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Sample records for dietary fiber fraction

  1. Dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Lu, Min-Shan; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Chinese adults to investigate the effect of fiber intake on colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to examine the associations of dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults. A total of 613 cases with colorectal cancer were consecutively recruited between July 2010 and October 2012 and frequency matched to 613 controls by age (5-yr interval) and gender. Dietary information was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for potential confounders. Total dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile were 0.38 (0.27-0.55) for total dietary fiber, 0.45 (0.32-0.64) for vegetable fiber, and 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for fruit fiber, respectively. In addition, no significant association was found between soy fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that a high intake of dietary fiber, particularly derived from vegetables and fruit, was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

  2. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  3. Dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  4. Modulation of Cholesterol-Related Gene Expression by Dietary Fiber Fractions from Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Caz, Víctor; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Largo, Carlota; Tabernero, María; Santamaría, Mónica; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2015-08-26

    Mushrooms are a source of dietary fiber (DF) with a cholesterol-lowering effect. However, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The effect of DF-enriched fractions from three mushrooms species on cholesterol-related expression was studied in vitro. The Pleurotus ostreatus DF fraction (PDF) was used in mice models to assess its potential palliative or preventive effect against hypercholesterolemia. PDF induced a transcriptional response in Caco-2 cells, suggesting a possible cholesterol-lowering effect. In the palliative setting, PDF reduced hepatic triglyceride likely because Dgat1 was downregulated. However, cholesterol-related biochemical data showed no changes and no relation with the observed transcriptional modulation. In the preventive setting, PDF modulated cholesterol-related genes expression in a manner similar to that of simvastatin and ezetimibe in the liver, although no changes in plasma and liver biochemical data were induced. Therefore, PDF may be useful reducing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Because it induced a molecular response similar to hypocholesterolemic drugs in liver, further dose-dependent studies should be carried out.

  5. Soluble Dietary Fiber Fractions in Wheat Bran and Their Interactions with Wheat Gluten Have Impacts on Dough Properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Liu, Rui; Wu, Tao; Wang, Man; Zhang, Min

    2016-11-23

    Six soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions were prepared via stepwise ethanol precipitation from natural and fermented wheat bran. The chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, and glycosidic linkage and substitution pattern of each SDF fraction were elucidated by sugar analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, molecular determination, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The impacts of SDF fractions on the rheological properties and morphologies of doughs were investigated by farinography, rheometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to clarify the relationship between the microstructural features of SDF fractions and the macroscopic properties of SDF-containing doughs. The interactions between SDF fractions and wheat glutens in doughs were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The experimental results indicated that the SDF fraction with an intermediate molecular weight but a higher substitution degree and a larger disubstitution ratio was most compatible with the dough network and beneficial to dough quality.

  6. Effects of dietary fiber and feeding frequency on ruminal fermentation, digesta water-holding capacity, and fractional turnover of contents.

    PubMed

    Froetschel, M A; Amos, H E

    1991-03-01

    To determine the effects of different sources of fiber and feeding frequency on digesta water-holding capacity (WHC; g H2O/g DM) and ruminal liquid contents, four ruminally fistulated Jersey steers were fed a 60:40 roughage-concentrate diet at 1.5 times NEm. Diets contained either sorghum silage (SS) or a 67:33 mixture of SS and soyhulls (SH) as roughage and were fed either once or 12 times daily, in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment with 15-d periods. Ruminal fluid was sampled at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after a dose of Co-EDTA on d 10 and analyzed for Co, VFA, ammonia, buffering capacity, and osmolality. Ruminal WHC, NDF, ADF, lignin, and starch were measured in samples obtained by ruminal evacuation at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after feeding on d 11, 12, 14, and 15, respectively. Substitution of SH for SS decreased ruminal pH .32 units and dilution rate by 26.8% but increased total VFA by 10.9%, osmolality by 13.6%, and the fractional turnover rate (FTR) of ADF by 22.5% (P less than .05). Frequent feeding resulted in 4.7, 21.9, and 74.4% increases in total VFA and FTR of ruminal DM and starch (P less than .05), respectively. Interactions (P less than .05) were observed between dietary fiber source and feeding frequency for ruminal fluid molar percentage acetate to propionate ratio (A/P), liquid volume (evacuated), and WHC (kilograms). Substituting SH for SS decreased ruminal WHC (kilograms), liquid volume, and A/P only in steers fed once daily. Ruminal WHC (kilograms) was correlated positively with ruminal liquid volume but negatively with DM FTR. The dynamics of digesta WHC (kilograms) associated with dietary fiber source and feeding frequency suggest that it may influence the contribution of water and salivary secretions to ruminal liquid contents.

  7. Mechanically fractionated flour isolated from green bananas (M. cavendishii var. nanica) as a tool to increase the dietary fiber and phytochemical bioactivity of layer and sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Segundo, Cristina; Román, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; Martínez, Mario M

    2017-03-15

    This article describes the effect of mechanically fractionated flours from green bananas on the nutritional, physical and sensory attributes of two types of cakes (sponge and layer). A plausible 30% replacement of banana flour in the formulation of layer cakes is demonstrated, finding only a small decline in the sensory perception. On the contrary, sponge cakes were noticeable worsened with the use of banana flours (lower specific volume, worse sensory attributes and higher hardness), which was minimized when using fine flour. Both layer and sponge cakes exhibited an enhancement of the resistant starch and dietary fiber content with the replacement of green banana flour (up to a fivefold improvement in RS performance). Moreover, sponge cakes yielded more polyphenols and antioxidant capacity with banana flours, especially with the coarse fraction. Therefore, results showed that a mechanical fractionation allowed a feasible nutritional enhancement of cakes with the use of banana flours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber.

  9. Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, James M; Haub, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.

  10. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    Lattimer, James M.; Haub, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health. PMID:22254008

  11. Carbohydrate and dietary fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbohydrate provides 50 to 60% of the calories consumed by the average American. Although relatively little carbohydrate is needed in the diet, carbohydrate spares protein and fat being metabolized for calories. The principal dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starches. Sugars (simple carbohydrat...

  12. Importance of dietary fiber in childhood.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L

    1995-10-01

    Dietary fiber has important health benefits in childhood, especially in promoting normal laxation. Currently, children consume amounts of dietary fiber that appear to be inadequate for optimal health promotion and disease prevention. It is prudent to recommend that children older than 2 years of age increase dietary fiber intake to an amount equal to or greater than their age + 5 g/day. According to the "age + 5" rule dietary fiber intake would increase from 8 g/day at age 3 years to 25 g/day by age 20 years. After age 20, dietary fiber levels of 25 to 35 g/day are recommended. Dietary fiber intake should be increased gradually in childhood by increasing consumption of a variety of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, and other whole-grain products. Although very high fiber intake in childhood could have adverse effects, the potential health benefits of a moderate increase in dietary fiber substantially outweigh the possible risks, especially in highly industrialized countries such as the United States. A safe range of dietary fiber intake for children may be between age + 5 and age + 10 g/day. This range is considered safe even for children and adolescents with marginal intakes of some vitamins and minerals; should provide enough dietary fiber for normal laxation; and may provide enough added dietary fiber to help prevent chronic diseases.

  13. Dietary Fibers and Cardiometabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Bello, Barbara; Scotti, Luca; Cusenza, Salvatore; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely attributable to the contemporary lifestyle that is often sedentary and includes a diet high in saturated fats and sugars and low ingestion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fruit, vegetables, and fiber. Experimental data from both animals and humans suggest an association between increased dietary fiber (DF) intakes and improved plasma lipid profiles, including reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. These observations underline that the intake of DF may protect against heart disease and stroke. PMID:22408406

  14. A study of the effect of dietary fiber fractions obtained from artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) on the growth of intestinal bacteria associated with health.

    PubMed

    Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Gerschenson, Lía N; Giannuzzi, Leda

    2015-05-01

    The effect of different fractions enriched in soluble fiber obtained from artichoke using citric acid or citric acid/hemicellulase on the selective growth of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 was evaluated. Gompertz modeling of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 growth showed a higher specific growth rate (μ: 0.16 h(-1)) in the presence of fractions isolated from stems using hemicellulase (fraction A) than in the presence of glucose (μ: 0.09 h(-1)). In the case of Bifidobacterium bifidum 11863, the highest μ was obtained for the microorganism grown in the presence of fraction A and for the fraction isolated from stems without hemicellulase, their rate being twice that observed for glucose (0.04 h(-1)). The positive prebiotic activity scores observed with respect to Escherichia coli 25922 indicated that fibers assayed are metabolized as well as glucose by Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 and that they are selectively metabolized by these microorganisms. The potential capacity to selectively stimulate the growth of intestinal bacteria associated with health shown by fraction A can be ascribed to its high inulin and low methylation degree pectin contents.

  15. Correlating Detergent Fiber Analysis and Dietary Fiber Analysis Data for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Lorenz, A. J.; deLeon, N.

    2009-01-01

    There exist large amounts of detergent fiber analysis data [neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL)] for many different potential cellulosic ethanol feedstocks, since these techniques are widely used for the analysis of forages. Researchers working in the area of cellulosic ethanol are interested in the structural carbohydrates in a feedstock (principally glucan and xylan), which are typically determined by acid hydrolysis of the structural fraction after multiple extractions of the biomass. These so-called dietary fiber analysis methods are significantly more involved than detergent fiber analysis methods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is feasible to correlate detergent fiber analysis values to glucan and xylan content determined by dietary fiber analysis methods for corn stover. In the detergent fiber analysis literature cellulose is often estimated as the difference between ADF and ADL, while hemicellulose is often estimated as the difference between NDF and ADF. Examination of a corn stover dataset containing both detergent fiber analysis data and dietary fiber analysis data predicted using near infrared spectroscopy shows that correlations between structural glucan measured using dietary fiber techniques and cellulose estimated using detergent techniques, and between structural xylan measured using dietary fiber techniques and hemicellulose estimated using detergent techniques are high, but are driven largely by the underlying correlation between total extractives measured by fiber analysis and NDF/ADF. That is, detergent analysis data is correlated to dietary fiber analysis data for structural carbohydrates, but only indirectly; the main correlation is between detergent analysis data and solvent extraction data produced during the dietary fiber analysis procedure.

  16. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review).

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management.

  17. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review)

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management. PMID:28731144

  18. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  19. Easy preparation of dietary fiber with the high water-holding capacity from food sources.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Murakami, Kazumi; Kurita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    Dietary fibers were prepared as alkali- and acid-insoluble fractions with chemical phosphorylation from Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius), defatted soybean (Glycine max), and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes). The dietary fiber fractions treated with alkaline solution containing sodium metaphosphate had the lower protein content and higher total dietary fiber content than those of the preparations without phosphorylation. Alkaline extraction followed by phosphorylation led to a 1.5-fold increase in the water holding capacity of dietary fiber compared with no phosphorylation, whereas the binding capacity to bile acids of dietary fiber was almost the same. The alkali- and acid-insoluble extraction with phosphorylation provided an efficient preparation of water-insoluble dietary fiber with high-water holding capacity from various food sources.

  20. Macromolecular Antioxidants and Dietary Fiber in Edible Seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Pintos, Nerea; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Vergara-Salinas, José Rodrigo; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2017-02-01

    Seaweeds are rich in different bioactive compounds with potential uses in drugs, cosmetics and the food industry. The objective of this study was to analyze macromolecular antioxidants or nonextractable polyphenols, in several edible seaweed species collected in Chile (Gracilaria chilensis, Callophyllis concepcionensis, Macrocystis pyrifera, Scytosyphon lomentaria, Ulva sp. and Enteromorpha compressa), including their 1st HPLC characterization. Macromolecular antioxidants are commonly ignored in studies of bioactive compounds. They are associated with insoluble dietary fiber and exhibit significant biological activity, with specific features that are different from those of both dietary fiber and extractable polyphenols. We also evaluated extractable polyphenols and dietary fiber, given their relationship with macromolecular antioxidants. Our results show that macromolecular antioxidants are a major polyphenol fraction (averaging 42% to total polyphenol content), with hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols being the main constituents. This fraction also showed remarkable antioxidant capacity, as determined by 2 complementary assays. The dietary fiber content was over 50% of dry weight, with some samples exhibiting the target proportionality between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber for adequate nutrition. Overall, our data show that seaweed could be an important source of commonly ignored macromolecular antioxidants.

  1. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  3. Dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Dezhi; Zhu, Wusheng; Fan, Xinying; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber consumption and risk of stroke, but the results are inconclusive. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the relation between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Science through February 2013. We included prospective studies that reported relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber consumption and stroke risk and mortality. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. Eleven prospective studies involving 325,627 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR of stroke for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber consumption was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.74, 0.93). In addition, the increment in dietary fiber consumption was associated with decreased stroke risk in a dose-response manner. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors yielded similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Moreover, there was a trend toward an inverse association between higher fiber consumption and stroke mortality (RR 0.85; 95 % CI 0.60, 1.20), although it is not significant. This meta-analysis indicated that dietary fiber consumption is inversely associated with stroke risk, and the effect is probably independent of conventional risk factors. Our results support recommendations for higher consumption of fiber-rich foods to prevent stroke.

  4. Methods And Apparatus For Acoustic Fiber Fractionation

    DOEpatents

    Brodeur, Pierre

    1999-11-09

    Methods and apparatus for acoustic fiber fractionation using a plane ultrasonic wave field interacting with water suspended fibers circulating in a channel flow using acoustic radiation forces to separate fibers into two or more fractions based on fiber radius, with applications of the separation concept in the pulp and paper industry. The continuous process relies on the use of a wall-mounted, rectangular cross-section piezoelectric ceramic transducer to selectively deflect flowing fibers as they penetrate the ultrasonic field. The described embodiment uses a transducer frequency of approximately 150 kHz. Depending upon the amount of dissolved gas in water, separation is obtained using a standing or a traveling wave field.

  5. Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Pérez, Faviola; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Romero-Baranzini, Ana Lourdes; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2013-03-01

    The increasing demand for high-fiber products has favored the design of numerous bakery products rich in fiber such as bread, cookies, and cakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber and estimated glycemic index of cookies containing extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran was subjected to extrusion process under three temperature profiles: TP1;(60, 75, 85 and 100 °C), TP2;(60, 80, 100 and 120 °C), and TP3;(60, 80, 110 and 140 °C) and three moisture contents: (15, 23, and 31 %). Cookies were elaborated using extruded wheat bran (30 %), separated into two fractions (coarse and fine). The dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran was higher than the controls; C0 (100 % wheat flour) and C1 (30 % of no extruded bran coarse fraction) and C2 (30 % of no extruded bran fine fraction). The higher values of dietary fiber were observed on cookies from treatments 5 (TP1, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction) and 11 (TP2, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction). The estimated glycemic index of cookies ranged from 68.54 to 80.16. The dietary fiber content of cookies was increased and the lowest glycemic index corresponded to the cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Cookie made with the treatment 11 had a better dietary fiber content and lower estimated glycemic index.

  6. Effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C-X; Ho, S C; Cheng, S-Z; Chen, Y-M; Fu, J-H; Lin, F-Y

    2011-08-01

    There is few data on the association between dietary fiber intake and estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-defined breast cancer risk. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between total dietary fiber and dietary fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk by ER and PR status in a hospital-based case-control study among Chinese women. Four hundred and thirty-eight cases with primary breast cancer were consecutively recruited from June 2007 to August 2008 and frequency matched to 438 controls by age (5-year interval) and residence (rural/urban). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake through a face-to-face interview. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for various potential confounders. A statistically significant inverse association was found between total dietary fiber and fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake were 0.31 (0.20-0.47) for total dietary fiber, 0.73 (0.48-1.11) for soy fiber, 0.48 (0.22-0.97) for vegetable fiber and 0.54 (0.31-0.92) for fruit fiber. No association was observed for cereal fiber intake and risk. An inverse association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk was observed in ER+, ER-, PR+, ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors. Our results suggest that consumption of total dietary fiber and fiber from vegetable and fruit was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. These inverse associations were more prominent in some subtypes of ER and PR breast cancers.

  7. Dietary fiber: nutritional lessons for macronutrient substitutes.

    PubMed

    Behall, K M

    1997-05-23

    The wide array of low-fat foods containing soluble fibers have the potential for helping in weight loss or weight control. Consumption of soluble fibers in sufficient quantities has been shown to lower serum lipid concentrations and to improve glycemic response. Some individuals could, eventually, consume a significant portion of their soluble dietary fiber from processed foods containing soluble-fiber fat substitutes. Changes in dietary fiber and starch sources increase the amount of fermentable material reaching the colon. Short-chain fatty acids thus produced are used as an energy source by colonocytes and may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis. However, colonic fermentation can also result in flatulence or diarrhea. In addition, some diets high in soluble fiber have been shown to change intestinal cell morphology in rats. The possible benefits from consumption of a diet high in soluble fiber fat substitutes in serum lipid reduction, glycemic response improvement, and/or weight reduction as well as potential problems in flatulence, mineral absorption, and colonic cell hyperproliferation should be investigated.

  8. Lipid Lowering with Soluble Dietary Fiber.

    PubMed

    Surampudi, Prasanth; Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Berglund, Lars

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of dietary soluble fibers has been associated with health benefits such as reduced lipid levels, lower blood pressure, improved blood glucose control, weight loss, improved immune function, and reduced inflammation. Many of these health benefits relate to a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we have reviewed recent studies on the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary soluble fibers as well as fiber-rich foods. Findings include the following: (a) consumption of water-soluble, viscous-forming fibers can reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by about 5-10 %; (b) minimal changes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed; (c) cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble fibers depend on their physical and chemical properties; and (d) medium to high molecular weight fibers are more effective in reducing lipid levels. Hypocholesterolemic benefits were also observed with some fiber-rich foods, such as whole oats, whole barley, legumes, peas, beans, flax seeds, apples, and citrus foods.

  9. Drainage and fractionation of wood fibers in a flotation froth

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; Freya Tan

    2005-01-01

    Understanding fiber fractionation in a froth is very important to the quality of recovered fibers in flotation deinking operations. Fiber length is a very important fiber quality parameter in paper-making. For example, long fibers tend to produce a paper with higher tear strength than short fibers. In this study, fibers in froth collected at different froth drainage...

  10. The optimal fiber volume fraction and fiber-matrix property compatibility in fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Ning

    1992-01-01

    Although the question of minimum or critical fiber volume fraction beyond which a composite can then be strengthened due to addition of fibers has been dealt with by several investigators for both continuous and short fiber composites, a study of maximum or optimal fiber volume fraction at which the composite reaches its highest strength has not been reported yet. The present analysis has investigated this issue for short fiber case based on the well-known shear lag (the elastic stress transfer) theory as the first step. Using the relationships obtained, the minimum spacing between fibers is determined upon which the maximum fiber volume fraction can be calculated, depending on the fiber packing forms within the composites. The effects on the value of this maximum fiber volume fraction due to such factors as fiber and matrix properties, fiber aspect ratio and fiber packing forms are discussed. Furthermore, combined with the previous analysis on the minimum fiber volume fraction, this maximum fiber volume fraction can be used to examine the property compatibility of fiber and matrix in forming a composite. This is deemed to be useful for composite design. Finally some examples are provided to illustrate the results.

  11. Dietary fiber components in yellow passion fruit rind--a potential fiber source.

    PubMed

    Yapo, Beda M; Koffi, Kouassi L

    2008-07-23

    Within the framework for searching for new dietary fiber (DF) sources to remedy the increasing shortage of currently available sources, connected to an upsurge of diabetes, colon cancer, and other diverticular diseases in certain Ivorian areas, yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) rind, a byproduct from the juice industry that is available in large quantities, was investigated. The results showed that, as determined by the AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method, the total dietary fiber (TDF) in alcohol-insoluble material (AIM) from yellow passion fruit (YPF) rind was >73% dry matter of which insoluble dietary fiber accounted for >60% (w/w). The determination of DF using the Saeman hydrolysis method revealed that nonstarchy polysaccharides were the predominant components (approximately 70%, w/w), of which cellulose appeared to be the main fraction. The water holding and oil holding capacities of the fiber-rich material were >3 g of water/g of fiber and >4 g of oil/g of fiber, respectively. All these results lead to the conclusion that DF from YPF rind, prepared as AIM, may be suitable to protect against diverticular diseases.

  12. Dietary fiber and digestive health in children.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Renee; Kamil, Alison; Fleige, Lisa; Donovan, Sharon M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2017-04-01

    Digestive health is an expanding area in nutrition research due to the interest in how food components such as fiber affect gastrointestinal tolerance, stool form, defecation frequency, transit time, and gut microbial composition and metabolic activity. In children, however, digestive health studies that intervene with dietary fiber are limited due to legal and ethical concerns. To better understand if fiber improves digestive health in children, a literature review was conducted to answer the following research question: What are the effect(s) of fiber-containing foods and/or supplements on digestive health outcomes in children? A search of the PubMed database identified a total of 12 studies that fit the inclusion criteria established for this review. Most of the evidence in children shows beneficial effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum, glucomannan, and bran on digestive health outcomes; however, the existing evidence is not conclusive. Furthermore, limited data exists on the effect of whole-grain sources of dietary fiber, such as oats. Additional well-designed intervention trials are needed to determine whether outcomes of digestive health such as stool form, gastrointestinal tolerance, and stool frequency are improved by increasing the fiber content of children's diets with whole-grain sources. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Dietary Fiber Gap and Host Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Han, Meng; Wang, Congmin; Liu, Ping; Li, Defa; Li, Yuan; Ma, Xi

    2017-05-10

    Accumulating evidence is dramatically increasing the access to the facts that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host metabolism and health, which revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and human diseases. Several functional roles are carried out by a major class of the host's diet, such as fiber. Fiber is the main source of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate in the diet of humans. In the modern diet, it is difficult to intake sufficient dietary fiber as recommended. The low-fiber diet in the modern life, known as fiber gap, can trigger a substantial depletion of the human gut microbiota diversity and beneficial metabolites. The short-chain fatty acids are regarded as one of the major microbial metabolites of dietary fibers, which can improve intestinal mucosal immunity, as well as to be a source of energy for the liver. Thus, the loss of microbiota diversity has a potential negative function to various aspects of host health. Actually, the real "fiber gap" for ideal health and maintaining microbial diversity might be even more serious than currently appreciated. Herein, we briefly discuss the interactions between gut microbiota and the host diet, focusing specifically on the low-fiber diet. Gut bacteria in the context of the development of host low-fiber diets, which may lead to health and disorders, particularly include metabolic syndrome and obesity-related disease, IBD liver, disease, and colorectal cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  15. When is dietary fiber considered a functional food?

    PubMed

    Prosky, L

    2000-01-01

    Before answering the question of when dietary fiber can be considered a functional food we must first decide what can be called a dietary fiber. The generally accepted definition of dietary fiber is that of Trowell that dietary fiber consists of the remnants of edible plant cells polysaccharides, lignin, and associated substances resistant to (hydrolysis) digestion by the alimentary enzymes of humans. In Japan the food tables list the dietary fiber content of animal as well as plant tissues, while many countries accept saccharides of less than DP-10 as dietary fiber (inulin, oligofructose, Fibersol-2, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides etc.). These shorter chain oligosaccharides do not precipitate as dietary fiber in the standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method, which is accepted by the US Food & Drug Administration, the US Department of Agriculture and the Food & Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization for nutrition labeling purposes. In the United Kingdom the term dietary fiber has been replaced in nutrition labeling by nonstarch polysaccharides. Therefore the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) commissioned an ad hoc committee of scientists to evaluate continuing validity of the currently used definition, and if appropriate, to modify and update that definition. Obtaining scientific input from the community of analysts, health professionals, and dietary fiber researchers was considered a high priority. To this end three meetings were held in the space of six months to assure input from all persons knowledgeable in the field with the answer expected sometime before 2000. Dietary fiber can be considered a functional food when it imparts a special function to that food aside from the normal expected function and similarly when the dietary fiber is used as an additive to foods. For example, dietary fiber contributes to colonic health, bifidobacterial or lactobacillus stimulation in the

  16. Dietary Fiber, Microbiota and Obesity Related Metabolic Diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presentation summarizes our research over the past 7 years on viscous soluble dietary fibers in animal models of obesity and metabolic diseases. We found that in addition to the well known cholesterol and glucose lowering ability of soluble fibers, viscous dietary fibers also prevent most of th...

  17. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased and a redistribution of fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  18. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here.

  19. Potato fiber as a dietary fiber source in dog foods.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, M R; Rossoni Serao, M C; de Godoy, M R C; Swanson, K S; Guérin-Deremaux, L; Lynch, G L; Wils, D; Fahey, G C; Dilger, R N

    2013-11-01

    Potato fiber (PF), a coproduct of potato starch manufacture, was evaluated as a potential novel fiber source in dog food. Potato fiber contained 55% total dietary fiber, 29% starch, 4% crude protein, and 2% acid-hydrolyzed fat. The PF substrate was evaluated for chemical composition, in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics, and in vivo responses. For the in vitro hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion and fermentation experiment, raw and cooked PF substrates were first subjected to hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion to determine OM disappearance and then fermented using dog fecal inoculum. Fermentation characteristics were then measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. For the in vivo experiment, 10 female mixed-breed dogs (6.13±0.17 yr; 22±2.1 kg) were provided 5 diets with graded concentrations (0%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, or 6%) of PF in a replicated 5×5 Latin square design. Dogs were acclimated to the test diet for 10 d, followed by 4 d of total fecal collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected to measure fecal pH and fermentation end products. In vitro digestion revealed that raw and cooked PF were 32.3% and 27.9% digested enzymatically, whereas in vitro fermentation showed that PF was fermentable through 9 h. Raw PF had greater (P<0.05) acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations at the 12-h time point compared with cooked PF. The in vivo experiment showed no differences in apparent total tract DM, OM, CP, acid-hydrolyzed fat, or energy digestibility of diets containing graded concentrations of PF. However, total dietary fiber digestibility exhibited a linear increase (P<0.01) with increasing PF concentrations in the diet. Overall, linear increases (P<0.01) were observed for all individual and total SCFA, with a concomitant linear decrease (P<0.01) in fecal pH with increasing dietary PF. Fecal protein catabolite concentrations were low or undetectable, with the exception of spermidine, which exhibited a linear increase with increasing

  20. Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-03-04

    This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.

  1. Structural carbohydrates in a plant biomass: correlations between the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods.

    PubMed

    Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2014-06-18

    We compared the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods to analyze the cellulose and hemicellulose contents of commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass. A good linear correlation was found between both methods. Compared to the more accurate dietary fiber method, the detergent fiber method overestimates the content of cellulose, whereas the detergent fiber method, as compared to the dietary fiber method, overestimates and underestimates the hemicellulose content in commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass, respectively. Because of the good linear correlations, conversion factors were determined to predict the cellulose, hemicellulose, and xylan contents to be expected from the dietary fiber method, on the basis of analyses made by the faster, cheaper, and more commonly practiced detergent fiber method. Nevertheless, the dietary fiber method offers the advantage of providing the detailed composition of the hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan, hemicellulosic glucan, galactan, and mannan), and that is of interest for biorefining purposes.

  2. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims12

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010

  3. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber stimulates Lactobacillus growth in rat cecum.

    PubMed

    Pozuelo, María José; Agis-Torres, Angel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Elvira López-Oliva, María; Muñoz-Martínez, Emilia; Rotger, Rafael; Goñi, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The digesta is a highly active biological system where epithelial cells, microbiota, nondigestible dietary components, and a large number of metabolic products interact. The gut microbiota can be modulated by both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Undigested dietary residues are substrates for colonic microbiota and may influence gut microbial ecology. The objective of this work was to study the capacity of grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF), which is rich in polyphenols, to modify the bacterial profile in the cecum of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed for 4 wk with diets containing either cellulose or GADF as dietary fiber. The effect of GADF on bacterial growth was evaluated in vitro and on the cecal microbiota of rats using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that GADF intake stimulates proliferation of Lactobacillus and slightly affects the composition of Bifidobacterium species. GADF was also found to have a stimulative effect on Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro. These findings suggest that the consumption of a diet rich in plant foods with high dietary fiber and polyphenol content may enhance the gastrointestinal health of the host through microbiota modulation. Grape antioxidant fiber combines nutritional and physiological properties of dietary fiber and natural antioxidants from grapes. Grape antioxidant fiber could be used as an ingredient for functional foods and as a dietary supplement to increase the intake of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Adaptation of gut microbiome to different dietary nonstarch polysaccharide fractions in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Tian, Gang; Wu, Xiying; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Dietary fibers, consisting of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) were found to modulate the gut microbiota. However, little is known about the role of a separated fiber fraction. Here, we describe a response in gut microbiome to different fiber fractions using a porcine model. Ileal and cecal digesta were collected from pigs fed with fiber-free diet (FFD) or diet containing 5% cellulose (CEL), xylan (XYL) or β-glucan (GLU). We observed an elevated 16S rRNA gene copies in ileum and cecum digesta after NSP ingestion. Interestingly, we found that cecum digesta contained higher bacterial diversity than ileum digesta. Moreover, NSPs had no significant influence on overall diversity, but acutely altered the abundance of specific bacteria. Importantly, NSPs decreased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes, but increased the phylum Proteobacteria in ileal samples. Among the NSP-treated groups, pigs on CEL-containing diet had exclusively higher abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in the ileum. Whereas, the GLU-treated samples had more Clostridium spp. This study not only indicated how the gut microbiome adapts to the three major NSP fractions, but the results also contribute to our understanding of the role of dietary fibers in modulating gut microbiota and health. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects.

