose-response effect of rs12325817 on the risk of choline-related organ dysfunction was observed in premenopausal women: 80%, 43%, and 13% of women with 2, 1, or 0 alleles, respectively, developed organ dysfunction. Among postmenopausal women, 73% who received placebo but only 18% who received estrogen developed organ dysfunction during the low-choline diet. Because of their lower estrogen concentrations, postmenopausal women have a higher dietary requirement for choline than do premenopausal women. Choline requirements for both groups of women are further increased by rs12325817. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00065546.

  10. Dietary intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor and nutrient-dense food sources in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Rosie; Katz, Tamarah; Liu, Victoria; Quintano, Justine; Brunner, Rebecca; Tong, Chai Wei; Collins, Clare E; Ooi, Chee Y

    2018-04-30

    Prescription of a high-energy, high-fat diet is a mainstay of nutrition management in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, families may be relying on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods rather than nutrient-dense (ND) foods to meet dietary targets. We aimed to evaluate the relative contribution of EDNP and ND foods to the usual diets of children with CF and identify sociodemographic factors associated with higher EDNP intakes. This is a cross-sectional comparison of children with CF aged 2-18 years and age- and gender-matched controls. Dietary intake was assessed using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) food frequency questionnaire. Children with CF (n = 80: 37 males; mean age 9.3 years) consumed significantly more EDNP foods than controls (mean age 9.8 years) in terms of both total energy (median [IQR]: 1301 kcal/day (843-1860) vs. 686 kcal/day (480-1032); p < 0.0001), and as a proportion of energy intake (median [IQR]: 44% (34-51) vs. 31% (24-43); p < 0.0001). Although children with CF met their estimated energy requirements (median [IQR]: 158% (124-187) vs. 112% (90-137); p < 0.0001) and their diets were high in fat (median [IQR]: 38% (35-41) vs. 34% (32-36); p < 0.0001), this was largely attributable to EDNP foods. High EDNP intakes (≥10 serves/day) were associated with socioeconomic disadvantage (p = 0.01) and rural residential location (p = 0.03). The energy- and fat-dense CF diet is primarily achieved by overconsumption of EDNP foods, rather than ND sources. This dietary pattern may not be optimal for the future health of children with CF, who are now expected to survive well into adulthood. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy and macronutrient intakes in Brazil: results of the first nationwide individual dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rita A G; Yokoo, Edna M; Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2015-12-01

    To characterize energy and macronutrient intakes in Brazil and to describe the top food items contributing to energy and macronutrient intakes. Two non-consecutive 24 h dietary records were collected and energy and macronutrient data were adjusted for usual intake distribution. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA with the Bonferroni post hoc test were analysed using SAS version 9·1. Means and standard deviations were estimated for sex, age and income strata. Nationwide cross-sectional survey, 2008-2009. Nationally representative sample of individuals ≥10 years old (n32 749), excluding pregnant and lactating women (n 1254). The average energy intake was 7958 kJ/d (1902 kcal/d) and mean energy density was 6·82 kJ/g (1·63 kcal/g). Added sugar represented 13 % of total energy intake and animal protein represented 10 %. The mean contribution of total fat to energy intake was 27 %, while the mean saturated fat contribution was 9 %. Compared with the lowest quartile of income, individuals in the highest income quartile had greater mean intakes of energy, added sugar, alcohol, animal protein, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fat. Rice, beans, beef, bread and coffee were among the top five foods contributing most to the intakes of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and fibre. In general, Brazilians' dietary intake is compatible with a high risk of obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases, being characterized by high intakes of added sugar and saturated fat. Income may be a major determinant of diet nutritional characteristics.

  12. Dietary Protein Requirement of Men >65 Years Old Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique Is Higher than the Current Estimated Average Requirement.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Mahroukh; Chapman, Karen; Elango, Rajavel; Campbell, Wayne W; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-03-09

    The current estimated average requirement (EAR) and RDA for protein of 0.66 and 0.8 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 , respectively, for adults, including older men, are based on nitrogen balance data analyzed by monolinear regression. Recent studies in young men and older women that used the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique suggest that those values may be too low. This observation is supported by 2-phase linear crossover analysis of the nitrogen balance data. The main objective of this study was to determine the protein requirement for older men by using the IAAO technique. Six men aged >65 y were studied; each individual was tested 7 times with protein intakes ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 in random order for a total of 42 studies. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times the resting energy expenditure and were isocaloric. Protein was consumed hourly for 8 h as an amino acid mixture with the composition of egg protein with l-[1- 13 C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. The group mean protein requirement was determined by applying a mixed-effects change-point regression analysis to F 13 CO 2 (label tracer oxidation in breath 13 CO 2 ), which identified a breakpoint in F 13 CO 2 in response to graded intakes of protein. The estimated protein requirement and RDA for older men were 0.94 and 1.24 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 , respectively, which are not different from values we published using the same method in young men and older women. The current intake recommendations for older adults for dietary protein of 0.66 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 for the EAR and 0.8 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 for the RDA appear to be underestimated by ∼30%. Future longer-term studies should be conducted to validate these results. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01948492. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-12-07

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.

  14. Effects of Corticosterone and Dietary Energy on Immune Function of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy. PMID:25803644

  15. Energy intake and dietary patterns in childhood and throughout adulthood and mammographic density: results from a British prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gita D; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McNaughton, Sarah A; Stephen, Alison; Kuh, Diana

    2011-02-01

    To examine the role of energy intake and dietary patterns in childhood and throughout adulthood on subsequent mammographic density. Prospective data were available from a cohort of 1161 British women followed up since their birth in 1946. Dietary intakes at age 4 years were determined by 24-hour recalls and during adulthood, average food consumed at ages 36 and 43 years by 5-day food records. Dietary patterns were determined by factor analysis. Associations between energy intake, dietary patterns, and percent breast density were investigated using regression analysis. During adulthood, energy intake was positively associated with percent breast density (adjusted regression coefficient [per SD) (95% CI): 0.12 (0.01, 0.23)]. The effect of the high fat and sugar dietary pattern remained similar when adjusted for total energy intake [0.06 (-0.01, 0.13)]. There was no evidence of an associations for the patterns low fat, high fiber pattern 0.03 (-0.04, 0.11); the alcohol and fish -0.02 (-0.13, 0.17); meat, potatoes, and vegetables -0.03 (-0.10, 0.04). No association was found for dietary pattern at age 4 and percent breast density. This study supports the hypothesis that overall energy intake during middle life is a determinant of subsequent mammographic breast density measured 15 years later.

  16. Energy requirements of adult dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Cave, Nicholas J; Morris, Penelope J; Butterwick, Richard F; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg(0.75) body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal·kgBW(-0.75)·day(-1). The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal·kgBW(-0.9)·day(-1) (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.

  17. Energy Requirements of Adult Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nicholas J.; Morris, Penelope J.; Butterwick, Richard F.; German, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW−0.75.day−1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW−0.93.day−1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed. PMID:25313818

  18. Dietary energy density and obesity: how consumption patterns differ by body weight status.

    PubMed

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Diane C; Rolls, Barbara J; Hartman, Terryl J

    2018-02-01

    Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed by low- and high-ED foods are associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 9551 adults ≥18 years in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). ED (kcal/g) was calculated for each food item reported during a 24-h dietary recall; individual foods were divided into five ED categories: very low ED (<0.6 kcal/g), low ED (0.6-1.5 kcal/g), medium ED (1.51-2.25 kcal/g), high ED (2.26-4.0 kcal/g), and very high ED (>4.0 kcal/g). The percentages of total energy and the food weight from each category were evaluated by BMI and WC after controlling for total energy intake and other covariates. Men classified as lean (BMI < 25 kg/m 2 ) reported consuming a greater proportion of total energy from very low- and low-ED foods (7.2 % very low and 23.3 % low ), compared to men considered obese ((BMI > 30 kg/m 2 ); 5.2 % very low and 20.1 low  %; p-trends <0.001 very low , 0.002 low ). Similarly, women classified as lean reported intakes of very low-ED foods of 7.8 % (vs. 6.4 % for women with obesity) of total energy and low-ED foods of 24.7 % (vs. 21.5 % for women with obesity) of total energy (p-trends 0.007 very low , 0.004 low ). Men and women with obesity reported greater proportions of energy from high-ED foods (45.9 % men with obesity vs. 42.4 % lean men , 44.2 % women with obesity vs. 39.9 % lean women ) with significant statistical trends (men = 0.008, women = 0.0005). Similar patterns were observed for intakes of proportions of very low-, low-, and high-ED foods and WC. Higher proportions of energy intake and food

  19. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  20. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  1. Increasing dietary protein requirements in elderly people for optimal muscle and bone health.

    PubMed

    Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Insogna, Karl L; Rodriguez, Nancy R; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2009-06-01

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are degenerative diseases frequently associated with aging. The loss of bone and muscle results in significant morbidity, so preventing or attenuating osteoporosis and sarcopenia is an important public health goal. Dietary protein is crucial for development of bone and muscle, and recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary protein above the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) may help maintain bone and muscle mass in older individuals. Several epidemiological and clinical studies point to a salutary effect of protein intakes above the current RDA (0.8 g/kg per day) for adults aged 19 and older. There is evidence that the anabolic response of muscle to dietary protein is attenuated in elderly people, and as a result, the amount of protein needed to achieve anabolism is greater. Dietary protein also increases circulating insulin-like growth factor, which has anabolic effects on muscle and bone. Furthermore, increasing dietary protein increases calcium absorption, which could be anabolic for bone. Available evidence supports a beneficial effect of short-term protein intakes up to 1.6 to 1.8 g/kg per day, although long-term studies are needed to show safety and efficacy. Future studies should employ functional measures indicative of protein adequacy, as well as measures of muscle protein synthesis and maintenance of muscle and bone tissue, to determine the optimal level of dietary protein. Given the available data, increasing the RDA for older individuals to 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg per day would maintain normal calcium metabolism and nitrogen balance without affecting renal function and may represent a compromise while longer-term protein supplement trials are pending.

  2. Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (The Airwave Health Monitoring Study)

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Rachel; Eriksen, Rebeca; Lamb, Kathryn; McMeel, Yvonne; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Spear, Jeanette; Aresu, Maria; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Dietary intake is a key aspect of occupational health. To capture the characteristics of dietary behaviour that is affected by occupational environment that may affect disease risk, a collection of prospective multiday dietary records is required. The aims of this paper are to: (1) collect multiday dietary data in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, (2) describe the dietary coding procedures applied and (3) investigate the plausibility of dietary reporting in this occupational cohort. Design A dietary coding protocol for this large-scale study was developed to minimise coding error rate. Participants (n 4412) who completed 7-day food records were included for cross-sectional analyses. Energy intake (EI) misreporting was estimated using the Goldberg method. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to determine participant characteristics associated with EI misreporting. Setting British police force employees enrolled (2007–2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. Results The mean code error rate per food diary was 3.7% (SD 3.2%). The strongest predictors of EI under-reporting were body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Compared with participants with BMI<25 kg/m2, those with BMI>30 kg/m2 had increased odds of being classified as under-reporting EI (men OR 5.20 95% CI 3.92 to 6.89; women OR 2.66 95% CI 1.85 to 3.83). Men and women in the highest physical activity category compared with the lowest were also more likely to be classified as under-reporting (men OR 3.33 95% CI 2.46 to 4.50; women OR 4.34 95% CI 2.91 to 6.55). Conclusions A reproducible dietary record coding procedure has been developed to minimise coding error in complex 7-day diet diaries. The prevalence of EI under-reporting is comparable with existing national UK cohorts and, in agreement with previous studies, classification of under-reporting was biased towards specific subgroups of participants. PMID:28377391

  3. Emotion regulation, emotional eating and the energy-rich dietary pattern. A population-based study in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qingyun; Tao, Fangbiao; Hou, Fangli; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Ren, Ling-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Research investigating the influence of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on emotional eating and diet among Chinese adolescents is scarce. The aim of this study was to test associations between two ER strategies (suppression/cognitive reappraisal), emotional eating, and an energy-rich dietary pattern. A total of 4316 adolescents from 10 high schools were surveyed. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Bivariate correlations were analyzed to examine associations between ER strategies, emotional eating behavior and an energy-rich dietary pattern, by gender. The mediating effect of emotional eating in the relationship between ER and energy-rich food consumption by gender was estimated using structural equation modeling. A higher level of suppression, but no lack of cognitive reappraisal, was associated with emotional eating in boys and girls. A higher level of suppression and lack of cognitive reappraisal were associated with a greater intake of energy-rich foods in girls only. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between a higher level of suppression and a greater intake of energy-rich food in girls. This study revealed significant associations between two ER strategies and an energy-rich dietary pattern in girls, and provided evidence that higher levels of suppression may put girls at risk for emotional eating, potentially affecting the energy-rich dietary pattern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary energy density and body weight changes after 3 years in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Razquin, Cristina; Sanchez-Tainta, Ana; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Luis; Pinto, Xavier; Schröder, Helmut; Tur, Josep; Sorlí, José V; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Bulló, Mónica; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-11-01

    The association of dietary energy density (ED) and overweight is not clear in the literature. Our aim was to study in 4259 of the PREDIMED trial whether an increase in dietary ED based on a higher adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with 3-year weight gain. A validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire was administered. Multivariable-adjusted models were used to analyze the association between 3-year ED change and the subsequent 3-year body weight change. The most important weight reduction after 3-year follow-up was observed in the two lowest quintiles and the highest quintile of ED change. The highest ED increase was characterized by an increased intake of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and nuts and a decreased intake of other oils, vegetable and fruit consumption (p < .001). In conclusion, increased 3-year ED in the PREDIMED study, associated with a higher EVOO and nuts consumption, was not associated with weight gain.

  5. Longitudinal change in energy expenditure and effects on energy requirements of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the longitudinal changes in energy requirements in late life. The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the energy requirements in late life and how they changed during a 7 year time-span, (2) determine whether changes in fat free mass (FFM) were related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), and (3) determine the accuracy of predicted total energy expenditure (TEE) to measured TEE. Methods TEE was assessed via doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in older adults in both 1999 (n = 302; age: 74 ± 2.9 yrs) and again in 2006 (n = 87 age: 82 ± 3.1 yrs). RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry, and body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results The energy requirements in the 9th decade of life were 2208 ± 376 kcal/d for men and 1814 ± 337 kcal/d for women. This was a significant decrease from the energy requirements in the 8th decade of life in men (2482 ± 476 kcal/d vs. 2208 ± 376 kcal/d) but not in women (1892 ± 271 kcal/d vs. 1814 ± 337 kcal/d). In addition to TEE, RMR, and activity EE (AEE) also decreased in men, but not women, while FFM decreased in both men and women. The changes in FFM were correlated with changes in RMR for men (r = 0.49, p < 0.05) but not for women (r = −0.08, ns). Measured TEE was similar to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) predicted TEE for men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2305 ± 35 kcal/d) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 1781 ± 20 kcal/d). However, measured TEE was different than the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted TEE in men (2208 ± 56 vs. 2915 ± 31 kcal/d (p < 0.05)) and women (1814 ± 42 vs. 2315 ± 21 kcal/d (p < 0.05)). Conclusions TEE, RMR and AEE decreased in men, but not women, from the 8th to 9th decade of life. The DRI equation to predict TEE was comparable to measured TEE, while the WHO equation over-predicted TEE in our elderly population

  6. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids and energy content of nine corn coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Kerr, B J; Zijlstra, R T; Patience, J F

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine a best fitting dietary fiber (DF) component to estimate the effect of DF concentration on the digestibility of energy, DF, and AA and energy value of 9 corn coproducts: corn bran (37.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP]); corn bran with solubles (17.1% NSP); cooked corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20.4% NSP); reduced oil DDGS (25.0% NSP); uncooked DDGS (22.0% NSP); high protein distillers dried grains (21.9% NSP); dehulled, degermed corn (1.1% NSP); corn germ meal (44.4% NSP); and corn gluten meal (4.9% NSP). A total of 20 growing pigs (initial BW: 25.9 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 10 dietary treatment groups in a 4-period incomplete block design with 8 observations per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and 9 diets obtained by mixing 70% of the basal diet with 30% of the test ingredient. In tested ingredients, 11 DF components were determined: 1) ADF, 2) NDF, 3) total dietary fiber, 4) hemicellulose, 5) total NSP, 6) NSP arabinose, 7) NSP xylose, 8) NSP mannose, 9) NSP glucose, 10) NSP galactose, and 11) arabinoxylan. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF and the AID of AA of ingredients were measured. A single best fitting DF component was assessed and ranked for each trait, showing that arabinoxylan concentration best explained variance in AID of GE (R(2) = 0.65; cubic, P < 0.01) and DM (R(2) = 0.67; cubic, P < 0.01). The NSP xylose residue best explained variance in ATTD of GE (R(2) = 0.80; cubic, P < 0.01), DM (R(2) = 0.78; cubic, P < 0.01), and NDF (R(2) = 0.63; cubic, P < 0.01); AID of Met (R(2) = 0.40; cubic, P = 0.02), Met + Cys (R(2) = 0.44; cubic, P = 0.04), and Trp (R(2) = 0.11; cubic, P = 0.04); and DE (R(2) = 0.66; linear, P = 0.02) and ME (R(2) = 0.71; cubic, P = 0.01) values. The AID of Lys was not predictable (P > 0.05) from the DF

  7. Dietary diversity scores can be improved through the use of portion requirements: an analysis in young Filipino children.

    PubMed

    Daniels, M C; Adair, L S; Popkin, B M; Truong, Y K

    2009-02-01

    Early childhood malnutrition is a pressing international concern which dietary diversity scores (summary scores of food groups in the diet) may be helpful in addressing. We explored three current research needs surrounding diversity scores: the impact of portion size on score function, the relationship of scores to nutrient adequacy and density and the ability of scores to function as screening tools. 1810 children, age 24 months. Cross sectional study of a birth cohort. We evaluated two nine food group dietary diversity scores based on 0 and 10 g minimum food group requirements for their relationship to nutrient adequacy and nutrient density. Both scores were significantly correlated with nutrient adequacy and density and predicted statistically significant increases (P<0.05) in the probability of adequacy for all nutrients. However, correlations and predicted increases were somewhat larger for the 10 g score. We also considered the sensitivity and specificity of each score for detecting low and high nutrient adequacy in the population. The 10 g cutoff improved score ability to predict low nutrient adequacy, and reduced the misclassification of subjects for all comparisons. This research suggests that the score without portion requirements reflects dietary adequacy, but when feasible, further refinement of diversity scores is desirable through the application of minimum portion requirements.

  8. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2010-03-01

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared energy density after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001-2002) and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting portion sizes of high-fat and high-sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, fat content of foods, and serving of high-fat vegetables like french fries. Energy density (kcal/g): energy density-1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; energy density-2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas policy, students' energy density-1 significantly decreased from 2.80+/-1.08 kcal/g to 2.17+/-0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, energy density-2 significantly decreased from 1.38+/-0.76 kcal/g to 1.29+/-0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in energy density, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary sources of energy and nutrient intake among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Ducharme-Smith, Kirstie; Davis, Laura; Hui, Wun Fung; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Abraham, Alison G; Betoko, Aisha

    2017-07-01

    Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population. Completed FFQs were available for 658 children. Of those, 69.9% were boys, median age 12 (interquartile range (IQR) 8-15 years). The average daily energy intake was 1968 kcal (IQR 1523-2574 kcal). Milk was the largest contributor to total energy, protein, potassium, and phosphorus intake. Fast foods were the largest contributors to fat and sodium intake, the second largest contributors to energy intake, and the third largest contributors to potassium and phosphorus intake. Fruit contributed 12.0%, 8.7%, and 6.7% to potassium intake for children aged 2-5, 6-13, and 14-18 years old, respectively. Children with CKD consumed more sodium, protein, and calories but less potassium than recommended by the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines for pediatric CKD. Energy, protein, and sodium intake is heavily driven by consumption of milk and fast foods. Limiting contribution of fast foods in patients with good appetite may be particularly important for maintaining recommended energy and sodium intake, as overconsumption can increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular complications in that population.

  10. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-01-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150–200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products. PMID:25293539

  11. Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Duan, Rui; Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Tan, Linglin; Cheng, Qiang; Liao, Man; Ding, Binying

    2017-11-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing dietary AKG supplemental levels produced linear positive responses in ATP content and AEC, and negative responses in AMP concentration, the ratio of AMP to ATP and total adenine nucleotide in the ileal mucosa (P < 0.05). All levels of dietary AKG reduced the production of jejunal hydrogen peroxide and hepatic malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). Hepatic and ileal messenger RNA expression of AMP kinase α-1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were linearly up-regulated as dietary AKG supplemental levels increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary AKG supplementation linearly or quadratically enhanced hepatic and intestinal energy storage and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Gonadal Transcriptome Alterations in Response to Dietary Energy Intake: Sensing the Reproductive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment. PMID:19127293

  13. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  14. Increased dietary protein attenuates C-reactive protein and creatine kinase responses to exercise-induced energy deficit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined if dietary protein (P) modulates responses of C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK), biomarkers of inflammation and muscle damage, during exercise-induced energy deficit (DEF). Thirteen healthy men (22 +/- 1 y, VO2peak 60 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) balanced energy expenditure (EE...

  15. Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wanders, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; de Graaf, C; Hulshof, T; Jonathan, M C; Kristensen, M; Mars, M; Schols, H A; Feskens, E J M

    2011-09-01

    Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, β-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  17. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    PubMed

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  18. Personality characteristics as predictors of underreporting of energy intake on 24-hour dietary recall interviews.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Janet A; Rumpler, William V; Riddick, Howard; Hebert, James R; Rhodes, Donna; Judd, Joseph T; Baer, David J; McDowell, Margaret; Briefel, Ronette

    2003-09-01

    To identify characteristics associated with misreporting of energy intake during 24-hour dietary recalls (24 HR). Ninety-eight subjects were administered two 24 HRs. Energy expenditure was determined by doubly labeled water (44 subjects) or intake balance (54 subjects). Data on subjects' physical, lifestyle, and psychosocial characteristics were also collected. Subjects/setting At the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center 52 women and 46 men were administered 24HR and completed lifestyle and personality questionnaires and a memory test. Physical characteristics such as weight, percent body fat, and total energy expenditure were measured. Statistical analysis The influences of subject parameters on energy misreporting were assessed by linear regression and Pearson product-moment correlation analysis for continuous variables and by ANOVA for discrete variables. Stepwise regression was used to identify key factors in underreporting. Factors particularly important in predicting underreporting of energy intake include factors indicating dissatisfaction with body image; for example, a 398 kcal/day underreport in subjects attempting weight loss during the past year with a nearly 500 kcal/day underreport in women. Overall, women underreported by 393 kcal/day relative to men and women evinced a social desirability bias amounting to a 26 kcal underreport for each point on the social desirability scale. Gender differences also were evident in the effect of percent body fat (with men underreporting about 16 kcal/day/percent body fat) and in departure from self-reported ideal body weight (with women underreporting about 21 kcal/day/kg). Body image and fatness are key factors on which health professionals should focus when seeking predictors of underreporting of dietary intake. Dietary interviews must be conducted to minimize bias related to subjects' tendencies to win approval and avoid censure by the interviewer. In addition, dissatisfaction with body image may lead to

  19. Influences of different dietary energy level on sheep testicular development associated with AMPK/ULK1/autophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Li, Fengzhe; Feng, Xu; Yang, Hua; Han, Le; Fan, Yixuan; Nie, Haitao; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yanli

    2018-03-01

    Energy balance is an important feature for spermatozoa production in the testis. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cell energy, has been implicated as a mediator between gonadal function and energy balance. Herein, we intended to determine the physiological effects of AMPK on testicular development in feed energy restricted and compensated pre-pubertal rams. Lambs had restricted feeding for 2 months and then provided compensatory feeding for another 3 months. Feed levels were 100%(control), 15% and 30% of energy restriction (ER) diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed the 30% ER diet had significantly lower testicular weight (P < .05) and spermatids number in the seminiferous tubules, but there were no differences between control and 15% ER groups. Meanwhile, 15% ER and 30% ER diets induced testis autophagy and apoptosis through activating AMPK-ULK1(ULK1, Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase) signal pathway with characterization of increased Beclin-1 and Light chain 3-Ⅱ/Light chain 3-Ⅰ (LC3-II/LC3-I) ratio, up-regulated the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) and anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), as well as activated AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK) and ULK1. Furthermore, a compensation of these parameters occurred when the lambs were re-fed with normal energy requirement after restriction. Taken together, dietary energy levels influence testicular development through autophagy and apoptosis interplay mediated by AMPK-ULK1 signal pathway, which also indicates the important role of the actions of AMPK in the testis homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. TFAP2B Influences the Effect of Dietary Fat on Weight Loss under Energy Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Banasik, Karina; Harder, Marie N.; Taylor, Moira A.; Hager, Jörg; Arner, Peter; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Polak, Jan; Rousseau, Francis; Langin, Dominique; Rössner, Stephan; Holst, Claus; MacDonald, Ian A.; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Kunesova, Marie; Saris, Wim H. M.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Methods and Findings Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20–25 or 40–45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was −12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was −23/−12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. Conclusions Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  1. Implementation of Energy Code Controls Requirements in New Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Hatten, Mike

    Most state energy codes in the United States are based on one of two national model codes; ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1 (Standard 90.1) or the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Since 2004, covering the last four cycles of Standard 90.1 updates, about 30% of all new requirements have been related to building controls. These requirements can be difficult to implement and verification is beyond the expertise of most building code officials, yet the assumption in studies that measure the savings from energy codes is that they are implemented and working correctly. The objective of the current research ismore » to evaluate the degree to which high impact controls requirements included in commercial energy codes are properly designed, commissioned and implemented in new buildings. This study also evaluates the degree to which these control requirements are realizing their savings potential. This was done using a three-step process. The first step involved interviewing commissioning agents to get a better understanding of their activities as they relate to energy code required controls measures. The second involved field audits of a sample of commercial buildings to determine whether the code required control measures are being designed, commissioned and correctly implemented and functioning in new buildings. The third step includes compilation and analysis of the information gather during the first two steps. Information gathered during these activities could be valuable to code developers, energy planners, designers, building owners, and building officials.« less

  2. Solar Energy Employment and Requirements, 1978-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Girard W.; Field, Jennifer

    Based on data collected from a mailed survey of 2800 employers engaged in solar energy activities, a study identified the characteristics of establishments engaged in solar work and the number and occupational distribution of persons working in solar energy activities in 1978, and projected solar labor requirements through 1983. The scope of the…

  3. Dietary lysine requirement for 7-16 kg pigs fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kahindi, R K; Htoo, J K; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine requirement of weaned pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] with an average initial BW of 7 kg and fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets. The experiments were conducted for 21 days during which piglets had free access to diets and water. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined on day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration. In experiment 1, 96 weaned pigs were housed four per pen and allocated to four dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The diets contained 0.99%, 1.23%, 1.51% and 1.81% standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. The rest of the AA were provided to meet the ideal AA ratio for protein accretion. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p < 0.05) ADG and G:F. In experiment 2, 90 piglets were housed three per pen and allocated to five dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The five diets contained 1.03%, 1.25%, 1.31%, 1.36% and 1.51% SID lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p < 0.05) G:F, linearly decreased (p < 0.05) day-14 PUN and quadratically (p < 0.05) increased ADG and ADFI. The ADG data from experiment 2 were subjected to linear and quadratic broken-lines regression analyses, and the SID lysine requirement was determined to be 1.29% and 1.34% respectively. On average, optimal dietary SID lysine content for optimal growth of 7-16 kg weaned piglets fed wheat-corn-SBM-based diets was estimated to be 1.32%; at this level, the ADG and ADFI were 444 and 560 g, respectively, thus representing an SID lysine requirement, expressed on daily intake basis as, 7.4 g/day or 16.76 mg/g gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Energy requirements for growth in the Yorkshire terrier.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Morris, Penelope J

    2017-01-01

    The 2006 National Research Council (NRC) equation calculating puppy energy requirements does not account for reported breed differences in growth pattern. Energy requirements of toy breed puppies are unknown and it is unclear whether feeding guidelines should differ between breeds. Energy requirements of Yorkshire terrier (YT) puppies were observed over their first year of life and compared with those predicted by the NRC and those previously observed in large (Labrador retriever) and medium (miniature Schnauzer; MS) breed puppies. Twenty-two puppies (from eight litters) were offered complete and balanced diets to maintain ideal body condition score (BCS). Energy intake, body weight and BCS were recorded from 10 to 52 weeks of age. Every 12 weeks, health was monitored by veterinary examination, routine haematology and plasma biochemistry. Puppies remained clinically healthy with normal skeletal development throughout. After analysis by linear mixed models it was observed that the NRC equation overestimates YT energy requirements between 10 and 20 weeks of age by up to 324·3 (95 % CI 390·4, 258·2) kJ/kg 0·75 . Energy intake was lower ( P  < 0·05) in YT than Labradors until 29 weeks by up to 376·6 (95 % CI 477·4, 275·3) kJ/kg 0·75 and lower than MS between 16 and 25 weeks by up to 216·3 (95 % CI 313·0, 119·7) kJ/kg 0·75 ( P  < 0·05). Data indicate differences in toy, medium and large breed energy requirements for growth. The NRC equation for puppy energy requirements overestimated the requirements of this YT population, suggesting the need for breed-specific feeding guides for growth to avoid overfeeding.