  6. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host’s metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer. PMID:24567795

  7. Effect of hydrothermal processing on carrot carotenoids changes and interactions with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Julitta; Kowalska, Marta; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Zadernowski, Ryszard

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the effect of different methods of heat treatment on carotenoids changes and their interactions with insoluble and soluble dietary fiber. Three industrial varieties of carrot--Simba, Caropak and Fayette constituted the experimental material. Carrot cubes were subjected to heat treatment by putting in water with or without citric acid, or in a convection-type steam furnace. The total content of alpha- and beta-carotene was determined in all kinds of pureed carrots. Its amount bounded with insoluble dietary fiber and pectins was also determined. Changes in soluble and insoluble fractions of dietary fiber during hydrothermal treatment were also determined. It was found that the content of trans alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after heat treatment, compared with the control sample. The loss observed during heat treatment in water was higher (up to 50%) than in the case of a convection-type steam furnace. The highest decrease in the content of insoluble fraction of dietary fiber and the highest increase in soluble fraction were observed after treatment with the use of steam. An analysis of interactions between carotenoids and dietary fiber fractions after hydrothermal processing shows their stronger affinity to forming bonds with pectins than with insoluble fiber. It was also found that the effect of heat treatment parameters was significant--the highest (by six times) increase in the content of beta-carotene bounded with pectins was noted in pureed carrots processed in a convection-type steam furnace.

  8. [Orange juice residues as dietary fiber source for foods].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Carmen; Estévez, Ana María; Sanhueza, Sergio

    2007-06-01

    Food snacks using powdered residues from the orange juice industry as a source of dietary fiber were formulated. Six formulations utilizing powdered orange residues with three different moisture levels (25%, 15% and 10%) were elaborated. There were used two basic blends. The first one was 33.3% of orange dry powder, 33.3% of honey, 16.6% of roasted peanut, 16.6% of raisins; the second one was 28.6% of orange powder, 35.7% of honey, 17.85% of roasted peanut, 17.85% of raisins. Snacks had spherical shape with 2.5 cm diameter and a weight close to 10g. The snack moisture was between 12.6 and 17.4%, and their aw between 0.65 and 0.71. The snack chemical composition, on dry matter basis, was 1.6 and 1.9% of ash; 12.3 and 15.2% of lipids; 6.1 and 7.1% of proteins; and 56.2 to 59.6% of carbohydrates; the caloric contribution (calculated) was between 326.8 and 342.9 kcal/100g. The powdered orange residue had 64% of total dietary fiber, 54% of insoluble dietary fiber and 10% of soluble dietary fiber. In the snack the fiber amount fluctuated between 20 and 26% of total dietary fiber; 18 and 22% of insoluble dietary fiber, and 3.0 and 4.5% of soluble dietary fiber. The snack with the higher content of orange residue presented the higher content of dietary fiber. The snacks were well accepted by a sensory panel, without showing differences among treatments.

  9. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (P<0.05) texture and colour although some decline occurred with 8 g/100g of fiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature.

  10. Primary dietary prevention: is the fiber story over?

    PubMed

    Rock, Cheryl L

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity in developed countries, and epidemiological and experimental research suggests that environmental factors, particularly diet, may play a key etiologic role. Among the various dietary factors that have been proposed to affect the risk and progression of colon cancer, dietary fiber has been of greatest interest, due to the effects of fiber on the function of the large bowel. Dietary fiber is a heterogeneous group of compounds, consisting of the remnants of plant cells resistant to hydrolysis by human alimentary enzymes. Several case-control studies and a few cohort studies have linked higher fiber intake to reduced risk for colorectal cancer, although the results of these observational studies have been inconsistent. In the large European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition observational study, higher dietary fiber from foods was associated with an estimated 25% reduction in risk for large bowel cancer. However, no significant relationship between fiber intake (or major food sources of fiber) and risk for colorectal cancer was observed in a recently reported large pooled analysis of several cohort studies. Well-known limitations of observational studies, particularly relating to the collection and interpretation of dietary data, constrain conclusions from these studies. To date, intervention studies testing the relationship between dietary fiber and colon cancer have focused on whether fiber supplementation or diet modification can affect the risk for adenoma recurrence and growth in individuals with a history of adenomatous polyps. In four of these intervention studies, subjects in the intervention arm were prescribed dietary fiber supplements, and beneficial effects on adenoma recurrence were not observed over 3-5 years of follow-up. In a large randomized U.S. study, the Polyp Prevention Trial, the effect of prescribing diet modification (increased fiber and reduced fat intakes) was tested, and no

  11. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  12. Prospective association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HR(Quartile4vs.Quartile1) = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66-2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data.

  13. Dietary fiber intake of children: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, T A; Myers, L; Berenson, G S

    1995-11-01

    Age and secular trends in dietary fiber intake of children were examined using the 24-hour dietary recall method. Dietary fiber intake of five cohorts of 10-year-olds (n = 1254); two cohorts of 13-year-olds (n = 360); and children ages 10 (n = 767), 13 (n = 249), 15 (n = 108), and 17 (n = 89) years was examined from 1976 to 1988. Total dietary fiber intake remained unchanged from 1976 to 1988, even after adjusting for energy intake; averaging 12 or 5 g/100 calories (kcal). Black children had higher fiber intakes per 1000 kcal than white children from ages 10 to 17 years. Consumption of vegetables and/or soups and breads and/or cereals accounted for 53% (10 years) to 70% (13 years) of the total fiber consumed. When children were stratified into quartiles based on fiber intake per 1000 kcal, the percent of energy from total fat and saturated fat was lower, and the percent of energy from carbohydrates was higher in children with higher fiber intakes per 1000 kcal. Additional studies are needed to document dietary fiber intakes of children and their impact on overall diet composition and cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. Canna edulis Ker by-product: chemical composition and characteristics of the dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Juan Zhang; Wang, Zheng-Wu; Shi, Xian-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Canna edulis Ker by-product was recycled and utilized after starch extraction. The chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activity of the by-product were investigated. The by-product was mainly composed of dietary fiber (54.84% measured by AOAC method), and the insoluble dietary fiber constituted the major fraction. Then, the chemical composition of dietary fiber was tested using modified AOAC and Englyst methods. The results showed that dietary fiber was comprised of cellulose, hemicelluloses (including xyloglucans, arabinoxylans and glucuronoxylans), pectin and lignin. Moreover, the by-product contained relatively high content of phenolic compounds and exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity. In addition, the by-product showed both high water-holding capacity (12.5 mL/g) and oil-holding capacity (14 mL/g), and its suspension exhibited controllable viscosity. Therefore, the by-product from C. edulis is not only a source of dietary fiber but also a functional ingredient for food industry.

  15. A Critical Look at Prebiotics Within the Dietary Fiber Concept.

    PubMed

    Verspreet, Joran; Damen, Bram; Broekaert, Willem F; Verbeke, Kristin; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet.

  16. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased. PMID:23587355

  17. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased.

  18. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  19. Resistant starch and dietary fibers from cereal by-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dried distillers grains (DDG) are a cereal byproduct from ethanol distillation process. On a dry weight basis, DDG is composed of 13% fat, 30% protein, 33% fiber, with the remainder various carbohydrates. Only 6-8% of starch in DDG is in resistant form (dietary fiber). Because only about 6% of DD...

  20. Dietary fiber as a versatile food component: an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Redgwell, Robert J; Fischer, Monica

    2005-06-01

    The continued emphasis on the importance of dietary fibers to the Western diet and the need for products with a lower calorific content is pressuring food companies to allocate more resources to the development of fiber-enriched products. The challenge to the industry is to accomplish this goal without sacrificing the organoleptic appeal of some of their core offerings. As future research details specific nutritional benefits of individual components of dietary fiber, food companies will need flexible alternatives in order to validate new 'functional' food claims and to respond rapidly to emerging trends in fiber-enriched products. These objectives will be achieved by understanding the physicochemical basis for the biotechnical functionality of fibers and by developing, and making available fibers which provide a broad spectrum of bioactive and texture modulating properties.

  1. Dietary fiber analysis of cassava using gravimetric methods.

    PubMed

    Rivera, C J; Gerardi, A G; Infante, R B; Carrasco, H J; Rodríguez, O

    1993-03-01

    We report the application of a method which combines digestion with pancreatin and neutral detergent treatment in the analytical study of dietary fiber from cassava. The use of pancreatin previous to the detergent extraction enabled rapid filtration, thus giving more reproducible results for neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose, lignin and pectin were also determined. The values obtained for NDF (4.65%) and pectin (1.17%) are very important, considering their role in the digestive process.

  2. Preparation and characterization of quercetin/dietary fiber nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Khor, Chia Miang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Kok Ping; Dong, Yuancai

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is well known for its beneficial health effects on the human body. However, the slow dissolution rate leading to poor bioavailability constitutes a barrier to being further developed for nutritional products. In this work, quercetin was co-precipitated with dietary fibers into a fast-dissolving nanoformulation via antisolvent precipitation, followed by spray drying. With the help of cellulose fiber, resistant starch or resistant maltodextrin, a high dissolution rate and good storage stability was achieved for quercetin nanoformulations. In addition, nanoformulations exhibited higher level of antioxidant activities in contrast to raw quercetin. The developed quercetin/dietary fiber nanoformulations could be used as supplements or functional ingredients for food development.

  3. Dietary treatments for childhood constipation: efficacy of dietary fiber and whole grains.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Maria L; Schroeder, Natalia M

    2013-02-01

    Constipation in children is defined on the basis of several clusters of symptoms, and these symptoms are likely to persist into adulthood. The aim of this review article is to summarize the current literature on the use of dietary fiber and whole grains as treatments for childhood constipation. Current recommendations for fiber intake in children vary substantially among organizations, suggesting that the function of fiber in children is not fully understood. Additionally, no formal definition of "whole grain" exists, which further complicates the interpretation of the literature. Few randomized controlled trials have examined the effect of dietary fiber supplementation in children with constipation. Currently, no randomized controlled trials have investigated the efficacy of whole grains in treating childhood constipation. This is an area that warrants further attention. Increasing the intake of dietary fiber and/or whole grain has the potential to relieve childhood constipation; however, additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to make a formal recommendation.

  4. Dietary Fiber Intake in Relation to Knee Pain Trajectory.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhaoli; Lu, Na; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David T; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Lise V; Vigsnæs, Louise K; Licht, Tine R; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-05-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has previously been shown to exhibit promising properties as dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to solubilize dietary fibers from potato pulp by a one-step minimal treatment procedure and evaluate the prebiotic potential of the fibers. Statistically designed experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of enzyme type, dosage, substrate level, incubation time, and temperature on the enzyme catalyzed solubilization to define the optimal minimal enzyme treatment for maximal fiber solubilization. The result was a method that within 1 min released 75% [weight/weight (w/w)] dry matter from 1% (w/w) potato pulp treated with 1.0% (w/w) [enzyme/substrate (E/S)] pectin lyase from Aspergillus nidulans and 1.0% (w/w) E/S polygalacturonase from Aspergillus aculeatus at pH 6.0 and 60 °C. Molecular size fractionation of the solubilized fibers revealed two major fractions: one fraction rich in galacturonic acid of 10-100 kDa indicating mainly homogalacturonan, and a fraction >100 kDa rich in galactose, presumably mainly made up of β-1,4-galactan chains of rhamnogalacturonan I. When fermented in vitro by microbial communities derived from fecal samples from three healthy human volunteers, both of the solubilized fiber fractions were more bifidogenic than fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Notably the fibers having molecular masses of >100 kDa selectively increased the densities of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. 2-3 times more than FOS.

  6. Dietary Fiber: Essential for a Healthy Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... in oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, barley and psyllium. Insoluble fiber. This type of fiber ... a serving. Experiment with brown rice, wild rice, barley, whole-wheat pasta and bulgur wheat. Bulk up ...

  7. Dietary Fiber, Kidney Function, Inflammation, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Cederholm, Tommy; Ärnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70–71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991–1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Results Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) than in those without (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.22; P value for interaction, P=0.04), and were mainly explained by a lower incidence of cancer-related deaths (0.25; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65) in individuals with kidney dysfunction versus individuals with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (1.61; 95% CI, 0.69 to 3.74; P value for interaction, P=0.01). Conclusions High dietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also

  8. Dietary fiber, kidney function, inflammation, and mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M; Cederholm, Tommy; Arnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2014-12-05

    In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70-71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991-1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) than in those without (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.22; P value for interaction, P=0.04), and were mainly explained by a lower incidence of cancer-related deaths (0.25; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65) in individuals with kidney dysfunction versus individuals with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.61; 95% CI, 0.69 to 3.74; P value for interaction, P=0.01). High dietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also associated with lower (cancer) mortality risk, especially in individuals with kidney

  9. Fiber Volume Fraction Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Liquid resin is injected into the tapered injection chamber through the injection slots to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements in a resin injection pultrusion process. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the centerline causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to effectively penetrate through the fibers and achieve complete wetout. Fiber volume fraction in the final pultruded composite is a key to decide the mechanical and/or chemical properties of the composite. If the fiber volume fraction is too high, more fibers are squeezed together creating a fiber lean region near the wall and fiber rich region away from the wall. Also, the design of the injection chamber significantly affects the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. A tapered injection chamber is considered such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures due to the taper angle of the injection chamber. In this study, the effect of fiber volume fraction on the fiber reinforcement compaction and complete fiber wetout for a tapered injection chamber is investigated.

  10. Recovery of dietary fiber and polyphenol from grape juice pomace and evaluation of their functional properties and polyphenol compositions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, LuLu; Zhu, MengTing; Shi, Ting; Guo, Cong; Huang, YouSheng; Chen, Yi; Xie, MingYong

    2017-01-25

    The present work aimed at the recovery and characterization of dietary fiber and polyphenolic compounds extracted from red grape pomace, a by-product generated after grape fruit processing. High contents of total DF were found in the dietary fiber extracts (57.24%), whereas insoluble fiber was the major fraction (51.70%). And it showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity (4.01-8.32 mL g(-1)), water holding capacity (1.91-4.23 g g(-1)) and oil holding capacity (0.59-0.65 g g(-1)). After separation from the dietary fiber, phenolic extracts with high concentrations of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, showed high antioxidant activities, while the separated dietary fiber showed little antioxidant activities. This indicated that the phenolic composition is essential for the antioxidant activity of "antioxidant dietary fiber (ADF)". The identification of individual polyphenols was performed applying the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS technique and 31 compounds have been identified belonging to 4 groups, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids. Based on this study, we believe grape juice pomace could potentially be exploited as an inexpensive source of natural dietary fiber and phenolics and possibly used as a functional food ingredient.

  11. Dietary fiber content and composition of fruits in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Lee, M S; Lin, C J; Chen, M L

    1998-12-01

    Forty-one fresh fruits frequently consumed in the Taiwan area were analysed for their dietary fiber content by an enzymatic-gravimetric method. Total dietary fiber (TDF) of these fruits ranged from 0.2 g (per 100 g edible weight) in grapes to 8.6 g in eggfruit. In citrus fruit, the proportion of soluble fiber in TDF was more than 50%. However, in some fruits like guavas and waxapple, soluble fiber took less than 30% of TDF. Soluble fiber in almost all fruit was comprised of a large amount of uronic acids, while the composition of insoluble non-cellulose polysaccharides (INCP) varied a great deal. Mangos and pummelos of different varieties were different in their sugar composition of INCP. Insoluble non-cellulose polysaccharides of a crisp type of persimmon had more arabinose and galactose, but those of soft persimmon contained mainly xylose. These results show that different types of fruit are distinct in their composition and hence, the properties of their dietary fiber. These data are useful for dietary assessments in Taiwan and South-East Asia.

  12. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    PubMed

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  14. Cell Fractionation and Arrangement on Fibers, Beads, and Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, G. M.; Rutishauser, U.; Millette, C. F.

    1971-01-01

    A new method, fiber fractionation, has been used to isolate and separate cells. The cells are adsorbed to fibers covalently coupled to molecules such as antigens, antibodies, and lectins which can bind specifically to cell-surface components. The cells are then removed mechanically by plucking the taut fibers. Alternatively, competitive inhibitors of binding may be used to remove the cells at a lesser rate. Successful fractionations have been achieved by varying the degree of derivatization of the fibers by the lectin concanavalin A. Lymphoid cells have been separated by the use of different antigens coupled to the fibers. The method may also be used for specific fixation and manipulation of viable cell populations in culture. In addition to fibers, beads and surfaces have been specifically derivatized and used to achieve different geometrical arrangements of the cells. Images PMID:5289374

  15. Determination of polydextrose as dietary fiber in foods.

    PubMed

    Craig, S A; Holden, J F; Khaled, M Y; Craig, S A; Holden, J F; Khaled, M Y

    2000-01-01

    Polydextrose (Litesse) provides physiological effects consistent with dietary fiber. However, AOAC methods for measuring total dietary fiber (TDF) in foods include an ethanol precipitation step in which polydextrose and similar carbohydrates are discarded and therefore not quantitated. This study describes a method developed to quantitate polydextrose in foods. The new method includes water extraction, centrifugal ultrafiltration, multienzyme hydrolysis, and anion exchange chromatography with electrochemical detection. Six foods were prepared with 4 levels of polydextrose to test the ruggedness of the method. Internal validation demonstrated the ruggedness of the method with recoveries ranging from 83 to 104% with an average of 95% (n = 24) and relative standard deviation of recoveries ranging from 0.7 to 13% with an average of 3.3% (n = 24). The value is added to that obtained for dietary fiber content of foods using the AOAC methods, to determine the TDF content of the food.

  16. Processed oat hulls as potential dietary fiber sources in rats.

    PubMed

    López-Guisa, J M; Harned, M C; Dubielzig, R; Rao, S C; Marlett, J A

    1988-08-01

    Processed oat hull products were evaluated as potential dietary fiber sources. Three levels, 5, 10 and 15%, of processed oat hulls, bleached oat hulls or oat hulls coated with starch, were added to purified diets and fed to groups of rats for 6 wk. Control diets consisted of 5, 10 or 15% alpha-cellulose or commercial nonpurified diet. None of the oat hull products at the three levels tested had any negative effect on rat growth. Fresh and dry fecal weights increased linearly as the concentration of dietary fiber increased and were highly correlated with fiber intake (r = 0.95). Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in all diets was low and apparent calcium absorption was not consistently affected by any diet. None of the oat hull test diets lowered plasma or hepatic cholesterol levels, a finding consistent with the failure to detect mixed-linkage beta-glucans in any of the processed oat hull products. Detailed analysis of the processed oat hull fibers also indicated that they were greater than 95% insoluble fiber and high in cellulose and xylans. Light-microscopy histology of kidney, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, ileum and colon was normal. The extent of hepatocellular destruction produced by the cholesterol (1%) and cholic acid (0.2%) added to the diet to induce hypocholesterolemia was independent of the kind and amount of dietary fiber.

  17. Saccharification of Okara fiber by plant dietary fiber hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Masako

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, the saccharification process of okara fiber with pectinase, xylanase and cellulase was investigated as a preliminary attempt to effectively utilize okara fiber. The solubilization of okara fiber was raised in proportion to the number of enzymes used; that is, by a single enzyme, two enzymes and three enzymes, in that order. The saccharification of okara fiber was much more completed by a combination of pectinase, xylanase and cellulase than by using individual preparations. This multi-enzyme system liberated sugars equivalent to 80% of the original okara fiber by weight. Moreover the structure of okara fiber gradually disintegrated by hydrolytic reactions with pectinase, xylanase and cellulase in turns. These results suggest that the saccharification of okara fiber progresses by the cooperative action of pectinase, xylanase and cellulase.

  18. Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuilin; Liu, Simin; Solomon, Caren G; Hu, Frank B

    2006-10-01

    We aimed to examine whether pregravid dietary fiber consumptions from cereal, fruit, and vegetable sources and dietary glycemic load were related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. This study was a prospective cohort study among 13,110 eligible women in the Nurses' Health Study II. GDM was self-reported and validated by medical record review in a subsample. We documented 758 incident GDM cases during 8 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, parity, prepregnancy BMI, and other covariates, dietary total fiber and cereal and fruit fiber were strongly associated with GDM risk. Each 10-g/day increment in total fiber intake was associated with 26% (95% CI 9-49) reduction in risk; each 5-g/day increment in cereal or fruit fiber was associated with a 23% (9-36) or 26% (5-42) reduction, respectively. Dietary glycemic load was positively related to GDM risk. Multivariate relative risk for highest versus lowest quintiles was 1.61 (1.02-2.53) (P for trend 0.03). The combination of high-glycemic load and low-cereal fiber diet was associated with 2.15-fold (1.04-4.29) increased risk compared with the reciprocal diet. These findings suggested that prepregnancy diet might be associated with women's GDM risk. In particular, diet with low fiber and high glycemic load was associated with an increased risk. Future clinical and metabolic studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  19. Dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity in Fucus vesiculosus products.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-01-01

    Several nutraceutical products have been developed from Fucus vesiculosus, a brown edible seaweed, rich in dietary fiber and polyphenolic antioxidants (phlorotannins). The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant capacity and polysaccharide composition of raw Fucus with those of some common commercial nutraceuticals. All tested products contained a high percentage of dietary fiber (45-59%), raw Fucus powder being the sample with the highest content. Also, raw Fucus powder exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity (determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays) than the commercial fucoidans and commercial antioxidant extracts. Polyphenols (phlorotannins) seem to be the main contributors to Fucus' antioxidant capacity in both raw powder and commercial fucoidans.

  20. Heat-Pulse Measurements Reveal Fiber Volume Fractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of thermal diffusivities by heat-pulse method constitutes basis of noncontact, nondestructive method of determining fiber volume fractions (FVFs) of samples of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Modulated radiant heat applied to sample, while resulting modulated infrared emitted is monitored. Phase shift between two modulations indicative of thermal diffusivity and fiber volume fraction of sample. Testing method takes less time, provides data to characterize sample through its thickness, and amenable to scanning for global determination of gradual spatial variations in FVF along sample.

  1. Digestion modeling in the small intestine: impact of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Taghipoor, M; Barles, G; Georgelin, C; Licois, J R; Lescoat, P

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the modeling of the digestion in the small intestine is developed by investigating specifically the effects of dietary fiber. As our previous model, this new version takes into account the three main phenomena of digestion: transit of the bolus, degradation of feedstuffs and absorption through the intestinal wall. However the two main physiochemical characteristics of dietary fiber, namely viscosity and water holding capacity, lead us to substantially modify our initial model by emphasizing the role of water and its intricated dynamics with dry matter in the bolus. Various numerical simulations given by this new model are qualitatively in agreement with the positive effect of insoluble dietary fiber on the velocity of bolus and on its degradation all along the small intestine. These simulations reproduce the negative effect of soluble dietary fiber on digestion as it has been experimentally observed. Although, this model is generic and contains a large number of parameters but, to the best of our knowledge, it is among the first qualitative dynamical models of fiber influence on intestinal digestion.

  2. Physicochemical Properties of Dietary Fibers from Artocarpus camansi Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Rumingtyas, Y. S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the dietary fiber (DF) contents of Artocorpus camansi (breadnut) fruit and examine their physicochemical properties, such as water-holding capacity (WAC), oil-holding capacity (OHC) and water absorption capacity (WAC). This fruit flour contained of both water soluble fibers (SDF), such as pectin (1.95%) and gum (0.4%), and water insoluble fibers (IDF) (89.25%). The IDF content of this fruit was significantly high in respect to other DF sources. The WHC, OHC and WAC of IDF were 4.10, 2.60 and 4.0%, respectively. Moreover, the WHC, OHC and WHC of total dietary fibers (TDF) were 4.2, 4.3 and 4.6%, respectively. The results showed that the DF of fruit flour had good physicochemical properties. The findings suggested that there is a potential application of A. camansi of fruit as functional ingredients in the food industry.

  3. Dietary Fiber Intake in Young Adults and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Eliassen, A Heather; Cho, Eunyoung; Liao, Xiaomei; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated fiber intake during adolescence and early adulthood in relation to breast cancer (BC) risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Among 90,534 premenopausal women who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1991, we documented 2833 invasive BC cases during 20 years of follow-up. In 1998, 44,263 of these women also completed a questionnaire about their diet during high school; among these women, we documented 1118 cases of BC by end of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC across categories of dietary fiber. Among all women, early adulthood total dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.81; 95% CI 0.72-0.91; Ptrend = .002). Higher intakes of soluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.97; Ptrend = .02) and insoluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.90; Ptrend < .001) were each associated with lower BC risk. Total dietary fiber intake in adolescence was also associated with lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-1.01; Ptrend = .04). For the average of fiber intake during adolescence and early adult life, the RR comparing highest with lowest quintiles was 0.75 (95% CI 0.62-0.91, Ptrend = .004). Our findings support the hypothesis that higher fiber intakes reduce BC risk and suggest that intake during adolescence and early adulthood may be particularly important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Dietary Fiber Intake in Young Adults and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, A. Heather; Cho, Eunyoung; Liao, Xiaomei; Chen, Wendy Y.; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated fiber intake during adolescence and early adulthood in relation to breast cancer (BC) risk in the Nurses’ Health Study II. METHODS: Among 90 534 premenopausal women who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1991, we documented 2833 invasive BC cases during 20 years of follow-up. In 1998, 44 263 of these women also completed a questionnaire about their diet during high school; among these women, we documented 1118 cases of BC by end of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC across categories of dietary fiber. RESULTS: Among all women, early adulthood total dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.81; 95% CI 0.72–0.91; Ptrend = .002). Higher intakes of soluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.86; 95% CI 0.77–0.97; Ptrend = .02) and insoluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.80; 95% CI 0.71–0.90; Ptrend < .001) were each associated with lower BC risk. Total dietary fiber intake in adolescence was also associated with lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.84; 95% CI 0.70–1.01; Ptrend = .04). For the average of fiber intake during adolescence and early adult life, the RR comparing highest with lowest quintiles was 0.75 (95% CI 0.62–0.91, Ptrend = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that higher fiber intakes reduce BC risk and suggest that intake during adolescence and early adulthood may be particularly important. PMID:26908709

  5. Toddlers and preschoolers consume more dietary fiber when high-fiber lunch items are served.

    PubMed

    Zuercher, Jennifer L; Kranz, Sibylle

    2012-02-01

    Increasing fiber intake by consuming high fiber foods, which are also high in other nutrients, can improve diet quality and reduce the risk for disease. However, most children do not meet fiber intake recommendations. Food provided at child care centers is a major source of daily nutrients, including fiber, for a large portion of children in the U.S. The aim of this study was to determine if serving novel, high fiber lunch items would successfully increase fiber intakes in toddlers and preschoolers. Four high-fiber entrées were developed and served to children (n=54) at lunch in a local child care center. Consumption was compared to usually served lunches and fiber intake recommendations. Toddlers consumed 89% of their recommended calories at the lunch meal and an average of 72% of the entrees; preschoolers consumed 74% of their recommended calories and 59% of the entrée, on average. Each entrée was high in fiber, providing, on average, 3.2 ± 1.6g fiber for toddlers and 4.1 ±1.9g fiber for preschoolers. These high fiber lunches contributed significantly more fiber than the usual lunch foods for most children. Data indicate that children are accepting of high fiber, novel lunch items, thus indicating that serving high fiber lunch items at child care may increase dietary fiber intake in children.