  5. A randomized controlled trial for obesity and binge eating disorder: Low-energy-density dietary counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined a dietary approach – lowering energy density – for producing weight loss in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who also received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to address binge eating. Fifty consecutive participants were randomly assigned to either a six-month individual treatment of CBT plus a low-Energy-Density diet (CBT+ED) or CBT plus General Nutrition counseling not related to weight loss (CBT+GN). Assessments occurred at six- and twelve-months. Eighty-six percent of participants completed treatment, and of these, 30% achieved at least a 5% weight loss with rates of binge remission ranging from 55–75%. The two treatments did not differ significantly in weight loss or binge remission outcomes. Significant improvements were found for key dietary and metabolic outcomes, with CBT+ED producing significantly better dietary outcomes on energy density, and fruit and vegetable consumption, than CBT+GN. Reductions in energy density and weight loss were significantly associated providing evidence for the specificity of the treatment effect. These favorable outcomes, and that CBT+ED was significantly better at reducing energy density and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption compared to CBT+GN, suggest that low-energy-density dietary counseling has promise as an effective method for enhancing CBT for obese individuals with BED. PMID:22005587

  6. Analysis of nutritional adequacy of local foods for meeting dietary requirements of children aged 6-23 months in rural central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jofrey; Agaba, Morris; Mollay, Clara; Rose, Jerman W; Kassim, Neema

    2017-01-01

    Under nutrition remains a serious problem among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysing how diets composed of local foods could achieve nutritional goals for infants and young children in low-income settings is essential. The objective of this study was to analyse how local foods can be used rationally and to what extent these foods can be supplemented to achieve nutrient requirements for children aged 6 - 23 months in resource-poor settings. A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate dietary intakes of 400 children aged 6-23 months using a 12-h weighed dietary record, 24-h dietary recalls, and 7-days food records. Anthropometric measurements on each subject were also taken. Analyses were done to establish the level of nutrient intake, and nutritional status of the study population using Microsoft Excel 2013 and ProPAN software version 2.0. The results showed that the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight for children aged 6-23 months was 30-41%, 1.5-3% and 4-9%, respectively. In addition, the results showed that diets that were consumed by the subjects comprised of local foods met vitamin A, vitamin C, protein and energy requirements for children aged 6-23 months. However, the extent of deficit in iron, zinc and calcium in baseline diets was large and difficult to meet under the existing feeding practices. The study shows that local foods in the study area have a potential to achieve recommended dietary intakes of some essential nutrients, and that interventions are needed to meet the required amount of iron, zinc and calcium for children aged 6-23 months. The interventions we propose here may encourage changes in traditional feeding habits and practices of the target population. Possible intervention options are (1) supplementation of local foods with nutrient-dense foods that are not normally consumed in the locality (2) providing new avenues for increasing the production and wide consumption of local nutrient-dense foods, or optimizing

  7. Dietary fat sources affect feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different beef cattle genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kaewpila, C; Sommart, K; Mitsumori, M

    2018-03-20

    The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v. Japanese Black crossbred). Three Charolais crossbred and three Japanese Black crossbred bulls were studied in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experimental design; genotypes were analysed in separate squares including three periods of 21 days each and three dietary oilseed treatments fed ad libitum. The cattle were placed in a metabolic cage equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system for evaluating digestibility and energy balance. As compared with Charolais crossbred individuals, Japanese Black crossbred bulls showed consistently lower dry matter intake (15.5%, P0.05) or diet (P>0.05) under the experimental conditions and ranged from 5.8% to 6.0% of gross energy intake. This value is lower than that reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (6.5%) for cattle fed with low-quality crop residues or by-products. Thus, our results imply that the Japanese Black crossbred cattle consume less feed and emits less enteric methane than the Charolais crossbred does, mainly owing to its lower ME requirement for maintenance. The OPF diet could be used to replace SBS for high beef production, although further studies are required to evaluate their application across a wide range of beef production systems.

  8. Stakeholder requirements for commercially successful wave energy converter farms

    SciTech Connect

    Babarit, Aurélien; Bull, Diana; Dykes, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    In this study, systems engineering techniques are applied to wave energy to identify and specify stakeholders' requirements for a commercially successful wave energy farm. The focus is on the continental scale utility market. Lifecycle stages and stakeholders are identified. Stakeholders' needs across the whole lifecycle of the wave energy farm are analyzed. A list of 33 stakeholder requirements are identified and specified. This list of requirements should serve as components of a technology performance level metric that could be used by investors and funding agencies to make informed decisions when allocating resources. It is hoped that the technology performance levelmore » metric will accelerate wave energy conversion technology convergence.« less

  9. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Energy requirements of man living in a weightless environment.

    PubMed

    Vanderveen, J E; Allen, T H

    1972-01-01

    The ability to maintain energy balance is a vital factor in maintaining body composition. A negative energy balance requires that body tissue be consumed to sustain biochemical and physiological activity. Such a caloric imbalance coupled with reduced physical activity results in (among other things): a negative balance which can not be reversed by increased protein intake; negative balances for electrolytes; and a suspension of erythrocyte production. Body weight losses were experienced by all astronauts during Gemini and Apollo missions. Data on the magnitude of the changes, together with data on energy consumption, were used to calculate energy imbalances. These data, when compared with results obtained from precise energy balance measurements made on 64 men living in low pressure chambers, show close correlation. When energy requirements are expressed in kilocalories per kilogram of body weight, the difference in energy requirements among the astronauts and chamber subjects was small and not statistically significant. These data indicated that reliable prediction of energy needs for astronauts, during long-term space missions, can be made by studying either the astronauts or healthy subjects in a ground-based environment similar to that of the spacecraft. These data also indicate that changes in body weight and certain other body measurements detected during Gemini and Apollo missions were probably caused, at least in part, by a calorie deficit.

  11. The energy requirements of an aircraft triggered discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicknell, J. A.; Shelton, R. W.

    The corona produced at aircraft surfaces requires an energy input before the corona can develop into a high current discharge and, thus, a possible lightning stroke. This energy must be drawn from the space charge field of the thundercloud and, since this is of low density, the unique propagation characteristics of positive corona streamers may be important. Estimates of the energy made available by the propagation are compared with laboratory measurements of the minimum energy input required to trigger a breakdown. The comparison indicates a minimum streamer range for breakdown of several tens of meters. Also estimated is the energy released as a consequence of streamer-hydrometer interactions; this is shown to be significant so that breakdown could depend upon the precipitation rate within the cloud. Inhibiting streamer production may therefore provide an aircraft with a degree of corona protection.

  12. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  13. Modeling of threonine requirement in fast-growing chickens, depending on age, sex, protein deposition, and dietary threonine efficiency.

    PubMed

    Samadi; Liebert, F

    2006-11-01

    In addition to dose-response studies, modeling of N utilization, depending on intake of the first limiting amino acid in the diet, is one of the tools for assessing amino acid requirements in growing animals. Based on a verified nonlinear N-utilization model and following the principles of the diet dilution technique, N-balance experiments were conducted to estimate the Thr requirement of fast-growing chickens (genotype Cobb), depending on age, sex, CP deposition. and efficiency of dietary Thr utilization. Different predictions were made for the feed intake to conclude the optimal Thr concentration in the feed. The results are based on N-balance experiments with a total of 144 male and 144 female growing chickens within 4 age periods (I: 10 to 25 d; II: 30 to 45 d; III: 50 to 65 d; IV: 70 to 85 d), using diets with graded protein supply (6.6, 13, 19.6, 25.1, 31.8, and 37.6% CP in DM) from high-protein soybean meal with a constant amino acid ratio and Thr as the first limiting amino acid (3.87 g of Thr/100 g of CP; dietary Lys:Thr = 1:0.54). The observed optimal Thr concentration (% of feed) was influenced by age, sex, level of CP deposition, dietary efficiency of Thr utilization, and predicted feed intake. For male chickens, assuming an average CP deposition (60% of the potential) and average efficiency of Thr utilization, 0.78% (10 to 25 d), 0.73% (30 to 45 d), 0.65% (50 to 65 d), and 0.55% (70 to 85 d) total dietary Thr were observed as optimal total Thr concentration in the diet (corresponding to 60, 135, 160, and 180 g of daily feed intake, respectively). Data are discussed in context with the main factors of influence like age, sex, level of daily CP deposition, efficiency of dietary Thr utilization, and predicted feed intake.

  14. Estimating caffeine intake from energy drinks and dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Saldanha, Leila G; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2014-10-01

    No consistent definition exists for energy products in the United States. These products have been marketed and sold as beverages (conventional foods), energy shots (dietary supplements), and in pill or tablet form. Recently, the number of available products has surged, and formulations have changed to include caffeine. To help characterize the use of caffeine-containing energy products in the United States, three sources of data were analyzed: sales data, data from federal sources, and reports from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. These data indicate that sales of caffeine-containing energy products and emergency room visits involving their consumption appear to be increasing over time. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 indicate that 2.7% [standard error (SE) 0.2%] of the US population ≥1 year of age used a caffeine-containing energy product, providing approximately 150-200 mg/day of caffeine per day in addition to caffeine from traditional sources like coffee, tea, and colas. The highest usage of these products was among males between the ages of 19 and 30 years (7.6%, SE 1.0). Although the prevalence of caffeine-containing energy product use remains low overall in the US population, certain subgroups appear to be using these products in larger amounts. Several challenges remain in determining the level of caffeine exposure from and accurate usage patterns of caffeine-containing energy products. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Impact of Alternative Processes for Aluminum Production on Energy Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grjotheim, Kai; Welch, Barry

    1981-09-01

    Increasing prices and the shortage of large blocks of electrical energy have given greater impetus to the search for viable alternative processes for aluminum production. These include electrolysis of aluminum chloride, sulfide, and nitride; carbothermal reduction of either the ore or alumina; and disproportioning reactions of either aluminum sulfide or the monochloride route. Common to all these processes are the starting material—an ore containing aluminum oxide—and the final product—the metal. Thus, the thermodynamic cycle will invariably dictate similar theoretical energy requirements for the three processes. In practice, however, the achievable efficiencies and, more noticeably, the proportion of electrical to carbothermal energy required for the various stages of operation can vary. The present status of these alternative processes indicates that while alternative routes, such as the Alcoa-AlCl3-Smelting Process, show distinct potential for reducing electrical energy requirements, they offer little chance of reducing overall energy requirements. Furthermore, because of more stringent purity requirements, any gains made may be at the expense of production costs.

  16. Nutrigenomics and metabolomics will change clinical nutrition and public health practice: insights from studies on dietary requirements for choline2

    PubMed Central

    Zeisel, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Science is beginning to understand how genetic variation and epigenetic events alter requirements for, and responses to, nutrients (nutrigenomics). At the same time, methods for profiling almost all of the products of metabolism in a single sample of blood or urine are being developed (metabolomics). Relations between diet and nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiles and between those profiles and health have become important components of research that could change clinical practice in nutrition. Most nutrition studies assume that all persons have average dietary requirements, and the studies often do not plan for a large subset of subjects who differ in requirements for a nutrient. Large variances in responses that occur when such a population exists can result in statistical analyses that argue for a null effect. If nutrition studies could better identify responders and differentiate them from nonresponders on the basis of nutrigenomic or metabolomic profiles, the sensitivity to detect differences between groups could be greatly increased, and the resulting dietary recommendations could be appropriately targeted. It is not certain that nutrition will be the clinical specialty primarily responsible for nutrigenomics or metabolomics, because other disciplines currently dominate the development of portions of these fields. However, nutrition scientists' depth of understanding of human metabolism can be used to establish a role in the research and clinical programs that will arise from nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiling. Investments made today in training programs and in research methods could ensure a new foundation for clinical nutrition in the future. PMID:17823415

  17. Previous exposure to dietary phytase reduces the endogenous energy losses from precision-fed chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Acamovic, T; Bedford, M R

    2009-09-01

    1. A precision feeding experiment was conducted with broiler chickens, which were previously fed on diets with or without phytase, to study the effects of previous exposure to dietary phytase supplementation on the excretions of endogenous energy, nitrogen, amino acids and minerals. 2. Female Ross 308 broiler chickens, which had previously received one of 4 experimental diets (low P maize/soy diets (control, D), D + 250 international units of phytase per kg diet (FTU), D + 500 FTU and D + 2500 FTU) were used in the study. All birds were starved and then given 50 ml of glucose solution at 44 d of age. The birds were allocated to individual metabolism cages in a randomised block design with 8 replicates of each of the 4 dietary treatments. 3. Chickens which had been previously fed on diets supplemented with phytase excreted 32% less energy and 28% less dry matter per kg metabolic body weight (W(075)) from endogenous sources, compared to birds fed the unsupplemented diet. 4. Birds previously given phytase supplemented diets excreted 60% less sodium than those given the control diet, but there was no effect on all other minerals investigated. There was no effect of diet on the excretion of endogenous N, sialic acid or amino acids. 5. The results showed that the effects of feeding chickens on diets with supplementary phytase may continue for a few days after the diets are withdrawn. This suggests that previous exposure to phytase may alter the nutritive value of follow-on diets, which may be a commercially important effect.

  18. Prospective study of dietary energy density and weight gain in a Japanese adult population.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K M; Wada, K; Zeredo, J L L; Nagata, C

    2017-03-01

    High dietary energy density (ED) has been associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the long-term effects of ED on weight changes among free-living subjects, particularly in Japanese and other Asian populations. In this study, we assessed dietary habits and weight changes in participants (5778 males and 7440 females, 35-69 years old) of the Takayama study. ED was estimated using a validated FFQ at baseline only. Information on body weight (BW) was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mean BW difference in 9·8 years was 17 (se 4221) g for men and -210 (se 3889) g for women. In men, ED was positively associated with BW at follow-up after controlling for age, BW, height, physical activity score, alcohol consumption, energy intake, years of education at the baseline and change of smoking status during the follow-up. On average, men in the highest quartile of ED (>5·322 kJ/g (>1·272 kcal/g)) gained 138 (se 111) g, whereas men in the lowest ED (<1·057) lost 22 (se 111) g (P for trend=0·01). The association between ED and BW gain was stronger in men with normal weight. In women, the association between ED and weight change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, contrary to some studies that report an association between ED and weight gain in the overweight only, our data suggest that high-ED diets may be associated with weight gain in the lean population as well, at least in male subjects.

  19. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence.

  20. [Energy requirements of petroleum workers in Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Bondarev, G I; Vissarionova, V Ia; Dupik, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A

    1982-01-01

    Energy requirements of drillers, derrick mounters and maintenance workers belonging to dispersed collectives were defined on the basis of materials available at the oil field Surgutneft named for the 50th anniversary of October. Energy requirements of the team workers were studied by the method of Douglas-Haldane during autumn-winter in the course of performing various production processes. Energy requirements were established as regards the operations made in the course of the basic technological processes. The budget of the working time was calculated in accordance with a rate-qualification manual. Energy consumption during out-of-work time was established by the method of individual questionnaires, followed by energy consumption calculation during various types of the work according to the generally accepted energy equivalents. The daily energy consumption with regard to the eight-hour work was found to constitute 3100-3660 kcal for drillers and the first assistant drillers, and 3700-3900 kcal for the second and third assistant drillers. The oilmen were distributed into groups in terms of the work intensity: group II--drillers, first assistant drillers and maintenance workers; group III--the second and third assistant drillers, assistant maintenance workers, and derrick mounters.

  1. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  2. Effect of moderate dietary restriction on visceral organ weight, hepatic oxygen consumption, and metabolic proteins associated with energy balance in mature pregnant beef cows.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-two nonlactating multiparous pregnant beef cows (639 ± 68 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary restriction on the abundance of selected proteins regulating cellular energy metabolism. Cows were fed at either 85% (n = 11; LOW) or 140% (n = 11; HIGH) of total NE requirements. The diet consisted of a haylage-based total mixed ration containing 20% wheat straw. Cows were slaughtered by block (predicted date of parturition), beginning 83 d after the initiation of dietary treatments and every week thereafter for 6 wk, such that each block was slaughtered at approximately 250 d of gestation. Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papilli (ventral sac), pancreas, and small intestinal muscosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N2. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α), and 5´-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the activated form phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Statistical analysis was conducted using Proc Mixed in SAS and included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, cow age, block, and the random effect of pen. Dietary treatments resulted in cows fed HIGH having greater (P ≤ 0.04) ADG and final BW than cows fed LOW. Abundance of ubiquitin in muscle was greater (P = 0.009) in cows fed LOW, and PCG-1 α in liver was greater (P = 0.03) in cows fed HIGH. Hepatic O2 consumption was greater in HIGH (P ≤ 0.04). Feed intake can influence the abundance of important metabolic proteins and suggest that protein degradation may increase in muscle from moderately nutrient restricted cows and that energy metabolism in liver increases in cows fed above NE requirements.

  3. Effects of dietary energy levels on physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating sows over three consecutive parities.

    PubMed

    Jin, S S; Jin, Y H; Jang, J C; Hong, J S; Jung, S W; Kim, Y Y

    2018-03-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effects of the dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance during gestation over three parities in sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. The treatments contained 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet but feed was provided at 2.0, 2.2, and 2.4 kg/d in the first, second and third parity, respectively. The body weight and body weight gain during gestation increased as the dietary energy level increased (p<0.05, and p<0.01) in the first parity. In the second parity, the body weight of sows was the lowest (p<0.05) when 3,100 kcal of ME/kg treatment diet was provided. The body weight was higher as the dietary energy level increased (p<0.05) during the gestation period in the third parity. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of lactating sows tended to decrease when gilts were fed higher energy treatment diet (p = 0.08) and the body weight, body weight gain were increased by dietary energy level during gestation (p< 0.05). Backfat thickness was not affected by dietary treatment during the gestation period in three parities, interestingly backfat change from breeding to d 110 of gestation was higher as the dietary energy level increased at the first parity (p<0.05). When gilts were fed 3,400 kcal of ME/kg treatment diet a higher number of weaning piglets was observed in the first parity (p<0.05). The highest culling rate (69%) was seen when gestating sows were fed 3,100 kcal/kg ME treatment diet during three parities. In conclusion, the adequate energy intake of gestating sows should be 6,400 or 6,600 kcal of ME/d, 7,040 or 7,260 kcal of ME/d, and 7,680 or 7,920 kcal of ME/d for parity 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  4. Energy balance in adrenalectomized ob/ob mice: effects of dietary starch and glucose.

    PubMed

    Warwick, B P; Romsos, D R

    1988-07-01

    Effects of different carbohydrate types on energy balance, fatty acid synthesis, and plasma insulin concentrations in adrenalectomized ob/ob mice were investigated. Obese (ob/ob) and lean mice adrenalectomized at 4 wk of age received one of four high-carbohydrate powdered diets for 3 wk: stock, glucose, starch, or starch plus wheat bran. Adrenalectomy reduced energy intake of ob/ob mice equally independent of diet type, whereas energetic efficiency, in vivo rates of fatty acid synthesis in liver and white adipose tissue, and plasma insulin concentrations were substantially reduced to approach values in lean mice in all adrenalectomized ob/ob mice except those fed glucose. The ability of adrenalectomy to normalize energy balance in ob/ob mice depends on factors other than the reduced circulating concentration of glucocorticoids alone. Diet composition is a crucial factor, and striking differences exist between semipurified diets containing a simple sugar (glucose) and those containing a complex carbohydrate (starch), with no additional effect of dietary fiber (wheat bran).

  5. Short term effects of energy restriction and dietary fat sub-type on weight loss and disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, L; Batterham, M; Huang, X F; Tan, S-Y; Teuss, G; Charlton, K; Oshea, J; Warensjö, E

    2010-06-01

    Decreasing energy intake relative to energy expenditure is the indisputable tenet of weight loss. In addition to caloric restriction modification of the type of dietary fat may provide further benefits. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of energy restriction alone and with dietary fat modification on weight loss and adiposity, as well as on risk factors for obesity related disease. One-hundred and fifty overweight men and women were randomized into a 3month controlled trial with four low fat (30% energy) dietary arms: (1) isocaloric (LF); (2) isocaloric with 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids (LF-PUFA); (3) low calorie (LF-LC) (-2MJ); (4) low calorie with 10% PUFA (LF-PUFA-LC). Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and body fat and secondary outcomes were changes in fasting levels of leptin, insulin, glucose, lipids and erythrocyte fatty acids. Changes in dietary intake were assessed using 3day food records. One-hundred and twenty-two participants entered the study and 95 completed the study. All groups lost weight and body fat (P<0.0001 time effect for both), but the LC groups lost more weight (P=0.026 for diet effect). All groups reduced total cholesterol levels (P<0.0001 time effect and P=0.017 intervention effect), but the LC and PUFA groups were better at reducing triacylglycerol levels (P=0.056 diet effect). HDL increased with LF-LC and LF-PUFA but not with LF-PUFA-LC (0.042 diet effect). The LF and LF-LC groups reported greater dietary fat reductions than the two PUFA groups (P=0.043). Energy restriction has the most potent effect on weight loss and lipids, but fat modification is also beneficial when energy restriction is more modest.

  6. Evaluation of Optimum Dietary Threonine Requirement by Plasma Free Threonine and Ammonia Concentrations in Surgically Modified Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyeonho; Park, Gunjun; Ok, Imho; Katya, Kumar; Heung, Silas; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary threonine requirement by measuring the plasma free threonine and ammonia concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation. A total of 70 fish (average initial weight 506±8.2 g) were randomly distributed into each of the 14 net cages (5 fish/cage). After 48 hours (h) of feed deprivation, each group was intubated at 1% body weight with one of the seven L-amino acid based diets containing graded levels of threonine (0.42%, 0.72%, 0.92%, 1.12%, 1.32%, 1.52%, or 1.82% of diet, dry matter basis). Blood samples were taken at 0, 5, and 24 h after intubation. Post-prandial plasma free threonine concentrations (PPthr) of fish 5 h after intubation with diets containing 1.32% or more threonine were significantly higher than those of fish intubated with diets containing 1.12% or less threonine (p<0.05). Post-absorptive free threonine concentrations (PAthr) after 24 h of intubation of the fish with diets containing 0.92% or more threonine were significantly higher than those of fish intubated with diets containing 0.72% or less threonine. Post-prandial plasma ammonia concentrations (PPA, 5 h after intubation) were not significantly different among fish intubated with diets containing 1.12% or less threonine, except the PPA of fish intubated with diet containing 0.42% threonine. Broken-line model analyses of PPthr, PAthr, and PPA indicated that the dietary threonine requirement of rainbow trout should be between 0.95% (2.71) and 1.07% (3.06) of diet (% of dietary protein on a dry matter basis). PMID:25656187

  7. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  8. The millennium development goals and household energy requirements in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Francis I

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and affordable energy is critical for the realization of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs. In many developing countries, a large proportion of household energy requirements is met by use of non-commercial fuels such as wood, animal dung, crop residues, etc., and the associated health and environmental hazards of these are well documented. In this work, a scenario analysis of energy requirements in Nigeria's households is carried out to compare estimates between 2005 and 2020 under a reference scenario, with estimates under the assumption that Nigeria will meet the millennium goals. Requirements for energy under the MDG scenario are measured by the impacts on energy use, of a reduction by half, in 2015, (a) the number of household without access to electricity for basic services, (b) the number of households without access to modern energy carriers for cooking, and (c) the number of families living in one-room households in Nigeria's overcrowded urban slums. For these to be achieved, household electricity consumption would increase by about 41% over the study period, while the use of modern fuels would more than double. This migration to the use of modern fuels for cooking results in a reduction in the overall fuelwood consumption, from 5 GJ/capita in 2005, to 2.9 GJ/capita in 2015.

  9. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Energy requirements for growth of pubertal female Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, F O M; Berchielli, T T; Resende, K T; Gomes, H F B; Almeida, A K; Sakomura, N K; Teixeira, I A M A

    2016-04-01

    Previous research on energy requirements of female Saanen goats, using the factorial approach, has not considered the specific requirements for maintenance and growth during the pubertal phase. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate energy requirements for maintenance (Trial 1) and growth (Trial 2) of non-pregnant and non-lactating female Saanen goats at the pubertal phase from 30 to 45 kg. In Trial 1, the net energy requirements for maintenance (NEm ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats randomly assigned to three levels of intake: ad libitum, and 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. These animals were pair-fed in six slaughter groups, each consisting of one animal for each level of intake. In Trial 2, the net energy requirements for growth (NEg ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats, which were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at targeted BW of 30, 38 and 45 kg. The NEm was 52 kcal/kg(0.75) of BW. The NEg increased from 3.5 to 4.7 Mcal/kg of BW gain as BW increased from 30 to 45 kg. Our results suggest that the guidelines of the major feeding systems for the entire growth phase may not be adequate for females at pubertal phase. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2014-04-28

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19-64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003-8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P = 0.002), a lower waist circumference (P = 0.001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P = 0.087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (P< 0.001); this was independent of whether data on beverage or water consumption were included. Diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005, was significantly better in soup consumers (P = 0.008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P < 0.05 for all). However, it was also associated with a higher intake of Na (P < 0.001). The relationship between soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet.

  12. Energy Requirement Assessment and Water Turnover in Japanese College Wrestlers Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method.

    PubMed

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Emi; Shiose, Keisuke; Yamada, Yosuke; Motonaga, Keiko; Ouchi, Shiori; Kamei, Akiko; Osawa, Takuya; Nakajima, Kohei; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Estimated energy requirements (EERs) are important for sports based on body weight classifications to aid in weight management. The basis for establishing EERs varies and includes self-reported energy intake (EI), predicted energy expenditure, and measured daily energy expenditure. Currently, however, no studies have been performed with male wrestlers using the highly accurate and precise doubly labeled water (DLW) method to estimate energy and fluid requirement. The primary aim of this study was to compare total energy expenditure (TEE), self-reported EI, and the difference in collegiate wrestlers during a normal training period using the DLW method. The secondary aims were to measure the water turnover and the physical activity level (PAL) of the athletes, and to examine the accuracy of two currently used equations to predict EER. Ten healthy males (age, 20.4±0.5 y) belonging to the East-Japan college league participated in this study. TEE was measured using the DLW method, and EI was assessed with self-reported dietary records for ~1 wk. There was a significant difference between TEE (17.9±2.5 MJ•d -1 [4,283±590 kcal•d -1 ]) and self-reported EI (14.4±3.3 MJ•d -1 [3,446±799 kcal•d -1 ]), a difference of 19%. The water turnover was 4.61±0.73 L•d -1 . The measured PAL (2.6±0.3) was higher than two predicted values during the training season and thus the two EER prediction equations produced underestimated values relative to DLW. We found that previous EERs were underestimating requirements in collegiate wrestlers and that those estimates should be revised.

  13. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  14. Energy requirements of lactating women derived from doubly labeled water and milk energy output.