  6. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta

    2013-10-01

    In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Dietary fiber mixture in pediatric patients with controlled chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thabata K; Toporovski, Mauro S; Tahan, Soraia; Neufeld, Clarice B; de Morais, Mauro B

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the clinical efficacy and effect on colonic transit time (CTT) of a dietary fiber mixture given to children with controlled chronic constipation (CC) after the withdrawal of stool softeners and enemas. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial involved 54 patients aged 4 to 12 years and had CC that was controlled by the use of low-dose stool softeners. The use of these softeners was discontinued when the patients were admitted to the clinical trial. The patients were randomized into 2 groups for the 4-week study period. One group received a dietary fiber mixture and the other group received a placebo (maltodextrin). The primary outcome was therapeutic failure (oral stool softeners or enemas was required to prescribe during the trial). Secondary outcomes included defecation frequency, stool consistency (measured using the Bristol Stool Form Scale), and CTT. Therapeutic failure was observed in 34.6% (9/26) of the patients in the dietary fiber mixture group and in 35.7% (10/28) in the control group (P = 0.933). The mean increase in daily bowel movements was 0.53 in the dietary fiber mixture group and 0.23 in the control group (P = 0.014). The patients in the dietary fiber mixture group (60.0%) passed nonhardened stools more frequently than did those in the control group (16.7%, P = 0.003). The CTT was similar for both groups. The fiber mixture did not prevent the suspension of stool softeners or lead to reduced CTT; however, the mixture promoted an increased frequency of defecation and an improvement in the stool consistency.

  8. Precooked Bran-Enriched Wheat Flour Using Extrusion: Dietary Fiber Profile and Sensory Characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%,10%,20%,and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran,total dietary fiber(TDF)and soluble dietary fiber(SDF)in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5%...

  9. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  10. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  11. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center High Fiber Foods English 含大量纖維素的食品 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Spanish (español) ...

  12. Prevention of colon carcinogenesis by components of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B S

    1999-01-01

    Cancer of the colon is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Western countries and is increasing rapidly in Japan. Epidemiological and laboratory animal model studies have suggested an inverse relationship between colon cancer risk and intake of fiber-rich foods. The protective effect of dietary fiber which comprises a heterogeneous group of nonstarch polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin and noncarbohydrate substances such as phytic acid depends on the nature and source of fiber in the diet. Laboratory animal models have consistently shown that dietary administration of wheat bran reduced colon tumorigenesis. Human diet intervention studies have demonstrated that supplemental wheat bran in the diet decreased the formation of putative metabolites such as secondary bile acids and diacylglycerol in the colon that have been shown to act as tumor promoters in the colon. Among the components of dietary fiber, especially wheat bran, phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) has been studied extensively for its chemopreventive properties against colon carcinogenesis in the laboratory animal models. In studies carried out to date, dietary phytic acid reduced the incidence of colonic aberrant crypt foci, putative preneoplastic lesions in rats. Oral administration of phytic acid was shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents during the initiation and postinitiation stages. These studies provide evidence for potential chemopreventive properties of phytic acid against colon cancer. With regard to mode of action, phytic acid acts as an antioxidant, to reduce the rate of cell proliferation and to augment the immune response by enhancing the activity of natural killer (NK) cells.

  13. Evidence mapping: dietary fiber interventions and bone health outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass is expected to increase as the United States population ages. High dietary fiber intake has previously been implicated as a risk factor for bone health by binding calcium and thereby reducing its intestinal absorption; however, more recently, interven...

  14. Isomalto/malto-polysaccharide, a novel soluble dietary fiber made via enzymatic conversion of starch.

    PubMed

    Leemhuis, Hans; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; Ebbelaar, Monique; Faber, Folkert; Buwalda, Pieter L; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Kamerling, Johannis P; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-12-10

    Dietary fibers are at the forefront of nutritional research because they positively contribute to human health. Much of our processed foods contain, however, only small quantities of dietary fiber, because their addition often negatively affects the taste, texture, and mouth feel. There is thus an urge for novel types of dietary fibers that do not cause unwanted sensory effects when applied as ingredient, while still positively contributing to the health of consumers. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a novel type of soluble dietary fiber with prebiotic properties, derived from starch via enzymatic modification, yielding isomalto/malto-polysaccharides (IMMPs), which consist of linear (α1 → 6)-glucan chains attached to the nonreducing ends of starch fragments. The applied Lactobacillus reuteri 121 GTFB 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzyme synthesizes these molecules by transferring the nonreducing glucose moiety of an (α1 → 4)-glucan chain to the nonreducing end of another (α1 → 4)-α-glucan chain, forming an (α1 → 6)-glycosidic linkage. Once elongated in this way, the molecule becomes a better acceptor substrate and is then further elongated with (α1 → 6)-linked glucose residues in a linear way. Comparison of 30 starches, maltodextrins, and α-glucans of various botanical sources, demonstrated that substrates with long and linear (α1 → 4)-glucan chains deliver products with the highest percentage of (α1 → 6) linkages, up to 92%. In vitro experiments, serving as model of the digestive power of the gastrointestinal tract, revealed that the IMMPs, or more precisely the IMMP fraction rich in (α1 → 6) linkages, will largely pass the small intestine undigested and therefore end up in the large intestine. IMMPs are a novel type of dietary fiber that may have health promoting activity.

  15. Dietary Fiber and Prebiotics and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Hannah D

    2017-02-06

    The gastrointestinal microbiota has an important role in human health, and there is increasing interest in utilizing dietary approaches to modulate the composition and metabolic function of the microbial communities that colonize the gastrointestinal tract to improve health, and prevent or treat disease. One dietary strategy for modulating the microbiota is consumption of dietary fiber and prebiotics that can be metabolized by microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Human alimentary enzymes are not able to digest most complex carbohydrates and plant polysaccharides. Instead, these polysaccharides are metabolized by microbes which generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate. This article reviews the current knowledge of the impact of fiber and prebiotic consumption on the composition and metabolic function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, including the effects of physiochemical properties of complex carbohydrates, adequate intake and treatment dosages, and the phenotypic composition of the human microbiota.

  16. Dietary fiber and prebiotics and the gastrointestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Holscher, Hannah D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gastrointestinal microbiota has an important role in human health, and there is increasing interest in utilizing dietary approaches to modulate the composition and metabolic function of the microbial communities that colonize the gastrointestinal tract to improve health, and prevent or treat disease. One dietary strategy for modulating the microbiota is consumption of dietary fiber and prebiotics that can be metabolized by microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Human alimentary enzymes are not able to digest most complex carbohydrates and plant polysaccharides. Instead, these polysaccharides are metabolized by microbes which generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate. This article reviews the current knowledge of the impact of fiber and prebiotic consumption on the composition and metabolic function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, including the effects of physiochemical properties of complex carbohydrates, adequate intake and treatment dosages, and the phenotypic responses related to the composition of the human microbiota. PMID:28165863

  17. [Use of nopal dietary fiber in a powder dessert formulation].

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Elena; Pak, Nelly; Vallejos, Ximena

    2002-12-01

    The development of diverse types of foods of low caloric value and with high content in dietary fiber have occupied a preponderant place in the food industry in the last years, due to the growing interest of the consumers for a healthy and nutritious diet. Pre-cooked or quick to prepare foods are attractive for the time they save; if to this you add their nutritious value, the attractiveness is even greater. For this reason, this study analyzes different formulations of a powder to prepare a dessert (flan), with different percentages of incorporation of nopal flour, as a source of dietary fiber (16%, 18%, 20%). Two flavors (melon and banana) were tried. It was observed that the flan flavored with banana and with 16% of nopal flour, reached better sensorial characteristics. Greater percentages of nopal flour negatively affected the sensorial characteristics, mainly flavor, color and texture. The analysis showed that the powder presented 5.7% of moisture, low water activity (0.48) and therefore a low total recount of microorganisms. The content of protein was high (27.2%), the ether extract low (2.0%) similar to the caloric contribution (40 Kcal/portion). The flan showed a 9.8% of total dietary fiber, being greater the contribution of soluble fiber (6.1%) than that of insoluble fiber (3.7%). Due to these characteristics this formulation could be considered as a food that provides benefits for the human health.

  18. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  19. Guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a new source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Escrig, A; Rincón, M; Pulido, R; Saura-Calixto, F

    2001-11-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a tropical fruit, widely consumed fresh and also processed (beverages, syrup, ice cream, and jams). Pulp and peel fractions were tested, and both showed high content of dietary fiber (48.55-49.42%) and extractable polyphenols (2.62-7.79%). The antioxidant activity of polyphenol compounds was studied, using three complementary methods: (i) free radical DPPH* scavenging, (ii) ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and (iii) inhibition of copper-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. All fractions tested showed a remarkable antioxidant capacity, and this activity was correlated with the corresponding total phenolic content. A 1-g (dry matter) portion of peel contained DPPH* activity, FRAP activity, and inhibition of copper-induced in vitro LDL oxidation, equivalent to 43 mg, 116 mg, and 176 mg of Trolox, respectively. These results indicate that guava could be a suitable source of natural antioxidants. Peel and pulp could also be used to obtain antioxidant dietary fiber (AODF), a new item which combines in a single natural product the properties of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds.

  20. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  1. Dietary fiber intake and endogenous serum hormone levels in naturally postmenopausal Mexican American women: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Kristine R; Murphy, Suzanne P; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Adlercreutz, Herman; Pike, Malcolm C

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated dietary fiber intake in association with serum estrogen levels in naturally postmenopausal Latina women with a wide range of fiber intake. Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in 242 women. Associations between estrogen levels and intake of dietary fiber, including insoluble and soluble fractions, quantified from a food frequency questionnaire, were examined. The biomarker enterolactone was also measured. After adjustment for age, weight, and other nondietary factors, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with E1 and E2; there was a 22% and 17% decrease (2Ptrend=0.023 and 0.045) among subjects in the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest. Fitting dietary fiber together with soluble and insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) showed a much greater decrease in E1 and E2 (47% and 41%, respectively) while increased soluble NSP intake showed increases in E1 and E2 (64% and 69%, respectively). Two foods, avocado and grapefruit, showed significant positive associations with E1 (2Ptrend=0.029 and 0.015, respectively). This study suggests that different components of dietary fiber may have very significant different effects on serum estrogen levels. The suggestive findings relating increased estrogen levels to avocado and grapefruit intakes need confirmation.

  2. Dietary carbohydrates, fiber, and breast cancer risk in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wanqing; Shu, Xiao Ou; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the association of dietary carbohydrate and fiber intake with breast cancer risk in women in China, where carbohydrate intake is traditionally high. The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber with breast cancer risk and to determine whether the effect of these dietary intakes is modified by age and selected insulin- or estrogen-related risk factors. A total of 74,942 women aged 40-70 y were recruited into the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed by in-person interviews. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate associations. During an average of 7.35 y of follow-up, 616 incident breast cancer cases were documented. A higher carbohydrate intake was associated with a higher risk of premenopausal breast cancer (P for trend = 0.002). Compared with the lowest quintile, the hazard ratios (and 95% CIs) were 1.47 (1.00, 2.32) and 2.01 (1.26, 3.19) for the fourth and fifth quintiles, respectively. A similar pattern was found for glycemic load. The association between carbohydrate intake and breast cancer was significantly modified by age; the increased breast cancer risk associated with carbohydrate intake was restricted to women who were younger than 50 y. No significant association of breast cancer risk with glycemic index or dietary fiber intake was found. Our data suggest that a high carbohydrate intake and a diet with a high glycemic load may be associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women or women <50 y.

  3. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.

  4. Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.

    2006-11-01

    A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ε), where (1-ε) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2008-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. In addition, intake of dietary fiber has beneficial effects on risk factors for developing several chronic diseases. Dietary Reference Intakes recommend consumption of 14 g dietary fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on epidemiologic studies showing protection against cardiovascular disease. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for children, the critically ill, and the very old are unknown. The Dietary Reference Intakes for fiber are based on recommended energy intake, not clinical fiber studies. Usual intake of dietary fiber in the United States is only 15 g/day. Although solubility of fiber was thought to determine physiological effect, more recent studies suggest other properties of fiber, perhaps fermentability or viscosity are important parameters. High-fiber diets provide bulk, are more satiating, and have been linked to lower body weights. Evidence that fiber decreases cancer is mixed and further research is needed. Healthy children and adults can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing variety in daily food patterns. Dietary messages to increase consumption of high-fiber foods such as whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables should be broadly supported by food and nutrition professionals. Consumers are also turning to fiber supplements and bulk laxatives as additional fiber sources. Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness, so the best advice is to consume fiber in foods. Look for physiological studies of effectiveness before selecting functional fibers in dietetics practice.

  6. The definition of dietary fiber - discussions at the Ninth Vahouny Fiber Symposium: building scientific agreement.

    PubMed

    Howlett, John F; Betteridge, Victoria A; Champ, Martine; Craig, Stuart A S; Meheust, Agnes; Jones, Julie Miller

    2010-11-01

    A definition for dietary fiber was adopted in June 2009 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission based on the recommendation for endorsement of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) in November 2008. The definition listed three categories of carbohydrate polymers that are not hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzymes in the small intestine of humans. However, the definition left the inclusion of carbohydrates with degrees of polymerization (DP) in the range of 3 and 9 to the discretion of national authorities and left the 'physiological effect(s) of benefit to health' as undefined. The ILSI Europe and ILSI North America's committees on dietary carbohydrates organized a forum at the Ninth Vahouny Fiber Symposium in 2010 to discuss these implementation issues with the objective of building scientific consensus on how to resolve them. The results of this session are encouraging and indicated that the scientific community agrees on maintaining a worldwide consensus regarding the inclusion of non-digestible carbohydrates with ≥DP3 as dietary fiber and on a core, non-exhaustive list of beneficial physiological effects that dietary fibers have. These results are consistent with previous worldwide agreements.

  7. Dietary psyllium fiber increases intestinal heat shock protein 25 expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Miyuki; Van Hung, Tran; Tari, Hiroyuki; Arakawa, Teruaki; Suzuki, Takuya

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect intestinal epithelial cell function, integrity and viability against many forms of stress. We hypothesized that dietary fibers (DFs) in the diet may increase HSP expression, since DFs are known to exhibit beneficial effects on intestinal health. The present study investigated the regulation of intestinal HSP expression by DFs, particularly psyllium fiber. Feeding psyllium fiber for 5 d increased HSP25 expression, but not HSP32 and HSP70 expression in the jejunum, ileum, and colon of mice at both the protein and mRNA levels. The increases in HSP25 expression did not correlate with cecal organic acid production by microbial fermentation. The water-insoluble fraction of psyllium fiber largely contributed to the induction of HSP25 expression, but feeding with other water-insoluble DFs from beet, wheat, and oats failed to induce intestinal HSP25 expression. Although the water-holding capacity of psyllium fiber was much higher than those of the other water-insoluble DFs examined, the increase in HSP25 expression induced by feeding polycarbophil, which possesses a high water-holding capacity similar to that of psyllium fiber, was much lower than that induced by psyllium fiber. Finally, induction of malondialdehyde production by hydrogen peroxide, an oxidant, in the colon of mice fed psyllium fiber was lower than that in mice fed with the control diets. Taken together, feeding psyllium fiber, especially the water-insoluble fraction, increases intestinal HSP25 expression and suppresses oxidant-induced malondialdehyde production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In-fiber all-optical fractional differentiator.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Andrés, M V

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate that an asymmetrical pi phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating operated in reflection can provide the required spectral response for implementing an all-optical fractional differentiator. There are different (but equivalent) ways to design it, e.g., by using different gratings lengths and keeping the same index modulation depth at both sides of the pi phase shift, or vice versa. Analytical expressions were found relating the fractional differentiator order with the grating parameters. The device shows a good accuracy calculating the fractional time derivatives of the complex field of an arbitrary input optical waveform. The introduced concept is supported by numerical simulations.

  9. Treatment of chronic renal failure with dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Rampton, D S; Cohen, S L; Crammond, V D; Gibbons, J; Lilburn, M F; Rabet, J Y; Vince, A J; Wager, J D; Wrong, O M

    1984-03-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that dietary fiber, by inhibiting colonic bacterial ammonia generation and increasing fecal nitrogen excretion, might decrease hepatic urea synthesis and thereby reduce plasma urea in patients with chronic renal failure. Six and 8 week courses of two different hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan and ispaghula, reduced mean plasma urea in uremic subjects by 11% and 19% respectively. Ispaghula also reduced the rate of rise of plasma creatinine to zero and, in one formal balance study, increased fecal nitrogen excretion by 39%. Experiments in vitro showed that ispaghula depressed anaerobic fecal bacterial net ammonia generation by 30%, and adsorbed neither urea nor ammonia. The reduction in plasma urea caused by dietary fiber is likely to be due to inhibition of colonic bacterial production of ammonia; such therapy could conceivably alleviate some of the symptoms of uremia and postpone dialysis in patients with endstage renal disease.

  10. New method for determining total dietary fiber by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, K; Matsuda, I; Katta, Y; Tsuji, K; Ohkuma, K; Matsuda, I; Katta, Y; Tsuji, K

    2000-01-01

    The molecular weight limit of water-soluble dietary fiber (SDF) determined by the Prosky method was studied by liquid chromatography (LC). It was confirmed that only SDF with an average degree of polymerization of 12 or higher can be determined by the Prosky method. Total dietary fiber (TDF) was determined by 2 additional methods using LC. In the first method, the total quantity of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and high molecular weight SDF (HMSDF) was determined according to the modified Prosky method (MES-TRIS buffer-based). The quantitatively collected final filtrate was analyzed by LC for the quantity of low molecular weight SDF (LMSDF), and the 2 quantities were totaled to obtain TDF. TDF values thus determined for rice, polished or unpolished, soybean flour, and pressed barley were higher than those determined by the Prosky method by approximately 6, 3.5, and 3.5%, respectively. In the second method, direct determination by LC analysis was done on samples after enzymatic treatment according to the Prosky method. Results showed that the determination of LMSDF, in particular, was highly accurate and more effective. In both of these methods, the quantity of LMSDF was determined from its chromatographic peak area ratio to glucose as an internal standard, which was produced by hydrolysis.

  11. Enzymatic degradation of phytate, polyphenols and dietary fibers in Ethiopian injera flours: effect on iron bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Baye, Kaleab; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2015-05-01

    The effect of removing phytate (IP6), iron-binding polyphenols, and dietary fibers on iron bioaccessibility in wheat-red sorghum (WrS) and teff-white sorghum (TwS) flour blends used in Ethiopia to make injera, a fermented pancake, was evaluated through the application of exogenous enzymes. Phytase treatment led to >90% reduction in IP6 and to an IP6:Fe molar ratio <1, but iron bioaccessibility was not improved (P > 0.05). Phytase + xylanase + cellulase (P + X + C) treatment increased iron bioaccessibility in TwS (non-detectableto1.6%) and WrS (1.9-3.2%), whereas phytase + polyphenol oxidase (P + PPO) treatment only showed improvement in the TwS blend. P + X + C + PPO treatment of the WrS blend increased the soluble non-dialysable iron fraction (6.7%) more than P + PPO treatment (3.9%). Although responses to enzyme treatments and iron bioaccessibility were matrix dependent, a positive effect of dietary fiber hydrolysis with X + C was obtained, irrespective of the blend. Dietary fibers had a negative effect on iron bioaccessibility independent of phytates.

  12. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of marginal dietary zinc on blood fractions of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Brenckle, L.B.; Rasmussen, A.I.

    1986-03-05

    Use of blood components as indices of zinc (Zn) status has been proposed. This study evaluated changes in whole blood counts and Zn concentration of blood fractions in rats fed marginal dietary Zn. Rats (175-199 gm) were divided into 2 groups after 1 wk acclimation on a 6 ppm soybean-based Zn ration: a low Zn group (n=72) fed the 6 ppm Zn ration ad lib, and a pair-fed Zn-adequate group (n=72) fed the same ration supplemented to 30 ppm Zn. RBC Zn, WBC/platelet Zn, RBC count. WBC count, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 wks on blood obtained by cardiac puncture. Samples from 2 rats were pooled for Zn determinations. Low Zn rats decreased food intake, failed to gain weight, and 29% exhibited hair loss and/or scaly paws. RBC count, Hb, and Hct increased with time in both groups: the increase in RBC count preceeded that of Hb. Despite this different rate of change, RBC Zn results were the same regardless of basis of expression. WBC count decreased with time in both groups. Differences in pooled RBC Zn values between or within groups were not significant. The greatest difference between groups occurred at wk 2 when pooled WBC/platelet Zn was low in both groups, body weight differences became significant, and hair loss was first seen in low Zn rats. However, convincing evidence for changes in blood fractions due to marginal dietary Zn intake is not apparent despite other evidence of Zn deficiency in the low Zn group.

  14. Dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks among US adults, NHANES 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Kya N; Ommerborn, Mark J; Pham, Do Quyen; Djoussé, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R

    2013-12-01

    Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and nonpregnant women aged 20+ years from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Consistently, dietary fiber intake remained below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7-17.0 g. Mexican Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% confidence interval) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69-0.88), 0.66 (0.61-0.72), and 0.77 (0.71-0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, although statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Low dietary fiber intake from 1999-2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Fiber Intake and Cardiometabolic Risks among US Adults, NHANES 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Grooms, Kya N.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Pham, Do Quyen; Djousse, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Methods Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and non-pregnant women aged 20+ years from 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Results Dietary fiber intake remained consistently below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7g–17.0g. Mexican-Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic Whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic Blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% CI) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69–0.88), 0.66 (0.61–0.72), and 0.77 (0.71–0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, though statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Conclusions Low dietary fiber intake from 1999–2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. PMID:24135514

  16. Potential misinterpretation of the nutritional value of dietary fiber: correcting fiber digestibility values for nondietary gut-interfering material.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the origin and implications of a nondietary material present in digesta and feces that interferes with the determination of dietary fiber in gastrointestinal contents. Negative values for ileal and fecal digestibility of dietary fiber are commonly reported in the literature for monogastric animal species, including humans. As negative values are not possible physiologically, this suggests the existence of a nondietary material in the gastrointestinal contents and feces that interferes with the accurate determination of dietary fiber digestibility when conventional methods of fiber determination are applied. To date, little attention has been given to this nondietary interfering material, which appears to be influenced by the type and concentration of fiber in the diet. Interestingly, estimates of dietary fiber digestibility increase substantially when corrected for the nondietary interfering material, which suggests that currently reported values underestimate the digestibility of dietary fiber and may misrepresent where, in the digestive tract, fermentation of fiber occurs. A new perspective of dietary fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract is developing, leading to a better understanding of the contribution of dietary fiber to health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Plasma cholesterol-lowering effect on rats of dietary fiber extracted from immature plants.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, N; Taniguchi, Y; Kiriyama, S

    2000-12-01

    Crude dietary fiber samples were prepared from beet, cabbage, Japanese radish, onion and mung bean sprouts (BF, CF, RF, OF and MF, respectively). These samples contained total dietary fiber at the levels of 814, 699, 760, 693 and 666 g/kg, respectively. To examine the effect of these dietary fiber sources on the plasma cholesterol concentration, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a fiber-free (FF) diet or on an FF diet supplemented with 5% or 10% dietary fiber. Dietary fiber extracted from vegetables, wood cellulose (CL), pectin (PE) and guar gum (GG) were used as the fiber sources. Compared with the rats fed on the FF diet, a significant reduction in the plasma cholesterol concentration was observed in the rats fed on BF, CF, RF, MF, PE or GG after a 21-d feeding period. Cecal acetate, n-butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids were significantly higher in the rats fed on these dietary fibers, except for CF, than in those fed on the FF diet. A negative correlation was apparent between the total dietary fiber content, hemicellulose content and pectin content of each dietary fiber source and the plasma cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that some vegetable fibers exert a plasma cholesterol-lowering effect through cecal fermentation of these fibers.

  18. Dietary fibers and heavy metal retention in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, H.E.; Quarterman, J.

    1987-02-01

    The metal-binding capacities of some gel-forming polysaccharides and other substances have been investigated in vitro in an attempt to relate their metal-binding properties to the retention of dietary Pb and Cd in vivo. In equilibrium dialysis systems, aqueous solutions of alginic acid, pectin, agar, and carrageenan (1 g fiber/100 ml) all bound Pb and Cd to varying degrees. Alginic acid had the greatest binding capacity for Pb (50 ..mu..g Pb bound/mg fiber) and carrageenan for Cd (9.3 ..mu..g Cd bound/mg fiber). Addition of any one of these fibers, or indulin or glucuronic acid to the diet increased the tissue retention of one or both of the metals. Only cellulose supplementation reduced the retention of both Pb and Cd. Carrageenan decreased that of Pb and increased that of Cd. In another experiment alginic acid was shown to increased Pb retention in rats even when present at fairly low dietary concentrations (1 g/kg).

  19. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dietary Fiber Supplementation for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xioayan

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appear related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. PMID:25155992

  1. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  2. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  3. Carcinogen binding to various types of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Smith-Barbaro, P; Hanson, D; Reddy, B S

    1981-08-01

    The percent of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) bound to a variety of fibers, such as wheat bran, corn bran, citrus pulp, citrus pectin, and alfalfa, was examined at pH values ranging from 1 to 12. The percent of DMH bound to wheat bran increased from 4% at PH 1 to 55% at pH 2 to 77% at pH 12. A sharp rise in carcinogen binding to corn bran occurred between pH 5% of the DMH was bound and pH 8 where 51% of the DMH was bound. The percent of DMH bound to dehydrated citrus pulp also increased as the pH increased with 10% binding observed at pH 1 and with 57% binding observed at pH 12. Between pH 2 and pH 7, the percent of DMH bound to pectin decreased from 60 to 11%. As the pH became more basic, the percent of DMH bound to pectin increased to 42% at pH 12. The sharpest rise in the percent of DMH bound to alfalfa meal occurred between pH 10.5 and pH 12.0. Results from this experiment showed that the affinity to various types of dietary fibers for the colon carcinogen DMH was differentially affected by pH. These results suggested that the protective effect of certain types of dietary fiber against chemically induced colon cancer my in part be attributed to enhanced carcinogen binding by dietary fiber in the colon.

  4. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber.

  5. Hormonal and dietary influences on true fractional calcium absorption in women: role of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, D.; Schneider, S. H.; Schlussel, Y.; Brolin, R. E.; Taich, L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The goal in this study was to examine the hormonal and dietary predictors of true fractional Ca absorption (TFCA) in adult women and to determine whether TFCA differs due to body weight. Results showed that TFCA is higher in obese individuals and dietary fat, estradiol, and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D are the most significant positive predictors of TFCA in adult women. Introduction Calcium absorption is an important determinant of calcium balance and is influenced by several factors. Previous studies have identified that age, intake of protein, fat and fiber, and hormones such as 1, 25-dihyroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) influence absorption. The determinants of TFCA using the double isotope method, the gold standard estimate of absorption, have not been examined previously in adult women nor has the role of obesity been addressed. Methods In this study, we examined the hormonal and dietary predictors of TFCA in adult women with a wide range of age, body weights, and nutrient intake. TFCA was measured using dual stable isotope (42Ca and 43Ca) technique. Serum was analyzed for bone-regulating hormones, and dietary information was obtained through food records. The independent dietary factors and hormonal predictors (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, parathyroid hormone, and estradiol) of TFCA were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results Two hundred twenty-nine women aged 54±11 years old (24–75 years) and with BMI of 31±7.0 kg/m2 were eligible and were categorized into tertiles of body mass index (BMI) into leaner, overweight, and obese. In the entire group of women, total fat intake, estradiol, and 1,25 (OH)2D3 are significant positive predictors (p<0.05). As expected, age is a significant negative predictor of TFCA (R2=26%). TFCA is higher in obese women compared to non-obese women (p<0.05). Conclusion Together, these data show that dietary fat is the most significant positive predictor of TFCA which may have implications for dietary intake for

  6. [Binding of PCB by several types of dietary fiber in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Hamamura, K; Iida, T

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the binding of PCB by dietary fiber in vivo and in vitro. Forty male rats consisting of four rats a group were housed and rats of each group were given a treatment diet containing rice-bran fiber, spinach fiber, burdock fiber, cabbage fiber, soybean fiber Japanese-radish fiber, carrot fiber, corn fiber and cellulose for five days. The remaining four rats were fed a non-fiber diet as controls. The animals were administered with 0.5 ml of the race-bran oil used by Yusho patients and kept on the same diets for five days. Fecal excretion of PCB in the group fed rice-bran fiber and spinach fiber was significantly (p < 0.01) stimulated 6.6 and 4.1 times, respectively, as compared with controls. Dietary fiber was suspended in distilled water, and methanolic solution of PCB was added to these suspensions. The mixtures were then incubated. After centrifugation, the unbound PCB in supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatograph. Rice-bran fiber and spinach fiber bount more PCB than any of the other dietary fiber. A significant correlation existed between the amounts of binding PCB in vitro and fecal PCB output in rats by eight types of dietary fiber (r = 0.986, p < 0.01).

  7. Hypocholesterolemic action of dietary fiber unrelated to fecal bulking effect.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Reynolds, D; Leeds, A R; Waller, A L; Cummings, J H

    1979-12-01

    Twenty-two healthy volunteers took approximately 20 g/day of concentrated dietary fiber from either carrot, cabbage, apple, bran, or guar gum or 31 g from pectin, added for 3-week periods to controlled diets. Total serum cholesterol fell by 13% on both guar and pectin (P less than 0.01) with no significant change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Over the 3-week supplementation period, the other fibers were without effect with the exception of carrot, where both control and test high density lipoprotein levels fell (P less than 0.05 and less than 0.01, respectively). If, however, the 3rd week of the control was compared with the 3rd test week, the values for total cholesterol were 7% lower after apple (P less than 0.02) while after carrot the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 10% lower than the control (P less than 0.01). No significant change was seen in serum triglyceride or body weight either as judged by differences over the 3-week periods or by comparing test and control values at 3 weeks. Comparison of stool weights obtained in this study indicate that the fecal bulking action of dietary fiber is independent of its hypocholesterolaemic effect.

  8. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi. PMID:24471093

  9. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.

  10. Soybean hulls as a dietary fiber source for dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, J T; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Hussein, H S; Brent, J L

    1999-04-01

    In Exp. 1, soybean hull samples were obtained from nine sources across the United States and analyzed for nutrient content to determine their suitability for inclusion in dog diets. Compositional data revealed variation in both the amount of total dietary fiber (TDF; 63.8 to 81.2%) in the soybean hulls and the ratio of insoluble:soluble fiber (5.0:1 to 15.4:1). Crude protein content varied widely among sources, ranging from 9.2 to 18.7%. An in vivo trial (Exp. 2) was conducted using a premium dog diet containing 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis). There was a negative linear effect (P < .05) of soybean hull inclusion in the diet on DM, OM, TDF, and GE total-tract digestibilities, as well as on calculated ME. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. Based on these results, ileally cannulated dogs were fed diets containing 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis) in addition to diets containing either 0% supplemental fiber or 7.5% beet pulp (Exp. 3). Nutrient digestion at the ileum was unaffected by inclusion of supplemental fiber. Total tract digestion of DM, OM, and GE was lower ( P < .05) for diets containing supplemental fiber when compared with the diet containing 0% fiber. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. There was no difference in nutrient digestibility between those diets containing soybean hulls and a diet containing beet pulp. Soybean hull inclusion in the diet resulted in a negative linear effect (P < .05) on calculated ME, in addition to lowering ME (P < .05) when compared with the 0% fiber control diet. Calculated ME for dogs fed a 7.5% beet pulp-containing diet was lower (P < .05) than that for dogs fed the soybean hull-containing diets. Results indicate that soybean hulls can be an effective dietary fiber source in dog diets.

  11. A Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mahesh S; Seekatz, Anna M; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Hickey, Christina A; Wolter, Mathis; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Kitamoto, Sho; Terrapon, Nicolas; Muller, Arnaud; Young, Vincent B; Henrissat, Bernard; Wilmes, Paul; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Núñez, Gabriel; Martens, Eric C

    2016-11-17

    Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier. Dietary fiber deprivation, together with a fiber-deprived, mucus-eroding microbiota, promotes greater epithelial access and lethal colitis by the mucosal pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. Our work reveals intricate pathways linking diet, the gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which could be exploited to improve health using dietary therapeutics.

  12. Assessment on proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytic acid and protein hydrolysis of germinated Ecuatorian brown rice.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana

    2014-09-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.

  13. Role of PHGG as a dietary fiber: a review article.

    PubMed

    Quartarone, G

    2013-12-01

    Functional and metabolic effects of dietary fiber are recognized by the scientific, clinical and nutritional experts. Dietary fiber plays a very significant role in modifying the intestinal microbiota, exerting prebiotic effects such as stimulating the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal microorganisms. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum (PHGG) is a natural dietary fiber (Benefibra™, Novartis CH Italy): it is a white powder, water-soluble, colorless and transparent in water solution and almost tasteless. PHGG is stable and soluble at various pH levels commonly found in foods as well as resistant to heat, acid, salt, high pressure and digestive enzymes. Low viscosity of PHGG provides a distinct advantage for the use of fiber in enteral feeding products to be administered through feeding tubes. It has been studied in adults, both healthy volunteers and patients, in different disorders such as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), enteral nutrition, small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and, very recently, in children suffering from functional abdominal pain according to the Rome III Criteria definition for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review takes stock of the situation concerning what is known to date on PHGG as dietary fiber, in order to give the health care professionals, such as gastroenterologists, dieticians and general practitioners, a complete overview on its intrinsic characteristics, preclinical and clinical evaluations, uses in different situations as supportive therapy in the management of the main intestinal functional

  14. Interactions between soluble dietary fibers and wheat gluten in dough studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Liu, Rui; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Four soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions characterized by major components of AXs, relatively narrow molecular weight distribution, different substituted ratio, and structure-sensitive parameter (ρ) were prepared from wheat bran. The fractions were added to wheat dough to determine the interactions between the dough's network and the SDF fractions relative to their physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, a comprehensive study focusing on the dough texture characteristic, tensile properties, thermodynamic stability, and the microstructure was conducted by performing texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) experiments. Additionally, an estimation function of the interactions parameters between the dough's network and the SDF fractions related to the factor molecular weight and ρ of the SDFs was established. The results indicated that the SDF fractions exhibiting a medium molecular weight, and a higher substitution degree and di-substituted ratio, were the most suitable fortifier providing benefits to the dough's qualities. Furthermore, the research methodology might support the high potential of SDF fractions as fortifier for flour-based products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Isolation and chemical analyses of nonfermented fiber fractions of oat hulls and cottonseed hulls.

    PubMed

    Garleb, K A; Bourquin, L D; Hsu, J T; Wagner, G W; Schmidt, S J; Fahey, G C

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate, using both in situ and in vivo methodology, the nonfermented fiber fraction of oat hulls (OH) and cottonseed hulls (CSH) and to compare the concentrations of alkali-labile phenolic monomers, nitrobenzene oxidizable phenolic monomers, and neutral monosaccharides, as well as the cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) carbon-13 (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, of the nonfermented fraction with the original OH or CSH. The in situ isolation procedure involved a 30-h ruminal pretreatment and an 8-h acid:pepsin pretreatment followed by 1 to 7 additional days of incubation in the rumen. Fractions not fermented in vivo were isolated from duodena, ileal, and fecal material obtained from a site and extent of digestion trial in which these byproducts were fed to sheep at 80% of the diet (as-fed basis) and they represented the sole source of dietary fiber. Based on nonfermented fraction composition, both in situ and in vivo, all components analyzed were degraded to some extent. Also, all components present in original byproduct material were present in both the in situ and in vivo nonfermented fractions. Based on NMR analysis, cellulose crystallinity did not change during either long-term in situ or in vivo fermentation. However, CSH cellulose was more crystalline than that of OH. The ADL content of OH and CSH was 6.1% and 19.4%, respectively, and very little (15%) of the ADL disappeared during either in situ or in vivo fermentation. Much of the p-coumaric and ferulic acid of OH, associated with the cell wall matrix as lignin-carbohydrate and phenolic-carbohydrate complexes, was recovered in the fermented fractions. Data are interpreted to indicate that lignin encrustation and cellulose crystallinity are factors affecting CSH fermentation. Lignin encrustation and the presence of lignin-carbohydrate/phenolic-carbohydrate complexes are factors that inhibit OH fermentation.

  16. Dietary fiber intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees: The Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takako; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Ito, Rie; Kimura, Yasumi; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Kabe, Isamu; Kawakami, Norito; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    Dietary fiber may play a favorable role in mood through gut microbiota, but epidemiologic evidence linking mood to dietary fiber intake is scarce in free-living populations. We investigated cross-sectionally the associations of dietary intakes of total, soluble, insoluble, and sources of fiber with depressive symptoms among Japanese workers. Participants were 1977 employees ages 19-69 y. Dietary intake was assessed via a validated, brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of depressive symptoms adjusted for a range of dietary and non-dietary potential confounders. Dietary fiber intake from vegetables and fruits was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the lowest through the highest tertile of vegetable and fruit fiber were 1.00 (reference), 0.80 (0.60-1.05), and 0.65 (0.45-0.95), respectively (P for trend = 0.03). Dietary intake of total, soluble, insoluble, and cereal fiber was not associated with depressive symptoms. Higher dietary fiber intake from vegetables and fruits may be associated with lower likelihood of having depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of dietary fibers on nutrient management and detoxification organs: Gut, liver, and kidneys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiological effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. Dietary fibers can greatly alter the gut milieu by impacting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine response...

  18. Adiponectin in Hamster: Characterization and Functions in Soluble Dietary Fiber Mediated Lipid Homeostatis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aim: The hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of various natural and semisynthetic dietary fibers have been studied in the past for their potential use in the prevention and improvement of metabolic syndrome. Among these dietary fibers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) has been shown to...

  19. In vitro study of possible role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose.

    PubMed

    Ou, S; Kwok, K; Li, Y; Fu, L

    2001-02-01

    There have been many reports concerning the role of dietary fiber in lowering postprandial serum glucose, and the main mechanism was regarded as the viscosity of different dietary fibers in hampering diffusion of glucose and postponing absorption and digestion of carbohydrates. In this paper, two kinds of water-insoluble dietary fibers, water-insoluble dietary fiber of wheat bran and enzyme-resistant starch of maize amylose, and four kinds of water-soluble dietary fibers, water-soluble dietary fiber of wheat bran, carboxymethyl cellulose, guar gum, and xanthan gum, were used to investigate their postprandial serum glucose lowering mechanism in vitro. The results showed that these dietary fibers lowered postprandial serum glucose levels at least by three mechanisms. First, dietary fibers increase the viscosity of small intestine juice and hinder diffusion of glucose; second, they bind glucose and decrease the concentration of available glucose in the small intestine; and, third, they retard alpha-amylase action through capsuling starch and the enzyme and might directly inhibit the enzyme. All of these decreased the absorption rate of glucose and the concentration of postprandial serum glucose.

  20. Dietary fiber analysis of common pulses using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for human health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary fiber is an important non-nutritive component of food and is believed to have various benefits to human health. In many countries, such as the United States and Canada, the intake of dietary fiber is 50 to 70% below recommended levels in greater than 95% of the population. We recently adva...

  1. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case–control study in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease’s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. Methods A hospital based case–control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000–2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. Results After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. Conclusions The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across

  2. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case-control study in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-10-04

    An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. A hospital based case-control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 853 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000-2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across different levels of dietary fiber, and the

  3. High amount of dietary fiber not harmful but favorable for Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD.

  4. Dietary fibers reduce the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene following intravenous administration of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Viau, C; Zaoui, C; Charbonneau, S

    2004-03-01

    During biological monitoring of exposure to a chemical, a possible source of interindividual variability in the measurement of a urinary metabolite that undergoes enterohepatic cycling is the presence of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the effect of diets containing either the insoluble fiber Alphacel (nonnutritive bulk cellulose) or the soluble pectin (from citrus fruit, MW 20,000-40,000). Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats received one of the following diets: poor (5% w/w) or rich (15% w/w) in Alphacel, poor (5% w/w) or rich (15% w/w) in pectin, or no fiber (NF). Five micromol/kg of pyrene was administered by iv injection immediately after feeding the animals with their respective diet, and urine and feces collections started for the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a metabolite of pyrene. The type of fiber had no influence on the results. The rats receiving diets both poor and rich in fiber excreted less 1-OHP (18 +/- 8 and 15 +/- 7 pmol per g of rat, respectively) in the 24-h urine samples than the NF group (28 +/- 6 pmol/g). There was a nonstatistically significant trend towards increased fecal and total (urinary + fecal) 1-OHP excretion with increasing amount of fiber in the diet. An in vitro experiment showed an inverse correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between the amount of Alphacel in suspension in a 1-OHP aqueous solution and the recovery of 1-OHP from the soluble fraction. The reduction in urinary output of the metabolite due to fiber reaching approximately 40% may contribute to its interindividual variability observed in occupational and environmental studies.

  5. The nonfermentable dietary fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modulates intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura M.; Cho, Ilseung; Young, Scott A.; Anderson, W. H. Kerr; Waters, Bartholomew J.; Hung, Shao-Ching; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Bihan, Monika; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Methé, Barbara A.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a high-fat diet (HFD), then either maintained on HFD (control), or switched to HFD supplemented with 10% HPMC, or a low-fat diet (LFD). Compared to control treatment, both LFD and HPMC reduced weight gain (11.8 and 5.7 g, respectively), plasma cholesterol (23.1 and 19.6%), and liver triglycerides (73.1 and 44.6%), and, as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA gene, decreased microbial α-diversity and differentially altered intestinal microbiota. Both LFD and HPMC increased intestinal Erysipelotrichaceae (7.3- and 12.4-fold) and decreased Lachnospiraceae (2.0- and 2.7-fold), while only HPMC increased Peptostreptococcaceae (3.4-fold) and decreased Ruminococcaceae (2.7-fold). Specific microorganisms were directly linked with weight change and metabolic parameters in HPMC and HFD mice, but not in LFD mice, indicating that the intestinal microbiota may play differing roles during the two dietary modulations. This work indicates that HPMC is a potential prebiotic fiber that influences intestinal microbiota and improves host metabolism.—Cox, L. M., Cho, I., Young, S. A., Kerr Anderson, W. H., Waters, B. J., Hung, S.-C., Gao, Z., Mahana, D., Bihan, M., Alekseyenko, A. V., Methé, B. A., Blaser, M. J. The nonfermentable dietary fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modulates intestinal microbiota. PMID:23154883

  6. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jeon; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p<0.05). Energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the control samples was significantly higher than chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in chicken patties was achieved at Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics.

  7. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p<0.05). Energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the control samples was significantly higher than chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in chicken patties was achieved at Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  8. Effect of dietary fiber on the level of free angiotensin II receptor blocker in vitro.

    PubMed

    Iwazaki, Ayano; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Tamezane, Yui; Tanaka, Kenta; Nakagawa, Minami; Imai, Kimie; Nakanishi, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan potassium (LO), candesartan (CA), and telmisartan (TE), and dietary fiber was studied as to the level of free ARB in vitro. When ARB was incubated with soluble (sodium alginate, pectin, and glucomannan) or insoluble (cellulose and chitosan) dietary fiber, the levels of free LO, TE, and CA decreased. This resulted only from mixing the dietary fiber with the ARBs and differed among the types of dietary fiber, and the pH and electrolytes in the mixture. The levels of free LO and TE tended to decrease with a higher concentration of sodium chloride in pH 1.2 fluid. These results suggest that it is important to pay attention to the possible interactions between ARBs and dietary fiber.

  9. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: a meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Hai-Peng; Zhou, Li; Xu, Chun-Fang

    2012-12-28

    To investigate the effect of dietary fiber intake on constipation by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched Ovid MEDLINE (from 1946 to October 2011), Cochrane Library (2011), PubMed for articles on dietary fiber intake and constipation using the terms: constipation, fiber, cellulose, plant extracts, cereals, bran, psyllium, or plantago. References of important articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Articles were eligible for the meta-analysis if they were high-quality RCTs and reported data on stool frequency, stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and gastrointestinal symptoms. The data were extracted independently by two researchers (Yang J and Wang HP) according to the described selection criteria. Review manager version 5 software was used for analysis and test. Weighted mean difference with 95%CI was used for quantitative data, odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI was used for dichotomous data. Both I(2) statistic with a cut-off of ≥ 50% and the χ(2) test with a P value < 0.10 were used to define a significant degree of heterogeneity. We searched 1322 potential relevant articles, 19 of which were retrieved for further assessment, 14 studies were excluded for various reasons, five studies were included in the analysis. Dietary fiber showed significant advantage over placebo in stool frequency (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in stool consistency, treatment success, laxative use and painful defecation between the two groups. Stool frequency were reported by five RCTs, all results showed either a trend or a significant difference in favor of the treatment group, number of stools per week increased in treatment group than in placebo group (OR = 1.19; 95%CI: 0.58-1.80, P < 0.05), with no significant heterogeneity among studies (I(2)= 0, P = 0.77). Four studies evaluated stool consistency, one of them presented outcome in terms of percentage of hard stool, which was

  10. Dietary fiber intake of children and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, T A; Farris, R P; Myers, L; Berenson, G S

    1995-02-01

    To determine dietary fiber intake of children and young adults. Cross-sectional surveys of children and young adults in Bogalusa, La. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from 1976 to 1988 on five cohorts of 10-year-olds (n = 1,254), two cohorts of 13-year-olds (n = 360), and young adults (n = 504) 19 to 28 years of age. Dietary fiber intake data were analyzed for age, race, and gender differences and for secular trends. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated where appropriate. Dietary composition and food sources were examined for race-specific and gender-specific quartiles for dietary fiber intake adjusted per 1,000 kcal. Even after adjusting for energy intake, total dietary fiber intake remained unchanged from 1976 to 1988, averaging 12 g or 5 g/1,000 kcal. Blacks and males had higher total fiber intakes than whites and females at all ages. Consumption of vegetables and soups and breads and grains accounted for 53% (10-year-olds) to 70% (13-year-olds) of the total fiber consumed. When children were stratified into quartiles on the basis of fiber intake per 1,000 kcal, the percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fat was lower, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrate was higher, in children with higher fiber intakes per 1,000 kcal. Dietary fiber intake of children has remained the same in the past 12 years and is comparable with the intake of young adults, which is well below the recommended level. Children with high fiber intakes (upper quartile) consumed less fat, particularly saturated fat, and more carbohydrate than children with low fiber intakes. Increasing consumption of whole-grain products, fruits, vegetables, and legumes (prepared with minimal added fat) will be necessary to reach the goal of optimal fiber intake and could result in an eating pattern that approaches the current recommendations for dietary fat and saturated fat.

  11. Dietary fiber supplements: effects in obesity and metabolic syndrome and relationship to gastrointestinal functions.

    PubMed

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber is a term that reflects a heterogeneous group of natural food sources, processed grains, and commercial supplements. Several forms of dietary fiber have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of dietary fiber in the metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of dietary fiber on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of dietary fiber but also quite variable. This report focuses on the role, mechanism of action, and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and the metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk and explores the effects of dietary fiber on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of dietary fiber. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  13. Associations between Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Polyp Risk Differ by Polyp Type and Smoking Status12

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer. PMID:24572038

  14. Dietary fiber intake and total mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2014-09-15

    Greater intake of dietary fiber has been associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases. Some observational studies have examined the association between dietary fiber intake and total mortality, but the results were inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of data from prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess the association. Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases for all articles published through November 30, 2013, and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Study-specific estimates adjusting for potential confounders were combined to calculate a pooled relative risk and 95% confidence interval using a random-effects model. Seven prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and total mortality, including 62,314 deaths among 908,135 participants, were identified. The pooled adjusted relative risk of total mortality for the highest category of dietary fiber intake versus the lowest was 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.80). In a dose-response meta-analysis, the pooled adjusted relative risk for a 10-g/day increment of dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0 92). By source of fiber, cereal and, to a lesser extent, vegetable fiber were significantly associated with lower total mortality, while fruit fiber showed no association. In conclusion, high dietary fiber intake may reduce the risk of total mortality.

  15. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products.

    PubMed

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M

    2012-04-01

    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life.

  16. Tutorial for Collecting and Processing Images of Composite Structures to Determine the Fiber Volume Fraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite structures have become more common in aerospace components due to their light weight and structural efficiency. In general, the strength and stiffness of a composite structure are directly related to the fiber volume fraction, which is defined as the fraction of fiber volume to total volume of the composite. The most common method to measure the fiber volume fraction is acid digestion, which is a useful method when the total weight of the composite, the fiber weight, and the total weight can easily be obtained. However, acid digestion is a destructive test, so the material will no longer be available for additional characterization. Acid digestion can also be difficult to machine out specific components of a composite structure with complex geometries. These disadvantages of acid digestion led the author to develop a method to calculate the fiber volume fraction. The developed method uses optical microscopy to calculate the fiber area fraction based on images of the cross section of the composite. The fiber area fraction and fiber volume fraction are understood to be the same, based on the assumption that the shape and size of the fibers are consistent in the depth of the composite. This tutorial explains the developed method for optically determining fiber area fraction performed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  17. In vitro degradation and fermentation of three dietary fiber sources by human colonic bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend in part on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of the type of supplemented fiber on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a non-adapted human bacterial...

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Marlett, Judith A; McBurney, Michael I; Slavin, Joanne L

    2002-07-01

    Dietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharides and lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomach and small intestine. A wealth of information supports the American Dietetic Association position that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Recommended intakes, 20-35 g/day for healthy adults and age plus 5 g/day for children, are not being met, because intakes of good sources of dietary fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole and high-fiber grain products, and legumes are low. Consumption of dietary fibers that are viscous lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of fibers part of the dietary plans to treat cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by microflora in the large intestine promote normal laxation and are integral components of diet plans to treat constipation and prevent the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. A diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits. It is unclear why several recently published clinical trials with dietary fiber intervention failed to show a reduction in colon polyps. Nonetheless, a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. A fiber-rich meal is processed more slowly, which promotes earlier satiety, and is frequently less calorically dense and lower in fat and added sugars. All of these characteristics are features of a dietary pattern to treat and prevent obesity. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for the critically ill and the very old have not been clearly delineated; both may need nonfood sources of fiber. Many factors confound observations of gastrointestinal function in the critically ill, and the kinds of fiber that would promote normal small and large intestinal function are usually

  19. Effect of dietary fiber on morphine-induced constipation in rats.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Takashi; Nakao, Makoto; Hoshi, Seiko; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Inagaki, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Mikio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2002-06-01

    Morphine is used to alleviate chronic cancer pain. However, constipation is a major adverse effect that often detracts from the patient's quality of life. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of dietary fiber on morphine-induced constipation. Rats were fed on a normal diet or one containing either 10% or 20% apple fiber for two weeks before morphine was administered. In the control diet group, the fecal number and dry weight were decreased by treating with morphine in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the motility of the small and large intestines was reduced. The fecal number and weight were increased and the colon motility was promoted by dietary fiber, regardless of whether morphine was being administered. The dietary fiber increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecum. These results suggest that dietary fiber has a preventative effect on morphine-induced constipation by increasing SCFAs in the cecum, and thereby promoting colon motility in rats.

  20. The nonfermentable dietary fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modulates intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Cox, Laura M; Cho, Ilseung; Young, Scott A; Anderson, W H Kerr; Waters, Bartholomew J; Hung, Shao-Ching; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Bihan, Monika; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Methé, Barbara A; Blaser, Martin J

    2013-02-01

    Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a high-fat diet (HFD), then either maintained on HFD (control), or switched to HFD supplemented with 10% HPMC, or a low-fat diet (LFD). Compared to control treatment, both LFD and HPMC reduced weight gain (11.8 and 5.7 g, respectively), plasma cholesterol (23.1 and 19.6%), and liver triglycerides (73.1 and 44.6%), and, as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA gene, decreased microbial α-diversity and differentially altered intestinal microbiota. Both LFD and HPMC increased intestinal Erysipelotrichaceae (7.3- and 12.4-fold) and decreased Lachnospiraceae (2.0- and 2.7-fold), while only HPMC increased Peptostreptococcaceae (3.4-fold) and decreased Ruminococcaceae (2.7-fold). Specific microorganisms were directly linked with weight change and metabolic parameters in HPMC and HFD mice, but not in LFD mice, indicating that the intestinal microbiota may play differing roles during the two dietary modulations. This work indicates that HPMC is a potential prebiotic fiber that influences intestinal microbiota and improves host metabolism.

  1. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 213. National Research Council. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). The National Academies Press. ...

  2. Dietary fiber and risk of colorectal cancer in the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Kenji; Date, Chigusa; Fukui, Mitsuru; Tamakoshi, Koji; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kojima, Masayo; Kawado, Miyuki; Suzuki, Koji; Hashimoto, Shuji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Ozasa, Kotaro; Suzuki, Sadao; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Ito, Yoshinori; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2007-04-01

    To examine the association of dietary fiber with the risk of colorectal cancer in a population with a high incidence of cancer and a low fiber intake, we analyzed the data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. From 1988 to 1990, 43,115 men and women aged 40 to 79 years completed a questionnaire on dietary and other factors. Intake of dietary fiber was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Rate ratios (RR) were computed by fitting proportional hazards models. During the mean follow-up of 7.6 years, 443 colorectal cancer cases were recorded. In all participants, we found a decreasing trend in risk of colorectal cancer with increasing intake of total dietary fiber; the multivariate-adjusted RRs across quartiles were 1.00, 0.96 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.72-1.27], 0.72 (0.53-0.99), and 0.73 (0.51-1.03; P(trend) = 0.028). This trend was exclusively detected for colon cancer: the corresponding RRs were 1.00, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.64-1.26), 0.56 (0.38-0.83), and 0.58 (0.38-0.88; P(trend) = 0.002). The decrease in RRs with increasing intake of dietary fiber was larger in men than in women. No material differences appeared in the strength of associations with the risk between water-soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. For food sources of fiber, bean fiber intake was somewhat inversely correlated with colorectal cancer risk. This prospective study supported potential protective effects of dietary fiber against colorectal cancer, mainly against colon cancer. The role of dietary fiber in the prevention of colorectal cancer seems to remain inconsistent, and further investigations in various populations are warranted. (

  3. Dietary Fiber Analysis of Four Pulses Using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiran; McGee, Rebecca; Vandemark, George; Brick, Mark; Thompson, Henry J

    2016-12-21

    Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency referred to as the dietary fiber gap. Using an analytical method American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2011.25 that conforms to the Codex Alimentarius Commission consensus definition for dietary fiber, the fiber content of these pulse crops was evaluated in seed types used for commercial production. These pulse crops have 2 to 3 times more fiber per 100 g edible portion than other dietary staples. Moreover, there is marked variation in fiber content among cultivars of the same crop. We conclude that pulse crop consumption should be emphasized in efforts to close the dietary fiber gap. The substantial differences in fiber content among currently available cultivars within a crop can be used to further improve gains in fiber intake without the need to change dietary habits. This provides a rationale for cultivar-based food labeling.

  4. Dietary Fiber Analysis of Four Pulses Using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiran; McGee, Rebecca; Vandemark, George; Brick, Mark; Thompson, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    Chickpeas, common beans, dry peas, and lentils are pulse crops that have been a cornerstone of the human diet since the inception of agriculture. However, the displacement of pulses from the diet by low fiber protein alternatives has resulted in a pervasive deficiency referred to as the dietary fiber gap. Using an analytical method American Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2011.25 that conforms to the Codex Alimentarius Commission consensus definition for dietary fiber, the fiber content of these pulse crops was evaluated in seed types used for commercial production. These pulse crops have 2 to 3 times more fiber per 100 g edible portion than other dietary staples. Moreover, there is marked variation in fiber content among cultivars of the same crop. We conclude that pulse crop consumption should be emphasized in efforts to close the dietary fiber gap. The substantial differences in fiber content among currently available cultivars within a crop can be used to further improve gains in fiber intake without the need to change dietary habits. This provides a rationale for cultivar-based food labeling. PMID:28009809

  5. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    PubMed

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  6. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. However, little is known of the effect of dietary fiber on total death and cause-specific deaths. Methods We examined dietary fiber intake in relation to total mortality and death from specific causes in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cause of death was identified using the National Death Index Plus. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20,126 deaths in men and 11,330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate RR comparing the highest vs. the lowest quintile =0.78, 95% CI:0.73–0.82, p-trend, <0.001 in men; 0.78. 95% CI:0.73–0.85, p-trend, <0.001 in women). Dietary fiber intake also lowered risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24%–56% in men and 34%–59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men, but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women. Conclusions Dietary fiber may reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases. Making fiber-rich food choices more often may provide significant health benefits. PMID:21321288

  7. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    PubMed

    Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-06-27

    Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. However, little is known of the effect of dietary fiber intake on total death and cause-specific deaths. We examined dietary fiber intake in relation to total mortality and death from specific causes in the NIH (National Institutes of Health)-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cause of death was identified using the National Death Index Plus. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20 126 deaths in men and 11 330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate relative risk comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82; P for trend, <.001] in men and 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.85; P for trend, <.001] in women). Dietary fiber intake also lowered the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24% to 56% in men and by 34% to 59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women. Dietary fiber may reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases. Making fiber-rich food choices more often may provide significant health benefits.