    PubMed

    Butte, N F; Wong, W W; Hopkinson, J M

    2001-01-01

    Instead of using an incremental approach to assess the energy requirements of lactation, a more comprehensive approach may be taken by measuring total energy expenditure (TEE), milk energy output and energy mobilization from tissue stores. The latter approach avoids assumptions regarding energetic efficiency and changes in physical activity and adiposity. The purpose of this study was threefold: to assess the energy requirements of lactation; to compare these estimates with energy requirements in the nonpregnant, nonlactating state and to test for energetic adaptations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity during the energy-demanding process of lactation. Milk production and composition, body weight and composition, TEE, BMR and physical activity levels were measured in 24 well-nourished women during exclusive breastfeeding at 3 mo postpartum and after the cessation of breastfeeding at 18 or 24 mo postpartum. TEE was measured by the doubly labeled water method, milk production by 3-d test-weighing, milk energy by bomb calorimetry on a 24-h milk sample, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and BMR by room respiration calorimetry. TEE, BMR and physical activity level (physical activity level = TEE/BMR) did not differ between the lactating and nonlactating state (TEE 10.0 +/- 1.5 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d). Mean milk energy output was equivalent to 2.02 +/- 0.33 MJ/d. Total energy requirements were greater during lactation than afterward (12.0 +/- 1.4 versus 10.6 +/- 2.1 MJ/d, P: = 0.002). Energy mobilization from tissue stores (-0.65 +/- 0.97 MJ/d) resulted in net energy requirements during lactation of 11.4 +/- 1.8 MJ/d. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity were not evident in these well-nourished women, energy requirements during lactation were met primarily from the diet and only partially by mobilization of tissue stores.

  15. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    van Emous, R A; Kwakkel, R P; van Krimpen, M M; Hendriks, W H

    2015-05-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary energy levels (2,800, MEs2; and 3,000, MEh2, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the second phase of lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders. No meaningful interactions for energy and protein treatments within the different phases of the study were found and, therefore, this paper focusses on the main effects. Pullets fed the CPl diet had a 12.8% higher feed intake, 14% lower breast muscle, and 97% higher abdominal fat pad portion at 22 wk age. The increased abdominal fat pad and decreased breast muscle of the CPl compared to the CPh birds increased hatchability during the first phase of lay, due to a decreased embryonic mortality between d 10 to 21 of incubation, and increased egg production during the second phase of lay. Feeding birds the MEh1 and MEl1 diets slightly decreased egg production compared to the MEs1 birds. Birds fed the MEh1 diet showed a higher mortality compared to the birds fed the MEs1 and MEl1 diets. Feeding birds the MEh2 diet did not affect egg production, increased hatchability of fertile eggs, decreased embryonic mortality between d 3 to 21 of incubation, and increased the number of first-grade chicks. It was concluded that a low-protein diet during rearing changed body composition with positive effects on incubation traits during the first phase of lay and improved egg production during the second phase of lay in broiler breeders. A high-energy or low-energy diet compared to a standard diet during the first phase of lay slightly decreased total and settable egg numbers while a high-energy diet during the second phase of lay increased hatchability and number of saleable chicks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  17. Kiln Size Affects Energy Required to Dry Lumber

    Treesearch

    Howard N. Rosen

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements for lumber drying kilns can depend on kiln size and range from 18,000 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 10 board food capacity kiln to 1,600 Btu/lb water evaporated for a 100,000 board foot capacity kiln.

  18. Effects of dietary history on energy metabolism and physiological parameters in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Keijer, Jaap; Swarts, Hans J; Snaas-Alders, Sophie; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Melissa; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2013-05-01

    Understanding body weight regulation is essential to fight obesity. Mouse studies, using different types of diets, showed conflicting results in terms of body weight persistence after changing from an ad libitum high-fat diet to an ad libitum low-fat diet. In this study, we questioned specifically whether the energy content of the diet has a lasting effect on energy balance and body weight, using multiple switches and two purified diets with a different fat-to-sugar ratio, but otherwise identical ingredients. Young-adult obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice were fed single or double switches of semi-purified diets with either 10 energy % (en%) fat (LF) or 40en% fat (HF), with starch replaced by fat, while protein content remained equal. After none, one or two dietary changes, energy metabolism was assessed at 5, 14 and 19 weeks. We observed no systematic continuous compensation in diet and energy intake when returning to LF after HF consumption. Body weight, white adipose tissue mass and histology, serum metabolic parameters, energy expenditure and substrate usage all significantly reflected the current diet intake, independent of dietary changes. This contrasts with studies that used diets with different ingredients and showed persistent effects of dietary history on body weight, suggesting diet-dependent metabolic set points. We conclude that body weight and metabolic parameters 'settle', based on current energetic input and output. This study also highlights the importance of considering the choice of diet in physiological and metabolic intervention studies.

  19. Effects of dietary β-mannanase supplementation on the additivity of true metabolizable energy values for broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Bo; Yang, Tae Sung; Goo, Doyun; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Jung, Hyunjung; Kil, Dong Yong

    2018-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary β-mannanase on the additivity of true metabolizable energy (TME) and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TME n ) for broiler diets. A total of 144 21-day-old broilers were randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments with 6 replicates. Five treatments consisted of 5 ingredients of corn, wheat, soybean meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles, or corn gluten meal. One mixed diet containing 200 g/kg of those 5 ingredients also was prepared. Additional 6 treatments were prepared by mixing 0.5 g/kg dietary β-mannanase with those 5 ingredients and the mixed diet. Based on a precision-fed chicken assay, TME and TME n values for 5 ingredients and the mixed diet as affected by dietary β-mannanase were determined. Results indicated that when β-mannanase was not added to the diet, measured TME and TME n values for the diet did not differ from the predicted values for the diet, which validated the additivity. However, for the diet containing β-mannanase, measured TME n value was greater (p<0.05) than predicted TME n value, indicating that the additivity was not validated. In conclusion, the additivity of energy values for the mixed diet may not be guaranteed if the diet contains β-mannanase.

  20. Effects of dietary β-mannanase supplementation on the additivity of true metabolizable energy values for broiler diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Bo; Yang, Tae Sung; Goo, Doyun; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Jung, Hyunjung; Kil, Dong Yong

    2018-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary β-mannanase on the additivity of true metabolizable energy (TME) and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) for broiler diets. Methods A total of 144 21-day-old broilers were randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments with 6 replicates. Five treatments consisted of 5 ingredients of corn, wheat, soybean meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles, or corn gluten meal. One mixed diet containing 200 g/kg of those 5 ingredients also was prepared. Additional 6 treatments were prepared by mixing 0.5 g/kg dietary β-mannanase with those 5 ingredients and the mixed diet. Based on a precision-fed chicken assay, TME and TMEn values for 5 ingredients and the mixed diet as affected by dietary β-mannanase were determined. Results Results indicated that when β-mannanase was not added to the diet, measured TME and TMEn values for the diet did not differ from the predicted values for the diet, which validated the additivity. However, for the diet containing β-mannanase, measured TMEn value was greater (p<0.05) than predicted TMEn value, indicating that the additivity was not validated. Conclusion In conclusion, the additivity of energy values for the mixed diet may not be guaranteed if the diet contains β-mannanase. PMID:29381897

  1. [Energy requirements of workers in the coke chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Vankhanen, V D; Nelepa, A E

    1978-01-01

    Energy spent by workers engaged in the basic departments of a coke-chemical plant during working hours and performing operations after the Douglas-Holdeine method was measured and total energy expenditures during separate periods of the day and as a whole determined. Depending upon their jobs the energy spent by the workers during working hours varies within a range of 825 to 1860 Kcal. The energy expenditure during the time outside work, including sleep, amounts to from 1482 up to 1756 Kcal. As concerns the calorific requirements of their alimentation the workers of coke-chemical industry are subdivided into 5 groups of labour-intensity within an interval of from 2500 to 3600 kcal (for men) and from 2200 to 3100 kcal (for women).

  2. Requirements for energy based constitutive modeling in tire mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchini, John R.; Peters, Jim M.; Mars, Will V.

    1995-01-01

    The history, requirements, and theoretical basis of a new energy based constitutive model for (rubber) material elasticity, hysteresis, and failure are presented. Energy based elasticity is handled by many constitutive models, both in one dimension and in three dimensions. Conversion of mechanical energy to heat can be modeled with viscoelasticity or as structural hysteresis. We are seeking unification of elasticity, hysteresis, and failure mechanisms such as fatigue and wear. An energy state characterization for failure criteria of (rubber) materials may provide this unification and also help explain the interaction of temperature effects with failure mechanisms which are described as creation of growth of internal crack surface. Improved structural modeling of tires with FEM should result from such a unified constitutive theory. The theory will also guide experimental work and should enable better interpretation of the results of computational stress analyses.

  3. Energy requirements in nonobese men and women: results from CALERIE.

    PubMed

    Redman, Leanne M; Kraus, William E; Bhapkar, Manju; Das, Sai Krupa; Racette, Susan B; Martin, Corby K; Fontana, Luigi; Wong, William W; Roberts, Susan B; Ravussin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The energy intake necessary to maintain weight and body composition is called the energy requirement for weight maintenance and can be determined by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. The objective was to determine the energy requirements of nonobese men and women in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy 2 study. Energy requirements were determined for 217 healthy, weight-stable men and women [aged >21 to <50 y; 70% female, 77% white; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) 22 to <28; 52% overweight] over 28 d with 2 consecutive 14-d DLW assessments in addition to serial measures of body weight and fat-free mass and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Energy intake and physical activity were also estimated by self-report over ≥6 consecutive d in each DLW period. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was consistent between the 2 DLW studies (TDEE1: 2422 ± 404 kcal/d; TDEE2: 2465 ± 408 kcal/d; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.90) with a mean TDEE of 2443 ± 397 kcal/d that was, on average, 20% (580 kcal/d) higher in men than in women (P < 0.0001). The regression equation relating mean TDEE to demographics and weight was as follows: TDEE (kcal/d) = 1279 + 18.3 (weight, kg) + 2.3 (age, y) - 338 (sex: 1 = female, 0 = male); R(2) = 0.57. When body composition was included, TDEE (kcal/d) = 454 + 38.7 (fat-free mass, kg) - 5.4 (fat mass, kg) + 4.7 (age in y) + 103 (sex: 1 = female, 0 = male); R(2) = 0.65. Individuals significantly underreported energy intake (350 kcal/d; 15%), and underreporting by overweight individuals (~400 kcal/d; 16%) was greater (P < 0.001) than that of normal-weight individuals (~270 kcal/d; 12%). Estimates of TDEE from a 7-d physical activity recall and measured resting metabolic rate also suggested that individuals significantly underreported physical activity (~400 kcal/d; 17%; P < 0.0001). These new equations derived over 1 mo during weight stability can be used to estimate the

  4. Dietary intake, resting energy expenditure, and eating behavior in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ingrid; Hulthén, Lena; Landén, Mikael; Pålsson, Erik; Janson, PerOlof; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2016-02-01

    Data on dietary intake, meal patterns, and eating attitudes from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is limited despite the fact that PCOS is associated with obesity. We aimed to test the hypothesis that women with PCOS display altered dietary intakes and eating behaviors compared to controls. Women with PCOS (n = 72) as defined according to the modified Rotterdam criteria were compared with healthy controls (n = 30). Anthropometry included measurement of waist circumference and determination of the resting metabolic rate via indirect calorimetry. All women completed questionnaires regarding eating behavior; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) and eating attitudes; Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Group comparisons were done by Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis was used for adjustments of age and BMI in a non-parametric way. BMI was higher in women with PCOS compared to controls. Resting metabolic rate did not differ between women with women with and without PCOS after adjustment for age and BMI [1411 ± 229 kcal/day versus 1325 ± 193 kcal per day (P = 0.07)], whereas the respiratory exchange ratio was higher in women with PCOS than in controls [0.83 ± 0.07 versus 0.78 ± 0.08 (P = 0.02 after adjustments for age and BMI)]. Energy percent (E%) carbohydrates was higher in women with PCOS compared to controls (P = 0.017), but E% alcohol was lower (P = 0.036) after adjustment for age and BMI. The average total EAT scores and EAT dieting subscale scores were higher in women with PCOS compared with controls (P = 0.001 and P = 0.024, respectively) after adjustment for age and BMI. No difference was found for previous or current symptoms of bulimia nervosa. Independent of BMI and age, the resting metabolic rate did not differ between women with and without PCOS indicating that women with PCOS should have equal abilities in terms of energy metabolism to lose weight as women without PCOS. Women with PCOS showed greater concerns about their

  5. Palatability, digestibility, and metabolizable energy of dietary glycerol in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Machado, G S; Pezzali, J G; Marx, F R; Kessler, A M; Trevizan, L

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). It is suggested that cats are able to metabolize glycerol and use it as an energy source without compromising health. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the following characteristics of glycerol in the diet for cats: 1) a preference test, 2) digestibility, ME, and fecal and urinary characteristics, and 3) postprandial plasma glycemia. Twelve healthy adult female cats were randomly distributed among 4 treatments consisting of a basal diet (4,090 kcal ME/kg DM, 32% CP, 11% fat, 2.3% crude fiber, and 7.0% ash) and 3 diets with varying percentages of glycerol, made by replacing the basal diet with 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% purified glycerol (99.5%). The inclusion of glycerol proportionally reduced ( < 0.05) water activity in the diets. The preference test was conducted by observing the contrast between the basal diet and the 5.0% and 10% glycerol diets. Cats did not show a preference for any diet in particular ( > 0.05). The digestibility assays showed that increasing dietary glycerol levels did not affect food intake or the apparent total tract digestibility of macronutrients and energy ( > 0.05). The inclusion of glycerol in the diets did not alter the stool moisture, fecal score, or urine volume. However, glycerol was detected in urine when it was incorporated into the diet at 10%. Glycemia increased up to 900 min following the first meal after the fasting period with no difference between treatments, even when the means were adjusted for food intake. The blood glucose area under the curve also showed no significant difference between treatments ( > 0.05). Cats accepted glycerol under the conditions of the study, and its nutritional value was

  6. Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

    2013-10-01

    The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

  7. Appetitive and Dietary Effects of Consuming an Energy-Dense Food (Peanuts) with or between Meals by Snackers and Nonsnackers.

    PubMed

    Devitt, A A; Kuevi, A; Coelho, S B; Lartey, A; Lokko, P; Costa, N; Bressan, J; Mattes, R D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Energy-dense foods are inconsistently implicated in elevated energy intake (EI). This may stem from other food properties and/or differences in dietary incorporation, that is, as snacks or with meals. Objective. Assess intake pattern and food properties on acute appetitive ratings (AR) and EI. Design. 201 normal and overweight adults consuming a standard lunch. Test loads of 1255.2 kJ (300 kcal) were added to the lunch or provided as snack. Loads (peanuts, snack mix, and snack mix with peanuts) were energy, macronutrient, and volumetrically matched with a lunch portion as control. Participants completed meal and snack sessions of their randomly assigned load. Results. No differences were observed in daily EI or AR for meal versus snack or treatment versus control. Consumption of peanuts as a snack tended to strengthen dietary compensation compared to peanuts or other loads with a meal. Conclusions. Inclusion of an energy-dense food as a snack or meal component had comparable influence on AR and EI. Peanuts tended to elicit stronger dietary compensation when consumed as a snack versus with a meal. If substantiated, this latter observation suggests that properties other than those controlled here (energy, macronutrient content, and volume) modify AR and EI.

  8. Determination of dietary iron requirements by full expression of iron-containing cytochrome c oxidase in the heart of broilers from 22 to 42 d of age.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiudong; Ma, Chunyan; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Luo, Xugang

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to determine dietary Fe requirements for the full expression of Fe-containing enzyme in broilers chicks from 22 to 42 d of age. At 22 d of age, 288 Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly assigned to one of six treatments with six replicates and fed a basal maize-soyabean-meal diet (control, containing 47·0 mg Fe/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60, 80 or 100 mg Fe/kg from FeSO4.7H2O for 21 d. Regression analysis was performed to estimate the optimal dietary Fe level using quadratic models. Liver cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), heart Cox and kidney succinate dehydrogenase mRNA levels as well as heart COX activity were affected (P<0·08) by dietary Fe level, and COX mRNA level and activity in heart of broilers increased quadratically (P<0·03) as dietary Fe level increased. The estimates of dietary Fe requirements were 110 and 104 mg/kg for the full expression of Cox mRNA and for its activity in the heart of broilers, respectively. The results from this study indicate that COX mRNA level and activity in the heart are new and sensitive criteria to evaluate the dietary Fe requirements of broilers, and the dietary Fe requirements would be 104-110 mg/kg to support the full expression of COX in the heart of broiler chicks from 22 to 42 d of age, which are higher than the current National Research Council Fe requirement (80 mg/kg) of broiler chicks from 1 to 21 d or 22 to 42 d of age.

  9. Energy Balance: Assessing Dietary Intake and Changes in Body Composition during National Outdoor Leadership School Expeditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Cass A.; Masters, Melissa A.; Rochelle, Shannon; Ruden, Tim; Gookin, John

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake and changes in participants' (N = 39) body composition during National Outdoor Leadership School courses. Body composition, height, and weight were measured pre- and posttrip. Participants completed food logs to record daily dietary intake. Changes in anthropometric measurements were…

  10. Dietary protein intake, energy deficit, and nitrogen balance in normal-weight adults: a randomized controlled

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consuming protein at levels higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) may be metabolically advantageous for overweight and obese individuals attempting weight loss. However, the dose-response characteristics that define the optimal level of dietary protein necessary to sustain measures of...

  11. Energy requirements for HE-3 mining operations on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    At the present rate of world energy consumption (10 TW-y/y) and allowing for an equilibrium consumption of 20 to 30 TW-y/y in mid 21st century, we will exhaust economically recoverable fossil fuels in the next 50 to 60 years. We will then have to rely on nuclear (fission and fusion) and renewable energy to feed, warm, and protect the world's population. Fusion energy is expected to play an important role in the 21st century and there a 2 billion dollar per year research program to commercialize that energy resource. A serious problem with this is its reliance on the D-T fuel cycle which releases 80 percent of its energy in the form of neutrons. These neutrons cause significant radiation damage and induce large amounts of radioactivity. There is another fusion fuel cycle involving the isotopes of Deuterium and Helium-3 which, if configured properly, releases 1 percent or less of its energy in neutrons. Obviously, such a fuel would be preferred, but there is no large source of He-3 known to satisfy world energy needs. Fortunately, a very large source of He-3 was found on the Moon, implanted over the past 4 billion years by the solar wind. Recent analysis of Apollo and Luna data reveals that over a million tons of He-3 sit on the Moon's surface. The potential energy in this He-3 fuel is 10 times that contained in all the coal, oil, and natural gas on the Earth. The purpose of this paper is to examine the energy required to extract the He-3 from the lunar regolith.

  12. Seasonality and dietary requirements: will eating seasonal food contribute to health and environmental sustainability?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2014-08-01

    Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment.

  13. Early Postnatal Cardiomyocyte Proliferation Requires High Oxidative Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Ana Elisa Teófilo Saturi; Bassaneze, Vinícius; Forni, Maria Fernanda; Keusseyan, Aline Alfonso; Kowaltowski, Alicia Juliana; Krieger, José Eduardo

    2017-11-13

    Cardiac energy metabolism must cope with early postnatal changes in tissue oxygen tensions, hemodynamics, and cell proliferation to sustain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes are dependent on high oxidative energy metabolism. We show that energy-related gene expression does not correlate with functional oxidative measurements in the developing heart. Gene expression analysis suggests a gradual overall upregulation of oxidative-related genes and pathways, whereas functional assessment in both cardiac tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes indicated that oxidative metabolism decreases between the first and seventh days after birth. Cardiomyocyte extracellular flux analysis indicated that the decrease in oxidative metabolism between the first and seventh days after birth was mostly related to lower rates of ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that overall energetic demands decrease during this period. In parallel, the proliferation rate was higher for early cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, in vitro nonlethal chemical inhibition of mitochondrial respiration reduced the proliferative capacity of early cardiomyocytes, indicating a high energy demand to sustain cardiomyocyte proliferation. Altogether, we provide evidence that early postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity correlates with high oxidative energy metabolism. The energy requirement decreases as the proliferation ceases in the following days, and both oxidative-dependent metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis subside.

  14. The relationship between dietary intake, exercise, energy balance and the space craft environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2000-01-01

    Space flight is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle, principally from muscles with anti-gravity functions. Examination of data across different missions can permit a distinction to be made between true microgravity responses and what are mission-specific responses. Protein metabolism has been investigated on six missions, four short-term [Shuttle missions Space Life Sciences 1 (1991, SLSI), Space Life Sciences 2 (1993, SLS2), Deutsche-2 (1993, D2) and the Life and Microgravity Sciences (1996, LMS)] and two long-term missions (Skylab 1993 and NASA/MIR, 1996-1998). Measurements made include dietary intake (six missions), nitrogen balance (four missions), whole-body protein kinetics with [15N]glycine as the tracer (four missions) and cortisol excretion (three missions). Also available for comparison are bed rest studies with and without exercise. The purpose of this paper is to see what can be learnt about the muscle loss problem by comparing metabolic results across the six missions for which data are available and against bed rest. The analysis suggests that there is a linkage between the inability to maintain energy balance and exercise, and the connection is the decreased efficiency of removal of the metabolic by-products of exercise (heat, CO2) during space flight.

  15. Effects of dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Yu, Changning; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of different dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrow (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, DLY) pigs (65.0±2.0 kg) were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets: A (44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat, and 12.6% neutral detergent fibre [NDF]), B (37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat, and 15.4% NDF) or C (30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat, and 17.8% NDF). After the duration of 28-day feeding experiment, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered and the M. longissimus lumborum (LL) samples at 45 min postmortem were collected. Compared with diet A, diet C resulted in greater adenosine triphosphate and decreased phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, greater activity of creatine kinase and reduced percentage bound activities of hexokinase (HK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in LL muscles (p<0.05). Moreover, diet C decreased the phosphor-AKT level and increased the hydroxy-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) level, as well as decreased the bound protein expressions of HK II, PKM2, and lactate dehydrogenase A (p<0.05). Diet C with the lowest level of starch and the highest levels of fat and NDF could enhance the PCr utilization and attenuate glycolysis early postmortem in LL muscle of finishing pigs.

  16. Dietary anaplerotic therapy improves peripheral tissue energy metabolism in patients with Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mochel, Fanny; Duteil, Sandrine; Marelli, Cécilia; Jauffret, Céline; Barles, Agnès; Holm, Janette; Sweetman, Lawrence; Benoist, Jean-François; Rabier, Daniel; Carlier, Pierre G; Durr, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    We previously identified a systemic metabolic defect associated with early weight loss in patients with Huntington's disease (HD), suggesting a lack of substrates for the Krebs cycle. Dietary anaplerotic therapy with triheptanoin is used in clinical trials to promote energy production in patients with peripheral and brain Krebs cycle deficit, as its metabolites – C5 ketone bodies – cross the blood–brain barrier. We conducted a short-term clinical trial in six HD patients (UHDRS (Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale)=33±13, 15–49) to monitor the tolerability of triheptanoin. We also assessed peripheral markers of short-term efficacy that were shown to be altered in the early stages of HD, that is, low serum IGF1 and 31P-NMR spectroscopy (NMRS) in muscle. At baseline, 31P-NMRS displayed two patients with end-exercise muscle acidosis despite a low work output. On day 2, the introduction of triheptanoin was well tolerated in all patients, and in particular, there was no evidence of mitochondrial overload from triheptanoin-derived metabolites. After 4 days of triheptanoin-enriched diet, muscle pH regulation was normalized in the two patients with pretreatment metabolic abnormalities. A significant increase in serum IGF1 was also observed in all patients (205±60 ng/ml versus 246±68 ng/ml, P=0.010). This study provides a rationale for extending our anaplerotic approach with triheptanoin in HD. PMID:20512158

  17. Effects of dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Gao, T; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs. Ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS), and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with the WMS diet, pigs fed the PS diet exhibited greater creatine kinase activity, higher adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate contents, lower phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine monophosphate and glycogen contents, and lower glycolytic potential (P<0.05). Moreover, the PS diet led to reduced percentage of bound hexokinase activity, decreased level of phosphorylated AKT (P<0.05) and increased level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (P<0.05). In conclusion, diet with high amylose content might promote PCr degradation and inhibit the rate of glycolysis, followed by attenuation of early postmortem glycolysis in finishing pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of dietary source and intake of energy on immune competence and the response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...

  19. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-08-19

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17-21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  20. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (P<0.01). Energy restriction induced an increase in exercise intensity compared to free-feeding plus exercise conditions. Energy restriction and exercise decreased fasting plasma triglycerides and apoB48 concentrations in obese PCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of

  1. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  2. Dietary fiber does not displace energy but is associated with decreased serum cholesterol concentrations in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Ruottinen, Soile; Lagström, Hanna K; Niinikoski, Harri; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Saarinen, Maiju; Pahkala, Katja A; Hakanen, Maarit; Viikari, Jorma Sa; Simell, Olli

    2010-03-01

    Dietary fiber has health benefits, but fiber recommendations for children are controversial because fiber may displace energy. The objective was to longitudinally evaluate dietary fiber intake in children and to study associations between growth variables, serum cholesterol concentrations, and intakes of fiber, energy, and nutrients. Altogether, 543 children from a prospective randomized atherosclerosis prevention trial (the Special Turku Coronary Risk factor Intervention Project; STRIP) participated in this study between the ages of 8 mo and 9 y. The intervention children (n = 264) were counseled to replace part of saturated fat with unsaturated fat. Nutrient intakes, weight, height, and serum total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were analyzed. Children were divided into 3 groups according to mean dietary fiber intake in foods: low (lowest 10%), high (highest 10%), and average (middle 80%) fiber intakes. Fiber intake associated positively with energy intake and inversely with fat intake. Children with a high fiber intake received more vitamins and minerals than did children in other groups. In longitudinal growth analyses, weights and heights were similar in all 3 fiber intake groups, and fiber intake (g/d) associated positively with weight gain between 8 mo and 2 y. Serum cholesterol concentrations decreased with increasing fiber intakes. Children in the intervention group had a higher fiber intake than did the control children during the entire follow-up period. Fiber intake did not displace energy or disturb growth between 13 mo and 9 y of age. Serum cholesterol values correlated inversely with fiber intake, which indicated that part of the cholesterol-lowering intervention effect in the STRIP project may have been explained by dietary fiber.

  3. Dietary arginine requirements for growth are dependent on the rate of citrulline production in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many species, including humans, arginine is considered a semiessential amino acid because under certain conditions endogenous synthesis cannot meet its demand. The requirements of arginine for growth in mice are ill defined and seem to vary depending on the genetic background of the mice. The obj...

  4. Minimum energy dissipation required for a logically irreversible operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2018-01-01

    According to Landauer's principle, the minimum heat emission required for computing is linked to logical entropy, or logical reversibility. The validity of Landauer's principle has been investigated for several decades and was finally demonstrated in recent experiments by showing that the minimum heat emission is associated with the reduction in logical entropy during a logically irreversible operation. Although the relationship between minimum heat emission and logical reversibility is being revealed, it is not clear how much free energy is required to be dissipated for a logically irreversible operation. In the present study, in order to reveal the connection between logical reversibility and free energy dissipation, we numerically demonstrated logically irreversible protocols using adiabatic superconductor logic. The calculation results of work during the protocol showed that, while the minimum heat emission conforms to Landauer's principle, the free energy dissipation can be arbitrarily reduced by performing the protocol quasistatically. The above results show that logical reversibility is not associated with thermodynamic reversibility, and that heat is not only emitted from logic devices but also absorbed by logic devices. We also formulated the heat emission from adiabatic superconductor logic during a logically irreversible operation at a finite operation speed.