  8. Perspective: Closing the Dietary Fiber Gap: An Ancient Solution for a 21st Century Problem.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    An important gap exists between the daily amounts of fiber recommended in the human diet (28-42 g/d) and that which is actually consumed (median intake, 12-14 g/d). In fact, <5% of Americans meet the recommended intake for dietary fiber, and the magnitude of the gap is large, approximately a 50-70% shortfall. Because considerable evidence indicates that dietary fiber affects normal physiologic function and the onset of chronic diseases and their progression, the fiber gap represents an opportune target at which dietary interventions can be directed. This perspective considers whether a scientific basis exists for the current lack of emphasis on pulse crops, that is, grain legumes (common bean, chickpea, lentils, and garden pea) as a concentrated, inexpensive, and widely available source of dietary fiber. Attention is directed to this topic because the fiber gap has existed for decades with little improvement despite nutrition labeling, consumer education about the value of whole-grain cereal crop-based products, and the introduction of many fiber-enriched foods. The time is long overdue to identify additional approaches that have the potential to close the dietary fiber gap. To this end, the potential role of pulse crops in remediating this gap is examined. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Perspective: Closing the Dietary Fiber Gap: An Ancient Solution for a 21st Century Problem12

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    An important gap exists between the daily amounts of fiber recommended in the human diet (28–42 g/d) and that which is actually consumed (median intake, 12–14 g/d). In fact, <5% of Americans meet the recommended intake for dietary fiber, and the magnitude of the gap is large, approximately a 50–70% shortfall. Because considerable evidence indicates that dietary fiber affects normal physiologic function and the onset of chronic diseases and their progression, the fiber gap represents an opportune target at which dietary interventions can be directed. This perspective considers whether a scientific basis exists for the current lack of emphasis on pulse crops, that is, grain legumes (common bean, chickpea, lentils, and garden pea) as a concentrated, inexpensive, and widely available source of dietary fiber. Attention is directed to this topic because the fiber gap has existed for decades with little improvement despite nutrition labeling, consumer education about the value of whole-grain cereal crop-based products, and the introduction of many fiber-enriched foods. The time is long overdue to identify additional approaches that have the potential to close the dietary fiber gap. To this end, the potential role of pulse crops in remediating this gap is examined. PMID:27422499

  10. Functional properties and characterization of dietary fiber from Mangifera pajang Kort. fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheraji, Sadeq Hassan; Ismail, Amin; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman

    2011-04-27

    A dried high fiber product from bambangan (Mangifera pajang Kort.) fruit pulp was prepared and evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber composition. Mangifera pajang fibrous (MPF) consisted of 4.7% moisture, 0.8% fat, 4% protein, and 30 mg total polyphenol per g of dry sample, and 9, 79 and 88% soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber, respectively. Water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling, and solubility were found to be 9 g/g dry sample, 4 g/g dry sample, 16 mL/g dry sample, and 11%, respectively. The glucose dialysis retardation index of MPF was approximately double that of cellulose fiber. Soluble dietary fiber contained mannose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, erythrose, galactose, xylose, and fucose at 1.51, 0.72, 0.39, 0.16, 0.14, 0.05, 0.04, and 0.01%, respectively, with 5.8% uronic acid, while insoluble dietary fiber was composed of arabinose (18.47%), glucose (4.46%), mannose (3.15%), rhamnose (1.65%), galactose (1.20%), xylose (0.99%), and fucose (0.26%) with 15.5% uronic acid and 33.1% klason lignin. These characteristics indicate that MPF is a rich source of dietary fiber and has physicochemical properties which make it suitable as an added ingredient in various food products and/or dietetic, low-calorie high-fiber foods to enhance their nutraceutical properties.

  11. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in white vegetables: links to health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2013-05-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets.

  12. Carotenoid, flavonoid profiles and dietary fiber contents of fruits commonly consumed in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee; Charoensiri, Rin; Sungpuag, Pongtorn

    2010-08-01

    Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and flavonoid contents in 21 varieties of Thai fruits, as well as carotenoids in five varieties of ripe durians were determined. Fresh fruits were purchased from five local markets in Bangkok during July 2008-May 2009. Dietary fiber content ranged from 0.71 to 3.58 g/100 g edible portion, with all five varieties of durian, guava, ripe banana and papaya being good sources of dietary fiber. Durian (Chanee, Kradom, and Puang manee variety) having yellow to deep-yellow color pulp had the highest carotenoid content. Durian, pomelo, guava and ripe banana were good sources of flavonoids; especially pomelo (Thong dee and Tuptimsayam variety) showed the greatest total flavonoid content (13,994.21 and 15,094.99 microg/100 g edible portion). Data in this study demonstrated that Thai fruits are not only a good source of dietary fiber but also a good source of carotenoids and flavonoids.

  13. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets. PMID:23674804

  14. In vitro hypoglycemic effects of different insoluble fiber-rich fractions prepared from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. cv. Liucheng.

    PubMed

    Chau, Chi-Fai; Huang, Ya-Ling; Lee, Mao-Hsiang

    2003-10-22

    Insoluble fiber-rich fractions (FRFs), including insoluble dietary fiber, alcohol-insoluble solid, and water-insoluble solid, were isolated from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. cv. Liucheng. We found that these three FRFs could effectively adsorb glucose, retard glucose diffusion, and inhibit the activity of alpha-amylase to different extents. These mechanisms might create a concerted benefit in decreasing the rate of glucose absorption and eventually lower the concentration of postprandial serum glucose. The potential hypoglycemic effects of these FRFs suggested that they could be incorporated as low-calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber foods to reduce calorie level and control blood glucose level.

  15. Adaptation of the AOAC 2011.25 integrated total dietary fiber assay to determine the dietary fiber and oligosaccharide content of dry edible beans.

    PubMed

    Kleintop, Adrienne E; Echeverria, Dimas; Brick, Leslie A; Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Mark A

    2013-10-09

    Dietary fiber (DF) has important health benefits in the human diet. Developing dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with improved DF and reduced nondigestible oligosaccharide content is an important goal for dry bean breeders to increase consumer acceptance. To determine if genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars for DF, two populations of diverse dry bean cultivars/lines that represent two centers of dry bean domestication were evaluated for dietary fiber using the Integrated Total Dietary Fiber Assay (AOAC 2011.25). This assay was adapted to measure water insoluble dietary fiber, water soluble dietary fiber, oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose, and the calculated total dietary fiber (TDF) content of cooked dry bean seed. The AOAC 2011.25 protocol was modified by using a quick, simple, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method paired with an electrochemical detection method to separate and quantify specific oligosaccharides, and using duplicate samples as replicates to generate statistical information. The TDF of dry bean entries ranged from 20.0 to 27.0% in population I and from 20.6 to 25.7% in population II. Total oligosaccharides ranged from 2.56 to 4.65% in population I and from 2.36 to 3.84% in population II. The results suggest that significant genetic variation exists among dry bean cultivars/lines to allow for genetic selection for improved DF content in dry beans and that the modifications to the AOAC 2011.25 method were suitable for estimating DF in cooked dry edible beans.

  16. CODEX-aligned dietary fiber definitions help to bridge the 'fiber gap'.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2014-04-12

    A comprehensive dietary fiber (DF) definition was adopted by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about DF, (2) to recognize that all substances that behave like fiber regardless of how they are produced can be named as DF if they show physiological benefits, and (3) to promote international harmonization for food labeling and food composition tables. This review gives the history and evolution of the state of DF knowledge as looked at by refinements in DF methods and definitions subsequent to the launch of the DF hypothesis. The refinements parallel both interventional and epidemiological research leading to better understanding of the role of DF in contributing to the numerous physiological benefits imparted by all the various digestion resistant carbohydrates. A comparison of the CODEX definition (including its footnote that authorizes the inclusion of polymers with DP 3-9) and approved CODEX Type 1 methods with other existing definitions and methods will point out differences and emphasize the importance of adoption of CODEX-aligned definitions by all jurisdictions. Such harmonization enables comparison of nutrition research, recommendations, food composition tables and nutrition labels the world over. A case will be made that fibers are analogous to vitamins, in that they vary in structure, function and amount needed, but each when present in the right amount contributes to optimal health. Since the intake of DF is significantly below recommended levels throughout the world, the recognition that 'all fibers fit' is an important strategy in bridging the 'fiber gap' by enfranchising and encouraging greater intake of foods with inherent and added DF. Fortifying foods with added DF makes it easier to increase intakes while maintaining calories at recommended levels.

  17. CODEX-aligned dietary fiber definitions help to bridge the ‘fiber gap’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive dietary fiber (DF) definition was adopted by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about DF, (2) to recognize that all substances that behave like fiber regardless of how they are produced can be named as DF if they show physiological benefits, and (3) to promote international harmonization for food labeling and food composition tables. This review gives the history and evolution of the state of DF knowledge as looked at by refinements in DF methods and definitions subsequent to the launch of the DF hypothesis. The refinements parallel both interventional and epidemiological research leading to better understanding of the role of DF in contributing to the numerous physiological benefits imparted by all the various digestion resistant carbohydrates. A comparison of the CODEX definition (including its footnote that authorizes the inclusion of polymers with DP 3–9) and approved CODEX Type 1 methods with other existing definitions and methods will point out differences and emphasize the importance of adoption of CODEX-aligned definitions by all jurisdictions. Such harmonization enables comparison of nutrition research, recommendations, food composition tables and nutrition labels the world over. A case will be made that fibers are analogous to vitamins, in that they vary in structure, function and amount needed, but each when present in the right amount contributes to optimal health. Since the intake of DF is significantly below recommended levels throughout the world, the recognition that ‘all fibers fit’ is an important strategy in bridging the ‘fiber gap’ by enfranchising and encouraging greater intake of foods with inherent and added DF. Fortifying foods with added DF makes it easier to increase intakes while maintaining calories at recommended levels. PMID:24725724

  18. IMPACT OF FOOD ENRICHED WITH DIETARY FIBER ON PATIENTS WITH CONSTIPATION PREDOMINANT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Abramashvili, M

    2017-03-01

    The causes of motility disorder of gastrointestinal tract and in particular Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS are multifold, leading to complexity of treatment and requirement of more precise investigation of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The aim of the study was investigation and comparison of the dietary fiber intake among women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and without, improvement of the dietary fiber intake using interventions with less rough changes of food related behavior and study of its effects on the bowel function, general wellbeing and compliance of patients. In total 100 healthy women, without any clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders and 98 women who met Rome III criteria of IBS-C were enrolled in the dietary fiber intake assessment survey. The dietary habits of all participants, as well as bowel function, digestive feelings and general wellbeing of patients at baseline, on the 7th and 14th day of dietary intervention was assessed by the means of adopted questionnaires. The dietary supplementation was provided during the breakfast with fiber enriched food - bread and muesli. Research data reviled significantly lower daily intake of dietary fiber among patients with IBS-C compared with healthy group. The main source of dietary fiber in IBS-C group was bread and cereals, therefore introduction of dietary fiber rich bread and muesli in the breakfast didn't affect diet-related habits and determined high compliance of patients. Two week long intervention significantly improved the bowel function and irritation related complains, the feeling of general wellbeing was considerably better on the endpoint as well.

  19. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Yi; He, Ka; Wang, Peiyu; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2011-09-01

    Observational and preclinical studies suggest that dietary fiber intake may reduce the risk of breast cancer, but the results are inconclusive. We aimed to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Relevant studies were identified by a PubMed database search through January 2011. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included prospective cohort studies that reported RRs with 95% CIs for the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. We identified 10 prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer involving 16,848 cases and 712,195 participants. The combined RR of breast cancer for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.96), and little evidence of heterogeneity was observed. The association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer did not significantly differ by geographic region, length of follow-up, or menopausal status of the participants. Omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Dose-response analysis showed that every 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a significant 7% reduction in breast cancer risk. Little evidence of publication bias was found. This meta-analysis provides evidence of a significant inverse dose-response association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

  20. Apparent fiber digestibility and fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations with ingestion of two types of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Fredstrom, S B; Lampe, J W; Jung, H J; Slavin, J L

    1994-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products of dietary fiber fermentation. As such, fiber digestibility is thought to be related to SCFA production. The effects of two concentrations of cereal fiber as wheat bran (WB) and vegetable fiber (VF) on fiber digestibility were examined in 34 free-living volunteers. Five diets consisting of a fiber-free liquid nutrition supplement and quick breads containing either (1) 0 g of fiber, (2) 10 g of WB, (3) 30 g of WB, (4) 10 g of VF, or (5) 30 g of VF were consumed in random order. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was determined. Colonic fluid, collected by in vivo dialysis in 9 subjects, was analyzed for SCFAs by gas chromatography. Digestibility of NDF was greater with WB than with VF ingestion in those 9 subjects, but digestibility was not different with ingestion of both fibers when all 34 subjects were considered. No effect of intake level was seen with either WB or VF. Fiber ingestion increased acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations above those on the 0 g of fiber diet (43%, 31%, and 90%, respectively; p < .0001). Propionate and butyrate concentrations were greater on WB than VF (p < .01); acetate concentrations were similar with both fibers. No correlation between NDF digestibility and SCFA concentrations was observed. Despite differences in origin, chemistry, particle size, and subject transit time, the WB and VF were similar in NDF fermentability. Molar ratios of specific SCFAs were influenced by type of fiber ingested.

  1. Analysis of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber contents in school meal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contents of dietary insoluble and soluble fiber in school meal. Samples of the school meals were collected from May to June in 2008. Three elementary schools and three middle schools around Masan area were selected for analysis. Dietary soluble and insoluble fibers in the school meals were analyzed directly by the AOAC method. From the initial experiment phase, we used cellulose and pectin as a standard of dietary fiber, and average recovery rate of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber was calculated. The recovery rate was observed, the cellulose 109.7±11.7% (range 90~150%) and pectin 77.8±10.8% (range 64.7~96.7%), respectively. The amounts of insoluble fiber and soluble fiber were analyzed in the total of 66 dishes, which included 7 kinds of cooked rice (bab) made with some cereal products and vegetables, 19 kinds of soup (guk) made with meats or vegetables, 11 kinds of kimchi, 21 kinds of entrées or side dishes, and 8 special dishes. Conclusively the school meal, per serving size, would provide above 75% KDRI of total dietary fibers through mainly soups and special menu, with the exception to fruits. In addition, it might be expected that children could consume more soluble fiber from the meals with the special dishes than from the regular ones. PMID:22413038

  2. High Amount of Dietary Fiber Not Harmful But Favorable for Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD. PMID:25663207

  3. Lower intake of magnesium and dietary fiber increases the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lu-Chen; Lee, Ni-Jen; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Ho, Low-Tone; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have indicated an inverse association between the incidence of diabetes mellitus and magnesium and dietary fiber intake. Few studies have examined both of these associations together, not to mention in Asian populations with prospective study design. We therefore aimed to study how dietary magnesium and fiber intake levels affect diabetes incidence separately or in combination, in a prospective study in Taiwan. The study subjects were recruited for a longitudinal study, CardioVascular Disease risk FACtor Two-township Study cycle 2 from November 1990. Data from complete baseline information on dietary and biochemical profile and at least one additional follow-up visit were gathered on a total of 1604 healthy subjects aged 30 years and over. Cox proportional hazard model was used to study the association between diabetes incidence and dietary magnesium and fiber intake level estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. A total of 141 diabetes mellitus events were identified and confirmed during the 4.6 years of follow-up (7365.1 person-years). A significantly higher diabetes risk was observed for people in the lowest quintile of total dietary fiber intake (hazard ratio = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.17-3.53) and magnesium intake (hazard ratio = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.42-4.79) compared with the highest quintile after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Similar inverse associations for total dietary fiber were also shown for vegetable fiber and fruit fiber. Lower magnesium, lower total dietary fiber intake, or lower intake of both was associated with higher risk of diabetes in the Taiwanese population. Clinical trials are required to confirm the protective effects of the adequate intake of fiber, magnesium, and/or their combination. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Effect of dietary fiber on properties and acceptance of meat products: a review.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Meat is an important source of all essential nutritional components of our daily diet as it content most of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals which are lack in plant based food, but it is devoid of dietary fiber, which is very essential component for normal physiological/biochemical process. During meat products processing, its functional values can be improved by supplementation of dietary fiber rich vegetative substances like cereal and pulse flour, vegetable and fruits pulp, etc. by this process, a significant proportion of required daily allowance of dietary fiber can be fulfilled for the frequent meat consumers. The consumption of meat products fortified with of dietary fiber can lead to the prevention of diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes, irritable bowel disease, obesity, etc. On the other hand, the dietary fiber can effectively be incorporated in the processed meat products as binders, extender, and filler, they can significantly replace the unhealthy fat components from the products; increase acceptability by improving nutritional components, pH, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, shear press value, sensory characters, etc. of finished products. Addition of dietary fiber in the meat products can increase the cooking yield therefore the economic gain as well.

  6. A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

  7. A Practical Guide for Estimating Dietary Fat and Fiber Using Limited Food Frequency Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating daily intake of dietary fat and fiber based on limited food frequency data. The procedure, which relies on National Food Consumption Survey data and daily consumption rates, can provide baseline estimates of dietary patterns for health promotion policymakers. (SLD)

  8. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-04-29

    To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Prospective cohort study. Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality.

  9. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  10. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data.

  11. Dietary intake of fiber and risk of knee osteoarthritis in two U.S. prospective cohorts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fiber intake and risk of knee OA. Methods: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Os...

  12. Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

  13. What Do We Know about Dietary Fiber Intake in Children and Health? The Effects of Fiber Intake on Constipation, Obesity, and Diabetes in Children1

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L.; Miller, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children’s dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children’s health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children’s health through increased dietary fiber. PMID:22332100

  14. What do we know about dietary fiber intake in children and health? The effects of fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L; Miller, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children's dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children's health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children's health through increased dietary fiber.

  15. Relationship between dietary fiber and cancer: metabolic, physiologic, and cellular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, L R

    1986-12-01

    The relationships between fiber consumption and human cancer rates have been examined, together with an analysis of the effects of individual dietary fibers on the experimental induction of large bowel cancer. The human epidemiology indicates an inverse correlation between high fiber consumption and lower colon cancer rates. Cereal fiber sources show the most consistent negative correlation. However, human case-control studies in general fail to confirm any protective effect due to dietary fiber. Case-control studies indicate that if any source of dietary fiber is possibly antineoplastic then it is probably vegetables. These results may mean that purified fibers alone do not inhibit tumor development, whereas it is likely that some other factors present in vegetables are antineoplastic. Experiments in laboratory animals, using chemical induction of large bowel cancer, have in general shown a protective effect with supplements of poorly fermentable fibers such as wheat bran or cellulose. In contrast, a number of fermentable fiber supplements including pectin, corn bran, oat bran, undegraded carageenan, agar, psyllium, guar gum, and alfalfa have been shown to enhance tumor development. Possible mechanisms by which fibers may inhibit colon tumorigenesis include dilution and adsorption of any carcinogens and/or promoters contained within the intestinal lumen, the modulation of colonic microbial metabolic activity, and biological modification of intestinal epithelial cells. Dietary fibers not only bind carcinogens, bile acids, and other potential toxins but also essential nutrients, such as minerals, which can inhibit the carcinogenic process. Fermentation of fibers within the large bowel results in the production of short chain fatty acids, which in vivo stimulate cell proliferation, while butyrate appears to be antineoplastic in vitro. Evidence suggests that if dietary fibers stimulate cell proliferation during the stage of initiation, then this may lead to tumor

  16. Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kok-Sun; Tan, Charmaine You Mei; Mohd Daud, Muhd Ashik; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2012-09-07

    To investigate the effect of reducing dietary fiber on patients with idiopathic constipation. Sixty-three cases of idiopathic constipation presenting between May 2008 and May 2010 were enrolled into the study after colonoscopy excluded an organic cause of the constipation. Patients with previous colon surgery or a medical cause of their constipation were excluded. All patients were given an explanation on the role of fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. They were then asked to go on a no fiber diet for 2 wk. Thereafter, they were asked to reduce the amount of dietary fiber intake to a level that they found acceptable. Dietary fiber intake, symptoms of constipation, difficulty in evacuation of stools, anal bleeding, abdominal bloating or abdominal pain were recorded at 1 and 6 mo. The median age of the patients (16 male, 47 female) was 47 years (range, 20-80 years). At 6 mo, 41 patients remained on a no fiber diet, 16 on a reduced fiber diet, and 6 resumed their high fiber diet for religious or personal reasons. Patients who stopped or reduced dietary fiber had significant improvement in their symptoms while those who continued on a high fiber diet had no change. Of those who stopped fiber completely, the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d (± 1.59 d) to one motion in 1.0 d (± 0.0 d) (P < 0.001); those with reduced fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d (± 2.09 d) to one motion per 1.9 d (± 1.21 d) on a reduced fiber diet (P < 0.001); those who remained on a high fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d (± 1.03 d) before and after consultation. For no fiber, reduced fiber and high fiber groups, respectively, symptoms of bloating were present in 0%, 31.3% and 100% (P < 0.001) and straining to pass stools occurred in 0%, 43.8% and 100% (P < 0.001). Idiopathic constipation and its associated symptoms can be effectively reduced by stopping or even lowering the intake of dietary fiber.

  17. Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Kok-Sun; Tan, Charmaine You Mei; Mohd Daud, Muhd Ashik; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of reducing dietary fiber on patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: Sixty-three cases of idiopathic constipation presenting between May 2008 and May 2010 were enrolled into the study after colonoscopy excluded an organic cause of the constipation. Patients with previous colon surgery or a medical cause of their constipation were excluded. All patients were given an explanation on the role of fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. They were then asked to go on a no fiber diet for 2 wk. Thereafter, they were asked to reduce the amount of dietary fiber intake to a level that they found acceptable. Dietary fiber intake, symptoms of constipation, difficulty in evacuation of stools, anal bleeding, abdominal bloating or abdominal pain were recorded at 1 and 6 mo. RESULTS: The median age of the patients (16 male, 47 female) was 47 years (range, 20-80 years). At 6 mo, 41 patients remained on a no fiber diet, 16 on a reduced fiber diet, and 6 resumed their high fiber diet for religious or personal reasons. Patients who stopped or reduced dietary fiber had significant improvement in their symptoms while those who continued on a high fiber diet had no change. Of those who stopped fiber completely, the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d (± 1.59 d) to one motion in 1.0 d (± 0.0 d) (P < 0.001); those with reduced fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d (± 2.09 d) to one motion per 1.9 d (± 1.21 d) on a reduced fiber diet (P < 0.001); those who remained on a high fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d (± 1.03 d) before and after consultation. For no fiber, reduced fiber and high fiber groups, respectively, symptoms of bloating were present in 0%, 31.3% and 100% (P < 0.001) and straining to pass stools occurred in 0%, 43.8% and 100% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Idiopathic constipation and its associated symptoms can be effectively reduced by stopping or even

  18. Immunomodulatory activity of dietary fiber: arabinoxylan and mixed-linked beta-glucan isolated from barley show modest activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Rieder, Anne; Grimmer, Stine; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2011-01-18

    High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked β-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% β-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked β-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-κB activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3κB-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked β-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed-linked β-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked β-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations.

  19. Immunomodulatory Activity of Dietary Fiber: Arabinoxylan and Mixed-Linked Beta-Glucan Isolated from Barley Show Modest Activities in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Rieder, Anne; Grimmer, Stine; Michaelsen, Terje E.; Knutsen, Svein H.

    2011-01-01

    High intake of dietary fiber is claimed to protect against development of colorectal cancer. Barley is a rich source of dietary fiber, and possible immunomodulatory effects of barley polysaccharides might explain a potential protective effect. Dietary fiber was isolated by extraction and enzyme treatment. A mixed-linked β-glucan (WSM-TPX, 96.5% β-glucan, Mw 886 kDa), an arabinoxylan (WUM-BS-LA, 96.4% arabinoxylan, Mw 156 kDa), a mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction containing 10% arabinoxylan (WSM-TP) and an arabinoxylan rich fraction containing 30% mixed-linked β-glucan (WUM-BS) showed no significant effect on IL-8 secretion and proliferation of two intestinal epithelial cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, and had no significant effect on the NF-κB activity in the monocytic cell line U937-3κB-LUC. Further enriched arabinoxylan fractions (WUM-BS-LA) from different barley varieties (Tyra, NK96300, SB94897 and CDCGainer) were less active than the mixed-linked β-glucan rich fractions (WSM-TP and WSM-TPX) in the complement-fixing test. The mixed-linked β-glucan rich fraction from NK96300 and CDCGainer showed similar activities as the positive control while mixed-linked β-glucan rich fractions from Tyra and SB94897 were less active. From these results it is concluded that the isolated high molecular weight mixed-linked β-glucans and arabinoxylans from barley show low immunological responses in selected in vitro test systems and thus possible anti-colon cancer effects of barley dietary fiber cannot be explained by our observations. PMID:21340001

  20. Total dietary fiber composition of diets used for management of obesity and diabetes mellitus in cats.

    PubMed

    Owens, Tammy J; Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy K; Nelson, Richard W; Kass, Philip H; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-07-01

    To determine total dietary fiber (TDF) composition of feline diets used for management of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional survey. Dry veterinary (n = 10), canned veterinary (12), and canned over-the-counter (3) feline diets. Percentage of TDF as insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), high-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (HMWSDF), and low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF) was determined. Median measured TDF concentration was greater than reported maximum crude fiber content in dry and canned diets. Median TDF (dry-matter) concentration in dry and canned diets was 12.2% (range, 8.11% to 27.16%) and 13.8% (range, 4.7% to 27.9%), respectively. Dry and canned diets, and diets with and without a source of oligosaccharides in the ingredient list, were not different in energy density or concentrations of TDF, IDF, HMWSDF, or LMWSDF. Similarly, loaf-type (n = 11) and gravy-type (4) canned diets differed only in LMWSDF concentration. Disparities in TDF concentrations among products existed despite a lack of differences among groups. Limited differences in TDF concentration and dietary fiber composition were detected when diets were compared on the basis of carbohydrate concentration. Diets labeled for management of obesity were higher in TDF concentration and lower in energy density than diets for management of diabetes mellitus. Diets provided a range of TDF concentrations with variable concentrations of IDF, HMWSDF, and LMWSDF. Crude fiber concentration was not a reliable indicator of TDF concentration or dietary fiber composition. Because carbohydrate content is calculated as a difference, results suggested that use of crude fiber content would cause overestimation of both carbohydrate and energy content of diets.

  1. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  2. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  3. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, cereal fiber, and plasma adiponectin concentration in diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lu; Rimm, Eric; Liu, Simin; Rifai, Nader; Hu, Frank B

    2005-05-01

    Adiponectin may improve insulin sensitivity, reduce inflammation, and ameliorate glycemic control. However, few studies have evaluated dietary predictors of plasma adiponectin levels, especially among subjects with type 2 diabetes. To examine the associations of dietary glycemic load, glycemic index, and fibers with plasma adiponectin levels, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 780 diabetic men from the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. Dietary information was obtained in 1986, 1990, and 1994 using semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires. After adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, aspirin use, HbA(1c), history of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, and fiber intake, dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were inversely associated with plasma adiponectin in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend = 0.005 for glycemic index and 0.004 for glycemic load). Adiponectin levels were 13% lower in the highest quintile of dietary glycemic index than in the lowest quintile. For dietary glycemic load, adiponectin levels were 18% lower in the highest quintile than in the lowest. In contrast, high intake of cereal fiber was associated with increased plasma adiponectin levels, adjusting for lifestyle factors and dietary glycemic load (P for trend = 0.003). Adiponectin levels were 19% higher in the highest quintile than in the lowest quintile. Higher magnesium intake was also associated with increased plasma adiponectin. Diets low in glycemic load and high in fiber may increase plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetic patients.