  5. Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  6. Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory - Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames/Dryden Flight Research Facility operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing NiCd batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has evolved over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  7. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  8. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

  9. Antenatal dietary advice and supplementation to increase energy and protein intake.

    PubMed

    Ota, Erika; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Mori, Rintaro; Farrar, Diane

    2012-09-12

    Gestational weight gain is positively associated with fetal growth, and observational studies of food supplementation in pregnancy have reported increases in gestational weight gain and fetal growth. To assess the effects of advice during pregnancy to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, on energy and protein intakes, and the effect on maternal and infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (22 July 2011) and contacted researchers in the field. We updated the search on 12 July 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Randomised controlled trials of dietary advice to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data and checked for accuracy. Extracted data were supplemented by additional information from the trialists we contacted. We examined 110 reports corresponding to 46 trials. Of these trials, 15 were included, 30 were excluded, and one is ongoing. Overall, 15 trials involving 7410 women were included.Nutritional advice (four trials, 790 women)Women given nutritional advice had a lower relative risk of having a preterm birth (two trials, 449 women) (risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98 ), head circumference at birth was increased in one trial (389 women) (mean difference (MD) 0.99 cm, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.55) and protein intake increased (three trials, 632 women) (protein intake: MD +6.99 g/day, 95% CI 3.02 to 10.97). No significant differences were observed on any other outcomes.Balanced energy and protein supplementation (11 trials, 5385 women)Risk of stillbirth was significantly reduced for women given balanced energy and protein supplementation (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.98, five trials, 3408 women), mean birthweight was

  10. Effect of dietary energy on growth and reproductive characteristics of Angus and Senepol bulls during summer in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Randel, R D

    1993-07-01

    Pubertal Angus bulls (n=10, 503 days of age and weighing 366 kg) and Senepol bulls (n=10, 457 days of age and weighing 381 kg) were stratified by age and weight into 2 dietary treatments formulated to provide equal amounts of crude protein and 75% (below) or 150% (above) of the maintenance requirements for metabolizable energy. Measurements to assess body growth and libido were collected at 28-day intervals for 112 days (June through September). Twice during each 28-day interval, the bulls were subjected to breeding soundness examinations. At the end of the experiment, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) - induced secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) in the serum were determined. At the end of the experiment, bulls fed the above maintenance diet (P<0.0001) were 91 kg heavier, had 1.7 mm more backfat thickness and 12.6 cm(2) larger ribeye area than bulls on a below maintenance diet. Diet affected (P<0.003) the average daily change in scrotal circumference, but not the libido score (P>0.1) or semen quality. In general, Angus bulls had superior initial semen quality (P<0.06); however, during summer, semen quality tended to decrease in Angus but not in Senepol bulls. The final rectal temperature was 0.5 degrees C lower (P<0.003) in Senepol than in Angus bulls. Basal T concentrations and area under the GnRH-induced T curve were greater (P<0.07) for bulls fed the above rather than the below maintenance diet. Angus bulls had a higher (P<0.03) maximal LH response to GnRH and larger area under the GnRH-induced LH curve than Senepol bulls.

  11. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. Themore » effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report

  12. Peptide-chaperone-directed transdermal protein delivery requires energy.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Renquan; Jin, Peipei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Changli; Chen, Chuanjun; Ding, Weiping; Wen, Longping

    2014-11-03

    The biologically inspired transdermal enhanced peptide TD1 has been discovered to specifically facilitate transdermal delivery of biological macromolecules. However, the biological behavior of TD1 has not been fully defined. In this study, we find that energy is required for the TD1-mediated transdermal protein delivery through rat and human skins. Our results show that the permeation activity of TD1-hEGF, a fusion protein composed of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and the TD1 sequence connected with a glycine-serine linker (GGGGS), can be inhibited by the energy inhibitor, rotenone or oligomycin. In addition, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the essential energetic molecule in organic systems, can effectively facilitate the TD1 directed permeation of the protein-based drug into the skin in a dose-dependent fashion. Our results here demonstrate a novel energy-dependent permeation process during the TD1-mediated transdermal protein delivery that could be valuable for the future development of promising new transdermal drugs.

  13. Prediction Equations Overestimate the Energy Requirements More for Obesity-Susceptible Individuals.

    PubMed

    McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Gray, Andrew R; Jones, Lynnette M; Taylor, Rachael W; Skidmore, Paula M L; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-09-13

    Predictive equations to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) are often used in dietary counseling and by online apps to set energy intake goals for weight loss. It is critical to know whether such equations are appropriate for those susceptible to obesity. We measured RMR by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast in 26 obesity susceptible (OSI) and 30 obesity resistant (ORI) individuals, identified using a simple 6-item screening tool. Predicted RMR was calculated using the FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation/United Nations University), Oxford and Miflin-St Jeor equations. Absolute measured RMR did not differ significantly between OSI versus ORI (6339 vs. 5893 kJ·d -1 , p = 0.313). All three prediction equations over-estimated RMR for both OSI and ORI when measured RMR was ≤5000 kJ·d -1 . For measured RMR ≤7000 kJ·d -1 there was statistically significant evidence that the equations overestimate RMR to a greater extent for those classified as obesity susceptible with biases ranging between around 10% to nearly 30% depending on the equation. The use of prediction equations may overestimate RMR and energy requirements particularly in those who self-identify as being susceptible to obesity, which has implications for effective weight management.

  14. Metabolic flexibility as an adaptation to energy resources and requirements in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Reuben L; Soeters, Maarten R; Wüst, Rob C I; Houtkooper, Riekelt H

    2018-04-24

    The ability to efficiently adapt metabolism by substrate sensing, trafficking, storage and utilization, dependent on availability and requirement is known as metabolic flexibility. In this review, we discuss the breadth and depth of metabolic flexibility and its impact on health and disease. Metabolic flexibility is essential to maintain energy homeostasis in times of either caloric excess or caloric restriction, and in times of either low or high energy demand, such as during exercise. The liver, adipose tissue and muscle govern systemic metabolic flexibility and manage nutrient sensing, uptake, transport, storage and expenditure by communication via endocrine cues. At a molecular level, metabolic flexibility relies on the configuration of metabolic pathways which is regulated by key metabolic enzymes and transcription factors, many of which interact closely with the mitochondria. Disrupted metabolic flexibility, or metabolic inflexibility, however, is associated with many pathological conditions including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Multiple factors like dietary composition and feeding frequency, exercise training, and use of pharmacological compounds influence metabolic flexibility and will be discussed here. Lastly, we outline important advances in metabolic flexibility research and discuss medical horizons and translational aspects.

  15. Energy density of the Scottish diet estimated from food purchase data: relationship with socio-economic position and dietary targets.

    PubMed

    Barton, Karen L; Wrieden, Wendy L; Sherriff, Andrea; Armstrong, Julie; Anderson, Annie S

    2014-07-14

    Frequent consumption of energy-dense foods has been strongly implicated in the global increase of obesity. The World Cancer Research Fund suggests a population-level energy density (ED) goal for diets of 523 kJ/100 g (125 kcal/100 g) as desirable for reducing weight gain and related co-morbidities. However, there is limited information about the ED of diets of contemporary populations. The aims of the present study were to (1) estimate the mean ED of the Scottish diet, (2) assess differences in ED over time by socio-economic position, by household (HH) composition and for HH meeting dietary targets for fat and fruit and vegetables, and (3) assess the relationship between ED and the consumption of foods and nutrients, which are indicative of diet quality. ED of the diet was estimated from food (including milk) from UK food purchase survey data. The average ED of the Scottish diet was estimated as 718 kJ/100 g with no change between the survey periods 2001 and 2009. Individuals living in the most deprived areas had a higher mean ED than those living in the least deprived areas (737 v. 696 kJ/100 g). Single-parent HH had the highest mean ED (765 kJ/100 g) of all the HH surveyed. The mean ED of HH achieving dietary targets for fat and fruit and vegetables was 576 kJ/100 g compared with 731 kJ/100 g for non-achievers. HH within the lowest quintile of ED were, on average, closest to meeting most dietary guidelines. Food purchase data can be used to monitor the quality of the diet in terms of dietary ED of the population and subgroups defined by an area-based measure of socio-economic status.

  16. Dietary non-phytate phosphorus requirement of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age.

    PubMed

    Liu, S B; Liao, X D; Lu, L; Li, S F; Wang, L; Zhang, L Y; Jiang, Y; Luo, X G

    2017-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) level on growth performance, bone characteristics and phosphorus metabolism-related gene expressions, so as to evaluate the dietary NPP requirement of broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age. A total of 540 day-old Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly allocated to one of nine treatments with six replicate cages of 10 birds per cage in a completely randomized design, and fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (containing 0.08% of NPP) supplemented with 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, or 0.50% of inorganic phosphorus in the form of CaHPO 4 ·2H 2 O, respectively. Each diet contained the constant calcium content of about 1.0%. The results showed that daily weight gain, serum inorganic P, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage, tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), middle toe ash percentage, middle toe BMC and BMD were affected (P < 0.0001) by dietary NPP level, and increased linearly (P < 0.0001) and quadraticly (P < 0.004) as dietary NPP levels increased. The gene expression of type IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) in the duodenum was affected (P < 0.03) and decreased linearly (P < 0.002) as dietary NPP levels increased. Dietary NPP requirements estimated based on fitted broken-line models (P < 0.0001) of the sensitive indices including daily weight gain, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage, tibia BMC and BMD as well as middle toe ash percentage were 0.34∼0.39%. The results from this study indicate that tibia BMC and BMD might be new, sensitive, and noninvasive criteria to evaluate the dietary NPP requirements of broilers, and the dietary NPP requirement is 0.39% for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 1 to 21 d of age. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Low-maintenance energy requirements of obese dogs after weight loss.

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Mather, Nicola J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( < 1 % change) was identified post-weight loss, when food intake was constant and activity levels were stable (assessed via owners' diary records). Post-weight-loss MER was indirectly estimated by determining dietary energy consumption during this stable weight period. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors that were associated with post-weight-loss MER. The mean length of stable weight after weight loss was 54 (SD 34.1) d. During this time, MER was 285 (SD 54.8) kJ/kg(0.75) per d. The rate of prior weight loss and food intake during the weight-loss phase was positively associated with post-weight-loss MER, while the amount of lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.

  18. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  19. Physical and energy requirements of competitive swimming events.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Sharp, Rick L

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic sports competitions held during the summer Olympic Games include diving, open-water swimming, pool swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo. Elite-level performance in each of these sports requires rigorous training and practice to develop the appropriate physiological, biomechanical, artistic, and strategic capabilities specific to each sport. Consequently, the daily training plans of these athletes are quite varied both between and within the sports. Common to all aquatic athletes, however, is that daily training and preparation consumes several hours and involves frequent periods of high-intensity exertion. Nutritional support for this high-level training is a critical element of the preparation of these athletes to ensure the energy and nutrient demands of the training and competition are met. In this article, we introduce the fundamental physical requirements of these sports and specifically explore the energetics of human locomotion in water. Subsequent articles in this issue explore the specific nutritional requirements of each aquatic sport. We hope that such exploration will provide a foundation for future investigation of the roles of optimal nutrition in optimizing performance in the aquatic sports.

  20. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sonia Y; Chrystal, Peter V; Cowieson, Aaron J; Truong, Ha H; Moss, Amy F; Selle, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05) when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05). However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027) and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042) than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P < 0.0001) than low energy (197 g/bird) or medium energy diets (663 g/bird) whilst broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg) or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg) concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P < 0.0001) and higher carcass yield (88.1 versus 87.3%, P = 0.012) than sequentially fed birds. This suggests that the dietary balance between protein and energy is essential for optimal feed conversion efficiency. The intake path of

  1. The influence of the selection of macronutrients coupled with dietary energy density on the performance of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chrystal, Peter V.; Cowieson, Aaron J.; Truong, Ha H.; Moss, Amy F.; Selle, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05) when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05). However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027) and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042) than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P < 0.0001) than low energy (197 g/bird) or medium energy diets (663 g/bird) whilst broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg) or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg) concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P < 0.0001) and higher carcass yield (88.1 versus 87.3%, P = 0.012) than sequentially fed birds. This suggests that the dietary balance between protein and energy is essential for optimal feed conversion efficiency. The intake path of

  2. Associations Between Dietary Energy Density in Mothers and Growth of Breastfeeding Infants During the First 4 Months of Life.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Maedeh; Maracy, Mohammad R; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2018-05-31

    Despite the overwhelming impact of dietary energy density on the quality of the entire diet, no research has investigated dietary energy density among lactating mothers. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the influence of maternal dietary energy density during lactation on infant growth. Three hundred healthy lactating mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the study. Detailed demographic information and dietary intake data were collected from the lactating mothers. Anthropometric features such as infant weight, height, and head circumference at birth and 2 and 4 months and mother's pregnancy and postpartum weight and height were derived from health center records. Data on physical activity were reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. After adjusting for confounding variables, infant weight, length, weight-for-height, and head circumference at birth, 2 months, and 4 months did not show significant differences among four dietary energy density categories (all p values > 0.01). Our study showed no association among quartiles of dietary energy density among lactating mothers and infant weight, length, weight-for-height, and head circumference growth by 2 and 4 months of age.

  3. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects < or =50 yrs of age with non-negative AEE values (n = 404), although results were directionally similar for all samples. Allometric models, including age as a covariate, revealed significantly (P < 0.05) greater REE, AEE, and TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P < 0.01) with predicted mass-specific TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P < 0.001) and women (P < 0.01). Results were generally robust across several different analytic strategies. These observations reveal previously unforeseen associations between human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole.

  4. Effect of dietary manipulation on substrate flux and energy balance in obese women taking the appetite suppressant dexfenfluramine.

    PubMed

    Poppitt, S D; Swann, D L; Murgatroyd, P R; Elia, M; McDevitt, R M; Prentice, A M

    1998-11-01

    Studies in lean men show poor regulation of energy (EB) and fat balance (FB) during manipulation of dietary ratios of fat to carbohydrate. High-fat (HF), high-energy diets cause hyperphagia and a positive EB and FB. The protocol was designed to measure substrate flux and EB in obese women taking dexfenfluramine (DF) or placebo (PL) during an HF (50% of energy) or low-fat (25% of energy; LF) diet. We hypothesized that alterations in dietary fat would not be regulated and would lead to a positive EB and FB. The study was double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled, with 4 treatments (LF/DF, HF/DF, LF/PL, and HF/PL) and a crossover. Five days of continuous, whole-body calorimetry measurements were made in 6 subjects after 8 d of home DF/PL treatment. Macronutrient balance and EB were measured within the chamber as the cumulative difference between ad libitum intake and oxidation. The HF diet increased energy (HF, 10.50 MJ/d; LF, 8.13 MJ/d; P < 0.0001) and fat intakes (HF, 5.34 MJ/d; LF, 2.06 MJ/d; P < 0.0001), leading to a positive EB (delta = 2.37 MJ/d) and FB (delta = 2.31 MJ/d). DF reduced energy (DF, 8.96 MJ/d; PL, 9.66 MJ/d; P < 0.01) and macronutrient intakes, but did not increase energy expenditure (delta = -0.31 MJ/d; P < 0.01), or 24-h fat oxidation (delta = 0.03 MJ/d; P = 0.46). EB and FB are poorly regulated with HF, energy-dense diets in obese women, which leads to fat deposition and weight gain.

  5. Achieving the WHO sodium target: estimation of reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Shields, Emma; Webster, Jacqui; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium intake is one of the top 2 dietary risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. As such, many countries are now developing national sodium reduction strategies, a key component of which is a sodium reduction model that includes sodium targets for packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium. We sought to develop a sodium reduction model to determine the reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other dietary sources of sodium to reduce adult population salt intake by ∼30% toward the optimal WHO target of 5 g/d. Nationally representative household food-purchasing data for New Zealand were linked with branded food composition information to determine the mean contribution of major packaged food categories to total population sodium consumption. Discretionary salt use and the contribution of sodium from fresh foods and foods consumed away from the home were estimated with the use of national nutrition survey data. Reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other dietary sources of sodium to achieve a 30% reduction in dietary sodium intakes were estimated. A 36% reduction (1.6 g salt or 628 mg Na) in the sodium content of packaged foods in conjunction with a 40% reduction in discretionary salt use and the sodium content of foods consumed away from the home would reduce total population salt intake in New Zealand by 35% (from 8.4 to 5.5 g/d) and thus meet the WHO 2025 30% relative reduction target. Key reductions required include a decrease of 21% in the sodium content of white bread, 27% for hard cheese, 42% for sausages, and 54% for ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. Achieving the WHO sodium target in New Zealand will take considerable efforts by both food manufacturers and consumers and will likely require a national government-led sodium reduction strategy. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  7. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  8. Antenatal dietary education and supplementation to increase energy and protein intake.

    PubMed

    Ota, Erika; Hori, Hiroyuki; Mori, Rintaro; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Farrar, Diane

    2015-06-02

    Gestational weight gain is positively associated with fetal growth, and observational studies of food supplementation in pregnancy have reported increases in gestational weight gain and fetal growth. To assess the effects of education during pregnancy to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, on energy and protein intake, and the effect on maternal and infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2015), reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials of dietary education to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data and checked for accuracy. Extracted data were supplemented by additional information from the trialists we contacted. We examined 149 reports corresponding to 65 trials. Of these trials, 17 were included, 46 were excluded, and two are ongoing. Overall, 17 trials involving 9030 women were included. For this update, we assessed methodological quality of the included trials using the standard Cochrane criteria (risk of bias) and the GRADE approach. The overall risk of bias was unclear. Nutritional education (five trials, 1090 women) Women given nutritional education had a lower relative risk of having a preterm birth (two trials, 449 women) (risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98, low-quality evidence), and low birthweight (one trial, 300 women) (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.14). Head circumference at birth was increased in one trial (389 women) (mean difference (MD) 0.99 cm, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.55), while birthweight was significantly increased among undernourished women in two trials (320 women) (MD 489.76 g, 95% CI 427.93 to 551.59, low-quality evidence), but did not significantly increase for

  9. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in Japanese adult men.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  10. The Overnight Effect of Dietary Energy Balance on Postprandial Plasma Free Amino Acid (PFAA) Profiles in Japanese Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40–61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion. PMID:23667542

  11. Identification of new genetic polymorphisms that alter the dietary requirement for choline and vary in their distribution across ethnic and racial groups

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Corbin, Karen D.; Niculescu, Mihai D.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Effect alleles (alleles with a polymorphism that is associated with the effect being measured) in a small number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known to influence the dietary requirement for choline. In this study, we examined a much larger number of SNPs (n=200) in 10 genes related to choline metabolism for associations with development of organ dysfunction (liver or muscle) when 79 humans were fed a low-choline diet. We confirmed that effect alleles in SNPs such as the C allele of PEMT rs12325817 increase the risk of developing organ dysfunction in women when they consume a diet low in choline, and we identified novel effect alleles, such as the C allele of CHKA SNP rs7928739, that alter dietary choline requirements. When fed a low-choline diet, some people presented with muscle damage rather than liver damage; several effect alleles in SLC44A1 (rs7873937, G allele; rs2771040, G; rs6479313, G; rs16924529, A; and rs3199966, C) and one in CHKB (rs1557502, A) were more common in these individuals. This suggests that pathways related to choline metabolism are more important for normal muscle function than previously thought. In European, Mexican, and Asian Americans, and in individuals of African descent, we examined the prevalence of the effect alleles in SNPs that alter choline requirement and found that they are differentially distributed among people of different ethnic and racial backgrounds. Overall, our study has identified novel genetic variants that modulate choline requirements and suggests that the dietary requirement for choline may be different across racial and ethnic groups.—Da Costa, K.-A., Corbin, K. D., Niculescu, M. D., Galanko, J. A., Zeisel, S. H. Identification of new genetic polymorphisms that alter the dietary requirement for choline and vary in their distribution across ethnic and racial groups. PMID:24671709

  12. Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic.

    PubMed

    Perween, Shahla; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Chandramoni; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Dey, Amitava

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding dietary level of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic. The experiment was conducted for 56 days on 540 1-day-old chicks, which were individually weighed and distributed into nine groups having 60 birds in each. Each group was further subdivided into triplicates having 20 birds in each. Nine different experimental rations were formulated with three levels of protein, viz., 17%, 19%, and 21%; each with three levels of energy (2600, 2800, and 3000 kcal metabolizable energy [ME]/kg), respectively. Group T8 serves as control fed with 21% protein and 2800 kcal energy as per Project Directorate of Poultry, Hyderabad given requirement. Feed consumption, live weight gain, body weight change, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed every week. All the birds were vaccinated following standard protocol. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test have been performed to assess the immunity potential of birds due to dietary effect, and serum samples were subjected to HI test at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Finally, economics of broiler production was calculated on the cost of feed per kg live weight gain. This study revealed that the effect of feeding different levels of energy and protein on growth parameters such as body weight gain and FCR was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) containing 19% and 21% crude protein with 3000 kcal ME/kg in Vanaraja birds. There was a gradual increase in antibody titer against New castle disease virus as the level of protein and energy increase. It is speculated that the better body weight gain corroborate health and antibody titer. Moreover, the better immune response recorded in the study might be due to better nutrient utilization and its extension toward the better immune response. Higher energy with medium protein diet positively reflects to obtain desirable performance

  13. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physicsmore » (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them

  14. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinne, A.; Morrison, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Photovoltaics is subject of an extensive technology assessment in terms of its net energy potential as an alternate energy source. Reduction of quartzite pebbles, refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building are evaluated for energy expenditure compared to direct, indirect, and overhead energies.

  15. Effect of different dietary energy level intakes on efficiency of estrus synchronization and fertility in Mashona goat does.

    PubMed

    Kusina, N T.; Chinuwo, T; Hamudikuwanda, H; Ndlovu, L R.; Muzanenhamo, S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of three dietary energy levels: 0.27 (low level: LL); 0.53 (medium level: ML), and 1.06 (high level: HL) MJMEkg(-1)W(0.75) on estrus synchronization and fertility in Mashona goat does. Forty-five multiparous Mashona goat does of average bodyweight 19.9+/-2.5kg were randomly allocated in equal numbers to the three dietary energy levels. The diets were made from a complete feed ration providing 9.83MJMEkg(-1)DM and 15.5% CPkg(-1)DM. Does were fed initially during a 60-day pre-synchronization period, and blood samples were collected twice a week for the determination of plasma progesterone concentrations to ascertain ovarian activity. Intramuscular injections of cloprostenol (100µg each) were administered 11 days apart. Immediately after the second injection of cloprostenol, three fertile bucks were introduced to the does and were left with the does for 21 days. The does were maintained on their dietary treatments throughout gestation except for those does in the LL treatment. Pregnancy was diagnosed 90 days post-mating using an ultrasound scanner. After pregnancy diagnosis, does on the LL treatment were randomly allocated to ML (n=7) and HL (n=8) treatments. During the pre-synchronization period, does on the LL treatment lost 12.3% whereas those on ML and HL treatments gained 2.1 and 28.8% of their initial bodymasses, respectively. The proportion of does exhibiting overt estrus within 96h after the last cloprostenol injection was significantly lower (P<0.05) for does on the LL treatment (60%) than for those on ML (93%) or HL (100%) treatments, respectively. However, based on plasma progesterone concentrations, the percentage of does on the LL treatment that exhibited ovarian cycles was numerically lower than that of does that were bred (40 versus 73%). Conception, fecundity and twinning rates were significantly lower (P<0.05) on the LL treatment than on the ML and HL treatments. These results indicate that

  16. Postnatal dietary fatty acid composition permanently affects the structure of hypothalamic pathways controlling energy balance in mice.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Lidewij; Bouyer, Karine; Oosting, Annemarie; Simerly, Richard B; van der Beek, Eline M

    2013-12-01

    We previously reported that dietary lipid quality during early life can have long-lasting effects on metabolic health and adiposity. Exposure to a postnatal diet with low dietary omega-6 (n-6) or high omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) content resulted in reduced body fat accumulation when challenged with a moderate Western-style diet (WSD) beginning in adolescence. We determined whether this programming effect is accompanied by changes in hypothalamic neural projections or modifications in the postnatal leptin surge, which would indicate the altered development of hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. Neonatal mice were subjected to a control diet (CTR) or experimental diet with altered relative n-6 and n-3 FA contents [ie, a diet with a relative reduction in n-6 fatty acid (LOW n-6) or a diet with a relative increase in n-3 fatty acid (HIGH n-3) compared with the CTR from postnatal day (PN) 2 to 42]. Compared with CTR mice, mice fed a LOW n-6 or HIGH n-3 during postnatal life showed significant reductions in the density of both orexigenic and anorexigenic neural projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus at PN 28. These impairments persisted into adulthood and were still apparent after the WSD challenge between PNs 42 and 98. However, the neuroanatomical changes were not associated with changes in the postnatal leptin surge. Although the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated, our data indicate that the quality of dietary FA during postnatal life affects the development of the central regulatory circuits that control energy balance and may do so through a leptin-independent mechanism.

  17. Fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy for energy intake at school meals differs by social desirability and body mass index percentile in a study concerning retention interval.

    PubMed

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hardin, James W; Mackelprang, Alyssa J; Smith, Albert F

    2010-05-01

    Data from a study concerning retention interval and school-meal observation on children's dietary recalls were used to investigate relationships of social desirability score (SDS) and body mass index percentile (BMI%) to recall accuracy for energy for observed (n = 327) children, and to reported energy for observed and unobserved (n = 152) children. Report rates (reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS and BMI%. Correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS. Inflation ratios (overreported/observed) correlated negatively with BMI%. The relationship between reported energy and each of SDS and BMI% did not depend on observation status. Studies utilizing children's dietary recalls should assess SDS and BMI%.

  18. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  19. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Longland, Thomas M; Oikawa, Sara Y; Mitchell, Cameron J; Devries, Michaela C; Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-03-01

    A dietary protein intake higher than the Recommended Dietary Allowance during an energy deficit helps to preserve lean body mass (LBM), particularly when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to conduct a proof-of-principle trial to test whether manipulation of dietary protein intake during a marked energy deficit in addition to intense exercise training would affect changes in body composition. We used a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. During a 4-wk period, we provided hypoenergetic (~40% reduction compared with requirements) diets providing 33 ± 1 kcal/kg LBM to young men who were randomly assigned (n = 20/group) to consume either a lower-protein (1.2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) control diet (CON) or a higher-protein (2.4 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) diet (PRO). All subjects performed resistance exercise training combined with high-intensity interval training for 6 d/wk. A 4-compartment model assessment of body composition was made pre- and postintervention. As a result of the intervention, LBM increased (P < 0.05) in the PRO group (1.2 ± 1.0 kg) and to a greater extent (P < 0.05) compared with the CON group (0.1 ± 1.0 kg). The PRO group had a greater loss of fat mass than did the CON group (PRO: -4.8 ± 1.6 kg; CON: -3.5 ± 1.4kg; P < 0.05). All measures of exercise performance improved similarly in the PRO and CON groups as a result of the intervention with no effect of protein supplementation. Changes in serum cortisol during the intervention were associated with changes in body fat (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and LBM (r = -0.34, P = 0.03). Our results showed that, during a marked energy deficit, consumption of a diet containing 2.4 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) was more effective than consumption of a diet containing 1.2 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) in promoting increases in LBM and losses of fat mass when combined with a high volume of resistance and anaerobic exercise. Changes in serum cortisol were associated with changes in body

  20. ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

  1. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP <30%, FP=30 to 59%, FP=60 to 99%, and FP=100%. The MEm for individual cows was calculated from heat production minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention and pregnancy, and kl was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. Increasing FP significantly reduced ME intake and milk energy output, although the differences between the 2 low FP groups were not significant. However, increasing FP significantly increased the ratio of heat production over ME intake and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), with the exception that the increases did not reach significance in heat production/ME intake between FP <30% and FP=30 to 59%, or in MEm between FP=60 to 99% and FP=100%. However, the FP had no significant effect on the kl values, which were similar among the 4 groups of cows. The effect of FP was also evaluated using the linear mixed regression technique relating El(0) to ME intake. The results demonstrated that with a common regression coefficient (slope), the regression constants (intercepts) taken as net energy requirement for maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research

  2. Luteal activity and effect of dietary energy restriction on follicular development in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Comin, A; Peric, T; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Marchi, V; Veronesi, M C; Prandi, A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research has been to evaluate the presence of anomalies in the ovarian cycle activity during postpartum and to verify whether 72-hr dietary fasting during the dominance phase, the phase before ovulation, might modify the ovarian follicle population. The presence of anomalies in ovarian cycle activity has been evaluated in 30 Italian Friesian cows starting from 20 days postpartum until 211 days of lactation. Long oestrus and brief dioestrus or scarce luteal activity have been the main anomalies found through measuring progesterone concentrations in the whey. Until 100 days of lactation, the BCS values of the problematic animals have been significantly lower than those in animals with normal ovarian activity. After 100 days of lactation, the ovarian anomalies continued to appear despite the fact that all the animals have reached comparable BCS values. Starting from the results of this trial, the effect of 72-hr dietary fasting on dominant follicles has been studied in six cows. Ultrasonography revealed that the diameter of the follicles at 71 days postpartum has been significantly lower than at 181 days. A 72-hr dietary restriction at 101 and 211 days postpartum did not affect the size of the dominant follicle. However, at 101 days postpartum, half of the animals presented follicular cysts. The effect of fasting differed if the animal has been in early postpartum or 211 days of lactation. Further researches are necessary to understand how different metabolic conditions can modify the follicular population but on the other hand the study shows the utility for farmers and field veterinarians of monitoring the resumption of the ovarian cycle postpartum through the whey progesterone concentrations. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Energy requirements in preschool-age children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jacqueline L; Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Davies, Peter S W

    2012-12-01

    There is a paucity of data concerning the energy requirements (ERs) of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP), the knowledge of which is essential for early nutritional management. We aimed to determine the ERs for preschool-age children with CP in relation to functional ability, motor type, and distribution and compared with typically developing children (TDC) and published estimation equations. Thirty-two children with CP (63% male) of all functional abilities, motor types, and distributions and 16 TDC (63% male) aged 2.9-4.4 y participated in this study. The doubly labeled water method was used to determine ERs. Statistical analyses were conducted by 1-factor ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests, independent and paired t tests, Bland and Altman analyses, correlations, and multivariable regressions. As a population, children with CP had significantly lower ERs than did TDC (P < 0.05). No significant difference in ERs was found between ambulant children and TDC. Marginally ambulant and nonambulant children had ERs that were ∼18% lower than those of ambulant children and 31% lower than those of TDC. A trend toward lower ERs with greater numbers of limbs involved was observed. The influence of motor type could not be determined statistically. Published equations substantially underestimated ERs in the nonambulant children by ∼22%. In preschool-age children with CP, ERs decreased as ambulatory status declined and more limbs were involved. The greatest predictor of ERs was fat-free mass, then ambulatory status. Future research should build on the information presented to expand the knowledge base regarding ERs in children with CP. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN 12612000686808.