  4. Dietary fiber and phenolic compounds as functional ingredients: interaction and possible effect after ingestion.

    PubMed

    Quirós-Sauceda, A E; Palafox-Carlos, H; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Bello-Perez, L A; Alvarez-Parrilla, E; de la Rosa, L A; González-Córdova, A F; González-Aguilar, G A

    2014-06-01

    Dietary fiber and phenolic compounds are two recognized dietary factors responsible for potential effects on human health; therefore, they have been widely used to increase functionality of some foods. This paper focuses on showing the use of both substances as functional ingredients for enriching foods, and at the same time, describes the use of a single material that combines the properties of the two types of substances. The last part of the work describes some facts related to the interaction between dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, which could affect the bioaccessibility and absorption of phenolics in the gut. In this sense, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the use of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds to enhance technological and nutritional properties of foods and hypothesize some of the possible effects in the gut after their ingestion.

  5. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk of inflammatory bowel disease: result from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Wu, Yili; Li, Fang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-09-01

    Several epidemiological investigations have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary fiber intake and inflammatory bowel diseases, but the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively summarize the evidence from observational studies. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant articles published up to November 2014. The combined relative risks were calculated with the fixed- or random-effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed using restricted cubic spline model. We hypothesized that the meta-analysis could yield a summary effect, which would indicate that dietary fiber intake could decrease the risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease (CD). Overall, 8 articles involving 2 cohort studies, 1 nested case-control study, and 5 case-control studies were finally included in this study. The pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals of ulcerative colitis and CD for the highest vs lowest categories of dietary fiber intake were 0.80 (0.64-1.00) and 0.44 (0.29-0.69), respectively. A linear dose-response relationship was found between dietary fiber and CD risk, and the risk of CD decreased by 13% (P < .05) for every 10 g/d increment in fiber intake. The results from this meta-analysis indicated that the intake of dietary fiber was significantly associated with a decreased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of Dendritic-Epithelial Cell Responses against Sphingomonas Paucimobilis by Dietary Fibers.

    PubMed

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2016-07-25

    Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, such as Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S.paucimobilis), are among the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections. Up to now, no definitive guidelines exist for antimicrobial therapy for S. paucimobilis infections. As we have shown that some dietary fibers exhibit pronounced immune-regulatory properties, we hypothesized that specific immune active dietary fibers might modulate the responses against S. paucimobilis. We studied the immunomodulatory effects of dietary fibers against S. paucimobilis on cytokine release and maturation of human dendritic cells (DCs) in co-cultures of DCs and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). S. paucimobilis infection resulted in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by DCs/IECs; these effects were strongly attenuated by specific dietary fibers. Chicory inulin, sugar beet pectin, and both starches had the strongest regulatory effects. IL-12 and TNF-α were drastically diminished upon exposure to chicory inulin and sugar beet pectin, or both starches. High-maize 260, was more effective in the reduction of chemokine release than the others fibers tested. In summary, chicory inulin, sugar beet pectin, High-maize 260, and Novelose 330 attenuate S. paucimobilis-induced cytokines. These results demonstrate that dietary fibers with a specific chemical composition can be used to manage immune responses against pathogens such as S. paucimobilis.

  7. Modulation of Dendritic-Epithelial Cell Responses against Sphingomonas Paucimobilis by Dietary Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, such as Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S.paucimobilis), are among the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections. Up to now, no definitive guidelines exist for antimicrobial therapy for S. paucimobilis infections. As we have shown that some dietary fibers exhibit pronounced immune-regulatory properties, we hypothesized that specific immune active dietary fibers might modulate the responses against S. paucimobilis. We studied the immunomodulatory effects of dietary fibers against S. paucimobilis on cytokine release and maturation of human dendritic cells (DCs) in co-cultures of DCs and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). S. paucimobilis infection resulted in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by DCs/IECs; these effects were strongly attenuated by specific dietary fibers. Chicory inulin, sugar beet pectin, and both starches had the strongest regulatory effects. IL-12 and TNF-α were drastically diminished upon exposure to chicory inulin and sugar beet pectin, or both starches. High-maize 260, was more effective in the reduction of chemokine release than the others fibers tested. In summary, chicory inulin, sugar beet pectin, High-maize 260, and Novelose 330 attenuate S. paucimobilis-induced cytokines. These results demonstrate that dietary fibers with a specific chemical composition can be used to manage immune responses against pathogens such as S. paucimobilis. PMID:27452116

  8. Effect of dietary fibers on losartan uptake and transport in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Iwazaki, Ayano; Takahashi, Naho; Miyake, Reiko; Hiroshima, Yuka; Abe, Mariko; Yasui, Airi; Imai, Kimie

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary fibers on the transport of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, in small intestinal cells. Using Caco-2 cells in vitro, losartan uptake and transport were evaluated in the presence of various fibers (cellulose, chitosan, sodium alginate and glucomannan). Dietary fibers caused a decrease in the uptake of losartan, with chitosan causing a significant reduction. Chitosan and glucomannan significantly reduced the transport of losartan, while cellulose or sodium alginate did not. Dietary fibers also reduced the level of free losartan; however, this did not correlate with the observed reduction in losartan uptake and transport. In summary, chitosan had the greatest inhibitory effect on losartan uptake and transport, and this potential interaction should be considered in patients taking losartan. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Molecular weight distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids in ileal digesta of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Andersson, R; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary fiber source on molecular weight (MW) distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in ileal digesta of 7 post valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulated growing pigs was studied. Pigs were fed semisynthetic diets with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) forage (CFO) as fiber sources of which the soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction originated mainly from pectin. Three MW intervals were selected-large MW (MWL): 10,000,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol, medium MW (MWM): 1,000,000 to 200,000 g/mol, and small MW (MWS): 200,000 to 10,000 g/mol-and the relative distribution (% of total) of molecules in each interval was calculated. The MWM fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet SBP and the MWS fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet CFO. The mole/100 mole of propionic acid (HPr) was higher (P < 0.010) in pigs fed diet SBP whereas pigs fed diet CFO had higher (P < 0.010) mole/100 mole of acetic acid (HAc). The proportion of the MWL and MWM fractions in ileal digesta were negatively correlated to HAc (r = -0.52, P = 0.05, and r = -0.62, P = 0.02, respectively). The proportion of MWM in ileal digesta was positively correlated to HPr (r = 0.83; P = 0.001) whereas MWS and HPr were negatively correlated (r = -0.76; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the bacterial degradation of the soluble NSP fraction is selective and MW distribution may explain differences in SCFA production.

  10. Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Periodontal Disease among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Trak-Fellermeier, Maria Angelica; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Dye, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 47% of adults in the United States have periodontal disease. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet providing adequate fiber. Healthier dietary habits, particularly an increased fiber intake, may contribute to periodontal disease prevention. Our objective was to evaluate the relation of dietary fiber intake and its sources with periodontal disease in the US adult population (≥30 y of age). Data from 6052 adults participating in NHANES 2009-2012 were used. Periodontal disease was defined (according to the CDC/American Academy of Periodontology) as severe, moderate, mild, and none. Intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. The relation between periodontal disease and dietary fiber, whole-grain, and fruit and vegetable intakes were evaluated by using multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and dentition status. In the multivariate logistic model, the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with moderate-severe periodontitis (compared with mild-none) compared with the highest dietary fiber intake quartile (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.69). In the multivariate multinomial logistic model, intake in the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with higher severity of periodontitis than dietary fiber intake in the highest quartile (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.62). In the adjusted logistic model, whole-grain intake was not associated with moderate-severe periodontitis. However, in the adjusted multinomial logistic model, adults consuming whole grains in the lowest quartile were more likely to have more severe periodontal disease than were adults consuming whole grains in the highest quartile (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.62). In fully adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic models, fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly associated with periodontitis. We found an inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and periodontal disease among US adults ≥30 y old. Periodontal disease was associated with low whole

  11. Determination of total dietary fiber in selected foods containing resistant maltodextrin by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis T; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2002-01-01

    A method was developed for determination of total dietary fiber (TDF) in foods containing resistant maltodextrin (RMD) which includes nondigestible carbohydrates that are not fully recovered as dietary fiber by conventional TDF methods such as AOAC 985.29 or 991.43. Because the average molecular weight (MW) of RMD is 2000 daltons, lower MW soluble dietary fiber components do not precipitate in 78% ethanol; therefore, RMD is not completely quantitated as dietary fiber by current AOAC methods. The accuracy and precision of the method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Ten laboratories participated and assayed 12 test portions (6 blind duplicates) containing RMD. The 6 test pairs ranged from 1.5 to 100% RMD. The method consisted of the following steps: (1) The insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and high MW soluble dietary fiber (HMWSDF) were determined by AOAC 985.29. (2) Ion exchange resins were used to remove salts and proteins contained in the AOAC 985.29 filtrates (including ethanol and acetone). (3) The amount of low MWRMD (LMWRMD) in the filtrates were determined by liquid chromatography. (4) The TDF was calculated by summation of the IDF, HMWSDF, and LMWRMD fractions having nondigestible carbohydrates with a degree of polymerization of 3 and higher. Repeatability standard deviations (RSDr) were 1.33-7.46%, calculated by including outliers, and 1.33-6.10%, calculated by not including outliers. Reproducibility standard deviations (RSDR) were 2.48-9.39%, calculated by including outliers, and 1.79-9.39%, calculated by not including outliers. This method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.

  12. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83-0.99). The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest.

  13. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted preparation of dietary fiber from corn pericarp using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anna; Wu, Ligen; Li, Xiulin

    2013-09-01

    Corn pericarp, which is an industrial waste of corn starch production, is an important source of dietary fiber in cereals, with claimed health benefits. However, they used to be discarded or utilized as animal feed. The application of pre-ultrasound treatment is critical for achieving rapid preparation of desired components from plant materials and for preserving structural and molecular properties of these compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation was used to produce dietary fiber from corn pericarp using response surface methodology. The optimal particle size of corn pericarp (mesh size 40), the ratio of liquid to solid (25 mL g⁻¹), ultrasonic power (180 W) and ultrasonic time (80 min) were determined based on response surface methodology analysis. The interaction effects of particle size of corn pericarp and ultrasonic time had a highlysignificant effect on the yield of dietary fiber, and a significant effect was shown by ultrasonic power and ultrasonic time. The maximum yield of dietary fiber was 86.84%, which agreed closely with the predicted value. Using ultrasonic-assisted preparation, it may be possible to enhance the yield of dietary fiber from corn pericarp. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Sugar profiles and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents of fruits in Thailand markets.

    PubMed

    Chareoansiri, Rin; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine sugar and dietary fiber contents in 37 varieties of Thai fruits. Sugars were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and dietary fiber values were measured by the enzymatic-gravimetric method. The total sugar (sucrose, fructose and glucose) content ranged from 4.5 g/100 g (strawberry) to 20.3 g/100 g (ripe banana; hawm variety) edible portion. All varieties of ripe banana provided good sources of glucose, fructose and total sugar. The total dietary fiber content ranged from 0.6 g/100 g (watermelon) to 11.5 g/100 g (sapodilla) edible portion. The rank of TDF contents per 100 g edible portion was sapodilla > durian > guava and strawberry > apple > Chinese pear > sugar apple > star fruit. Other fruits contained total dietary fiber values lower than 2.4 g/100 g edible portion, especially watermelon, which had the lowest total dietary fiber content (0.6-0.7 g/100 g edible portion).

  15. Associations of menstrual pain with intakes of soy, fat and dietary fiber in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, C; Hirokawa, K; Shimizu, N; Shimizu, H

    2005-01-01

    Intakes of soy, fat, and dietary fiber may be associated with the symptoms of dysmenorrhea through their biological effects on estrogens or prostaglandin production. The present study was to examine the relationships between intakes of soy, fat, and dietary fiber and the severity of menstrual pain. Cross-sectional study. Three colleges and two nursing schools. A total of 276 Japanese women aged 19-24 y. Intakes of nutrients and foods including soy products, isoflavones, fats and dietary fiber were estimated by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Severity of menstrual pain was assessed by the multidimensional scoring system reported by Andersch and Milson. Intake of dietary fiber was significantly inversely correlated with the menstrual pain scale (r=-0.12, P=0.04) after controlling for age, smoking status, age at menarche and total energy intake. Neither soy nor fat intake was significantly correlated with menstrual pain after controlling for the covariates. The cross-sectional difference in dietary fiber intake across the level of menstrual pain was small in magnitude but warrants further studies.

  16. The Effect of Fiber Strength Stochastics and Local Fiber Volume Fraction on Multiscale Progressive Failure of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Jr., Thomas E.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous fiber unidirectional polymer matrix composites (PMCs) can exhibit significant local variations in fiber volume fraction as a result of processing conditions that can lead to further local differences in material properties and failure behavior. In this work, the coupled effects of both local variations in fiber volume fraction and the empirically-based statistical distribution of fiber strengths on the predicted longitudinal modulus and local tensile strength of a unidirectional AS4 carbon fiber/ Hercules 3502 epoxy composite were investigated using the special purpose NASA Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC); local effective composite properties were obtained by homogenizing the material behavior over repeating units cells (RUCs). The predicted effective longitudinal modulus was relatively insensitive to small (8%) variations in local fiber volume fraction. The composite tensile strength, however, was highly dependent on the local distribution in fiber strengths. The RUC-averaged constitutive response can be used to characterize lower length scale material behavior within a multiscale analysis framework that couples the NASA code FEAMAC and the ABAQUS finite element solver. Such an approach can be effectively used to analyze the progressive failure of PMC structures whose failure initiates at the RUC level. Consideration of the effect of local variations in constituent properties and morphologies on progressive failure of PMCs is a central aspect of the application of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) principles for composite materials.

  17. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    PubMed

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  18. Effect of dietary fiber on egg yolk, liver, and plasma cholesterol concentrations of the laying hen.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J L

    1978-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and level on egg yolk, liver, and plasma cholesterol concentrations of White Leghorn laying hens. Initially, dietary fiber levels of 2.05, 4.41, 6.68, and 8.79% furnished mainly by sunflower meal were fed to laying hens for 140 days. In the second experiment, alfalfa meal, ground whole oats, sunflower meal, rice mill feed, or wood shavings was added to a corn-soybean meal basal diet to furnish 2.00% added crude fiber and fed to laying hens for 84 days. Yolk cholesterol decreased 4.39, 10.38, and 13.29% by feeding crude dietary fiber levels of 4.41, 6.68, and 8.79%, respectively, to hens as compared to a corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 2.05% crude fiber. Egg yolk cholesterol was significantly decreased by feeding alfalfa meal, oats, sunflower meal, rice mill feed, or wood shavings to laying hens when compared to yolk cholesterol of hens fed the basal diet. The greatest reduction in egg yolk cholesterol was found by feeding either oats or wood shavings. No significant differences were found in plasma cholesterol due to dietary fiber level. Plasma triglycerides decreased and liver cholesterol increased as dietary fiber level increased in diets fed to laying hens. When laying hens were fed alfalfa meal, oats, rice mill feed, or wood shavings, plasma cholesterol significantly decreased. Liver cholesterol increased when hens were fed either alfalfa meal or rice mill feed as the primary fiber source.

  19. Coffee dietary fiber contents and structural characteristics as influenced by coffee type and technological and brewing procedures.

    PubMed

    Gniechwitz, Diana; Brueckel, Birgit; Reichardt, Nicole; Blaut, Michael; Steinhart, Hans; Bunzel, Mirko

    2007-12-26

    Coffee brews contain considerable amounts of soluble dietary fiber, mainly low substituted galactomannans and type II arabinogalactans. Factors possibly influencing the content and structures of dietary fiber in coffee brews, such as type of coffee, roasting and grinding degree, and brewing procedure, were studied. In addition, several commercial samples such as instant espresso, instant coffee, instant cappuccino, decaffeinated coffees, and coffee pads were analyzed. The dietary fiber contents of the coffee brews ranged from 0.14 to 0.65 g/100 mL (enzymatic-gravimetric methodology), proving an influence of the factors investigated. For example, the drip brew of an arabica coffee contained significantly more soluble dietary fiber than the drip brew of a comparable robusta coffee, and depending on the brewing procedure, the soluble dietary fiber content of beverages obtained from the same coffee sample ranged from 0.26 to 0.38 g/100 mL. Dietary fiber contents of coffee brews were enhanced only up to a certain degree of roast. Drip brews of decaffeinated arabica coffees (commercial samples) contained significantly less dietary fiber than any non-decaffeinated drip brew investigated in this study. The observed differences in the dietary fiber contents were accompanied by changes in the structural characteristics of fiber polysaccharides, such as galactomannan/arabinogalactan ratio, galactose substitution degree of mannans, or galactose/arabinose ratio of arabinogalactans as analyzed by methylation analysis.

  20. Dietary fiber and lipid peroxidation: effect of dietary fiber on levels of lipids and lipid peroxides in high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P

    1991-06-01

    Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrease in the serum, liver aorta and intestine of coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was significantly decreased in liver and intestine of both fiber groups, while hydroperoxides showed significant increase in liver and heart of both the fiber groups. SOD and catalase activity was found to be increased in liver, intestine, heart proximal colon and distal colon of both the fiber groups. Serum ceruloplasmin levels showed a slight increase in animals fed coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Glutathione levels in liver, intestine proximal colon, distal colon and heart also showed a significant decrease in the animals of both the fiber groups.

  1. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  2. Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qi-Qi; Lin, Yi-Wei; Chen, Hong; Qin, Jie; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xu, Xin; Xie, Li-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The association between fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk is conflicting and poorly explored. The aim of study was to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to April 2015 were conducted to identify relevant studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were combined using random-effects models to assess the risk of pancreatic cancer when comparing extreme categories of fiber intake. Dose-response meta-analysis was performed for studies reporting categorical risk estimates for at least 3 exposure levels. One cohort and thirteen case-control studies were identified. The overall analysis revealed a strong inverse association between risk of pancreatic cancer and high fiber intake (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.61). No publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dose-response analyses showed that the summary OR for an increment of 10 g daily intake of fiber was 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92). A high intake of dietary fiber was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Further well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm the inverse association and to identify the dietary fiber types involved.

  3. Modulation of CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocyte distribution by dietary fiber in the rat large intestine.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Seiji

    2002-12-01

    We studied whether ingestion of dietary fiber modifies the distribution of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in a physiological condition. Male WKAH rats were fed diets either with fiber (sugar beet fiber or crystalline cellulose, 100 g/kg diet each) or without fiber for 3 weeks. The number of CD8(+), CD4(+), and NKR-P1(+) IEL per epithelial layer in the crypt section of the cecum, proximal colon, and distal colon were scored by immunohistochemical staining. We found that the proportion of CD8(+) IEL was greater in the cecal mucosa and was gradually reduced toward the distal large intestine in general. In contrast, there was no difference in the proportion of CD4(+) and NKR-P1(+) IEL in the large intestine. Dietary sugar beet fiber, but not crystalline cellulose, increased the proportion of CD8(+) IEL, especially in the cecal mucosa, but not the CD4(+) and NKR-P1(+) IEL. Analysis of cecal organic acid concentration confirmed higher concentrations of acetate and butyrate, and lower concentration of succinate and isovalerate, in the cecum of the rats fed sugar beet fiber than other diets. These results indicate that ingestion of some dietary fiber modulates local cell proliferation of a progenitor of CD8(+) IEL or promotes homing of CD8(+) T cells into the large intestinal epithelium, most likely via the fermentation in the luminal contents.

  4. Dietary Fiber Consumption Decreases the Risks of Overweight and Hypercholesterolemia in Japanese Children.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Keiko; Okuda, Masayuki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Shigeta, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    It remains inconclusive whether high dietary fiber intake decreases the risk of obesity, hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure during childhood. Therefore, this study investigated the relationships of dietary fiber intake with weight status and related clinical parameters among Japanese children. We analyzed the data of 5,600 subjects aged 10-11 years, between 2006 and 2010. Fiber intake was assessed using the Brief-type Diet History Questionnaire. Body height and weight and blood pressure were measured. Serum levels of total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were analyzed. Fiber intake was categorized into quintiles, and multivariate models were used to adjust for lifestyle factors. Total fiber intake decreased the risks of overweight and high total cholesterol (OR Quintile 5 vs. Quintile 1 overweight: 0.71 for boys, 0.40 for girls; total cholesterol: 0.60 for boys, 0.66 for girls). Water-soluble fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of high blood pressure, although the ORs were not significant. Increasing the dietary fiber intake in Japanese children may have favorable effects on overweight and hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Effect of dietary fiber and crude protein content in feed on nitrogen retention in pigs.

    PubMed

    Patrás, P; Nitrayová, S; Brestenský, M; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Eight gilts (29.9 ± 1.7 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate effects of dietary (crude) fiber on N excretion via feces and urine at 2 levels of dietary CP. Pigs were fed 4 dietary treatments according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were low (14%) CP and low (3.25%) (crude) fiber (LPAA), low CP and high (4.46%) fiber (LPAABP), high (18.8%) CP and low fiber (HP), and high CP and high fiber (HPBP). Diets were based on soybean (Glycine max) meal, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays) and were supplemented with crystalline AA. High fiber diets contained 15% dried beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp. Pigs were housed in metabolic cages and fed 2 equal meals at 0700 and 1700 h at a daily rate of 90 g/kg BW(0.75). Water was offered ad libitum. Each experimental period consisted of a 6-d adaptation followed by a 4-d collection of feces and urine (bladder catheters). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Differences between means (P < 0.05) were assessed using Fisher's LSD procedure. The N intake, fecal N excretion and absorption, and N retention increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed high-CP diets with added fiber (HP vs. HPBR). With added fiber, urinary N excretion (g/d) was reduced (P < 0.02) only for the low-CP diet. Urinary N as a percentage of N intake was reduced (P < 0.01) in both groups fed high-fiber diets irrespective of dietary CP content. Dietary fiber level did not affect DMI. Fecal DM excretion (g/d) was higher (P < 0.02) in pigs fed diets with high CP and high fiber content than in pigs fed diets with high CP and low fiber content. In conclusion, beet pulp fiber added to diets increased fecal N and reduced urinary N and in diets with higher CP content increased overall N retention.

  6. Effect of dietary fibers on physico-chemical, sensory and textural properties of Misti Dahi.

    PubMed

    Raju, P Narender; Pal, Dharam

    2014-11-01

    Misti dahi, a popular ethnic delicacy of eastern India analogous to caramel coloured set style sweetened yoghurt, besides several therapeutic virtues, contains high fat and sugar. Alike people elsewhere in the world, people in India too are now becoming health conscious and are aware of the relation between diet and health. Hence, high fat and sugar contents are causes of concern for the successful marketing of misti dahi in India. With a view to enhance the health attributes of misti dahi and improve marketability, three commercial dietary fiber preparations (inulin, soy fiber and oat fiber) were incorporated and their effect on the product's quality in terms of physicochemical, sensory and textural quality was assessed. Standard method was followed for the preparation of fiber fortified misti dahi (FFMD). Among the three dietary fibers, inulin significantly decreased viscosity and instrumental firmness and increased lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), syneresis and work of shear values of FFMD. Oat fiber settled at the bottom and gave a poor appearance. Soy fiber did not affect the flavor of FFMD. Although overall acceptability scores of inulin and soy fiber containing FFMD were significantly lower than control, they were still above the minimum acceptable score. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was concluded that acceptable quality FFMD could be prepared using inulin and soy fiber at 1.5 % level of fortification.

  7. Dietary Fiber and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Results From 5 Large Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fondell, Elinor; O'Reilly, Éilis J.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Park, Yikyung; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fast-progressing neurodegenerative disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of 1.5–3 years. The cause of ALS is unknown, but inflammation may play a role. Fiber has been shown to lower inflammatory markers, and a high fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of ALS in a case-control study; however, prospective studies are lacking. We explored the relation between dietary intake of fiber and the risk of ALS in 5 large prospective cohort studies comprising over 1,050,000 US citizens who contributed 1,133 ALS cases during a mean of 15 years of follow-up (1980–2008). Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort, and cohort-specific estimates were subsequently pooled using a random-effects model. We found that intakes of total fiber, cereal fiber, vegetable fiber, and fruit fiber were not associated with ALS risk when comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest (for total fiber, pooled multivariable relative risk (RR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.24; for cereal fiber, RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.37; for vegetable fiber, RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.77, 1.23; and for fruit fiber, RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.29). These findings do not support the hypothesis that fiber intake is a major determinant of ALS risk. PMID:24816788

  8. The coupled effect of fiber volume fraction and void fraction on hydraulic fluid absorption of quartz/BMI laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurdelbrink, Keith R.; Anderson, Jacob P.; Siddique, Zahed; Altan, M. Cengiz

    2016-03-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resin with quartz (AQ581) fiber reinforcement is a composite material frequently used in aerospace applications, such as engine cowlings and radomes. Various composite components used in aircrafts are exposed to different types of hydraulic fluids, which may lead to anomalous absorption behavior over the service life of the composite. Accurate predictive models for absorption of liquid penetrants are particularly important as the composite components are often exposed to long-term degradation due to absorbed moisture, hydraulic fluids, or similar liquid penetrants. Microstructural features such as fiber volume fraction and void fraction can have a significant effect on the absorption behavior of fiber-reinforced composites. In this paper, hydraulic fluid absorption characteristics of quartz/BMI laminates fabricated from prepregs preconditioned at different relative humidity and subsequently cured at different pressures are presented. The composite samples are immersed into hydraulic fluid at room temperature, and were not subjected to any prior degradation. To generate process-induced microvoids, prepregs were conditioned in an environmental chamber at 2% or 99% relative humidity at room temperature for a period of 24 hours prior to laminate fabrication. To alter the fiber volume fraction, the laminates were fabricated at cure pressures of 68.9 kPa (10 psi) or 482.6 kPa (70 psi) via a hot-press. The laminates are shown to have different levels of microvoids and fiber volume fractions, which were observed to affect the absorption dynamics considerably and exhibited clear non-Fickian behavior. A one-dimensional hindered diffusion model (HDM) was shown to be successful in predicting the hydraulic fluid absorption. Model prediction indicates that as the fabrication pressure increased from 68.9 kPa to 482.6 kPa, the maximum fluid content (M∞) decreased from 8.0% wt. to 1.0% wt. The degree of non-Fickian behavior, measured by hindrance coefficient (

  9. A Method for Out-of-autoclave Fabrication of High Fiber Volume Fraction Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Infusion Processes Such as VARTM , VAP, and Compression RTM . SAMPE Proceedings, 38 th ISTC, Texas, 2006. 21. Li, W.; Krehl, J.; Gillespie, J.; Heider...increasing the fiber-volume fraction by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ) in order to produce composite structures with aerospace-grade...processed composites. Using a combination of viscosity control, ARL- based VARTM techniques, and a pressure control system, we increased the fiber-volume

  10. Review: Dietary fiber utilization and its effects on physiological functions and gut health of swine.

    PubMed

    Jha, R; Berrocoso, J D

    2015-09-01

    Although dietary fiber (DF) negatively affects energy and nutrient digestibility, there is growing interest for the inclusion of its fermentable fraction in pig diets due to their functional properties and potential health benefits beyond supplying energy to the animals. This paper reviews some of the relevant information available on the role of different types of DF on digestion of nutrients in different sections of the gut, the fermentation process and its influence on gut environment, especially production and utilization of metabolites, microbial community and gut health of swine. Focus has been given on DF from feed ingredients (grains and coproducts) commonly used in pig diets. Some information on the role DF in purified form in comparison with DF in whole matrix of feed ingredients is also presented. First, composition and fractions of DF in different feed ingredients are briefly reviewed. Then, roles of different fractions of DF on digestion characteristics and physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are presented. Specific roles of different fractions of DF on fermentation characteristics and their effects on production and utilization of metabolites in the GIT have been discussed. In addition, roles of DF fermentation on metabolic activity and microbial community in the intestine and their effects on intestinal health are reviewed and discussed. Evidence presented in this review indicates that there is wide variation in the composition and content of DF among feed ingredients, thereby their physico-chemical properties in the GIT of swine. These variations, in turn, affect the digestion and fermentation characteristics in the GIT of swine. Digestibility of DF from different feed ingredients is more variable and lower than that of other nutrients like starch, sugars, fat and CP. Soluble fractions of DF are fermented faster, produce higher amounts of volatile fatty acid than insoluble fractions, and favors growth of beneficial microbiota

  11. [Determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods by enzymatic-gravimetric method].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yang, Y; Zhou, R; Bian, L

    2001-11-01

    For studying the contents of dietary fiber in general foods and functional foods, a enzymatic-gravimetric method recommended by AOAC was established in our laboratory. The method for the determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods and functional foods could be used for many other kind of foods. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of reproducibility between-run and within-run were 2.04%-7.85%, 3.42%-55.23% respectively. The repeatability of the methods was good, and the methods are suitable for many foods.