  4. Determination of net energy content of dietary lipids fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Li, Enkai; Liu, Hu; Li, Yakui; Liu, Ling; Wang, Fenglai; Li, Defa; Zhang, Shuai

    2018-06-04

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the NE content of different dietary lipids fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry. Thirty-six growing (initial BW: 41.1 ± 3.1 kg) barrows were allotted to 6 diets based on completely randomized design with 6 replicate pigs per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 5 test diets each containing 10% palm oil, poultry fat, fish oil, corn oil, or flaxseed oil at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 14 d, which included 7 d for adaptation to feed, metabolism crates, and environmental conditions. On day 8, pigs were transferred to the open-circuit respiration chambers and fed 1 of the 6 diets at 2.3 MJ ME/kg BW0.6/day. Total feces and urine were collected and daily heat production (HP) was also calculated from day 9 to day 13. On the last day of each period (day 14), pigs were fasted and the fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. The results show that the FHP of pigs averaged 809 kJ/kg BW0.6·day-1 and was not affected by diet characteristics. The DE values were 35.98, 36.84, 37.11, 38.95, and 38.38 MJ/kg DM, the ME values were 35.79, 36.56, 36.92, 37.73, and 38.11 MJ/kg DM, and the NE values were 32.42, 33.21, 33.77, 34.00, and 34.12 MJ/kg DM, for the palm oil, poultry fat, fish oil, corn oil, and flaxseed oil, respectively. Based on our result, we concluded that the DE content of dietary lipid varied from 91% to 98% of its GE content, the ME content of dietary lipid was approximately 99% of its DE content, and the NE content of dietary lipid was approximately 90% of its ME content in growing pigs.

  5. A Healthy Dietary Pattern at Midlife, Combined with a Regulated Energy Intake, Is Related to Increased Odds for Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Lassale, Camille; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DPs) on healthy aging (HA), and current findings are inconsistent. Our study's objective was to investigate the association between empirically derived DPs in midlife and HA after 13 y of follow-up. Baseline dietary data from repeated 24-h dietary records (on average, 10 records per participant) of a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study allowed extraction of 2 DPs with the use of principal components analysis on 37 food groups. HA was assessed in 2007-2009 among 2796 participants of the SU.VI.MAX study aged 45-60 y at baseline (1994-1995), who were initially free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health, and no function-limiting pain. The association between DPs (in tertiles) and HA was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, and a potential interaction with energy intake was investigated. A "Western" and a "healthy" DP were identified. After adjustment for a large number of potential confounders, there was no significant association between the Western DP and HA. Moreover, the healthy pattern was not associated with HA among subjects with high (i.e., greater than or equal to the median) energy intake. Among subjects with low (i.e., less than the median) energy intake, on the other hand, higher scores on the healthy DP were related to higher odds of HA (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00; P-trend = 0.01). Adherence to a healthy diet in midlife that provides micronutrients, fiber, and antioxidants while regulating energy intake may help to promote HA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Effects of increasing dietary concentrations of specific structured triacylglycerides on performance and nitrogen and energy metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zheng, C-T; Jørgensen, H; Høy, C-E; Jakobsen, K

    2006-04-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerides (STG) containing medium chain fatty acids in sn-1,3 positions and a long chain fatty acid in sn-2 position were prepared from rapeseed oil and capric acid (C10:0). A total of 80 female broiler chickens (Ross 208) were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments as two series of 40 chicks: a basal diet with graded levels of STG of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg diet at the expense of rapeseed oil were fed to the chickens in groups of four. At 12 d of age the chickens were placed pair-wise in metabolism cages. The grower period (d 13-36) was divided into four consecutive balance periods each of 6 d. Two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air circuit respiration chambers were performed during the second and third day of each balance period. During the whole experiment there was a negative effect of the inclusion of STG on average feed intake. However, this only slightly affected average daily weight gain. Feed conversion efficiency improved linearly with the inclusion level of STG. Daily gain adjusted to mean daily feed intake increased linearly with inclusion rate of STG, indicating that the weight gain was affected by both feed intake and the enhancing effect on digestibility of STG. Weight of small intestine and colon decreased with increasing inclusion of STG. Utilisation of dietary protein relative to intake increased while that of retained fat tended to decrease resulting in a decreased utilisation of metabolisable energy (RE/ME) in birds receiving STG. Heat production (HE) was slightly lower in the STG groups. More of the dietary fat was oxidised when more STG was added, although the total amount of fat in the diets was kept constant.

  7. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in California

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generatorsmore » under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.« less

  8. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generatorsmore » under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.« less

  9. Managing Campus Energy: Compromising between Rapid Needs and Environmental Requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Utama, Yos J.; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of energy, especially electricity at Diponegoro University campus continues to increase in line with the development of the university. This increase has a direct impact on the increased costs to be paid by the university. Some of the causes of increased utilization of electrical energy is the construction of new buildings to meet the needs, increased learning activities and education, research activities in the laboratory, and various other activities. On the other hand, the increase of energy utilization is considered not good from the environment point of view, especially the utilization of electrical energy coming from non sustainable resources. Efforts to compromise on both are to develop policies in developing environmentally friendly buildings, efficiency in utilization of electrical energy, and development of sustainable energy sources.

  10. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of dietary energy intake and physical activity in dogs undergoing a controlled weight-loss program.

    PubMed

    Wakshlag, Joseph J; Struble, Angela M; Warren, Barbour S; Maley, Mary; Panasevich, Matthew R; Cummings, Kevin J; Long, Grace M; Laflamme, Dorothy E

    2012-02-15

    To quantify physical activity and dietary energy intake in dogs enrolled in a controlled weight-loss program and assess relationships between energy intake and physical activity, sex, age, body weight, and body condition score (BCS). Prospective clinical study. 35 client-owned obese dogs (BCS > 7/9). Dogs were fed a therapeutic diet with energy intake restrictions to maintain weight loss of approximately 2%/wk. Collar-mounted pedometers were used to record the number of steps taken daily as a measure of activity. Body weight and BCS were assessed at the beginning of the weight-loss program and every 2 weeks thereafter throughout the study. Relationships between energy intake and sex, age, activity, BCS, and body weight at the end of the study were assessed via multivariable linear regression. Variables were compared among dogs stratified post hoc into inactive and active groups on the basis of mean number of steps taken (< or > 7,250 steps/d, respectively). Mean ± SD daily energy intake per unit of metabolic body weight (kg(0.75)) of active dogs was significantly greater than that of inactive dogs (53.6 ± 15.2 kcal/kg(0.75) vs 42.2 ± 9.7 kcal/kg(0.75), respectively) while maintaining weight-loss goals. In regression analysis, only the number of steps per day was significantly associated with energy intake. Increased physical activity was associated with higher energy intake while maintaining weight-loss goals. Each 1,000-step interval was associated with a 1 kcal/kg(0.75) increase in energy intake.

  12. Association between Dietary Energy Density and Risk of Breast, Endometrial, Ovarian, and Colorectal Cancer among Canadian Women.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Rhonda; Kirsh, Victoria; Rohan, Thomas E

    2018-03-01

    Background: Dietary energy density (DED) is strongly associated with cancer-associated metabolic disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome and may thus influence carcinogenesis. However, little is known about its association with cancer. Therefore, we investigated the association of DED with risk of breast, endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancers in the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health. Methods: We conducted a case-cohort study that included an age-stratified subcohort of 3,120 of the 39,532 female participants who completed self-administered lifestyle and dietary questionnaires at baseline, and in whom, respectively, 922, 188, 104, and 269 incident breast, endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancer cases were diagnosed, respectively. We estimated HRs and 95% confidence intervals for the association of DED with risk of these cancers using Cox proportional hazards regression models modified for the case-cohort design. Results: There was no statistically significant association between DED and risk of breast, endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancers. Conclusions: Our study suggests that DED is not independently associated with risk of breast, endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancers among women. Impact: Further investigation of the association between DED and risk of these cancers in larger prospective studies is warranted, as demonstration of associations may have important implications for primary prevention of these cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(3); 338-41. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg

    PubMed Central

    Nie, H. T.; Wan, Y. J.; You, J. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lan, S.; Fan, Y. X.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg0.75 of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg0.75 of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  14. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Dietary fat acutely increases glucose concentrations and insulin requirements in patients with type 1 diabetes: implications for carbohydrate-based bolus dose calculation and intensive diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Howard A; Atakov-Castillo, Astrid; Smith, Stephanie A; Steil, Garry M

    2013-04-01

    Current guidelines for intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes base the mealtime insulin bolus calculation exclusively on carbohydrate counting. There is strong evidence that free fatty acids impair insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that patients with type 1 diabetes would require more insulin coverage for higher-fat meals than lower-fat meals with identical carbohydrate content. We used a crossover design comparing two 18-h periods of closed-loop glucose control after high-fat (HF) dinner compared with low-fat (LF) dinner. Each dinner had identical carbohydrate and protein content, but different fat content (60 vs. 10 g). Seven patients with type 1 diabetes (age, 55 ± 12 years; A1C 7.2 ± 0.8%) successfully completed the protocol. HF dinner required more insulin than LF dinner (12.6 ± 1.9 units vs. 9.0 ± 1.3 units; P = 0.01) and, despite the additional insulin, caused more hyperglycemia (area under the curve >120 mg/dL = 16,967 ± 2,778 vs. 8,350 ± 1,907 mg/dL⋅min; P < 0001). Carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio for HF dinner was significantly lower (9 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 3 g/unit; P = 0.01). There were marked interindividual differences in the effect of dietary fat on insulin requirements (percent increase significantly correlated with daily insulin requirement; R(2) = 0.64; P = 0.03). This evidence that dietary fat increases glucose levels and insulin requirements highlights the limitations of the current carbohydrate-based approach to bolus dose calculation. These findings point to the need for alternative insulin dosing algorithms for higher-fat meals and suggest that dietary fat intake is an important nutritional consideration for glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

  16. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men.

  17. Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Energy and Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Laurence S.; Commins, John M.; Moler, James E.; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J.; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Prentice, Ross L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Willett, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing US adult populations from 1999 to 2009. We report on total energy, protein, and protein density intakes. Results were similar across sexes, but there was heterogeneity across studies. Using a FFQ, the average correlation coefficients for reported versus true intakes for energy, protein, and protein density were 0.21, 0.29, and 0.41, respectively. Using a single 24-hour recall, the coefficients were 0.26, 0.40, and 0.36, respectively, for the same nutrients and rose to 0.31, 0.49, and 0.46 when three 24-hour recalls were averaged. The average rate of under-reporting of energy intake was 28% with a FFQ and 15% with a single 24-hour recall, but the percentages were lower for protein. Personal characteristics related to under-reporting were body mass index, educational level, and age. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction. This project establishes that FFQs have stronger correlations with truth for protein density than for absolute protein intake, that the use of multiple 24-hour recalls substantially increases the correlations when compared with a single 24-hour recall, and that body mass index strongly predicts under-reporting of energy and protein intakes. PMID:24918187

  18. Effects of dietary energy and lipase levels on nutrient digestibility, digestive physiology and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Cao, S C; Liu, J; Pu, J; Chen, L; Zhang, H F

    2018-05-31

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary energy and lipase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum profiles, intestinal morphology, small intestinal digestive enzyme activities, biochemical index of intestinal development and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. A total of 240 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire×Landrace)×Duroc)] with an average BW of 7.3 ± 0.12 kg were used in this 28-d experiment. Weaning pigs were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of energy (NE = 2,470 kcal/kg for low energy diet and 2,545 kcal/kg for basal diet) and 2 levels of lipase (0 and 1.5 U/g of lipase) according to BW and sex. There were 6 replications (pens) per treatment and 10 pigs per pen (5 barrows and 5 gilts). Weaning pigs fed the low energy diet had lower (p<0.05) G:F throughout the experiment, apparent digestibility of DM, N, EE, and GE during d 0 to 14, ADG during d 15 to 28, lipase activity in duodenum and ileum and protein/DNA in jejunum (p<0.05), respectively. Lipase supplementation had no effect on growth performance but affected apparent nutrient digestibility (p<0.05) on d 14 and enhanced lipase activity in the duodenum and ileum and protease activity in duodenum and jejunum of pigs (p<0.05) fed the low energy diet. Lipase reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG), NH3 production (p<0.05) from the feces. The low energy diet decreased G:F throughout the experiment and nutrient digestibility during d 0 to 14 as well as lipase activity in duodenum and ileum. Lipase supplementation increased nutrient digestibility during d 0 to 14 and exerted beneficial effects on lipase activity in duodenum and ileum as well as protease activity in duodenum and jejunum, while reduced serum LDL-C, TG and fecal NH3.

  19. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%-8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  20. FIRST ORDER ESTIMATES OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents estimates of the energy demand attributable to environmental control of pollution from 'stationary point sources.' This class of pollution source includes powerplants, factories, refineries, municipal waste water treatment plants, etc., but excludes 'mobile s...

  1. ECASTAR: Energy conservation. An assessment of systems, technologies and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical conditions. The following unresolved issues were identified: consumptive lifestyles vs. conservation ethic, environmental standards vs. energy conservation, capital availability, decentralization and vertical integration vs. centralization, fuel rich regions vs. fuel poor regions, supply vs. end use conservation, life cycle costing vs. initial cost, mandatory savings vs. voluntary savings, labor intensive vs. capital intensive, price control vs. free market. The following recommendations were made: provide action/impact assessment, establish regional energy centers, improve technology articulation with government, design total energy systems, utilize existing systems approach expertise.

  2. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  3. Association of Energy Intake With the Lack of in-Person Review of Household Dietary Records: Analysis of Japan National Health and Nutrition Surveys From 1997 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Nayu; Okuda, Nagako; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nishi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    National surveys have demonstrated a long-term decrease in mean energy intake in Japan, despite the absence of a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to examine whether total energy intake of survey respondents is associated with completion of an in-person review of dietary records and whether it affects the trend in mean energy intake. We pooled data from individuals aged 20-89 years from the National Nutrition Surveys of 1997-2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 2003-2011. We conducted a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the association between total energy intake and the lack of an in-person review of semi-weighed household dietary records with interviewers. As some respondents did not have their dietary data confirmed, we used regression coefficients to correct their total energy intake. Compared with respondents completing an in-person review, total energy intake was significantly inversely associated with respondents not completing a review across all sex and age groups (P < 0.001). After correction of total energy intake for those not completing a review, mean energy intake in each survey year significantly increased by 2.1%-3.9% in men and 1.3%-2.6% in women (P < 0.001), but the decreasing trend in mean energy intake was sustained. Total energy intake may be underestimated without an in-person review of dietary records. Further efforts to facilitate completion of a review may improve accuracy of these data. However, the increasing proportion of respondents missing an in-person review had little impact on the decreasing mean caloric intake.

  4. Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-05-01

    Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality. Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements. Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density. Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection

  5. Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low123

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality. Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6–35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score of each child’s diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements. Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6–8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9–12 mo and was very low in all sites (0–2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density. Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects

  6. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    PubMed Central

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. This technique showed that maintenance energy requirements of double-muscled Belgian Blue beef cows were close to the mean requirements of cows of other beef genotypes. Abstract Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW0.75/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26479139

  7. Dietary change, energy balance and body weight regulation among migrating students.

    PubMed

    Reeves, S L; Henry, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine how subjects modulate their food intake and energy balance when they migrate from a low energy density food intake pattern to one of high energy density. It was hypothesised that an increase in the energy density of food consumed would result in increased body weight of the migrating subjects unless food intake and energy balance could be modulated. Food selection, food intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and anthropometric measurements were made on 53 female and 56 male newly arrived overseas students. All subjects were from Malaysia, but the data was collected at Oxford Brookes University where the subjects were studying. Food intake using 3-day food diaries and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). BMR and anthropometric measurements including body weight were measured on arrival in the UK and after 3 and 6 months' stay. Student's t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the data. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between the energy density of the foods consumed in Malaysia and after 3 and 6 months in the UK. There was also a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in protein consumed. However, there were no differences in total energy intake. From results of the FFQs, differences were found in food selection due mainly to the lack of availability of certain foods in UK supermarkets. No significant differences were found in the BMR and anthropometric measurements made at the start of the study and later assessments. It appears that Malaysian students are able to remain in energy balance and are weight stable at least during the first 6 months of residence in the UK, despite the wider choice of energy dense food available. This suggests that at least in the short term, subjects are able to modulate their food intake in response to changes in the energy densities and free choice of food.

  8. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Morrison, A.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of potential changes and alternative technologies which could impact the photovoltaic manufacturing process is presented. Topics discussed include: a multiple wire saw, ribbon growth techniques, silicon casting, and a computer model for a large-scale solar power plant. Emphasis is placed on reducing the energy demands of the manufacturing process.

  9. Reported energy intake by weight status, day and estimated energy requirement among adults: NHANES 2003-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To describe energy intake reporting by gender, weight status, and interview sequence and to compare reported intakes to the Estimated Energy Requirement at different levels of physical activity. Methods: Energy intake was self-reported by 24-hour recall on two occasions (day 1 and day 2)...

  10. Protein requirement of young adult Nigerian females on habitual Nigerian diet at the usual level of energy intake.

    PubMed

    Egun, G N; Atinmo, T

    1993-09-01

    A short-term N balance study was conducted in twelve healthy female adults aged 21-32 years to determine their protein requirement. Four dietary protein levels (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d) were used. Energy intake of the subjects was kept constant at 0.18 MJ/kg per d. All subjects maintained their normal activity throughout the study period. N excretion was determined from the measurements of N in a total collection of urine, faeces, sweat and menstrual fluid for each dietary period. N balance during the four protein levels were -15.15 (SD 5.95), -5.53 (SD 6.71), +6.15 (SD 4.76) and +12.05 (SD 8.63) mg N/kg per d for 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d respectively. The calculated average N requirements from regression analysis was 76.0 (SD 3.37) mg N/kg per d (0.48 g protein/kg per d). The estimate of allowance for individual variation to cover the 97.5% population was 95 mg N/kg per d (0.6 g protein/kg per d). The net protein utilization (NPU) of the diet was 0.55. When compared with a similar study with men, there was a significant difference in the protein requirement between sexes. Thus, the unjustifiable sex difference in the protein allowance recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) Expert Consultation group must be reviewed.

  11. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Wiest, Michelle M; Teegarden, Dorothy; Zemel, Michael B; German, J Bruce; Van Loan, Marta D

    2011-10-05

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61) were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1) placebo; 2) 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3) 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d) intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy) and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and % body fat (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). Polyunsaturated fat intake was associated with the % change in waist circumference (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). Dietary saturated fat was not associated with any changes in anthropometrics or the plasma lipidome. Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction

  12. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61) were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1) placebo; 2) 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3) 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d) intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy) and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and % body fat (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). Polyunsaturated fat intake was associated with the % change in waist circumference (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). Dietary saturated fat was not associated with any changes in anthropometrics or the plasma lipidome. Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption

  13. Dietary Uncoupling of Gut Microbiota and Energy Harvesting from Obesity and Glucose Tolerance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Matthew J; Ross, Alexander W; Walker, Alan W; Morgan, Peter J

    2017-11-07

    Evidence suggests that altered gut microbiota composition may be involved in the development of obesity. Studies using mice made obese with refined high-fat diets have supported this; however, these have commonly used chow as a control diet, introducing confounding factors from differences in dietary composition that have a key role in shaping microbiota composition. We compared the effects of feeding a refined high-fat diet with those of feeding either a refined low-fat diet or a chow diet on gut microbiota composition and host physiology. Feeding both refined low- or high-fat diets resulted in large alterations in the gut microbiota composition, intestinal fermentation, and gut morphology, compared to a chow diet. However, body weight, body fat, and glucose intolerance only increased in mice fed the refined high-fat diet. The choice of control diet can dissociate broad changes in microbiota composition from obesity, raising questions about the previously proposed relationship between gut microbiota and obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Dietary Sources of Energy, Solid Fats, and Added Sugars Among Children and Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective of this research was to identify top dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among 2–18 year olds in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional study, were used to examine food sources (percentage contribution and mean intake with standard errors) of total energy (2005–06) and calories from solid fats and added sugars (2003–04). Differences were investigated by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income, and the consumption of empty calories—defined as the sum of calories from solid fats and added sugars—was compared with the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance. Results The top sources of energy for 2–18 year olds were grain desserts (138 kcal/day), pizza (136 kcal), and soda (118 kcal). Sugar-sweetened beverages (soda and fruit drinks combined) provided 173 kcal/day. Major contributors varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income. Nearly 40% of total calories consumed (798 kcal/day of 2027 kcal) by 2–18 year olds were in the form of empty calories (433 kcal from solid fat and 365 kcal from added sugars). Consumption of empty calories far exceeded the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance for all sex-age groups (which range from 8–20%). Half of empty calories came from six foods: soda, fruit drinks, dairy desserts, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. Conclusion There is an overlap between the major sources of energy and empty calories: soda, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. The landscape of choices available to children and adolescents must change to provide fewer unhealthy foods and more healthy foods with fewer calories. Identifying top sources of energy and empty calories can provide targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment. However, product reformulation alone is not sufficient—the flow of empty calories into the food supply must be reduced. PMID:20869486

  16. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  17. Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Afshin; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan; Trindade da Rosa, Fernanda; Kesser, Julia; Iqbal, Zeeshan; Mora, Ofelia; Sauerwein, Helga; Drackley, James K.; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant nonlactating cows were fed a control low-energy (CON, 1.30 Mcal/kg) diet to meet 100% of estimated nutrient requirements for 3 weeks, after which half of the cows were assigned to a higher-energy diet (OVE, 1.60 Mcal/kg) and half of the cows continued on CON for 6 weeks. All cows received an intravenous injection of TZD starting 2 weeks after initiation of dietary treatments and for an additional 2 weeks, which served as the washout period. Cows fed OVE had greater energy intake and body mass than CON, and TZD had no effect during the administration period. The OVE cows had greater TZD clearance rate than CON cows. The lower concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and greater concentration of insulin in blood of OVE cows before TZD injection indicated positive energy balance and higher insulin sensitivity. Administration of TZD increased blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) at 2 to 4 weeks after diet initiation, while the concentration of NEFA and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) remained unchanged during TZD. The TZD upregulated the mRNA expression of PPARG and its targets FASN and SREBF1 in SAT, but also SUMO1 and UBC9 which encode sumoylation proteins known to down-regulate PPARG expression and curtail adipogenesis. Therefore, a post-translational response to control PPARG gene expression in SAT could be a counteregulatory mechanism to restrain adipogenesis. The OVE cows had greater expression of the insulin sensitivity-related genes IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR, SCD, INSIG1, DGAT2, and ADIPOQ in SAT. In skeletal muscle, where PPARA and its targets orchestrate

  18. Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to identify top dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among 2- to 18-year-olds in the United States. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study, were used to examine food sources (percentage contribution and mean intake with standard errors) of total energy (data from 2005-2006) and energy from solid fats and added sugars (data from 2003-2004). Differences were investigated by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income, and the consumption of empty calories-defined as the sum of energy from solid fats and added sugars-was compared with the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance. The top sources of energy for 2- to 18-year-olds were grain desserts (138 kcal/day), pizza (136 kcal/day), and soda (118 kcal/day). Sugar-sweetened beverages (soda and fruit drinks combined) provided 173 kcal/day. Major contributors varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income. Nearly 40% of total energy consumed (798 of 2,027 kcal/day) by 2- to 18-year-olds were in the form of empty calories (433 kcal from solid fat and 365 kcal from added sugars). Consumption of empty calories far exceeded the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance for all sex-age groups (which range from 8% to 20%). Half of empty calories came from six foods: soda, fruit drinks, dairy desserts, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. There is an overlap between the major sources of energy and empty calories: soda, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. The landscape of choices available to children and adolescents must change to provide fewer unhealthy foods and more healthy foods with less energy. Identifying top sources of energy and empty calories can provide targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment. However, product reformulation alone is not sufficient-the flow of empty calories into the food supply must be reduced.

  19. Energy Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS): Functional requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    These guidelines state that in order to create the widest practicable competition, the system's requirements, with few exceptions, must be expressed in functional terms without reference to specific hardware or software products, and that wherever exceptions are made a statement of justification must be provided. In addition, these guidelines set forth a recommended maximum threshold limit of annual contract value for schedule contract procurements.

  20. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  1. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Dietary Supplements: Tips for Women Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... or 10877-382-4357. To Learn More about Dietary Supplements Information for Consumers on Using Dietary Supplements NIH ...

  2. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P < 0.001), and carcass yield was greater (+2.3%; P < 0.001) in the low RFI compared with the high RFI line; the most-efficient line was also leaner (+3.2% for loin proportion in the carcass, P < 0.001). In both lines, ADFI and ADG were lower when pigs were fed the HF diet (-12.3% and -15%, respectively, relatively to LF diet; P < 0.001). Feeding the HF diet reduced the perirenal fat weight and backfat proportion in the carcass to the same extent in both lines (-27% on average; P < 0.05). Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P < 0.05) in pigs offered the HF diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (FA) was lower, but the percentage of PUFA, especially the EFA C18:2 and C18:3, was greater (P < 0.001) in backfat of HF-fed pigs. In both lines, these changes were associated with a marked decrease (P < 0.001) in the activities of two lipogenic enzymes, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the malic enzyme, in backfat. For the high RFI line, the hepatic lipid content was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the HF diet than in pigs fed the LF diet, despite a reduced FASN activity (-32%; P < 0.001). In both lines, the HF diet also led to lower glycogen content (-70%) and

  3. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo O; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-02-13

    Sixty non-pregnant, non-lactating double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) cows were used to estimate the energy required to maintain body weight (BW). They were fed one of three energy levels for 112 or 140 days, corresponding to approximately 100%, 80% or 70% of their total energy requirements. The relationship between daily energy intake and BW and daily BW change was developed using regression analysis. Maintenance energy requirements were estimated from the regression equation by setting BW gain to zero. Metabolizable and net energy for maintenance amounted to 0.569 ± 0.001 and 0.332 ± 0.001 MJ per kg BW(0.75)/d, respectively. Maintenance energy requirements were not dependent on energy level (p > 0.10). Parity affected maintenance energy requirements (p < 0.001), although the small numerical differences between parities may hardly be nutritionally relevant. Maintenance energy requirements of DMBB beef cows were close to the mean energy requirements of other beef genotypes reported in the literature.

  4. Enhanced Locomotor Activity Is Required to Exert Dietary Restriction-Dependent Increase of Stress Resistance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Saurav; Kim, Man Su

    2015-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is known to be one of the most effective interventions to increase stress resistance, yet the mechanisms remain elusive. One of the most obvious DR-induced changes in phenotype is an increase in locomotor activity. Although it is conceptually perceivable that nutritional scarcity should prompt enhanced foraging behavior to garner additional dietary resources, the significance of enhanced movement activity has not been associated with the DR-dependent increase of stress resistance. In this study, we confirmed that flies raised on DR exhibited enhanced locomotive activity and increased stress resistance. Excision of fly wings minimized the DR-induced increase in locomotive activity, which resulted in attenuation of the DR-dependent increase of stress resistance. The possibility that wing clipping counteracts the DR by coercing flies to have more intake was ruled out since it did not induce any weight gain. Rather it was found that elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is enhanced by DR-induced upregulation of expression of antioxidant genes was significantly reduced by wing clipping. Collectively, our data suggests that DR increased stress resistance by increasing the locomotor activity, which upregulated expression of protective genes including, but not limited to, ROS scavenger system.

  5. Emerging Energy Requirements for Future C4ISR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    hydrogen (H2). The transition has already begun, and private industry is leading the way by developing prototype vehicles that use fuel cells and... fuel cell generators in homes and businesses may spread the development cost of the technology beyond vehicles and accelerate consumer acceptance...military and civilian requirements, and this could foster joint programs to develop modern nuclear power sources for use in the 21st century. 4

  6. Attaining the Photometric Precision Required by Future Dark Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Christopher

    2013-01-21

    This report outlines our progress towards achieving the high-precision astronomical measurements needed to derive improved constraints on the nature of the Dark Energy. Our approach to obtaining higher precision flux measurements has two basic components: 1) determination of the optical transmission of the atmosphere, and 2) mapping out the instrumental photon sensitivity function vs. wavelength, calibrated by referencing the measurements to the known sensitivity curve of a high precision silicon photodiode, and 3) using the self-consistency of the spectrum of stars to achieve precise color calibrations.

  7. Dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nana, Amanuel; Zema, Tona

    2018-05-25

    Pregnancy is the most crucial nutritionally demanding period of every woman's life. The high demand of nutrients to deposit energy in the form of new tissue, growth of existing maternal tissues such as breast and uterus and increased energy requirements for tissue synthesis makes pregnant women more vulnerable to malnutrition. Dietary practice is defined as an observable actions or behavior of dietary habit and can be classified as good dietary practices and poor dietary practices. The incidence of dietary inadequacies as a result of dietary habits and patterns in pregnancy is higher during pregnancy when compared to any other stage of the life cycle. Thus, this study aimed to assess dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in Bahir Dar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 1, 2016. A total of 616 pregnant women were participated in the study. All eligible pregnant women were identified through house-to-house visit with the help of health extension workers. Cluster sampling was used to select eligible pregnant women. The data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire prepared in English and translated in to Amharic. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with dietary practices. This study has shown that 39.3% of the study participants had good dietary practices and the rest 60.7% of pregnant women reported poor dietary practices. Concerning dietary knowledge, 61.4% of the study participants had good dietary knowledge while 38.6% had poor dietary knowledge. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease and dietary knowledge were shown to have significant association (P < 0.05) with dietary practices. Dietary practices of pregnant women in the study area was suboptimal. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women.

    PubMed

    Racette, S B; Schoeller, D A; Kushner, R F; Neil, K M; Herling-Iaffaldano, K

    1995-03-01

    To test the benefits of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate during reduced-energy feeding, 23 obese women (44 +/- 4% fat) were randomly assigned to either aerobic exercise (Ex) or no exercise (Nx), and to a low-fat (LF) or low-carbohydrate (LC) reducing diet (5.00 +/- 0.56 MJ/d) for 12 wk. Changes in body composition, postabsorptive resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of a meal (TEM), and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) were measured by respiratory gas exchange and doubly labeled water. Significant effects of Ex included a greater loss of fat mass (Ex: -8.8 +/- 2.1 vs Nx: -6.1 +/- 2.3 kg, P = 0.008) and maintenance of TDEE (Ex: +0.07 +/- 1.23 vs Nx: -1.46 +/- 1.04 MJ/d, P = 0.004), due to a difference in physical activity (Ex: +0.75 +/- 1.06 vs Nx: -0.61 +/- 1.03 MJ/d, P = 0.006), which was not attributable solely to the Ex sessions. RMR in both groups decreased comparably (-0.54 MJ/d), and TEM (% of meal) did not change. Diet composition did not significantly influence body composition or energy expenditure changes, but a greater weight loss was observed after the LC than after the LF (-10.6 +/- 2.0 vs -8.1 +/- 3.0 kg, P = 0.037) diet. The addition of aerobic exercise to a low-energy diet was beneficial in the treatment of moderate obesity because of its favorable effects on body composition, physical activity, and TDEE.

  9. 75 FR 4474 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Requirements for Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... titled ``Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Requirements for Certain Consumer Products and...-AA96 and 1904-AB53 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Requirements for Certain Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment; Correction AGENCY: Office of...

  10. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics.

    PubMed

    van Hoeij, R J; Lam, T J G M; Bruckmaier, R M; Dijkstra, J; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2018-05-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to compare effects of a 0-d or 30-d DP without use of dry cow antibiotics on udder health across the DP and subsequent lactation in dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels and (2) to evaluate associations between udder health and metabolic status of dairy cows. Five weeks before the expected calving date, Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 115) were blocked for parity, expected calving date, and milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC) at their 2 last test days and were randomly assigned to 2 DP lengths: 0-d DP (n = 77) or 30-d DP (n = 38). Quarter milk samples were taken in wk 5 prepartum and in wk 1 and 5 postpartum. Proportion of quarters with elevated SCC (SCC ≥200,000 cells/mL) and proportion of udder pathogens in quarter milk samples did not differ between DP lengths among weeks. After calving, 102 of these cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield (30-d DP SEL; n = 36), a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP (0-d DP SEL; n = 33), and a 0-d DP with a low energy level (0-d DP LEL, n = 33). From wk 8 of lactation onward, cows received either a glucogenic ration consisting of corn silage and grass silage or a lipogenic ration consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp at a standard or low energy level. During wk 1 to 7 postpartum, treatment did not affect SCC or SCC corrected for milk yield. During wk 8 to 44 of lactation, 0-d DP SEL cows had a greater SCC than 0-d DP LEL or 30-d DP SEL cows and had a greater SCC corrected for milk yield than 0-d DP LEL cows. During wk 1 to 44 of lactation, occurrence of at least 1 elevation of SCC (SCC ≥200,000 cells/mL after 2 wk of

  11. [Utilization of feed energy by growing pigs. 3. Energy requirement for the growth and fattening of pigs].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, L; Schiemann, R; Jentsch, W

    1979-02-01

    The test series for the investigation of the energy consumption of growing pigs of the breeds large white and improved land race pig as well as cross breeds of the two breeds in a total of 369 metabolism periods (as described in the first two pieces of information of this publication series -- Hoffmann and others, 1977 and Jentsch and Hoffmann, 1977) were statistically analysed for the purpose of the derivation of the energy requirement for maintenance and the partial energy requirement for growth in order to test the possibilities of the factorial analysis for the derivation of energy requirement values of growing pigs. The dependence of the maintenance requirement of growing pigs (investigations in the live weight range of 10 to 40 kg -- see 1st information--were made with boars those in the live weight range of 30 to 120 kg were made with gelded boars, 2nd information) on the live weight can best be characterised by applying a power exponent of 0,61 or 0,62 for the live weight. A definition is offered to be discussed for the energetic maintenance requirement of productive live stock and laboratory animals as a conventional value. The energy requirement values derived from the doubly-factorial statistical analysis show a satisfactory adaptation to the measured values as such concerning energy intake and observed growth performance of the test animals. The conclusion is drawn that the factorial analysis of the energy requirement (maintenance plus partial performances) results in a better estimate of the requirement of growing animals than the assessment according only to live weight and live weight increase without characterising the energy requirement for partial performances. This is important for the further working on and more exact definition of requirement norms.

  12. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  13. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was <6 g/kg/day and below 30% of energy, respectively. Carbohydrate intakes were below, and protein (in men) intakes were higher than, the current recommendations for strength athletes, with no consideration for exploration of macronutrient quality or distribution over the day. Energy

  14. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57 d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29 d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28 d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) μU/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) μU/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively

  15. A hydrogen energy carrier. Volume 1: Summary. [for meeting energy requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, R. L. (Editor); Blank, L. (Editor); Cady, T. (Editor); Cox, K. E. (Editor); Murray, R. (Editor); Williams, R. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The production, technology, transportation, and implementation of hydrogen into the energy system are discussed along with the fossil fuel cycle, hydrogen fuel cycle, and the demands for energy. The cost of hydrogen production by coal gasification; electrolysis by nuclear energy, and solar energy are presented. The legal aspects of a hydrogen economy are also discussed.

  16. Using carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and retained energy to calculate dietary ME intake by beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight cross-bred beef steers (initial BW = 241 ± 4.10 kg) were used in a 77-d feeding experiment to determine if ME intake can be determined from carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and energy retention estimates. Steers were housed in a pen equipped with individual feed bunks and animal access w...

  17. Data from Controlled Metabolic Ward Studies Provide Guidance for the Determination of Status Indicators and Dietary Requirements for Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Johnson, Lu Ann K

    2017-05-01

    Determination of whether magnesium (Mg) is a nutrient of public health concern has been hindered by questionable Dietary Recommended Intakes (DRIs) and problematic status indicators that make Mg deficiency assessment formidable. Balance data obtained since 1997 indicate that the EAR and RDA for 70-kg healthy individuals are about 175 and 250 mg/day, respectively, and these DRIs decrease or increase based on body weight. These DRIs are less than those established for the USA and Canada. Urinary excretion data from tightly controlled metabolic unit balance studies indicate that urinary Mg excretion is 40 to 80 mg (1.65 to 3.29 mmol)/day when Mg intakes are <250 mg (10.28 mmol)/day, and 80 to 160 mg (3.29 to 6.58 mmol)/day when intakes are >250 mg (10.28 mmol)/day. However, changing from low to high urinary excretion with an increase in dietary intake occurs within a few days and vice versa. Thus, urinary Mg as a stand-alone status indicator would be most useful for population studies and not useful for individual status assessment. Tightly controlled metabolic unit depletion/repletion experiments indicate that serum Mg concentrations decrease only after a prolonged depletion if an individual has good Mg reserves. These experiments also found that, although individuals had serum Mg concentrations approaching 0.85 mmol/L (2.06 mg/dL), they had physiological changes that respond to Mg supplementation. Thus, metabolic unit findings suggest that individuals with serum Mg concentrations >0.75 mmol/L (1.82 mg/L), or as high as 0.85 mmol/L (2.06 mg/dL), could have a deficit in Mg such that they respond to Mg supplementation, especially if they have a dietary intake history showing <250 mg (10.28 mmol)/day and a urinary excretion of <80 mg (3.29 mmol)/day.

  18. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Rebecca A; Witzel, Angela L; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was [Formula: see text] or two times the calculated resting energy requirement ([Formula: see text]). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study's population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council's (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of [Formula: see text] (National Research Council (NRC), 1974) and the [Formula: see text] reported for young laboratory beagles (Rainbird & Kienzle, 1990). Additional research is needed to determine if these data can be applied to all odor, explosive and human detection dogs and to determine if other types of working dogs (tracking, search and rescue etc.) have similar energy requirements.

  19. The effects of high dietary protein and nitrogen levels on the preformed methyl group requirement and methionine-induced growth depression in chicks.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Benevenga, N J; Harper, A E; Sunde, M L

    1981-02-01

    The chick's choline and methionine requirements are both increased by high dietary protein level. Studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that the chicks' need for preformed methyl groups is increased by high protein diets (not methionine or choline per se). Chicks fed 25% isolated soybean protein (ISP) diets responded to methionine supplementation (162 vs 110 g gained in 14 days) but not to choline (119 g vs. 110 g), while those fed 50% ISP responded to either methionine (174 g vs. 126 g) or choline (181 g vs. 126 g) supplementation. Further, neither cystine nor homocystine could replace methionine in improving the growth of chicks fed the high protein diet. In other experiments, L-methionine and betaine HCl were found to alleviate the growth depression caused by excessive levels of L-glutamic acid. Excessive levels of L-methionine had a protective effect against growth depression caused by L-glutamate and diammonium citrate, and conversely, supplementary L-serine and sodium formate were not protective against glutamic acid- or arginine-induced growth depression. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the preformed methyl group requirement is increased by high levels of dietary protein and excessive nitrogen from a single amino acid.

  20. Energy Requirements of Hydrogen-utilizing Microbes: A Boundary Condition for Subsurface Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christopher S.

    2003-01-01

    Microbial ecosystems based on the energy supplied by water-rock chemistry carry particular significance in the context of geo- and astrobiology. With no direct dependence on solar energy, lithotrophic microbes could conceivably penetrate a planetary crust to a depth limited only by temperature or pressure constraints (several kilometers or more). The deep lithospheric habitat is thereby potentially much greater in volume than its surface counterpart, and in addition offers a stable refuge against inhospitable surface conditions related to climatic or atmospheric evolution (e.g., Mars) or even high-energy impacts (e.g., early in Earth's history). The possibilities for a deep microbial biosphere are, however, greatly constrained by life s need to obtain energy at a certain minimum rate (the maintenance energy requirement) and of a certain minimum magnitude (the energy quantum requirement). The mere existence of these requirements implies that a significant fraction of the chemical free energy available in the subsurface environment cannot be exploited by life. Similar limits may also apply to the usefulness of light energy at very low intensities or long wavelengths. Quantification of these minimum energy requirements in terrestrial microbial ecosystems will help to establish a criterion of energetic habitability that can significantly constrain the prospects for life in Earth's subsurface, or on other bodies in the solar system. Our early work has focused on quantifying the biological energy quantum requirement for methanogenic archaea, as representatives of a plausible subsurface metabolism, in anoxic sediments (where energy availability is among the most limiting factors in microbial population growth). In both field and laboratory experiments utilizing these sediments, methanogens retain a remarkably consistent free energy intake, in the face of fluctuating environmental conditions that affect energy availability. The energy yields apparently required by

  1. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  2. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  3. Dietary curcumin supplementation counteracts reduction in levels of molecules involved in energy homeostasis after brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Zhuang, Y; Ying, Z; Wu, A; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2009-07-21

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is followed by an energy crisis that compromises the capacity of the brain to cope with challenges, and often reduces cognitive ability. New research indicates that events that regulate energy homeostasis crucially impact synaptic function and this can compromise the capacity of the brain to respond to challenges during the acute and chronic phases of TBI. The goal of the present study is to determine the influence of the phenolic yellow curry pigment curcumin on molecular systems involved with the monitoring, balance, and transduction of cellular energy, in the hippocampus of animals exposed to mild fluid percussion injury (FPI). Young adult rats were exposed to a regular diet (RD) without or with 500 ppm curcumin (Cur) for four weeks, before an FPI was performed. The rats were assigned to four groups: RD/Sham, Cur/Sham, RD/FPI, and Cur/FPI. We found that FPI decreased the levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) and cytochrome c oxidase II (COX-II) in RD/FPI rats as compared to the RD/sham rats. The curcumin diet counteracted the effects of FPI and elevated the levels of AMPK, uMtCK, COX-II in Cur/FPI rats as compared to RD/sham rats. In addition, in the Cur/sham rats, AMPK and uMtCK increased compared to the RD/sham. Results show the potential of curcumin to regulate molecules involved in energy homeostasis following TBI. These studies may foster a new line of therapeutic treatments for TBI patients by endogenous upregulation of molecules important for functional recovery.

  4. Sampling behavior of dairy cattle: effects of variation in dietary energy density on behavior at the feed bunk.

    PubMed

    Huzzey, J M; Fregonesi, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting sampling behavior of cattle are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to measure the effects of variation in feed quality on the feeding behavior of Holstein dairy heifers. Thirty-two heifers were housed in 4 groups of 8. Each group pen had 8 distinct feeding stations. The total mixed ration (TMR) provided was low energy (TMR-L), moderate energy (TMR-M), or high energy (TMR-H). During trial 1 (d 1 to 8), heifers were offered a uniform baseline diet (TMR-M in all 8 feeding stations) interspaced with 2 uniform test diets on d 3 and 6 (TMR-L or TMR-H in all 8 feeding stations). During trial 2 (d 9 to 17) heifers were offered a nonuniform baseline diet (7 feeding stations with TMR-L and 1 feeding station with TMR-H) interspaced with 3 uniform test diets on d 11, 14, and 17 (TMR-L, TMR-M, or TMR-H in all 8 feeding stations). Heifers were observed in pairs (n=16) for 15 min following delivery of fresh feed. Relative to the uniform baseline period of trial 1, 31% fewer switches occurred between feeding stations when offered TMR-H and 51% more switches when offered TMR-L. Relative to the nonuniform baseline of trial 2, 49% fewer, 27% fewer, and 25% more switches occurred during the TMR-H, TMR-M, and TMR-L treatments, respectively. In general, when heifers were offered a diet that was lower in energy density than that previously experienced, they spent less time at each feeding station and when offered a higher energy diet, heifers spent more time at each feeding station. The greater the contrast in energy density between the test and baseline diets, the greater the change in the behavioral response. Competitive interactions at the feed bunk were most frequent when TMR quality varied among the 8 feeding stations; during the nonuniform baseline period of trial 2, the number of competitive interactions was over 3.5 times higher than during all uniform dietary treatments. In summary, dairy heifers sample feed quality by changing feeding

  5. Relationship of Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure Varies With Energy Intake: Secondary Analysis of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium Trial.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Beasley, Jeannette M; Appel, Lawrence J; Guenther, Patricia M; McFadden, Molly; Greene, Tom; Tooze, Janet A

    2018-05-01

    Dietary Na recommendations are expressed as absolute amounts (mg/d) rather than as Na density (mg/kcal). Our objective was to determine whether the strength of the relationship of Na intake with blood pressure (BP) varied with energy intake. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Sodium trial was a randomized feeding trial comparing 2 diets (DASH and control) and 3 levels of Na density. Participants with pre- or stage 1 hypertension consumed diets for 30 days in random order; energy intake was controlled to maintain body weight. This secondary analysis of 379 non-Hispanic black and white participants used mixed-effects models to assess the association of Na and energy intakes with BP. The relationships between absolute Na and both systolic and diastolic BP varied with energy intake. BP rose more steeply with increasing Na at lower energy intake than at higher energy intake ( P interaction<0.001). On the control diet with 2300 mg Na, both systolic and diastolic BP were higher (3.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-5.8; and 2.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.5, respectively) among those with lower energy intake (higher Na density) than among those with higher energy intake (lower Na density). The association of Na with systolic BP was stronger at lower levels of energy intake in both blacks and whites ( P <0.001). The association of Na and diastolic BP varied with energy intake only among blacks ( P =0.001). Sodium density should be considered as a metric for expressing dietary Na recommendations. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. [Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, energy intake and dietary caloric profile in university students from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Cutillas, Ana Belén; Herrero, Ester; de San Eustaquio, Alba; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    University students are a part of the population potentially vulnerable in relation to their nutritional status. To evaluate energy intake, energy profile of the diet and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students. The study was conducted in 223 students (53% female) from the University of Murcia (Spain), mean age 21.4 ± 2.7 years. Dietary intake was estimated by a continuous 7 days dietary record, previously validated. Afterwards, total energy intake and macronutrients distribution were obtained using the software "GRUNUMUR 2.0". Physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated as [weight (kg)/height (m)(2)]. Average energy intake was lower than the recommendations. In relation with the energy profile of the diet, it was higher in protein and fat, and lower in carbohydrates compared with the recommendations in the balanced diet. The prevalence of overweight was of 9.3% in female and of 24.2% in males. However, 10.2% females and 1.1% males were underweight. Only a 35,4% of the studied collective usually practiced physical activity (3-4 hours/week). Significant correlations were found between age and percentage of energy from carbohydrate (negative) and lipids (positive), indicating that older students (young adults) had significantly higher dietary unbalances than younger (adolescents). Students from the University of Murcia have characteristics very similar to those described in other university populations of Spain and other Western countries: low energy intake, unbalances in the energy profile of the diet, and high percentages of overweight and also of underweight. Both physical inactivity and energy unbalance of the diet could be determinants of the overweight observed. Age is a factor in worsening the energy profile of the diet, which presumably will have undesirable consequences on the health of this young population group. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES

  7. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of pre-ruminant dairy calves.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonatal dairy calves throughout the United States are commonly fed pasteurized whole milk as the primary dietary component during their first several weeks of life. Whole milk fails to meet the recommendations for dietary inclusion of vitamins D and E for neonatal calves put forth by the National R...

  8. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Bourre, J M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this update is to give an overview of the effects of dietary nutrients on the structure and certain functions of the brain. As any other organ, the brain is elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively, for vitamins, minerals, essential amino-acids and essential fatty acids, including omega- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). However, for long it was not fully accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function, including cognitive and intellectuals. In fact, most micronutrients (vitamins and trace-elements) have been directly evaluated in the setting of cerebral functioning. For instance, to produce energy, the use of glucose by nervous tissue implies the presence of vitamin B1; this vitamin modulates cognitive performance, especially in the elderly. Vitamin B9 preserves brain during its development and memory during ageing. Vitamin B6 is likely to benefit in treating premenstrual depression. Vitamins B6 and B12, among others, are directly involved in the synthesis of some neurotransmitters. Vitamin B12 delays the onset of signs of dementia (and blood abnormalities), provided it is administered in a precise clinical timing window, before the onset of the first symptoms. Supplementation with cobalamin improves cerebral and cognitive functions in the elderly; it frequently improves the functioning of factors related to the frontal lobe, as well as the language function of those with cognitive disorders. Adolescents who have a borderline level of vitamin B12 develop signs of cognitive changes. In the brain, the nerve endings contain the highest concentrations of vitamin C in the human body (after the suprarenal glands). Vitamin D (or certain of its analogues) could be of interest in the prevention of various aspects of neurodegenerative or neuroimmune diseases. Among the various vitamin E components (tocopherols and tocotrienols), only alpha-tocopherol is actively uptaken by the brain and is

  9. The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Helping students understand "chemical energy" is notoriously difficult. Many hold inconsistent ideas about what energy is, how and why it changes during the course of a chemical reaction, and how these changes are related to bond energies and reaction dynamics. There are (at least) three major sources for this problem: 1) the way biologists talk…

  10. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application. ...

  11. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application. ...

  12. 14 CFR 325.13 - Environmental evaluations and energy information not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental evaluations and energy... Environmental evaluations and energy information not required. Notwithstanding any provision of part 312 or part... environmental evaluation or energy information with the application. ...

  13. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  14. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an EE..., including any requirements for documenting customer energy efficiency and renewable energy activities. (b...

  15. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an EE..., including any requirements for documenting customer energy efficiency and renewable energy activities. (b...

  16. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an EE..., including any requirements for documenting customer energy efficiency and renewable energy activities. (b...

  17. 10 CFR 905.17 - What are the requirements for the energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? 905.17 Section 905.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... energy efficiency and/or renewable energy report (EE/RE report) alternative? (a) Requests to submit an EE..., including any requirements for documenting customer energy efficiency and renewable energy activities. (b...

  18. Satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gel-forming dietary fiber: post-ingestive effects.

    PubMed

    Wanders, A J; Mars, M; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K J; de Graaf, C; Feskens, E J M

    2014-06-01

    Viscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post-ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the effects persist after repeated exposure. To investigate satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gelled fiber by post-ingestive mechanisms. In a two-arm crossover design, 32 subjects (24 female subjects, 21±2 y, BMI 21.8±1.9 kg m(-2)) consumed test foods once daily for 15 consecutive days, with 2 weeks of washout. Test foods were isocaloric (0.5 MJ, 200 g) with either 10 g gel-forming pectin or 3 g gelatin and 2 g starch, matched for texture and eating time. Hourly satiety ratings, ad libitum energy intake and body weight were measured on days 1 (single exposure) and 15 (repeated exposure). In addition, hourly breath hydrogen, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids were measured. Subjects rated hunger, desire to eat and prospective intake about 2% lower (P<0.015) and fullness higher (+1.4%; P=0.041) when they received pectin compared with control. This difference was similar after single and repeated exposure (P>0.64). After receiving pectin, energy intake was lower (-5.6%, P=0.012) and breath hydrogen was elevated (+12.6%, P=0.008) after single exposure, but not after repeated exposure. Fasting glucose concentrations were higher both after single and repeated exposure to pectin (+2.1%, P=0.019). Body weight and concentrations of insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids did not change during the study. Gelled pectin can increase satiety and reduce energy intake by post-ingestive mechanisms. Although the effects were small, the effects on satiety were consistent over time, whereas the effects on energy intake reduction were not.

  19. Ratios of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers on satiety and energy intake in overweight pre- and postmenopausal women1

    PubMed Central

    Burton-Freeman, Britt; Liyanage, Dhanesh; Rahman, Sajida; Edirisinghe, Indika

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibers’ properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC). Subjective satiety, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) were measured for 3 h post-preload followed by in-lab ad libitum test meal and 32 hour food intake monitoring. RESULTS: Significant preload, time and preload by menopausal status interaction was apparent for hunger and fullness (p < 0.05 for both) with SF preload predominantly more satiating in postmenopausal women. CCK and insulin were significantly lower after SF preload (p < 0.0001 for both). Post-preload glucose responses differed by menopausal status: postmenopausal women distinguished between fiber types unlike premenopausal women (p = 0.02). TG was significantly elevated after the IF preload compared to NFC and SF (p = 0.007 and p = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Customized/personalized dietary recommendations for women during their premenopausal and postmenopausal years can help maximize metabolic and appetite control. PMID:28447070

  20. Estimation of energy requirements for mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients using nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Mee-Nin; Chang, Han-Hsin; Sheu, Woei-Fen; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Lee, Bor-Jen; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2003-01-01

    Background There is very little information on what is considered an adequate energy intake for mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to determine this energy requirement by making use of patients' nutritional status. Methods The study was conducted in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. Patients were hemodynamically stable and not comatose, and were requiring at least 7 days of mechanical ventilation. Fifty-four patients successfully completed this study. The resting energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. The total energy requirement was considered 120% of the measured energy expenditure. The daily nutrient intake was recorded. Nutritional status was assessed using single and multiple parameters, nitrogen balance, and medical records, and was performed within 24 hours of admission and after 7 days in the intensive care unit. Results Fifteen patients were being underfed (<90% of total energy requirement), 20 patients were in the appropriate feeding (AF) group (within ± 10% of total energy requirement), and 19 patients received overfeeding (>110% of total energy requirement). Patients in the underfeeding group received only 68.3% of their energy requirement, while the overfeeding group patients received up to 136.5% of their required calories. Only patients in the AF group had a positive nitrogen balance (0.04 ± 5.1) on day 7. AF group patients had a significantly higher Nutritional Risk Index value at day 7 than at day 1. Conclusion AF patients had more improvement in nutritional status than patients in the other feeding groups. To provide at least 120% of the resting energy expenditure seemed adequate to meet the caloric energy needs of hemodynamically stable, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. PMID:12974978

  1. Effects of dietary protein/energy ratio on growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality, and plasma metabolites in pigs of different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Jiang, Guoli; Tan, Bi'e; Deng, Jinping; Yang, Xiaojian; Li, Fengna; Xiong, Xia; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The protein/energy ratio is important for the production performance and utilization of available feed resources by animals. Increased protein consumption by mammals leads to elevated feed costs and increased nitrogen release into the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary protein/energy ratio on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and plasma metabolites of pigs of different genotypes. Bama mini-pigs and Landrace pigs were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups (Chinese conventional diet with low protein/energy ratio or National Research Council diet with high protein/energy ratio; n = 24 per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood and muscle samples were collected at the end of the nursery, growing, and finishing phases. We observed significant interactions (P < 0.05) between breed and diet for total fat percentage, intramuscular fat (IMF) content, protein content in biceps femoris (BF) muscle, and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in the nursery phase; for average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), dry matter, IMF content in psoas major (PM) muscle, and plasma total protein and albumin concentrations in the growing phase; and for drip loss and plasma UN concentration in the finishing phase. Breed influenced (P < 0.05) growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality, but not plasma metabolites. Throughout the trial, Landrace pigs showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, dressing percentage, lean mass rate, and loin-eye area than did Bama mini-pigs, but significantly lower (P < 0.05) feed/gain ratio, fat percentage, backfat thickness, and IMF content. Dietary protein/energy ratio influenced the pH value, chemical composition of BF and PM muscles, and plasma activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and plasma concentration of UN. Compared with Landrace pigs, Bama mini-pigs showed slower growth and lower

  2. Dietary inflammatory index is associated with serum C-reactive protein and protein energy wasting in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tengilimoglu-Metin, M. Merve; Gumus, Damla; Sevim, Sumeyra; Turkoglu, İnci; Mandiroglu, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Malnutrition and inflammation are reported as the most powerful predictors of mortality and morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Diet has a key role in modulating inflammation and dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool for assessment of inflammatory potential of diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of DII on dietary intake of HD patients and examine the associations between DII and malnutrition-inflammation markers. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 105 subjects were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary recall, and pre-dialysis biochemical parameters were recorded for each subject. Subjective global assessment (SGA), which was previously validated for HD patients, and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) were used for the diagnosis of protein energy wasting. DII was calculated according to average of 3-day dietary recall data. RESULTS DII showed significant correlation with reliable malnutrition and inflammation indicators including SGA (r = 0.28, P < 0.01), MIS (r = 0.28, P < 0.01), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) in HD patients. When the study population was divided into three subgroups according to their DII score, significant increasing trends across the tertiles of DII were observed for SGA score (P = 0.035), serum CRP (P = 0.001), dietary energy (P < 0.001), total fat (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.006), and omega-6 fatty acids (P = 0.01) intakes. CONCLUSION This study shows that DII is a good tool for assessing the overall inflammatory potential of diet in HD patients. PMID:27478547

  3. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  4. A genome-wide linkage scan for dietary energy and nutrient intakes: the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study.