  12. Intake of Grains and Dietary Fiber and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness by Race

    PubMed Central

    Tabung, Fred; Steck, Susan E.; Su, L. Joseph; Mohler, James L.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Hebert, James R.; Zhang, Hongmei; Arab, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the associations among intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans (AA, n = 930) and European Americans (EA, n = 993) in a population-based, case-only study (The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, PCaP). Methods. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was categorized as high, intermediate or low based on Gleason grade, PSA level and clinical stage. Dietary intake was assessed utilizing the NCI Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression (comparing high to intermediate/low aggressive cancers) and polytomous regression with adjustment for potential confounders were used to determine odds of high prostate cancer aggressiveness with intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber from all sources. Results. An inverse association with aggressive prostate cancer was observed in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of total fiber intake (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50–0.97 and OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.93, resp.) as compared to the lowest tertile of intake. In the race-stratified analyses, inverse associations were observed in the 3rd tertile of total fiber intake for EA (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.87) and the 2nd tertile of intake for AA (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35–0.95). Conclusions. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer among both AA and EA men. PMID:23213538

  13. Chemical and physical properties, safety and application of partially hydrolized guar gum as dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa.s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa.s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber(R) in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber(R) is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world.

  14. Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world. PMID:18231623

  15. Changes in intraluminal pressure in rat large intestines with aging and effects of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Murakami, H; Iwane, S; Munakata, A; Nakaji, S; Sugawara, K; Tsuchida, S; Sasaki, D

    2001-06-01

    Changes in intraluminal pressure in rat colon with aging and with the effects of dietary fiber were measured. A pressure sensor was inserted into the rat large intestine under endoscopic guidance. The intraluminal pressure curve in the colon was recorded, and the motility index was calculated by this curve. The rats were divided into three groups with a fiber-free diet, a cellulose diet (10% w/w), or a pectin diet (10% w/w). Intraluminal pressure was measured in the proximal, middle, and distal colon at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 months after birth. Intraluminal pressure in three sites increased with age and decreased in the latter half of the study. The motility index was lower during the course in the fiber groups, especially the pectin group more than the nonfiber group. This result suggests that long-term ingestion of dietary fiber might have a prophylactic effect on the development of diverticula.

  16. Analysis of GI Community Shifts in Response to Dietary Fiber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    omnivorous and similar to the human diet, pigs recover much more energy from microbial digestion of fiber/cellulose in the lower GI tract (ca. 17-30%). In...similar to the human tract ( omnivorous , non-ruminant but better cellulose utilization), 3) show gut community response to change in diet fiber, 4

  17. Association between dietary fiber intake and physical performance in older adults: a nationwide study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chien; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Yu, Shu-Han; Tsai, Yi-Fen; Shen, Shi-Chen; Kuo, Ken N; Chen, Ching-Yu; Liu, Kiang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2013-01-01

    Physical performance is a major determinant of health in older adults, and is related to lifestyle factors. Dietary fiber has multiple health benefits. It remains unclear whether fiber intake is independently linked to superior physical performance. We aimed to assess the association between dietary fiber and physical performance in older adults. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older (n=2680) from the ongoing Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study (HALST) in Taiwan 2008-2010. Daily dietary fiber intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Physical performance was determined objectively by measuring gait speed, 6-minute walk distance, timed "up and go" (TUG), summary performance score, hand grip strength. Adjusting for all potential confounders, participants with higher fiber intake had significantly faster gait speed, longer 6-minute walk distance, faster TUG, higher summary performance score, and higher hand grip strength (all P <.05). Comparing with the highest quartile of fiber intake, the lowest quartile of fiber intake was significantly associated with the lowest sex-specific quartile of gait speed (adjusted OR, 2.18 in men [95% CI, 1.33-3.55] and 3.65 in women [95% CI, 2.20-6.05]), 6-minute walk distance (OR, 2.40 in men [95% CI, 1.38-4.17] and 4.32 in women [95% CI, 2.37-7.89]), TUG (OR, 2.42 in men [95% CI, 1.43-4.12] and 3.27 in women [95% CI, 1.94-5.52]), summary performance score (OR, 2.12 in men [95% CI, 1.19-3.78] and 5.47 in women [95% CI, 3.20-9.35]), and hand grip strength (OR, 2.64 in men [95% CI, 1.61-4.32] and 4.43 in women [95% CI, 2.62-7.50]). Dietary fiber intake was independently associated with better physical performance.

  18. The use of principle component and cluster analyses to differentiate banana pulp flours based on starch and dietary fiber components.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Saifullah Bin; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Yong, Yeoh Shin; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    Flour prepared from green and ripe Cavendish and Dream banana fruits were assessed for total starch, digestible starch, resistant starch, total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber. Principle component analysis identified only one component responsible for explaining 83.83% of the total variance in the starch and dietary fiber components data to indicate that ripe banana flour had different characteristics from the green. Cluster analysis applied on similar data obtained two statistically significant clusters of green and ripe banana to indicate difference in behaviors according to the stages of ripeness. In conclusion, starch and dietary fiber components could be used to discriminate between flour prepared from fruits of different stage of ripeness. Results are also suggestive of the potential of green as well as the ripe banana flour as functional ingredients in food.

  19. Dietary Fiber Future Directions: Integrating New Definitions and Findings to Inform Nutrition Research and Communication12

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers’ effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels. PMID:23319118

  20. Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Juergen; Themeier, Heinz; Neese, Ursula; Lindhauer, Meinolf G

    2013-10-01

    The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure.

  1. Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zebeli, Q; Aschenbach, J R; Tafaj, M; Boguhn, J; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

    2012-03-01

    Highly fermentable diets require the inclusion of adequate amounts of fiber to reduce the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). To assess the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cattle, the concept of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) has received increasing attention because it amalgamates information on both chemical fiber content and particle size (PS) of the feedstuffs. The nutritional effects of dietary PS and peNDF are complex and involve feed intake behavior (absolute intake and sorting behavior), ruminal mat formation, rumination and salivation, and ruminal motility. Other effects include fermentation characteristics, digesta passage, and nutrient intake and absorption. Moreover, peNDF requirements depend on the fermentability of the starch source (i.e., starch type and endosperm structure). To date, the incomplete understanding of these complex interactions has prevented the establishment of peNDF as a routine method to determine dietary fiber adequacy so far. Therefore, this review is intended to analyze the quantitative effects of and interactions among forage PS, peNDF, and diet fermentability with regard to rumen metabolism and prevention of SARA, and aims to give an overview of the latest achievements in the estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Recently developed models that synthesize the effects of both peNDF and fermentable starch on rumen metabolism appear to provide an appropriate basis for estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cows. Data suggest that a period lasting more than 5 to 6h/d during which ruminal pH is <5.8 should be avoided to minimize health disturbances due to SARA. The knowledge generated from these modeling approaches recommends that average amounts of 31.2% peNDF inclusive particles >1.18mm (i.e., peNDF(>1.18)) or 18.5% peNDF inclusive particles >8mm (i.e., peNDF(>8)) in the diet (DM basis) are required. However, inclusion of a concentration of peNDF(>8

  2. Effect of dietary protein and iron on the fractional turnover rate of rat liver xanthine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, D.M.; Amy, N.K.

    1987-12-01

    Rat liver xanthine oxidase activity is regulated in response to dietary protein and iron. To investigate whether the change in activity was mediated by a change in the rate of protein degradation, we measured the fractional turnover rate using the double-isotope technique with (/sup 3/H)- and (/sup 14/C)leucine and calculated the apparent half-life of xanthine oxidase in rats fed diets containing either 20 or 5% casein with either 35 or 5 mg iron/kg diet. Under control conditions, xanthine oxidase had an apparent half-life of 4.8 d and approximately 65% of the enzyme subunits were active. Rats fed diets with low dietary protein had lower xanthine oxidase activity, but the enzyme had a slower fractional turnover rate, resulting in an apparent half-life of 6.4 d, and only 15-20% of the enzyme was active. The apparent half-life of xanthine oxidase increased to 7.5 d in rats fed diets with low dietary iron, but dietary iron did not affect the specific activity of the enzyme or the percentage of active subunits. These results suggest that the loss of enzyme activity is not due to loss of enzyme protein by increased degradation, but rather to inactivation of the enzyme.

  3. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and estrogen receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Holford, Theodore R.; Zhang, Yawei; Boyle, Peter; Mayne, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the hypothesis that relation of breast cancer associated with dietary fiber intakes varies by type of fiber, menopausal, and the tumor’s hormone receptor status. Methods A case-control study of female breast cancer was conducted in Connecticut. A total of 557 incident breast cancer cases and 536 age frequency-matched controls were included in the analysis. Information on dietary intakes was collected through in-person interviews with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and was converted into nutrient intakes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results Among pre-menopausal women, higher intake of soluble fiber (highest versus lowest quartile of intake) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15–0.97, Ptrend = 0.08). When further restricted to pre-menopausal women with ER− tumors, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile of intake was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.03–0.69, Ptrend = 0.02) for soluble fiber intake. Among post-menopausal women, no reduced risk of breast cancer was observed for either soluble or insoluble fiber intakes or among ER+ or ER− tumor groups. Conclusions The results from this study show that dietary soluble fiber intake is associated with a significantly reduced risk of ER− breast cancer among pre-menopausal women. Additional studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22350922

  4. Dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian-bao; Ding, Pei-pei; Chen, Jian-feng; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Long; Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng-cheng; Che, Jian-ping; Zheng, Jun-hua; Yao, Xu-dong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationships between dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched to find eligible studies. Random-effects relative risk (RR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used. Besides, random-effects dose-response analyses were also performed to clarify the dose-response relations. Finally, publication bias was assessed by Egger's test and Begg's test. All p values were two tailed. Seven studies, including two cohort studies and five case-control studies, were eligible and included in this meta-analysis. Overall analysis in highest versus lowest level revealed that total dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced RCC risk (RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.74-0.96). In addition, pooled estimated data showed that risk of RCC was significantly associated with vegetable and legume fiber intake (RR 0.70, RR 0.80, respectively), but not with fruit and cereal fiber intake (RR 0.92, RR 1.04, respectively). However, in dose-response analysis, no significant association was reported. Finally, no publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dietary fiber intake, especially vegetable and legume fiber, may be associated with reduced RCC risk. Considering the limitations of the included studies, more well-designed prospective studies will be needed to confirm our findings.

  5. Dietary Fiber and the Human Gut Microbiota: Application of Evidence Mapping Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Caleigh M.; Livingston, Kara A.; Obin, Martin; Roberts, Susan B.; Chung, Mei; McKeown, Nicola M.

    2017-01-01

    Interest is rapidly growing around the role of the human gut microbiota in facilitating beneficial health effects associated with consumption of dietary fiber. An evidence map of current research activity in this area was created using a newly developed database of dietary fiber intervention studies in humans to identify studies with the following broad outcomes: (1) modulation of colonic microflora; and/or (2) colonic fermentation/short-chain fatty acid concentration. Study design characteristics, fiber exposures, and outcome categories were summarized. A sub-analysis described oligosaccharides and bacterial composition in greater detail. One hundred eighty-eight relevant studies were identified. The fiber categories represented by the most studies were oligosaccharides (20%), resistant starch (16%), and chemically synthesized fibers (15%). Short-chain fatty acid concentration (47%) and bacterial composition (88%) were the most frequently studied outcomes. Whole-diet interventions, measures of bacterial activity, and studies in metabolically at-risk subjects were identified as potential gaps in the evidence. This evidence map efficiently captured the variability in characteristics of expanding research on dietary fiber, gut microbiota, and physiological health benefits, and identified areas that may benefit from further research. We hope that this evidence map will provide a resource for researchers to direct new intervention studies and meta-analyses. PMID:28208609

  6. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  7. Dietary Fiber and the Human Gut Microbiota: Application of Evidence Mapping Methodology.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Caleigh M; Livingston, Kara A; Obin, Martin; Roberts, Susan B; Chung, Mei; McKeown, Nicola M

    2017-02-10

    Interest is rapidly growing around the role of the human gut microbiota in facilitating beneficial health effects associated with consumption of dietary fiber. An evidence map of current research activity in this area was created using a newly developed database of dietary fiber intervention studies in humans to identify studies with the following broad outcomes: (1) modulation of colonic microflora; and/or (2) colonic fermentation/short-chain fatty acid concentration. Study design characteristics, fiber exposures, and outcome categories were summarized. A sub-analysis described oligosaccharides and bacterial composition in greater detail. One hundred eighty-eight relevant studies were identified. The fiber categories represented by the most studies were oligosaccharides (20%), resistant starch (16%), and chemically synthesized fibers (15%). Short-chain fatty acid concentration (47%) and bacterial composition (88%) were the most frequently studied outcomes. Whole-diet interventions, measures of bacterial activity, and studies in metabolically at-risk subjects were identified as potential gaps in the evidence. This evidence map efficiently captured the variability in characteristics of expanding research on dietary fiber, gut microbiota, and physiological health benefits, and identified areas that may benefit from further research. We hope that this evidence map will provide a resource for researchers to direct new intervention studies and meta-analyses.

  8. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans.

    PubMed

    Fedirko, V; Lukanova, A; Bamia, C; Trichopolou, A; Trepo, E; Nöthlings, U; Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Boffetta, P; Tjønneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Fagherazzi, G; Racine, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Grote, V; Kaaks, R; Boeing, H; Naska, A; Adarakis, G; Valanou, E; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Panico, S; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Siersema, P D; Peeters, P H; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Quirós, J R; Zamora-Ros, R; Sánchez, M J; Amiano, P; Huerta, J M; Barricarte, A; Johansen, D; Lindkvist, B; Sund, M; Werner, M; Crowe, F; Khaw, K T; Ferrari, P; Romieu, I; Chuang, S C; Riboli, E; Jenab, M

    2013-02-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case-control subset. Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17-1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55-0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52-0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23-1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37-0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk.

  9. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Nöthlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjønneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quirós, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sánchez, M. J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. Patients and methods The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case–control subset. Results Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17–1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55–0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52–0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23–1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37–0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Conclusions Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk. PMID:23123507

  10. Prospective association between alcohol intake and hormone-dependent cancer risk: modulation by dietary fiber intake.

    PubMed

    Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Fassier, Philippine; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Zelek, Laurent; Duverger, Lucie; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn may increase hormone-dependent cancer risk. This association may be modulated by dietary fiber intake, which has been shown to decrease steroid hormone bioavailability (decreased blood concentration and increased sex hormone-binding globulin concentration). However, this potential modulation has not been investigated in any prospective cohort. Our objectives were to study the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and testicular) and to investigate whether dietary fiber intake modulated these associations. This prospective observational analysis included 3771 women and 2771 men who participated in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (1994-2007) and completed at least 6 valid 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 12.1 y, 297 incident hormone-dependent cancer cases, including 158 breast and 123 prostate cancers, were diagnosed. Associations were tested via multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, alcohol intake was directly associated with the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.84; P-trend = 0.02) and breast cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.61; P-trend = 0.04) but not prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.3). In stratified analyses (by sex-specific median of dietary fiber intake), alcohol intake was directly associated with hormone-dependent cancer (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82; P-trend = 0.002), breast cancer (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.95; P-trend = 0.02), and prostate cancer (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.89; P-trend = 0.02) risk among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake (P-trend = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6, respectively). The P-interaction between alcohol and dietary fiber

  11. A Prospective Study of Different Types of Dietary Fiber and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Khalili Moghadam, Sajad; Zadeh Vakili, Azita; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that dietary of intake different types of fiber could modify the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large prospective cohort among Iranian adults. Methods: In 2006–2008, we used a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake among 2295 health professionals with no previous history of heart disease. Subjects were subsequently followed until 2012 for incidence of CVD events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of total dietary fiber and different types of fiber. Linear regression models were also used to indicate the association of dietary fiber intakes with changes of cardiovascular risk factors during the follow-up. Results: Mean age of participants (42.8% men) was 38.2 ± 13.4, at baseline. Mean (SD) dietary intake of total fiber was 23.4 (8.9) g/day. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk score and dietary confounders, a significant inverse association was observed between intakes of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and CVD risk, in the highest compared to the lowest tertiles (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.83, HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09–0.41, and HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14–0.69, respectively). Inverse relations were observed between risk of CVD and dietary fiber from legumes, fruits and vegetables; however, dietary fiber intake from grain and nut sources was not related to risk of CVD. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that higher intakes of dietary fiber from different sources is associated with CVD events and modify its major risk-related factors. PMID:27827978

  12. A Prospective Study of Different Types of Dietary Fiber and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Khalili Moghadam, Sajad; Zadeh Vakili, Azita; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-11-07

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that dietary of intake different types of fiber could modify the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large prospective cohort among Iranian adults. In 2006-2008, we used a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake among 2295 health professionals with no previous history of heart disease. Subjects were subsequently followed until 2012 for incidence of CVD events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of total dietary fiber and different types of fiber. Linear regression models were also used to indicate the association of dietary fiber intakes with changes of cardiovascular risk factors during the follow-up. Mean age of participants (42.8% men) was 38.2 ± 13.4, at baseline. Mean (SD) dietary intake of total fiber was 23.4 (8.9) g/day. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk score and dietary confounders, a significant inverse association was observed between intakes of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and CVD risk, in the highest compared to the lowest tertiles (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18-0.83, HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09-0.41, and HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, respectively). Inverse relations were observed between risk of CVD and dietary fiber from legumes, fruits and vegetables; however, dietary fiber intake from grain and nut sources was not related to risk of CVD. Our findings confirmed that higher intakes of dietary fiber from different sources is associated with CVD events and modify its major risk-related factors.

  13. Nondietary Gut Materials Interfere with the Determination of Dietary Fiber Digestibility in Growing Pigs When Using the Prosky Method.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    Reported negative ileal and total tract dietary fiber (DF) digestibility values are physiologically untenable and suggest the presence of nondietary material in the gut contents that interferes with the DF determination. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of interfering material (IM) when the Prosky method was used to determine DF digestibility. Fourteen pigs (41.6 ± 3.0 kg) were surgically implanted with ileal T-cannulas. A semisynthetic fiber-free diet and 2 semisynthetic diets containing kiwifruit as the sole fiber source [25 or 50 g fiber/kg dry matter (DM)] were prepared. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Pigs were fed the kiwifruit-containing diets (n=7 per diet) for 44 d, followed by the fiber-free diet (n=14) for 7 d. Ileal digesta and feces were collected over 3 d, starting on days 42 and 49. The flow of IM and the soluble, insoluble, and total DF digestibility were determined. Considerable amounts of IM were present when the Prosky method was applied to ileal digesta (12 g/kg DM intake) and feces (28 g/kg DM intake) collected from pigs fed the fiber-free diet after adaptation to the diet containing 50 g/kg DM of fiber. The pigs adapted to the highest fiber concentration had 0.9- and 0.7-fold greater ileal and fecal IM flows than their counterparts adapted to the lowest concentration. In the ileal digesta, crude mucin was the main IM source in the soluble DF fraction (66%). In the ileal digesta and feces, microbial cells were the main IM source in the insoluble DF fraction. The determined ileal soluble DF and total tract insoluble DF digestibilities increased by 44-54% and 78% respectively after correction for IM (P < 0.001). Large amounts of IM are present in ileal digesta and feces of pigs when fiber is determined with the Prosky method, leading to a marked underestimation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ben, Qiwen; Sun, Yunwei; Chai, Rui; Qian, Aihua; Xu, Bin; Yuan, Yaozong

    2014-03-01

    Reports on the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), the precursor of colorectal cancer, have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies to analyze this association. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify relevant studies published through July 2013. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between fiber intake and CRA risk. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and I(2) statistics. Our meta-analysis included 20 studies involving 10,948 subjects with CRA. The SRRs of CRA for total dietary fiber were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.83) in a high- vs low-intake analysis and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.87-0.95) per 10-g/day increase in fiber intake in a dose-response model. Subgroup analyses indicated a significant inverse association between total fiber intake and CRA risk in case-control studies (SRR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.77), but not in cohort studies (SRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.10). The SRRs of CRA were 0.84 for fruit fiber (95% CI, 0.76-0.94; n = 6 studies), 0.93 for vegetable fiber (95% CI, 0.84-1.04; n = 6 studies), and 0.76 for cereal fiber (95% CI, 0.62-0.92; n = 9 studies) in high- vs low-intake analyses. Our findings support the hypothesis that high dietary fiber intake is associated inversely with CRA risk. Further studies with prospective designs that use validated questionnaires and control for important confounders are warranted. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Weight Fractions of Jute Fiber on Tensile Strength and Deflection Temperature of Jute Fiber/Polypropylene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabila, S.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, S.

    2017-05-01

    Jute is one of eco-friendly natural fiber with relatively low cost and high volume production. This study aimed to determine the effect of weight fractions of jute fiber as a reinforcement in polypropylene (PP) to obtain an optimum properties of PP/jute fiber composites. Jute fiber was pre-treated through alkalization. The PP was initially produced by extrusion process, followed by fabricated the composites by compiling the PP matrix and jute fibers into lamina using a hot-press method. The results of tensile test and heat deflection temperature test showed that the addition of 40wt% jute fiber to the PP increased the tensile strength about 19.7 % up to (38.2±4.9)MPa, the Young modulus about 79.8 % up to (3.20±0.26)GPa, and the heat deflection temperature about 143% up to (143.3±1.14)°C compared to pristine PP. Based on Scanning Electron Microscopy observation on the fracture surfaces, it was shown that the mode of failure on the composites failure surfaces was “fiber pull-out”, which due to the poor interface bond between the fiber and the matrix.

  16. The effect of high fiber fraction on some mechanical properties of unidirectional glass fiber-reinforced composite.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Närhi, Timo O; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of an increase of fiber-density on some mechanical properties of higher volume fiber-reinforced composite (FRC). Five groups of FRC with increased fiber-density were fabricated and two additional groups were prepared by adding silanated barium-silicate glass fillers (0.7 μm) to the FRC. The unidirectional E-glass fiber rovings were impregnated with light-polymerizable bisGMA-TEGDMA (50-50%) resin. The fibers were pulled through a cylindrical mold with an opening diameter of 4.2mm, light cured for 40s and post-cured at elevated temperature. The cylindrical specimens (n=12) were conditioned at room temperature for 2 days before testing with the three-point bending test (Lloyd Instruments Ltd.) adapted to ISO 10477. Fiber-density was analyzed by combustion and gravimetric analyzes. ANOVA analysis revealed that by increasing the vol.% fraction of E-glass fibers from 51.7% to 61.7% there was a change of 27% (p<0.05) in the modulus of elasticity, 34% (p<0.05) in the toughness, and 15% (p<0.05) in the load bearing capacity, while there was only 8% (p<0.05) increase in the flexural strength although it was statistically insignificant. The addition of particulate fillers did not improve the mechanical properties. This study showed that the properties of FRC could be improved by increasing fibervolume fraction. Modulus of elasticity, toughness, and load bearing capacity seem to follow the law of ratio of quantity of fibers and volume of the polymer matrix more precisely than flexural strength when high fiber-density is used. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [The estimation of several dietary fibers possibility to absorb in vitro vitamins A, E, C, B1 and B2].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesdinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Isaeva, V A; Rudoĭ, B A; Dikovskiĭ, A V; Kodentsova, V M

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of several dietary fibers (lignins, wheat bran, microcrystalline cellulose) possibility to absorb vitamins from the solution containing simultaneously ten vitamins in vitro model (gastroenteric transit imitation) has been made. Fiber apparent capability to absorb retinol palmitate, alpha-tocopherol acetate, ascorbic acid, thiamine hydrochloride and riboflavin phosphate has been determined. It has been demonstrated that dietary fibers are able to decrease vitamins availability.

  18. Biochemical and microstructural Ccharacteristics of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber prepared from mushroom sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K; Wu, Jin-Zhong

    2003-11-19

    The proximate composition of sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinoceros, and Wolfiporia cocos, together with the yield, purity, monosaccharide profile, and microstructure of their insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions prepared from AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric methods were investigated and compared. All three sclerotia were typical carbohydrate rich sclerotia [ranging from 90.5 to 98.1% dry matter (DM)] with an exceptionally low amount of crude lipid content (ranging from 0.02 to 0.14% DM). Besides, all three sclerotia possessed substantial amounts of IDF (ranging from 77.4 to 94.6% DM) with notably high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (89.9-92.2% DM) in which glucose was the predominant sugar residue (90.6-97.2% of NSP DM). On the contrary, both the yield (only ranging from 1.45 to 2.50% DM) and the amount of NSP (ranging from 22.4 to 29.6% DM) of the three sclerotial SDF fractions were very low. Scanning electron micrographs showed fragments of interwoven hyphae and insoluble materials in the three sclerotial IDF fractions, but only an amorphous structure of soluble materials was observed in the SDF fractions. The potential use of these fiber preparations was discussed.

  19. The Role of Viscosity and Fermentability of Dietary Fibers on Satiety- and Adiposity-Related Hormones in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Natalia; Marquart, Len F.; Gallaher, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber may contribute to satiety. This study examined the effect of two dietary fiber characteristics, small intestinal contents viscosity and large intestinal fermentability, on satiety-and adiposity-related hormones in rats. Diets contained fiber sources that were non-viscous, somewhat viscous, or highly viscous, and either highly fermentable or non-fermentable, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. In the fed state (2 h postprandial), rats fed non-fermentable fibers had significantly greater plasma GLP-1 concentration than fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, among non-fermentable fibers, viscosity had no effect on GLP-1 concentration. However, among fermentable fibers, greater viscosity reduced GLP-1 concentration. Plasma peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations in the fasted state were not influenced by the fermentability of the fiber overall, however animals consuming a fructooligosaccharide greater PYY concentration. In both the fed and fasted states, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma ghrelin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma leptin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. Thus, fermentability and viscosity of dietary fiber interacted in complex ways to influence satiety- and adiposity-related plasma hormone concentrations. However, the results suggest that highly viscous, non-fermentable fibers may limit weight gain and reduce adiposity and non-fermentable fibers, regardless of viscosity, may promote meal termination. PMID:23749206

  20. Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-12-01

    Prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to stroke risk have reported inconsistent results. This study assessed the association between intake of total fiber and fiber sources and stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults. The analysis was based on 69,677 participants (aged 45-83 y) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline (1 January 1998). Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of stroke were ascertained through linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate RRs, adjusted for potential confounders. During 10.3 y of follow-up, 3680 incident stroke cases, including 2722 cerebral infarctions, 363 intracerebral hemorrhages, 160 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 435 unspecified strokes, were ascertained. High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber. These findings indicate that intake of dietary fiber, especially fruit and vegetable fibers, is inversely associated with risk of stroke. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Decreased dietary fiber intake and structural alteration of gut microbiota in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Min; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yan-Wei; Kong, Xuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhong, Liang; Fang, Dian-Chun; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly less prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P < 0.05). Butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria were more prevalent in a subgroup of HC subjects with a high fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P < 0.05). A high-fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.

  2. Association between dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yihua; Qian, Yufeng; Pan, Yiwen; Li, Peiwei; Yang, Jun; Ye, Xianhua; Xu, Geng

    2015-08-01

    The association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and dietary fiber intake is not consistent, especially for the subtypes of dietary fiber. The aim of our study was to conduct a meta-analysis of existing cohort published studies assessing the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of CHD, and quantitatively estimating their dose-response relationships. We searched PubMed and EMBASE before May 2013. Random-effect model was used to calculate the pool relative risk (RRs) for the incidence and mortality of CHD. Dose-response, subgroup analyses based on fiber subtypes, heterogeneity and publication bias were also carried out. Eighteen studies involving 672,408 individuals were finally included in the present study. The pooled-adjusted RRs of coronary heart disease for the highest versus lowest category of fiber intake were 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-0.96, P < 0.001) for incidence of all coronary events and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91, P < 0.001) for mortality. Further subgroup analyses based on fiber subtypes (cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber), indicated that RRs were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85-0.99, P = 0.032), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98, P = 0.01), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-1.01, P = 0.098) respectively for all coronary event and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.92, P = 0.001), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.43-1.07, P = 0.094), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-1.12, P = 0.383) for mortality. In addition, a significant dose-response relationship was observed between fiber intake and the incidence and mortality of CHD (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that consumption of dietary fiber is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease, especially for fiber from cereals and fruits. Besides, soluble and insoluble fibers have the similar effect. A significant dose-response relationship is also observed between fiber intake and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary fiber effects on passage rate and breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Hanson, C F; Winterfeldt, E A

    1985-07-01

    Fermentation of fiber and passage to the large intestine were monitored by measuring hydrogen gas (H2) concentration in expired breath. Five subjects consumed meals containing no added fiber or 40 g of wheat bran (WB), corn bran (CB), oat bran (OB), or citrus flour (CF) replacing white flour. Breath samples were obtained at 30 min intervals for 9 h after the test meals. Mean H2 concentration (ppm), averaged over the 9 h test period, ranged from 7.5 (CB) to 12.0 (OB) and tended to increase with addition of OB, CF, or WB but decrease with addition of CB. Hours from the meal to the highest H2 peaks were 4.7 (WB), 5.6 (CB), 6.2 (OB), 6.4 (CF), and 8.2 (basal). The gel-like fibers (OB and CF) resulted in greater H2 concentration and less acceleration of passage rate than the particulate fibers (WB and CB).