    PubMed

    Collaku, Agron; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva; Leon, Arthur S; Rao, D C; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude

    2004-05-01

    A poor diet is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. Twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors potentially influence energy and nutrient intakes. We sought to identify genomic regions harboring genes affecting total energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes. We performed a genomic scan in 347 white sibling pairs and 99 black sibling pairs. Dietary energy and nutrient intakes were assessed by using Willett's food-frequency questionnaire. Single-point and multipoint Haseman-Elston regression techniques were used to test for linkage. These subjects were part of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a multicenter project undertaken by 5 laboratories. In the whites, the strongest evidence of linkage appeared for dietary energy and nutrient intakes on chromosomes 1p21.2 (P = 0.0002) and 20q13.13 (P = 0.00007), and that for fat intake appeared on chromosome 12q14.1 (P = 0.0013). The linkage evidence on chromosomes 1 and 20 related to total energy intake rather than to the intake of specific macronutrients. In the blacks, promising linkages for macronutrient intakes occurred on chromosomes 12q23-q24.21, 1q32.1, and 7q11.1. Several potential candidate genes are encoded in and around the linkage regions on chromosomes 1p21.2, 12q14.1, and 20q13.13. These are the first reported human quantitative trait loci for dietary energy and macronutrient intakes. Further study may refine these quantitative trait loci to identify potential candidate genes for energy and specific macronutrient intakes that would be amenable to more detailed molecular studies.

  5. Comparative estimation of inevitable endogenous ileal flow of amino acids in Pekin ducks under varying dietary or physiological conditions and their significance to nutritional requirements for amino acids.

    PubMed

    Akinde, D O

    2017-10-01

    In 2 experiments in Pekin ducks the inevitable endogenous ileal flow (IEIF) of AA was estimated at changing intake and source of crude fiber (CF) or soybean oil (SO) level. Also the roles of dry matter intake (DMI) and BW or age as well as the proportion of IEIF in the dietary requirement for AA were studied. In experiment 1 three basal CP (20, 60, or 100 g/kg) diets were formulated containing a low CF (LCF, 30 g/kg) or high (HCF, 80 g/kg) level; achieved with cellulose supplementation. All diets were similar in every other respect including having SO content of 40 g/kg. Four floor pens of eight 85-day-old ducks were randomly allocated to each diet. Similar diets were mixed in experiment 2 but corn cob meal replaced cellulose as the fiber source. A high SO (HSO) series was also formed by increasing the SO level from 40 g/kg in the basal series to 100 g/kg. Thus the LCF series was concurrently classified as low SO (LSO) series to control SO effect. Each of the eventual 9 diets were fed to 5 floor pens of ten 65-day-old ducks. Ileal AA flow was measured after a 5 day feeding period in both experiments. Linear regression was calculated between ileal flow and dietary intake of individual AA. The IEIF interpreted as the y-intercept of each linear function responded neither to elevated ingestion of each CF type nor to SO level. Age and DMI had no effect on IEIF computed in relation to BW, but wide discrepancies resulted when related to DMI. Overall IEIF of AA varied between 14.3 to 129.8 mg/kg BW d-1. These flows were established in model computations to account for 10 to 64% of the recommended intake of limiting AA. In conclusion the ileal inevitable flow is constant within the dietary/age conditions investigated. However it is modulated by feed intake and accounts for a significant portion of total amino acid requirement. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Dietary Phenylalanine Requirements are Similar in Small, Medium, and Large Breed Adult Dogs using the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, W D; Gorman, A; Fortener, L; Shoveller, A K

    2018-05-26

    We have previously determined Phenylalanine (Phe) requirements in mature dogs; however, little information is available on differences of Phe minimum requirements (MR) on different breed sizes. The objective of this study was to determine Phe requirements in adult dogs of 3 different breed sizes using the direct amino acid oxidation (DAAO) technique. In total, 12 adult dogs were used, 4 Miniature Dachshunds (5.3 ± 0.6 Kg BW; 1.8 ± 0.1 years old; mean ± SD), 4 Beagles (8.3 ± 0.7 Kg BW; 6.7 ± 0.2 years old; mean ± SD), and 4 Labrador Retrievers (34.9 ± 2.2 Kg BW; 4.4 ± 1.4 years old; mean ± SD). A basal Phe-deficient diet with excess of Tyrosine (Tyr) was formulated. Dogs were randomly fed the basal diet supplemented with increasing levels of Phe; the Phe content in the final experimental diets was 0.24, 0.29, 0.34, 0.44, 0.54, 0.64, and 0.74%. After 2 d of adaptation to the experimental diets, dogs underwent individual DAAO studies. During the DAAO studies, total daily feed was divided in 13 equal meals; at the sixth meal, dogs were fed a bolus of L-[1-13C]-Phe (9.40 mg/kg BW), and thereafter, L-[1-13C]-Phe (2.4 mg/kg BW) was supplied with every meal. Total production of 13CO2 (13CO2) during isotopic steady state was determined by enrichment of 13CO2 in breath samples and total production of CO2 measured using indirect calorimetry. The mean requirement for Phe and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined using a 2-phase linear regression model. To account for differences in feed intake, requirements were expressed in mg.kg BW-1.d-1. The mean requirement for Phe were 41.9, 41.3, and 42.6, and upper 95% CI of Phe requirements were 57.3, 58.4, and 64.8 mg.kg BW-1.d-1 for Miniature Dachshunds, Beagles, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The mean requirement and the upper 95% CI for the pooled data (all dogs) was 45.3 and 55.4 mg.kg BW-1.d-1, respectively. In conclusion, the Phe requirements for different breeds were similar among dog breeds studied

  7. Effects of reduced dietary energy and amino acid density on Pectoralis major myopathies in broiler chickens at 36 and 49 days of age1.

    PubMed

    Meloche, K J; Fancher, B I; Emmerson, D A; Bilgili, S F; Dozier, W A

    2018-05-01

    Two experiments (Exp) were conducted to determine if reductions in the incidence and severity of wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) may be obtained by reducing dietary nutrient density. In each Exp, Yield Plus × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were placed into 63 pens (22 birds/pen). All birds received an identical prestarter diet until 7 d of age, after which time each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 7 dietary treatments (TRT) for the starter (8 to 14 d), grower (15 to 24 d), finisher 1 (Exp 1: 26 to 35 d; Exp 2: 26 to 42 d), and withdrawal (Exp 2: 43 to 48 d) phases: 1) 100% of primary breeder recommendations for digestible amino acid and metabolizable energy density throughout Exp; 2) 95% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 3) 95% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 4) 95% of TRT 1 throughout Exp; 5) 90% of TRT 1 until 14 d of age, then as TRT 1; 6) 90% of TRT 1 until 24 d of age, then as TRT 1; 7) 90% of TRT 1 throughout Exp. At 36 d (Exp 1) and 49 d (Exp 2), 18 birds per pen were processed and evaluated for WS and WB. In Exp 1, reduced dietary density in the starter phase (TRT 2 and TRT 5) resulted in increased (P ≤ 0.05) incidences of severe WB (32.9% and 34.7%) relative to TRT 1 (18.2%). In Exp 2, broilers assigned to TRT 7 had reduced (P < 0.01) incidences of severe WB (20.8%) and WS (42.3%) relative to the control (WB: 36.5%; WS: 64.5%). In both Exp, plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing scores for WB and WS. Reducing dietary nutrient density from 8 to 14 d may exacerbate fillet myopathies in broilers reared to 35 d of age. Although reducing dietary energy and amino acid density to 90% of recommendations from 1 to 48 d reduced the severity of myopathies, these reductions occurred with compromises in live performance. Altogether, these results indicated that concurrent manipulation of dietary amino acid and energy density is not a viable practical solution for breast

  8. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    PubMed Central

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of

  9. Summary of Energy Assessment Requirements under the Area Source Boiler Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides an overview of the energy assessment requirements for the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for area sources: industrial, commercial and Institutional boilers, 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ.

  10. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  11. 21 CFR 111.165 - What requirements apply to a product received for packaging or labeling as a dietary supplement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)? 111.165 Section 111.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to a product received for...

  12. Addressing Control of Hazardous Energy (COHE) Requirements in a Laser Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Michael; /SLAC

    OSHA regulation 29CFR1910.147 specifies control of hazardous energy requirements for 'the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.' Class 3B and Class 4 laser beams must be considered hazardous energy sources because of the potential for serious eye injury; careful consideration is therefore needed to safely de-energize these lasers. This paper discusses and evaluates control of hazardous energy principles in this OSHA regulation, in ANSI Z136.1 ''Safe Use of Lasers,'' and in ANSI Z244.1 ''Control of Hazardousmore » Energy, Lockout/Tagout and Alternative Methods.'' Recommendations are made for updating and improving CoHE (control of hazardous energy) requirements in these standards for their applicability to safe laser operations.« less

  13. Food and energy choices for India: a programming model with partial endogenous energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Parikh, K S; Srinivasan, T N

    1980-09-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for all matter-energy processing subsystems at the level of the society, specifically India. It explores India's choices in the food and energy sectors over the coming decades. Alternative land intensive, irrigation energy intensive, and fertilizer intensive techniques of food production are identified using a nonlinear programming model. The land saved is devoted to growing firewood. The optimum combination of railway (steam, diesel, and electric traction) and road (automobiles, diesel trucks, and diesel and gasoline buses) transport is determined. For the oil sector, two alternative sources of supply of crude oil and petroleum products are included, namely, domestic production and imports. The optimum choice is determined through a linear programming model. While the model is basically a static one, designed to determine the optimal choice for the target year of 2000-2001, certain intertemporal detail is incorporated for electricity generation. The model minimizes the costs of meeting the needs for food, transport in terms of passenger kilometers and goods per ton per kilometer, energy needs for domestic cooking and lighting, and the energy needs of the rest of the economy.

  14. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008-9 Nationwide Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-04-14

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-9, food records were collected from 25 753 individuals aged 10 years or older, living in urban areas of Brazil. Foods were grouped into thirty-three food groups, and the mean energy intake provided by away-from-home food consumption was estimated. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between away-from-home food consumption and total energy intake. All analyses considered the sample design effect. Of the total population, 43 % consumed at least one food item away from home. The mean energy intake from foods consumed away from home was 1408 kJ (337 kcal), averaging 18 % of total energy intake. Eating away from home was associated with increased total energy intake, except for men in the highest income level. The highest percentage of away-from-home energy sources was for food with a high content of energy, such as alcoholic beverages (59 %), baked and deep-fried snacks (54 %), pizza (42 %), soft drinks (40 %), sandwiches (40 %), and sweets and desserts (30 %). The consumption of foods away from home was related to a greater energy intake. The characterisation of away-from-home food habits is necessary in order to properly design strategies to promote healthy food consumption in the away-from-home environment.

  15. Quantitative trait loci analysis for net ginning energy requirements in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton cultivars with reduced fiber-seed attachment force have the potential to be ginned faster with less energy. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for net ginning energy (NGE) requirement, and its relationship with other fiber quality traits in upland cotton...

  16. Exercise Preserves Lean Mass and Performance during Severe Energy Deficit: The Role of Exercise Volume and Dietary Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Calbet, Jose A L; Ponce-González, Jesús G; Calle-Herrero, Jaime de La; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Martin-Rincon, Marcos; Santana, Alfredo; Morales-Alamo, David; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD). During CRE, the participants ingested a VLCD and performed 45 min of one-arm cranking followed by 8 h walking each day. The VLCD consisted of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day of either whey protein (PRO, n = 8) or sucrose (SU, n = 7). FFM was reduced after CRE ( P < 0.001), with the legs and the exercised arm losing proportionally less FFM than the control arm [57% ( P < 0.05) and 29% ( P = 0.05), respectively]. Performance during leg pedaling, as reflected by the peak oxygen uptake and power output (Wpeak), was reduced after CRE by 15 and 12%, respectively ( P < 0.05), and recovered only partially after CD. The deterioration of cycling performance was more pronounced in the whey protein than sucrose group ( P < 0.05). Wpeak during arm cranking was unchanged in the control arm, but improved in the contralateral arm by arm cranking. There was a linear relationship between the reduction in whole-body FFM between PRE and CRE and the changes in the cortisol/free testosterone ratio (C/FT), serum isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, valine, BCAA, and EAA ( r = -0.54 to -0.71, respectively, P < 0.05). C/FT tended to be higher in the PRO than the SU group following CRE ( P = 0.06). In conclusion, concomitant low-intensity exercise such as walking or arm cranking even during an extreme energy deficit results in remarkable preservation of lean mass. The intake of proteins alone may be associated with greater

  17. Effects of increased dietary protein and energy on composition and functional capacities of blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated, neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Foote, Monica R; Nonnecke, Brian J; Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V; Beitz, Donald C; Fowler, Mike A; Miller, Bill L; Johnson, Tom E; Perry, H Bruce

    2005-09-01

    diet. Antigen-elicited delayed-type hypersensitivity was unaffected by diet, suggesting increased dietary protein and energy did not alter adaptive immunity in vivo. Overall, these results suggest that feeding calves a commercially available, intensified milk replacer affects minimally the composition and functional capacities of PBMC populations. Additional research is necessary to determine whether these subtle effects influence the calf's susceptibility to infectious disease.

  18. Exercise Preserves Lean Mass and Performance during Severe Energy Deficit: The Role of Exercise Volume and Dietary Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Calbet, Jose A. L.; Ponce-González, Jesús G.; Calle-Herrero, Jaime de La; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Martin-Rincon, Marcos; Santana, Alfredo; Morales-Alamo, David; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD). During CRE, the participants ingested a VLCD and performed 45 min of one-arm cranking followed by 8 h walking each day. The VLCD consisted of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day of either whey protein (PRO, n = 8) or sucrose (SU, n = 7). FFM was reduced after CRE (P < 0.001), with the legs and the exercised arm losing proportionally less FFM than the control arm [57% (P < 0.05) and 29% (P = 0.05), respectively]. Performance during leg pedaling, as reflected by the peak oxygen uptake and power output (Wpeak), was reduced after CRE by 15 and 12%, respectively (P < 0.05), and recovered only partially after CD. The deterioration of cycling performance was more pronounced in the whey protein than sucrose group (P < 0.05). Wpeak during arm cranking was unchanged in the control arm, but improved in the contralateral arm by arm cranking. There was a linear relationship between the reduction in whole-body FFM between PRE and CRE and the changes in the cortisol/free testosterone ratio (C/FT), serum isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, valine, BCAA, and EAA (r = −0.54 to −0.71, respectively, P < 0.05). C/FT tended to be higher in the PRO than the SU group following CRE (P = 0.06). In conclusion, concomitant low-intensity exercise such as walking or arm cranking even during an extreme energy deficit results in remarkable preservation of lean mass. The intake of proteins alone may be associated with greater cortisol

  19. Energy Integrated Design of Lighting, Heating, and Cooling Systems, and Its Effect on Building Energy Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon

    Comments on the need for integrated design of lighting, heating, and cooling systems. In order to eliminate the penalty of refrigerating the lighting heat, minimize the building non-usable space, and optimize the total energy input, a "systems approach" is recommended. This system would employ heat-recovery techniques based on the ability of the…

  20. Role of Nutritional Supplements Complementing Nutrient-Dense Diets: General Versus Sport/Exercise-Specific Dietary Guidelines Related to Energy Expenditure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Susan; Greenwood, Mike

    A nutrient-dense diet is a critical aspect in attaining optimal exercise training and athletic performance outcomes. Although including safe and effective nutritional supplements in the dietary design can be extremely helpful in promoting adequate caloric ingestion, they are not sufficient for promoting adequate caloric ingestion based on individualized caloric expenditure needs without the proper diet. Specifically, a strategic and scientifically based nutrient-dense dietary profile should be created by qualified professionals to meet the sport/exercise-specific energy demands of any individual involved in select training intensity protocols. Finally, ingesting the right quantity and quality of nutrient dense calories at precise windows of opportunity becomes vital in attaining desired training and/or competitive performance outcomes.

  1. Response to dietary-induced energy restriction in dairy sheep divergently selected for resistance or susceptibility to mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bouvier-Muller, J; Allain, C; Enjalbert, F; Tabouret, G; Portes, D; Caubet, C; Tasca, C; Foucras, G; Rupp, R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy ruminants experiencing a severe postpartum negative energy balance (NEB) are considered to be more susceptible to mastitis. Although the genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established, the biological basis of the link between energy metabolism and resistance is mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of NEB on metabolism and immune response according to the genetic background for mastitis resistance or susceptibility. Forty-eight ewes from high and low somatic cell score (SCS) genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups 2 wk after lambing: one group (NEB) received an energy-restricted diet to cover 60% of their energy requirements, and the other group received a control (positive energy balance: PEB) diet. Both diets met the protein requirements. After 10 d on either the NEB or PEB diet, all ewes were injected with a Pam3CSK4/MDP solution in one half-udder to induce an inflammatory response. The ewes were monitored for milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and blood metabolites. Differential milk cell counts were determined by flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and triiodothyronine were determined. Energy restriction resulted in an increased fat:protein ratio in milk and decreased milk yield, BW, and BCS. The NEB ewes had significantly higher NEFA and BHB and lower plasma glucose concentrations than PEB ewes, reflecting a mobilization of body reserves and ketone body synthesis. High-SCS ewes had a higher SCS than low-SCS throughout the experiment, except after the inflammatory challenge, which resulted in similar SCS in all 4 groups. A noteworthy interaction between genetic background and diet was evidenced on metabolic parameters and BW. Indeed, high-SCS ewes subjected to NEB showed greater decrease in BW and increased NEFA and BHB concentrations compared with low

  2. Quantifying the energy required for groundwater pumping across a regional aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Shugert, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater pumping can be a substantial source of energy expenditure, particularly in semiarid regions with large depths to water. In this study we assessed the energy required for groundwater pumping in the Denver Basin aquifer system, a group of sedimentary rock aquifers used for municipal water supply in Colorado. In recent decades, declining water levels in the Denver Basin aquifers has resulted in increased pumping lifts and higher energy use rates. We quantified the spatially variable energy intensity for groundwater pumping by analyzing spatial variations in the lift requirement. The median energy intensities for two major aquifers were 1.2 and 1.8 kWh m-3. Considering typical municipal well production rates and household water use in the study area, these results indicate that the energy cost associated with groundwater pumping can be a significant fraction (>20%) of the total electricity consumption for all household end uses. Pumping at this scale (hundreds of municipal wells producing from deep aquifers) also generates substantial greenhouse gas emissions. Analytical wellfield modeling conducted as part of this study clearly demonstrates how multiple components of the lift impact the energy requirement. Results provide guidance for water management strategies that reduce energy expenditure.

  3. Influence of a direct-fed microbial and xylanase enzyme on the dietary energy uptake efficiency and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Ganapathi Raj; Persia, Michael E

    2015-09-01

    Efficacy of a multi-strain direct-fed microbial product (PoultryStar(®) ME; PS) and a xylanase enzyme product on the dietary energy utilization efficiency and resulting performance in broiler chickens was evaluated. Apart from performance parameters, cecal and serum metabolites and activities of hepatic enzymes involved in energy metabolism were also determined. Ross 308 chicks were fed one of four experimental diets [control (CON), CON + PS, CON + xylanase and CON + PS + xylanase] using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement from 1-21 days of age. Cecal proportions of propionate and butyrate, as well as total short-chain fatty acid concentration were increased (P <0.01) by PS suggesting increased fermentation of dietary fiber. Both additives reduced (P <0.01) serum non-esterified free fatty acids, while PS reduced (P <0.01) serum triglyceride. Hepatic glycogen concentration was increased (P <0.01) by both additives. Changes in these serum metabolites and hepatic glycogen indicate the influence of additives in swiftly transitioning the birds from fasting to feeding metabolism. The activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was increased (P <0.01) by PS. Elevated hepatic glycogen and G6PDH activity indicate increased glucose-sparing potential. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lowered by both additives, while the magnitude of reduction was higher with the combination. The combination worked synergistically, compared to their individual effects, to increase dietary energy uptake and hepatic energy retention. The combination additively increased the FCR, suggesting involvement of synergistic modes of actions. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Energy and nutrient intake according to away-from-home food consumption in the Northeast Region: an analysis of the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Jessica Brito; Moreira, Tyciane Maria Vieira; Mota, Caroline da Costa; Pontes, Carolinne Reinaldo; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Away-from-home food consumption has increased in Brazil and is associated with fewer nutritious food choices. To describe energy and specific nutrient intake among consumers and non-consumer of away-from-home food in the Northeast Region. A sample of 11,674 individuals from the National Dietary Survey data, which is part of the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, from the Northeast Region, was analyzed. Individuals provided two dietary records in nonconsecutive days, informing the place where foods were consumed (at-home or away-from-home). Away-from-home food was defined as foods acquired and consumed away from home. Linear regression models were developed to assess the relationship between away-from-home food consumption in one of the two-day food record and the energy and nutrient intake, adjusted for age, gender, and per capita income. Away-from-home food consumption, in at least one of the two-day food record, was reported by 42% of individuals in the Northeast Region. Individuals who consumed food away from home in the Northeast Region presented poor nutrient intake compared to those who did not report consumption away from home, with higher intake of energy, free sugar, saturated fat, and trans fat and lower intake of protein, iron, and dietary fiber, regardless of age, gender, and income (p < 0.05). Away-from-home food consumption in the Northeast Region contributed to higher energy and poorer nutrient intake. Therefore, the development of public policies and strategies that favor health food choices when individuals eat away from home is necessary.

  5. Energy Requirements in Early Life Are Similar for Male and Female Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, T. F. V.; Neto, O. Boaventura; Mendonca, A. N.; Souza, S. F.; Oliveira, D.; Fernandes, M. H. M. R.; Harter, C. J.; Almeida, A. K.; Resende, K. T.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the gender differences in energetic requirements of goats in early life. In this study, we determined the energy requirements for maintenance and gain in intact male, castrated male and female Saanen goat kids using the comparative slaughter technique and provide new data on their body composition and energy efficiency. To determine the energy requirements for maintenance, we studied 21 intact males, 15 castrated males and 18 females (5.0±0.1 kg initial body weight (BW) and 23±5 d of age) using a split-plot design with the following main factors: three genders (intact males, castrated males, and females) and three dry matter intake levels (ad libitum, 75% and 50% of ad libitum intake). A slaughter group included three kids, one for each nutritional plane, of each gender, and all three animals within a group were slaughtered when the ad libitum kid reached 15 kg in BW. Net energy requirements for gain were obtained for 17 intact males, eight castrated males and 15 females (5.1±0.4 kg BW and 23±13 d of age). Animals were fed ad libitum and slaughtered when they reached 5, 10, and 15 kg in BW. A digestion trial was performed with nine kids of each gender to determine digestible energy, metabolizable energy and energy metabolizability of the diet. Our results show no effect of gender on the energy requirements for maintenance and gain, and overall net energy for maintenance was 205.6 kJ/kg0.75 empty body weight gain (EBW) (170.3 kJ/kg0.75 BW) from 5 to 15 kg BW. Metabolizable energy for maintenance was calculated by iteration, assuming heat production equal to metabolizable energy intake at maintenance, and the result was 294.34 kJ/kg0.75 EBW and km of 0.70. As BW increased from 5 to 15 kg for all genders, the net energy required for gain increased from 9.5 to 12.0 kJ/g EBW gain (EWG), and assuming kg = 0.47, metabolizable energy for gain ranged from 20.2 to 25.5 kJ/g EWG. Our results indicate that it is not necessary to formulate diets with

  6. Calcium requirements from dairy foods in France can be met at low energy and monetary cost.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Tang, Wesley; Brazeilles, Rémi

    2015-12-14

    Inadequate Ca intakes are a concern for global public health. In France, most dietary Ca is provided by dairy products: milks, fermented milks (mostly yogurts), dairy desserts and cheeses. The present dairy database (n 837) included milks (n 101), fermented milks, yogurts and other fresh dairy products (n 326), desserts (n 162) and a wide variety of cheeses (n 248). Energy and nutrient values were obtained from industry sources and the French national nutrient composition database. Retail prices were from Paris supermarkets. Products in each group were aggregated into twenty-one categories using clustering analyses. The costs in energy (kJ (kcal)), euros (€), and in SFA, added sugar and Na (defined here as nutrients to LIMit) associated with providing 120 mg of Ca (equivalent to 15 % daily value (15 % DV)) were calculated for each product group and category. The milk group supplied Ca at the lowest energy, monetary and LIM cost. Fresh plain and 'light' yogurts and fermented milks were next, followed by sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Light dairy desserts provided Ca with relatively few energy but were more expensive. Cheeses were a heterogeneous group. Hard cheeses (Comté) provided the most Ca per serving. Semi-hard cheeses (Camembert) and cream and blue cheeses (Roquefort) provided Ca at a cost comparable with sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Double cream, soft and goat cheeses were not optimal Ca sources. New value metrics can help identify affordable dairy foods that provide Ca without excessive energy or nutrients to limit. These conditions were satisfied by a wide variety of dairy products in France.

  7. A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette; Marsaux, Cyril Fm; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L; Steinert, Robert E; Mela, David J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1 ) DF name and origin and 2 ) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetite-related outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for

  8. Comparison of Estimated Energy Requirements in Severely Burned Patients With Measurements by Using Indirect Calorimetry

    PubMed Central

    Tancheva, D.; Arabadziev, J.; Gergov, G.; Lachev, N.; Todorova, S.; Hristova, A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Severe burn injuries give rise to an extreme state of physiological stress. No other trauma results in such an accelerated rate of tissue catabolism, loss of lean body mass, and depletion of energy and protein reserves. A heightened attention to energy needs is essential, and the significance of adequate nutritional support in the complex management of patients with major burns is very important. The purpose of this study is to compare the results obtained by three of the most popular methods of estimating energy requirements in severely burned adult patients with the measurements of resting energy (REE) expenditure by indirect calorimetry (IC). A prospective study was carried out of 20 patients (male/female ratio, 17/3; mean age, 37.83 ± 10.86 yr), without accompanying morbidities, with burn injuries covering a mean body surface area of 34.27 ± 11.55% and a mean abbreviated burn severity index of 7.44 ± 1.58. During the first 30 days after trauma, the energy requirements were estimated using the Curreri, Long, and Toronto formulas. Twice weekly measurements of REE by IC were obtained. It was found that the Curreri and Long formulas overestimated the energy requirements in severely burned patients, as found by other investigators. However, no significant difference was found between the daily energy requirements calculated by the Toronto formula and the measured REE values by IC. It is concluded that the Toronto formula can be used as an alternative method for estimating the energy requirements of patients with major burns in cases where IC is not available or not applicable. PMID:21990973

  9. Are children with chronic illnesses requiring dietary therapy at risk for disordered eating or eating disorders? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Conviser, Jenny H; Fisher, Sheehan D; McColley, Susanna A

    2018-03-01

    Pediatric chronic illnesses (CI) can affect a child's mental health. Chronic illnesses with treatment regimens that specify a therapeutic diet may place the child at increased risk for disordered eating and specific eating disorders (ED). The aim of this review is to examine the relation between diet-treated CI and disordered eating and to determine the order of onset to infer directionality. Diet-treated CI is hypothesized to precede and to be associated with disordered eating. A comprehensive search of empirical articles that examine the relation between diet-treated CI (diabetes, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases) and disordered eating was conducted in Medline and PsycINFO using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A table of the sample's characteristics, ED measures, major pertinent findings, and the onset of CI in relation to ED were provided. Diet-treated CI was associated with disordered eating and ED. Diet-treated CI had onset prior to disordered eating in most studies, except for inflammatory bowel diseases. Disordered eating and unhealthy weight management practices put children at risk for poor medical outcomes. Interventions for diet-treated CI require a focus on diet and weight, but may increase the risk for disordered eating. Future research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that transform standard treatment practices into pathological eating, including characteristics and behaviors of the child, parents/care providers, family, and treatment providers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dietary substitution of whole grains for refined grains favorably effects fiber intake and energy metabolism in adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole grain-rich diets are consistently associated with lower adiposity in observational studies. However, clinical trials have failed to substantiate this association or identify underlying mechanisms. The inconsistency has been suggested to be due to trial methodology including suboptimal dietary ...

  11. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  12. Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with Yerba Mate Ameliorates Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice by Regulating Energy Expenditure and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Do Yeon; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks as follows: (1) control group fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and (2) mate group fed with HFD plus yerba mate. Dietary yerba mate increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene mRNA expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in WAT, which may be linked to observed decreases in body weight, WAT weight, epididymal adipocyte size, and plasma leptin level. Yerba mate also decreased levels of plasma lipids (free fatty acids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and liver aminotransferase enzymes, as well as the accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets and lipid content by inhibiting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and increasing fecal lipid excretion. Moreover, yerba mate decreased the levels of plasma insulin as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance. Circulating levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and resistin were also decreased in the mate group. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation of dietary yerba mate may be beneficial for improving diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis.

  13. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor is required for colonic tumor promotion by dietary fat in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium model: roles of transforming growth factor-{alpha} and PTGS2.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Urszula; Cerasi, Dario; Taylor, Ieva; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tekin, Ummuhan; Badal, Shamiram; Aluri, Lata; Sehdev, Amikar; Cerda, Sonia; Mustafi, Reba; Delgado, Jorge; Joseph, Loren; Zhu, Hongyan; Hart, John; Threadgill, David; Fichera, Alessandro; Bissonnette, Marc

    2009-11-15

    Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths. Dietary factors contribute substantially to the risk of this malignancy. Western-style diets promote development of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer. Although we showed that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) controlled azoxymethane tumorigenesis in standard fat conditions, the role of EGFR in tumor promotion by high dietary fat has not been examined. A/J x C57BL6/J mice with wild-type Egfr (Egfr(wt)) or loss-of-function waved-2 Egfr (Egfr(wa2)) received azoxymethane followed by standard (5% fat) or western-style (20% fat) diet. As F(1) mice were resistant to azoxymethane, we treated mice with azoxymethane followed by one cycle of inflammation-inducing dextran sulfate sodium to induce tumorigenesis. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks after dextran sulfate sodium. Tumors were graded for histology and assessed for EGFR ligands and proto-oncogenes by immunostaining, Western blotting, and real-time PCR. Egfr(wt) mice gained significantly more weight and had exaggerated insulin resistance compared with Egfr(wa2) mice on high-fat diet. Dietary fat promoted tumor incidence (71.2% versus 36.7%; P < 0.05) and cancer incidence (43.9% versus 16.7%; P < 0.05) only in Egfr(wt) mice. The lipid-rich diet also significantly increased tumor and cancer multiplicity only in Egfr(wt) mice. In tumors, dietary fat and Egfr(wt) upregulated transforming growth factor-alpha, amphiregulin, CTNNB1, MYC, and CCND1, whereas PTGS2 was only increased in Egfr(wt) mice and further upregulated by dietary fat. Notably, dietary fat increased transforming growth factor-alpha in normal colon. EGFR is required for dietary fat-induced weight gain and tumor promotion. EGFR-dependent increases in receptor ligands and PTGS2 likely drive diet-related tumor promotion.

  15. Design of a Conceptual Bumper Energy Absorber Coupling Pedestrian Safety and Low-Speed Impact Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Fuhao; Zhao, Siqi; Yu, Chuanhui; Duan, Shuyong

    2018-01-01

    The car front bumper system needs to meet the requirements of both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact which are somewhat contradicting. This study aims to design a new kind of modular self-adaptive energy absorber of the front bumper system which can balance the two performances. The X-shaped energy-absorbing structure was proposed which can enhance the energy absorption capacity during impact by changing its deformation mode based on the amount of external collision energy. Then, finite element simulations with a realistic vehicle bumper system are performed to demonstrate its crashworthiness in comparison with the traditional foam energy absorber, which presents a significant improvement of the two performances. Furthermore, the structural parameters of the X-shaped energy-absorbing structure including thickness (t u), side arc radius (R), and clamping boost beam thickness (t b) are analyzed using a full factorial method, and a multiobjective optimization is implemented regarding evaluation indexes of both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact. The optimal parameters are then verified, and the feasibility of the optimal results is confirmed. In conclusion, the new X-shaped energy absorber can meet both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact requirements well by altering the main deformation modes according to different impact energy levels. PMID:29581728

  16. Design of a Conceptual Bumper Energy Absorber Coupling Pedestrian Safety and Low-Speed Impact Requirements.

    PubMed

    Mo, Fuhao; Zhao, Siqi; Yu, Chuanhui; Xiao, Zhi; Duan, Shuyong

    2018-01-01

    The car front bumper system needs to meet the requirements of both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact which are somewhat contradicting. This study aims to design a new kind of modular self-adaptive energy absorber of the front bumper system which can balance the two performances. The X-shaped energy-absorbing structure was proposed which can enhance the energy absorption capacity during impact by changing its deformation mode based on the amount of external collision energy. Then, finite element simulations with a realistic vehicle bumper system are performed to demonstrate its crashworthiness in comparison with the traditional foam energy absorber, which presents a significant improvement of the two performances. Furthermore, the structural parameters of the X-shaped energy-absorbing structure including thickness ( t u ), side arc radius ( R ), and clamping boost beam thickness ( t b ) are analyzed using a full factorial method, and a multiobjective optimization is implemented regarding evaluation indexes of both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact. The optimal parameters are then verified, and the feasibility of the optimal results is confirmed. In conclusion, the new X-shaped energy absorber can meet both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact requirements well by altering the main deformation modes according to different impact energy levels.

  17. RF System Requirements for a Medium-Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, Robert A; Hannon, Fay E; Guo, Jiquan

    2015-09-01

    JLab is studying options for a medium energy electron-ion collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-energy electron injector. A new ion source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the ions and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, ion booster ring and high-energy ion beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reducemore » the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final energy. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate light sources.« less

  18. Comparison of measured versus predicted energy requirements in critically ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Arash; Tucker, Anne M; Taylor, Kim A; Jinnah, Rashida; Finch, Clarence G; Canada, Todd D; Nates, Joseph L

    2009-04-01

    Accurate determination of caloric requirements is essential to avoid feeding-associated complications in critically ill patients. In critically ill cancer patients we compared the measured and estimated resting energy expenditures. All patients admitted to the oncology intensive care unit between March 2004 and July 2005 were considered for inclusion. For those patients enrolled (n = 34) we measured resting energy expenditure via indirect calorimetry, and estimated resting energy expenditure in 2 ways: clinically estimated resting energy expenditure; and the Harris-Benedict basal energy expenditure equation. Clinically estimated resting energy expenditure was associated with underfeeding, appropriate feeding, and overfeeding in approximately 15%, 15%, and 71% of the patients, respectively. The Harris-Benedict basal energy expenditure was associated with underfeeding, appropriate feeding, and overfeeding in approximately 29%, 41%, and 29% of the patients, respectively. The mean measured resting energy expenditure (1,623 +/- 384 kcal/d) was similar to the mean Harris-Benedict basal energy expenditure without the addition of stress or activity factors (1,613 +/- 382 kcal/d, P = .87), and both were significantly lower than the mean clinically estimated resting energy expenditure (1,862 +/- 330 kcal/d, P < or = .003 for both). There was a significant correlation only between mean measured resting energy expenditure and mean Harris-Benedict basal energy expenditure (P < .001), but the correlation coefficient between those values was low (r = 0.587). Underfeeding and overfeeding were common in our critically ill cancer patients when resting energy expenditure was estimated rather than measured. Indirect calorimetry is the method of choice for determining caloric need in critically ill cancer patients, but if indirect calorimetry is not available or feasible, the Harris-Benedict equation without added stress and activity factors is more accurate than the clinically

  19. A Study of Airbase Facility/Utility Energy R and D Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    facility/utility energy requirements for system implementations, modifications, or deletions were collected, entered into the database, and compared with...BASE_________ ENERGY LOS1 %) 200 MBtu TOTAL COSTS 100 Motu ELECTRIC 100 Motu THERMAL337 Motu ,, OF1FUEL 100 MBtu OF(10 11 PURCHASED S 1800.00 ELECTRIC...this page. Usage Data = *.BTU I. Correct spelling of Base name and Command 2. Macro does the following: Inserts or deletes columns or rows so that D4

  20. Required Assets for a Nuclear Energy Applied R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Craig L. Jacobson

    2009-03-01

    This report is one of a set of three documents that have collectively identified and recommended research and development capabilities that will be required to advance nuclear energy in the next 20 to 50 years. The first report, Nuclear Energy for the Future: Required Research and Development Capabilities—An Industry Perspective, was produced by Battelle Memorial Institute at the request of the Assistant Secretary of Nuclear Energy. That report, drawn from input by industry, academia, and Department of Energy laboratories, can be found in Appendix 5.1. This Idaho National Laboratory report maps the nuclear-specific capabilities from the Battelle report onto facilitymore » requirements, identifying options from the set of national laboratory, university, industry, and international facilities. It also identifies significant gaps in the required facility capabilities. The third document, Executive Recommendations for Nuclear R&D Capabilities, is a letter report containing a set of recommendations made by a team of senior executives representing nuclear vendors, utilities, academia, and the national laboratories (at Battelle’s request). That third report can be found in Appendix 5.2. The three reports should be considered as set in order to have a more complete picture. The basis of this report was drawn from three sources: previous Department of Energy reports, workshops and committee meetings, and expert opinion. The facilities discussed were winnowed from several hundred facilities that had previously been catalogued and several additional facilities that had been overlooked in past exercises. The scope of this report is limited to commercial nuclear energy and those things the federal government, or more specifically the Office of Nuclear Energy, should do to support its expanded deployment in order to increase energy security and reduce carbon emissions. In the context of this report, capabilities mean innovative, well-structured research and development

  1. Shielding Requirements for an Energy-Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Radiofrequency TLD Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter xviii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to first thank Professor...FOR AN ENERGY- RECOVERY LINAC FREE ELECTRON LASER by Robert E. Peterson December 2011 Thesis Co-Advisors: William B. Colson Keith...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Shielding Requirements for an Energy-Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  2. Energy requirements in frail elderly people: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Alix, E; Sallé, A; Berrut, G; Ritz, P

    2007-02-01

    This review collates studies of healthy, sick, underweight (BMI < or = 21 kg/m2) and very elderly people (> or = 90 yr), in whom resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured using indirect calorimetry. We have observed the following: (1) REE, when adjusted for differences in both body weight and fat-free mass (FFM), is similar in healthy and in sick elderly people being 20 and 28 kcal/kg of FFM per day, respectively, (2) their nutritional status influences their energy requirements given that weight-adjusted REE increases in line with a decrease in BMI, (3) total energy expenditure is lower in sick elderly people given that their physical activity level, i.e. the ratio of total energy expenditure to REE, is reduced during disease averaging at 1.36, (4) energy intake (EI) being only 1.23 x REE is insufficient to cover energy requirements in sick elderly patients, whereas the EI of healthy elderly people appears sufficient to cover requirements, and finally, (5) gender ceases to be a determinant of REE in people aged 60 yr or over, with the Harris & Benedict equation capable of accurately predicting mean REE in this population, whether healthy or sick.

  3. Materials Requirements for Advanced Energy Systems - New Fuels. Volume 3: Materials Research Needs in Advanced Energy Systems Using New Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    elec- Materials se: trode materials and associ- operational ated conductors. 2.5.1 General. H" (02) Materials resources Technoeconomic analysis - None...Advanced Energy Systems Using New Fnels VIII Correlation and Analysis of Materials Requirements IX Research Recommendations and Priorities The authois...of government and industrial organizal ions who gave us the benefit of their knowledge and experience. iv VIII CORRELATION ANU ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS

  4. Colloquy and workshops: regional implications of the engineering manpower requirements of the National Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Segool, H. D.

    1979-05-01

    The crucial interrelationships of engineering manpower, technological innovation, productivity and capital re-formaton were keynoted. Near-term, a study has indicated a much larger New England energy demand-reduction/economic/market potential, with a probably larger engineering manpower requirement, for energy-conservation measures characterized by technological innovation and cost-effective capital services than for alternative energy-supply measures. Federal, regional, and state energy program responsibilities described a wide-ranging panorama of activities among many possible energy options which conveyed much endeavor without identifiable engineering manpower demand coefficients. Similarly, engineering manpower assessment data was described as uneven and unfocused to the energy program at the national level, disaggregated data asmore » non-existent at the regional/state levels, although some qualitative inferences were drawn. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 16 individual presentations for the DOE Energy Data Base (EDB); 14 of these were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA) and 2 for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).« less

  5. Effect of varying concentrations of dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy on laying performance of Pearl Grey guinea fowl hens.

    PubMed

    Nahashon, S N; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate optimum dietary concentrations of ME and CP for egg production performance of the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens. In a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, 360 Pearl Gray guinea fowl replacement pullets (22 wk of age) were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 2,800 and 2,900 kcal of ME/kg of diet, each containing 14, 16, and 18% CP, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Experimental birds were raised in laying cages and received 16 h of light throughout the study period. The birds were observed for feed consumption, hen-day egg production (HDEP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed conversion ratio, internal egg quality, shell thickness (ST), and BW at the end of each 28-d lay period at 26 to 50 wk of age and at 62 to 86 wk of age. Mortality was recorded as it occurred. Mean HDEP, EW, EM, and ST were higher (P < 0.05) in hens receiving diets with 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of feed than those fed diets containing 2,900 kcal of ME/kg of diet. Hens on 14% CP diets also exhibited higher (P < 0.05) HDEP, EM, and ST than those fed diets containing 16 and 18% CP diets. Mean feed conversion ratio of birds on 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of diet and 14% CP diets were significantly lower than those of hens on other dietary treatments. Differences in feed consumption, EW, internal egg quality, BW, and mortality among dietary ME and CP concentrations were not significant (P > 0.05). Overall, diets composed of 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of diet and 14% CP were utilized more efficiently by the Pearl Gray guinea fowl laying hens at 26 to 50 and 62 to 86 wk of age.

  6. Assessing Energy Requirements in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Comparison Against Doubly Labeled Water.

    PubMed

    Broskey, Nicholas T; Klempel, Monica C; Gilmore, L Anne; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Altazan, Abby D; Burton, Jeffrey H; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-06-01

    Weight loss is prescribed to offset the deleterious consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but a successful intervention requires an accurate assessment of energy requirements. Describe energy requirements in women with PCOS and evaluate common prediction equations compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Cross-sectional study. Academic research center. Twenty-eight weight-stable women with PCOS completed a 14-day DLW study along with measures of body composition and resting metabolic rate and assessment of physical activity by accelerometry. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) determined by DLW. TDEE was 2661 ± 373 kcal/d. TDEE estimated from four commonly used equations was within 4% to 6% of the TDEE measured by DLW. Hyperinsulinemia (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) was associated with TDEE estimates from all prediction equations (both r = 0.45; P = 0.02) but was not a significant covariate in a model that predicts TDEE. Similarly, hyperandrogenemia (total testosterone, free androgen index, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) was not associated with TDEE. In weight-stable women with PCOS, the following equation derived from DLW can be used to determine energy requirements: TDEE (kcal/d) = 438 - [1.6 * Fat Mass (kg)] + [35.1 * Fat-Free Mass (kg)] + [16.2 * Age (y)]; R2 = 0.41; P = 0.005. Established equations using weight, height, and age performed well for predicting energy requirements in weight-stable women with PCOS, but more precise estimates require an accurate assessment of physical activity. Our equation derived from DLW data, which incorporates habitual physical activity, can also be used in women with PCOS; however, additional studies are needed for model validation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. Effects of dietary energy source and level and injection of tilmicosin phosphate on immune function in lipopolysaccharide-challenged beef steers.

    PubMed

    Reuter, R R; Carroll, J A; Dailey, J W; Cook, B J; Galyean, M L

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-four Angus x Hereford crossbred steers (247 kg BW; SE = 2.4 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effect of energy source and level with or without antibiotic administration on measures of immune function. Steers were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments: a 70% concentrate diet ad libitum (70AL), a 30% concentrate diet ad libitum (30AL), and a 70% concentrate diet offered in an amount calculated to provide NE(g) intake equal to the 30AL treatment (70RES). Half the steers in each dietary treatment received a s.c. injection of tilmicosin phosphate (ANTI; 1 mL/30 kg of BW); the other half received an equal volume of saline s.c. (SAL). Steers were offered the treatment diets for 28 d before and were administered the ANTI or SAL injections 2 d before indwelling catheters were placed in the jugular vein and 2.0 microg/kg of BW of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered i.v. Blood serum was collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 6 h and at 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h relative to the LPS challenge. Increased energy intake (70AL) increased (P < or = 0.04) DMI, ADG, and rectal temperature (RT) after the challenge compared with the 70RES treatment. The 30AL treatment increased the maximum concentrations and area under the response curve of the proinflammatory cytokines (PIC) interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6 (P < or = 0.05) compared with the average of the 70AL and 70RES treatments. Decreased energy intake (70RES vs. 70AL) increased IL-6 (P < or = 0.003) but did not significantly increase interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P > or = 0.14) after LPS administration. Tilmicosin administration decreased the time to attain maximal RT (P = 0.01) by 1 h without altering the peak RT (P = 0.85), and tilmicosin interacted with energy intake to increase prechallenge PIC in 70RES vs. 70AL (P < or = 0.05). Results indicate that increased PIC response, presumably resulting from a combination of decreased energy

  8. Effect of early dietary energy restriction and phosphorus level on subsequent growth performance, intestinal phosphate transport, and AMPK activity in young broilers

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Guixian; Zhang, Junzhen; Yang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of low dietary energy on intestinal phosphate transport and the possible underlying mechanism to explain the long-term effects of early dietary energy restriction and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). A 2 × 3 factorial experiment, consisting of 2 energy levels and 3 NPP levels, was conducted. Broiler growth performance, intestinal morphology in 0–21 days and 22–35 days, type IIb sodium-phosphate co-transporter (NaPi-IIb) mRNA expression, adenylate purine concentrations in the duodenum, and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK-α) activity in 0–21 days were determined. The following results were obtained. (1) Low dietary energy (LE) induced a high feed conversion ratio (FCR) and significantly decreased body weight gain in young broilers, but LE induced significantly higher compensatory growth in low NPP (LP) groups than in the high or medium NPP groups (HP and MP). (2) LE decreased the villus height (VH) in the intestine, and LE-HP resulted in the lowest crypt depth (CD) and the highest VH:CD ratio in the initial phase. However, in the later period, the LE-LP group showed an increased VH:CD ratio and decreased CD in the intestine. (3) LE increased ATP synthesis and decreased AMP:ATP ratio in the duodenal mucosa of chickens in 0–21 days, and LP diet increased ATP synthesis and adenylate energy charges but decreased AMP production and AMP:ATP ratio. (4) LE led to weaker AMPK phosphorylation, higher mTOR phosphorylation, and higher NaPi-IIb mRNA expression. Thus, LE and LP in the early growth phase had significant compensatory and interactive effect on later growth and intestinal development in broilers. The effect might be relevant to energy status that LE leads to weaker AMPK phosphorylation, causing a lower inhibitory action toward mTOR phosphorylation. This series of events stimulates NaPi-IIb mRNA expression. Our findings provide a theoretical basis and a new perspective on intestinal phosphate

  9. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    PubMed

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  < 0.05) and body mass ( r  = 0.28; P  < 0.05; Model A), or fat-free mass (FFM; r  = 0.32; P  < 0.05; Model B) were the factors that most highly predicted energy expenditures. Predictive equations coupling PAF with body mass (Model A) and FFM (Model B), were correlated ( r  = 0.74 and r  = 0.76, respectively) and did not differ [mean ± SEM: Model A; 4463 ± 65 Kcal·d - 1 , Model B; 4462 ± 61 Kcal·d - 1 ] from DLW measured energy expenditures. By quantifying and grouping SOF training exercises into activity factors, SOF energy requirements can be predicted with reasonable accuracy and these equations used by dietetic/logistical personnel to plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements

  10. Dietary challenges differentially affect activity and sleep/wake behavior in mus musculus: Isolating independent associations with diet/energy balance and body weight.

    PubMed

    Perron, Isaac J; Keenan, Brendan T; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Lahens, Nicholas F; Yohn, Nicole L; Shockley, Keith R; Pack, Allan I; Veasey, Sigrid C

    2018-01-01

    Associated with numerous metabolic and behavioral abnormalities, obesity is classified by metrics reliant on body weight (such as body mass index). However, overnutrition is the common cause of obesity, and may independently contribute to these obesity-related abnormalities. Here, we use dietary challenges to parse apart the relative influence of diet and/or energy balance from body weight on various metabolic and behavioral outcomes. Seventy male mice (mus musculus) were subjected to the diet switch feeding paradigm, generating groups with various body weights and energetic imbalances. Spontaneous activity patterns, blood metabolite levels, and unbiased gene expression of the nutrient-sensing ventral hypothalamus (using RNA-sequencing) were measured, and these metrics were compared using standardized multivariate linear regression models. Spontaneous activity patterns were negatively related to body weight (p<0.0001) but not diet/energy balance (p = 0.63). Both body weight and diet/energy balance predicted circulating glucose and insulin levels, while body weight alone predicted plasma leptin levels. Regarding gene expression within the ventral hypothalamus, only two genes responded to diet/energy balance (neuropeptide y [npy] and agouti-related peptide [agrp]), while others were related only to body weight. Collectively, these results demonstrate that individual components of obesity-specifically obesogenic diets/energy imbalance and elevated body mass-can have independent effects on metabolic and behavioral outcomes. This work highlights the shortcomings of using body mass-based indices to assess metabolic health, and identifies novel associations between blood biomarkers, neural gene expression, and animal behavior following dietary challenges.

  11. MEGASTAR: The Meaning of Energy Growth: An Assessment of Systems, Technologies, and Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A methodology for the display and analysis of postulated energy futures for the United States is presented. A systems approach that includes the methodology of technology assessment is used to examine three energy scenarios--the Westinghouse Nuclear Electric Economy, the Ford Technical Fix Base Case and a MEGASTAR generated Alternate to the Ford Technical Fix Base Case. The three scenarios represent different paths of energy consumption for the present to the year 2000. Associated with these paths are various mixes of fuels, conversion, distribution, conservation and end-use technologies. MEGASTAR presents the estimated times and unit requirements to supply the fuels, conversion and distribution systems for the postulated end uses for the three scenarios and then estimates the aggregate manpower, materials, and capital requirements needed to develop the energy system described by the particular scenario. The total requirements and the energy subsystems for each scenario are assessed for their primary impacts in the areas of society, the environment, technology and the economy.

  12. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy, and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system (SPS) were reviewed. Three classes of resource impacts were considered separately: critical materials, energy and land use. The analysis focused on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  13. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  14. Effects of dietary copper and amino acid density on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and nutrient digestibility in Eimeria acervulina-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Usry, J L; Parr, T M; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of copper supplementation in diets varying in amino acid (AA) density on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (AID), and plasma carotenoids in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina. Ross 308 male broilers (480 total) were housed in battery cages and allotted to 8 experimental treatments in a factorial arrangement of 2 dietary AA densities [1.00% (LAA) or 1.20% (HAA) digestible Lys], 2 supplemental copper concentrations (zero or 116 mg/kg), and 2 E. acervulina infection states (uninfected or infected). Essential AA ratios relative to digestible Lys were similar in both the LAA and HAA diets, and copper was provided by 200 mg/kg of tribasic copper chloride (58% copper). Chicks received experimental diets from 2 to 21 d post hatch and 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage were assigned to each treatment. Broilers were inoculated with zero or 6.3 × 105 sporulated E. acervulina oocysts at 15 d and blood and ileal digesta were collected at 21 days. From 2 to 15 d, body weight gain and G:F of broilers were improved (P < 0.05) with increasing AA density, and an AA density × copper interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for feed intake. Eimeria infection reduced (P < 0.05) plasma carotenoids, growth performance, dietary AMEn, and AID of organic matter, nitrogen, and total AA. There were no interactive effects of dietary treatments with E. acervulina infection on broiler growth performance or dietary AMEn. An AA density × copper supplementation interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for AID of total AA, whereby copper supplementation increased AID of total AA for birds fed the LAA diet and decreased AID of total AA for birds fed the HAA diet. In summary, E. acervulina-induced reductions in nutrient digestibility were dependent on dietary copper and AA status, but changes in digestibility had minimal impact on growth performance of broilers during

  15. [Energy requirements in active elderly individuals living in a rural region of Northwest Mexico].

    PubMed

    Alemán-Mateo, H; Reza-Durán, G T; Esparza, J; Valencia, M E

    1999-06-01

    The energy requirements in free-living elderly rural people were investigated by measuring physical activity level and basal energy expenditure using a physical activity questionnaire and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Approximately 65 different occupational and leisure activities over the previous 12 months were considered. Energy expenditure by physical activity was estimated using PAL for specific activities reported in the literature. All 65 the activities were considered to adapt the questionnaire. Reproducibility was evaluated by administering the questionnaire on two separate occasions within 3-4 week elapsed between them. It was found to be reliable for the study (Pearson correlation was r = 0.85; p < 0.05). The physical activity level of the women and men were 1.50 +/- 0.29 and 1.65 +/- 0.66, respectively (p < 0.05). The basal metabolic rate also differed between women and men (p < 0.05) with 5348 +/- 719 kJ/day and 6160 +/- 862 kJ/day, respectively. Similarly the total energy expenditure was different (p < 0.05) in women and men 8311 +/- 1610 kJ/day and 10,210 +/- 2268 kJ/day, respectively. Results indicate that the physical activity questionnaire presented can be an alternative methodology to estimate physical activity in free-living elderly people and together with indirect calorimetry measurements can be useful to estimate their energy expenditure and hence energy requirements.

  16. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lages Barbosa, Guilherme; Almeida Gadelha, Francisca Daiane; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  17. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-16

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and