  4. Precooked bran-enriched wheat flour using extrusion: dietary fiber profile and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gajula, H; Alavi, S; Adhikari, K; Herald, T

    2008-05-01

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran, total dietary fiber (TDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5% to 2.4%, respectively. Precooking by extrusion significantly increased SDF in flours (by 22% to 73%); although in most cases it also led to a significant decrease in TDF. Cookies and tortillas produced from uncooked and precooked flours with 0% and 20% substituted bran were evaluated for consumer acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. With a few exceptions, all cookies had scores ranging from 6 to 7 ("like slightly" to "like moderately") for each attribute, including overall acceptability, appearance, texture, crumbliness, and flavor. Tortillas were rated for the same attributes except for crumbliness, which was replaced with chewiness. In most cases, tortilla scores ranged from 5 to 7 ("neither like nor dislike" to "like moderately"). Consumer acceptability scores of cookies from uncooked flour did not change significantly with increase in bran substitution from 0% to 20%. However, consumer scores for tortillas did decrease significantly with increase in bran level. Extrusion precooking of the flours did not improve the consumer acceptability of cookies and tortillas; however, it did improve their dietary fiber profile by increasing the SDF significantly.

  5. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Priyadarisini, Venkatesan Brindha

    2014-06-01

    The growing public awareness of nutrition and health care research substantiates the potential of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and dietary fiber on their health beneficial properties. Hence, there is in need to identify newer sources of neutraceuticals and other natural and nutritional materials with the desirable functional characteristics. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol and dietary fiber contents. It is an important staple food in India for people of low income groups. Nutritionally, its importance is well recognised because of its high content of calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%) and phenolic compounds (0.3-3%). They are also recognized for their health beneficial effects, such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This review deals with the nature of polyphenols and dietary fiber of finger millet and their role with respect to the health benefits associated with millet.

  6. Dietary fiber alleviates intestinal barrier dysfunction in post-trauma rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huichi; Ping, Xiaochun; Zhu, Yanfei; Zhao, Zengshun; Li, Yousheng; Li, Jieshou

    2010-04-01

    Damage to the intestinal barrier often occurs following severe trauma. It has been reported that enteral nutrition with dietary fiber (DF) could mitigate impairment of the intestinal barrier and might therefore be effective in clinical application; however, the conclusions from existing trials are controversial and the nature of the protective mechanism is far from clear. This study investigated the protective mechanism of dietary fiber on intestinal barrier in rats under bilateral closed femur fracture. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal control without any manipulation, trauma control with normal feeding, DF and dietary fiber-free (NF) groups fed with Nutrison Fibre and Nutrison, respectively. The later two groups were further divided into 1, 4, 7 and 10 days post-trauma groups. The trauma caused body weight decline, promoted bacterial translocation, and decreased immune function. The levels of portal vein endoxin in DF group was significantly lower than in NF group (p=0.013). Levers of both serum TNF-alpha and IL-6 on post-trauma day 10 showed no statistical differences between DF and NF groups. The incidence of bacterial translocation recovered to normal in DF group. Only secreted immunoglobulin a (sIgA) levels in DF group was higher than in NF group (p=0.005). Early enteral nutrition with dietary fiber could alleviate damage to intestinal barrier function and decreased the incidence of bacterial translocation caused by trauma and endotoxemia in rats under extra-abdominal trauma.

  7. Associations of menstrual cycle length with intake of soy, fat, and dietary fiber in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Oba, Shino; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A decreased risk of breast cancer has been reported among women who have longer menstrual cycles or anovulatory cycles. The present study examined the relationships between intake of fat, soy, and dietary fiber and length of menstrual cycle among 341 Japanese women aged 18 to 29 yr old at two colleges and three nursing schools. Intake of nutrients and foods including fats, dietary fiber, and soy products was estimated through the use of a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The mean cycle length was determined for each women based on a prospective record of menstruation. Polyunsaturated fat intake was significantly inversely associated with cycle length; the means of cycle length were 33.2 and 31.0 days for the lowest and the highest quintiles of intake, respectively, after controlling for covariates (trend = 0.03). The odds ratio of a long cycle (> 35 days) for the highest vs. lowest quintile of dietary fiber intake was 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.00-4.47), although the trend was not statistically significant. The data suggest that polyunsaturated fat and dietary fiber intake are associated with the parameters of menstrual cycle length, but further studies are required to better characterize these associations.

  8. Insoluble dietary fiber of wheat bran increased viscosity of pig whole cecal contents in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Takashi; Saito, Masaaki

    2007-08-01

    Viscosity of whole pig cecal contents with (2 g/200 mL) or without insoluble dietary fibers prepared from wheat bran of two particle sizes (WB fine 0.22+/-0.22 mm(2), n=1,723; WB coarse 0.51+/-1.12 mm(2), n=1,457, mean+/-SD) was measured using a rotary viscometer equipped with a vane spindle at the shear rates of 0.05, 0.16, 0.47, 0.78 and 1.56 (s(-1)) and at 0 and 2 h. Such measurements were repeated twice each for five different donor pig groups. We were able to measure the coefficient of viscosity of such samples over a wide range of shear rate. Coefficient of viscosity depended on shear rate. Addition of insoluble dietary fiber increased the coefficient of viscosity. Insoluble dietary fiber from WB coarse had a significantly stronger effect than that from WB fine. The above results demonstrated that insoluble dietary fibers of wheat bran increase the viscosity of gut contents, and thereby potentially retard digestion and absorption.

  9. Sinapate dehydrodimers and sinapate−ferulate heterodimers in cereal dietary fiber

    Treesearch

    Mirko Bunzel; John Ralph; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Jane M. Marita; Ronald D. Hatfield; Hans Steinhart

    2003-01-01

    Two 8-8-coupled sinapic acid dehydrodimers and at least three sinapate-ferulate heterodimers have been identified as saponification products from different insoluble and soluble cereal grain dietary fibers. The two 8-8-disinapates were authenticated by comparison of their GC retention times and mass spectra with authentic dehydrodimers synthesized from methyl or ethyl...

  10. Prevention of obesity relatred metabolic diseases by processed foods containing soluble dietary fibers and flavonoids (abstract)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asians and other non-caucasians are generally more susceptible to obesity related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Viscous soluble dietary fibers such as cereal beta-glucans and psyllium reduce plasma cholesterol and postprandial glycemia in humans. We have stud...

  11. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  12. PCB126 modulates fecal microbial fermentation of the dietary fiber inulin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can alter gut microbial populations. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from gut microbial fermentation of dietary fibers such as inulin, exert numerous effects on host energy metabolism. SCFAs are also linked to health promoting effects, including a red...

  13. Dietary Supplements and Health Aids - A Critical Evaluation Part 2 - Macronutrients and Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubick, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Part 1 of this evaluation of dietary supplements and health aids (SE 533 788) focused on various therapeutic claims made for vitamins and minerals. This part examines health-promoting claims made for selected macronutrients and fiber. Macronutrients examined include selected proteins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and lipids. (JN)

  14. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  15. Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and upset and their association...

  16. Dietary sugar beet fiber ameliorates diarrhea as an acute gamma-radiation injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, S; Ito, S; Kasai, T; Hara, H

    2000-09-01

    Gamma radiation induces diarrhea as an acute injury. We have studied whether ingestion of sugar beet fiber influences radiation-induced diarrhea. Abdominal irradiation with gamma rays induced diarrhea in male Wistar/ST rats from 2 to 7 days after a single sublethal dose. The body weight of the irradiated rats was decreased temporarily at 4 days after irradiation regardless of the ingestion of sugar beet fiber. At day 8, it returned to almost the same level as that of unirradiated rats. A change in daily food intake resulted in a pattern similar to that for body weight. Dietary sugar beet fiber had little significant effect on the changes in body weight and daily food intake, and its ingestion significantly decreased gamma-ray-induced diarrhea. Changes in biochemical and histological parameters in intestinal mucosa (small intestine, cecum and colon) were not greatly influenced by the ingestion of sugar beet fiber through the periods of diarrhea. It was concluded that dietary sugar beet fiber ameliorated the diarrhea induced by abdominal irradiation. We suggest that the inhibitory effect of the ingestion of sugar beet fiber is due to its effects on the luminal environment, such as support for bacterial function in the luminal contents in the colon of animals that ingest sugar beet fiber.

  17. Whole grains--impact of consuming whole grains on physiological effects of dietary fiber and starch.

    PubMed

    Stephen, A M

    1994-01-01

    Much of the present research on the physiological effects of dietary fiber and starch has been done on sources isolated from the parent material, and it is not clear whether they have the same effects if fed in the intact or whole grain. For dietary fiber, physiological effect depends on extent of fermentation in the large intestine, and this is influenced by chemical composition, solubility, physical form, and presence of lignin or other compounds. All of these factors are altered by isolation of a fiber source from the whole grain, and hence effects of eating fiber vary. Similarly, physical form and presence in the whole grain will affect digestibility of starch in the small intestine, which in turn influences the glycemic response and colonic effects determined by the extent of malabsorption and entry into the colon. Starch that enters the colon is fermented and produces short-chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate, which is necessary to maintain a healthy mucosa. Hence, their presence within the whole grain may have important implications for health for both dietary fiber and starch. Evidence indicates that such effects are beneficial and that whole-grain consumption should be encouraged.

  18. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance: the Inter99 study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cathrine; Faerch, Kristine; Glümer, Charlotte; Tetens, Inge; Pedersen, Oluf; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-06-01

    To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index, daily glycemic load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. The Inter99 study is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30-60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. Intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.0001), whereas daily glycemic load and intake of glucose, fructose, dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, fruit, and vegetables were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.05). Intake of dietary fiber explained the associations with daily glycemic load and total carbohydrate and attenuated the association with fruit and vegetables. No significant associations were observed for daily glycemic index or sucrose. Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance. Furthermore, intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance.

  19. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake in Relation to Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    Background Macronutrients such as fat and fiber have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer. Methods To investigate these associations, the authors analyzed data from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). From 1980 to 2006, 669 invasive adenocarcinoma cases were identified over 1.3 million person-years of follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed in 1980 and updated every 2–4 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs), controlling for total energy and other risk factors. Results Overall, the authors found no significant associations between most dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk. Total fat was associated with a borderline significant decreased risk (top vs. bottom quintile RR=0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.60, 0.99; Ptrend=0.18). Findings for animal fat were similar. No inverse associations between dietary fibers and cancer risk were observed. Cereal fiber was modestly positively associated with risk (top vs. bottom quintile RR=1.38, 95%CI=1.07, 1.79; Ptrend = 0.05). The inverse association with animal fat intake and a positive association with carbohydrate intake were observed among premenopausal but not among postmenopausal women. Conclusions In this large prospective study, no overall association was observed between dietary fat, fiber, or carbohydrates with endometrial cancer risk, although several of the relationships may vary by menopausal status. Impact Dietary fat and fiber intake do not appear to play a major role in endometrial cancer etiology overall. However, further evaluation of these associations, particularly in premenopausal women, is needed. PMID:21393567

  20. Dietary fiber intake and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, G-C; Lv, D-B; Pang, Z; Dong, J-Y; Liu, Q-F

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that dietary fiber intake may be associated with a decreased risk of stroke, but the findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to assess this association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to risk of stroke. We also comprehensively reviewed the reference lists of the retrieved articles to identify additional studies. We used a random-effects model to compute the summary risk estimates. Six prospective cohort studies containing a total of 314 864 subjects and 8920 stroke cases were included. The summary relative risk (RR) of stroke for the highest vs lowest category of dietary fiber intake was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-0.99). The corresponding RR in the subgroup analyses for men and women was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.83-1.08) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.66-0.96), respectively; and for ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke was 0.83(95% CI, 0.72-0.96) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-1.06), respectively. Meta-regression indicated no significant difference between gender (P-interaction=0.18), or stroke subtypes (P-interaction =0.85). The dose-response analysis suggested a 12% (RR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97) reduction in risk of stroke for each 10 g per day increment in dietary fiber intake. Moderate heterogeneity emerged in some of analyses, but disappeared after removing one study substantially contributing to the heterogeneity. Little evidence of publication bias was detected. Findings of this meta-analysis indicate a significant inverse dose-response relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of stroke.

  1. The impact of extrusion on the nutritional composition, dietary fiber and in vitro digestibility of gluten-free snacks based on rice, pea and carob flour blends.

    PubMed

    Arribas, C; Cabellos, B; Sánchez, C; Cuadrado, C; Guillamón, E; Pedrosa, M M

    2017-09-15

    Consumers and the food industry are demanding healthier products. Expanded snacks with a high nutritional value were developed from different rice, pea and carob flour blends. The proximate composition, starch (total and resistant), amylose and amylopectin, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) contents, and the in vitro protein digestibility of different rice-legume formulations, were evaluated before and after the extrusion process. Compared with the corresponding non-extruded blends (control), the extrusion treatment did not change the total protein content, however, it reduced the soluble protein (61-86%), the fat (69-92%) and the resistant starch contents (100%). The total starch content of all studied blends increased (2-19%) after extrusion. The processing increased the in vitro protein digestibility, reaching values around 88-95% after extrusion. Total dietary fiber was reduced around 30%, and the insoluble fraction was affected to a larger extent than the soluble fraction by the extrusion process. Because of its balanced nutritional composition, high dietary fiber content, as well as low energy density, these novel gluten-free snack-like foods could be considered as functional foods and a healthier alternative to commercially available gluten-containing or gluten-free and low nutritional value snacks.

  2. [Trends of the dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18 - 45 in nine provinces (autonomous region) from 1989 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Bing; DU, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Ji-Guo; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Su, Chang; Ma, Yu-Xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-04-01

    To analyze the status and trend of dietary fiber intake and its food sources among Chinese residents aged 18 - 45 years old in 9 provinces (autonomous region), from 1989 to 2006. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of three consecutive days from China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989, 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) were used. And the 18 - 45 years old subjects with complete information on dietary survey were included. The sample size of these 7 surveys were 5597, 5596, 5323, 5485, 5308, 4144 and 3889, respectively. The trends of dietary fiber intake and food sources by time and sex were studied. From 1989 to 2000, the total of daily dietary fiber intake of 18 - 45 years old healthy residents decreased from 15.1 g/d to 11.6 g/d, insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased from 22.6 g/d to 17.8 g/d. In villages, from 1989 to 2000, the insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased 5.1 g/d in males and 5.2 g/d in females(13.2, 11.8 g in 2000, respectively;18.3, 17.0 g in 1989, respectively). In 2006, the insoluble dietary intake was 12.6 g/d in males and 11.2 g/d in females in villages. In cities, from 1989 to 2006, the insoluble dietary fiber intake was 9.4 - 11.8 g/d in males and 8.3 - 10.8 g/d in females. The total dietary fiber intake was 15.7 - 17.6 g/d in males and 13.5 - 16.4 g/d in females. The difference of insoluble and total dietary fiber intake between city and village was decreasing. In 2006, 70.6% (8.4/11.9) insoluble dietary fiber came from vegetables ((4.1 ± 3.1) g/d), wheat flour and its products ((2.6 ± 3.6) g/d), rice and its products ((1.7 ± 1.3) g/d). Dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18 - 45 in 9 provinces (autonomous region) decreased from 1989 to 2006. Vegetables, wheat flour, rice and their products were the major food sources of insoluble dietary fiber.

  3. In Vitro Degradation and Fermentation of Three Dietary Fiber Sources by Human Colonic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Weimer, Paul J.; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Savik, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend partially on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of supplemental fiber type on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a non-adapted human bacterial population from three normal subjects, extent of in vitro fermentation was greater for gum arabic (GA) than for psyllium (PSY), which was greater than that for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In a separate experiment, in vitro incubation with feces from 52 subjects with fecal incontinence, before and after random assignment to and consumption of one of three fiber (GA, PSY, or CMC) supplements or a placebo for 20-21d, indicated that prior consumption of a specific fiber source did not increase its degradation by fecal bacteria. Results suggest that the colonic microbial community enriched on a particular fiber substrate can rapidly adapt to the presentation of a new fiber substrate. Clinical implications of the findings are that intake of a fiber source by humans is not expected to result in bacterial adaptation that would require continually larger and eventually intolerable amounts of fiber to achieve therapeutic benefits. PMID:23556460

  4. In vitro degradation and fermentation of three dietary fiber sources by human colonic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Weimer, Paul J; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Savik, Kay

    2013-05-15

    Although clinical benefits of dietary fiber supplementation seem to depend partially on the extent of fiber degradation and fermentation by colonic bacteria, little is known about the effect of supplemental fiber type on bacterial metabolism. In an experiment using a nonadapted human bacterial population from three normal subjects, the extent of in vitro fermentation was greater for gum arabic (GA) than for psyllium (PSY), which was greater than that for carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). In a separate experiment, in vitro incubation with feces from 52 subjects with fecal incontinence, before and after random assignment to and consumption of one of three fiber (GA, PSY, or CMC) supplements or a placebo for 20-21 days, indicated that prior consumption of a specific fiber source did not increase its degradation by fecal bacteria. Results suggest that the colonic microbial community enriched on a particular fiber substrate can rapidly adapt to the presentation of a new fiber substrate. Clinical implications of the findings are that intake of a fiber source by humans is not expected to result in bacterial adaptation that would require continually larger and eventually intolerable amounts of fiber to achieve therapeutic benefits.

  5. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Gelin; Ma, Minmin; Yang, Jie; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-07-01

    The association between dietary fiber intake and gastric cancer risk has been investigated by many studies, with inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies to analyze this association. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase through October 2012. We analyzed 21 articles, which included 580,064 subjects. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, meta-regression, and publication bias analyses were performed. The summary odds ratios of gastric cancer for the highest, compared with the lowest, dietary fiber intake was 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.67) with significant heterogeneity among studies (P < .001, I(2) = 62.2%). Stratified analysis for study design, geographic area, source and type of fiber, Lauren's classification, publication year, sample size, and quality score of study yielded consistent results. Dose-response analysis associated a 10-g/day increment in fiber intake with a significant (44%) reduction in gastric cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis restricted to studies with control for conventional risk factors produced similar results, and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. In a meta-analysis, we show that dietary fiber intake is associated inversely with gastric cancer risk; the effect probably is independent of conventional risk factors. The direction of the protective association of dietary fiber was consistent among all studies, but the absolute magnitude was less certain because of heterogeneity among the studies. Further studies therefore are required to establish this association. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary consistency and plasticity of masseter fiber architecture in postweaning rabbits.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrea B; Jones, Kelly E; Kunwar, Ravinder; Ravosa, Matthew J

    2006-10-01

    Dietary consistency has been shown to influence cross-sectional area and fiber type composition of the masticatory muscles. However, little is known about the effects of dietary consistency on masticatory muscle fiber architecture. In this study, we explore the effects of dietary consistency on the internal architecture of rabbit masseter muscle. Because activity patterns of the rabbit chewing muscles show inter- and intramuscular heterogeneity, we evaluate if alterations in fiber architecture are homogeneous across various portions of the superficial masseter muscle. We compared masseter muscle fiber architecture between two groups of weanling rabbits raised on different diets for 105 days. One group was raised on a diet of ground rabbit pellets to model underuse of the masticatory complex, while the other group was fed a diet of intact pellets and hay blocks to model an overuse diet. In all portions of the superficial masseter, physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) are greater in the overuse compared to underuse diet rabbits. Thus, the mechanical demands for larger muscle and bite forces associated with early and prolonged exposure to a tough diet are met by an increase in PCSA of the superficial masseter. The larger PCSA is due entirely to increased muscle mass, as the two rabbit groups show no differences in either fiber length or angle of pinnation. Thus, increasing pinnation angle is not a necessary biomechanical solution to improving muscle and bite force during growth. The change in PCSA but not fiber length suggests that variation in dietary consistency has an impact on maximum force production but not necessarily on excursion or contraction velocity.

  7. Dietary fiber for cats: in vitro fermentation of selected fiber sources by cat fecal inoculum and in vivo utilization of diets containing selected fiber sources and their blends.

    PubMed

    Sunvold, G D; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Bourquin, L D; Titgemeyer, E C; Bauer, L L; Reinhart, G A

    1995-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the addition of single sources and blends of dietary fibers to cat diets. In Exp. 1, fermentability of selected fibrous substrates by cat fecal microflora was evaluated. After 24 h of fermentation, OM disappearance (OMD) and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were greatest (P < .05) for citrus pectin, guar gum, and locust bean gum, whereas Solka Floc resulted in the least (P < .05) OMD and total SCFA production. In Exp. 2, six diets were formulated based on results of Exp. 1. The highest (P < .05) digestibilities of DM and OM occurred when cats consumed the diet with no supplemental fiber, and the lowest (P < .05) digestibilities occurred when cats consumed the SCFA blend (SC) diet. Nitrogen and lipid digestibilities also were lowest (P < .05) for cats consuming the SC diet, whereas total dietary fiber (TDF) digestibility (P < .05) was greatest for cats consuming the beet pulp, SC, and combination blend diets. Fecal consistency scores were highest (P < .05) for cats consuming the SC diet, indicating liquid, unformed stools. In conclusion, the in vitro fermentation technique was reasonably accurate in predicting in vivo digestion of fiber. The SC diet, which contained the most fermentable fibers, severely decreased nutrient digestibility and resulted in poor stool characteristics. Diets that contain moderately fermentable fiber provide fermentation end products that may be important in maintaining the health of the gastrointestinal tract of the cat.

  8. Influence of Hydrocolloids (Dietary Fibers) on Lipid Digestion of Protein-Stabilized Emulsions: Comparison of Neutral, Anionic, and Cationic Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dingkui; Yang, Xiaojun; Gao, Songran; Yao, Junhu; McClements, David Julian

    2016-07-01

    The impact of dietary fibers on lipid digestion within the gastrointestinal tract depends on their molecular and physicochemical properties. In this study, the influence of the electrical characteristics of dietary fibers on their ability to interfere with the digestion of protein-coated lipid droplets was investigated using an in vitro small intestine model. Three dietary fibers were examined: cationic chitosan; anionic alginate; neutral locust bean gum (LBG). The particle size, ζ-potential, microstructure, and apparent viscosity of β-lactoglobulin stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing different types and levels of dietary fiber were measured before and after lipid digestion. The rate and extent of lipid digestion depended on polysaccharide type and concentration. At relatively low dietary fiber levels (0.1 to 0.2 wt%), the initial lipid digestion rate was only reduced by chitosan, but the final extent of lipid digestion was unaffected by all 3 dietary fibers. At relatively high dietary fiber levels (0.4 wt%), alginate and chitosan significantly inhibited lipid hydrolysis, whereas LBG did not. The impact of chitosan on lipid digestion was attributed to its ability to promote fat droplet aggregation through bridging flocculation, thereby retarding access of the lipase to the droplet surfaces. The influence of alginate was mainly ascribed to its ability to sequester calcium ions and promote depletion flocculation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Biomedical Issues of Dietary fiber β-Glucan

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Yoon Young; Cho, Kyung-Hwan

    2006-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide in the form of fiber and the main element of fiber in grains such as barley, oats, yeast and mushrooms. Many studies have examined the efficacy of β-glucan in terms of the lipid lowering effects, blood sugar reduction, weight reduction, immune modulator, and anticarcinogenic effect. However, there is no comprehensive review article on the biomedical issues regarding β-glucan. The authors searched for systematic reviews and clinical experiments for each relevant topic and reviewed the biomedical effects of β-glucan, for the purpose of developing research strategies for the future. PMID:17043406

  10. Hydration properties and binding capacities of dietary fibers from bamboo shoot shell and its hypolipidemic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xianliang; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Baodong; Lin, Liangmei; Chen, Bingyan; Zheng, Yafeng; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-02-22

    In the bamboo shoot processing industries, bamboo shoot shells are discarded without any utilization. As a cheap potential dietary fibers resource, bamboo shoot (Leleba oldhami Nakal) shell was decomposed to dietary fibers by multiple enzymes. The extraction yields of insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber were 56.21% and 8.67%, respectively. The resulting fibers showed significant swelling capacity, water holding capacity and exhibit in vitro binding capacities to fat, cholesterol, bile acids and nitrites. The administration of bamboo shoot shell fibers improved the lipid metabolism disorderly situation of hyperlipidemia mice. Compared with normal group, total dietary fiber supplement could exhibit the lowest body weight gain (2.84%) in mice, and decrease total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 31.53%, 21.35% and 31.53%, respectively; while it can increase high density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 37.6%. The bamboo shoot shell fibers could be a potentially available dietary ingredient in functional food industries.

  11. Association Between Dietary Fiber and Incident Cases of Colon Polyps: The Adventist Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tantamango, Yessenia M.; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, Larry; Fraser, Gary; Sabate, Joan

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most cases of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps. It has been estimated that 25%–35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modification of dietary and life-style habits. Methods: We estimated the association between total dietary fiber and fiber intake from fruits, vegetables, and grains, and the risk of physician-diagnosed colon polyps among 2818 men and women who had undergone colonoscopy. Data were drawn from 2 cohort studies—the Adventist Health Study-1 (AHS-1) of 1976 and the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) conducted from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information was obtained from the self-administered questionnaire from AHS-1, while outcome was assessed from AHS-2 data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps. Results: A total of 441 incident cases of colon polyps were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, education, and alcohol and meat consumption, total fiber intake was inversely associated with the risk of colon polyps (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51–0.99). This association showed a dose-response effect (p = .04). Analyses of various sources of fiber showed the most clear effect of fiber from vegetables including legumes (OR for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.65; 95% CI 0.47–0.90; p = .02). Conclusions: In this population comprising a high proportion of vegetarians, persons who consumed low amounts of fiber, especially fiber contained in vegetables, had a higher risk of developing colon polyps. PMID:22295127

  12. Association between dietary fiber and incident cases of colon polyps: the adventist health study.

    PubMed

    Tantamango, Yessenia M; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, Larry; Fraser, Gary; Sabate, Joan

    2011-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Most cases of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps. It has been estimated that 25%-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modification of dietary and life-style habits. We estimated the association between total dietary fiber and fiber intake from fruits, vegetables, and grains, and the risk of physician-diagnosed colon polyps among 2818 men and women who had undergone colonoscopy. Data were drawn from 2 cohort studies-the Adventist Health Study-1 (AHS-1) of 1976 and the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) conducted from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information was obtained from the self-administered questionnaire from AHS-1, while outcome was assessed from AHS-2 data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the period risk of incident cases of polyps. A total of 441 incident cases of colon polyps were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, education, and alcohol and meat consumption, total fiber intake was inversely associated with the risk of colon polyps (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99). This association showed a dose-response effect (p = .04). Analyses of various sources of fiber showed the most clear effect of fiber from vegetables including legumes (OR for highest vs lowest quartile = 0.65; 95% CI 0.47-0.90; p = .02). In this population comprising a high proportion of vegetarians, persons who consumed low amounts of fiber, especially fiber contained in vegetables, had a higher risk of developing colon polyps.

  13. Trends in dietary fiber intake in the United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    King, Dana E; Mainous, Arch G; Lambourne, Carol A

    2012-05-01

    Intake of dietary fiber has been recommended for many years as part of the guidelines from the American Heart Association, the Institute of Medicine, and other groups. The recommended Adequate Intake for dietary fiber for adults is 25 to 38 g/day (14 g/1,000 kcal/day). To determine the average daily intake of dietary fiber among adults during the past decade and, specifically, to document progress toward national goals. Cross-sectional weighted data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults aged 18 years and older. Data were collected from noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 years and older using a nationally representative, complex, multistage, probability-based survey of people living in the United States that was conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Daily dietary fiber intake by members of the US population based on 2-year groupings of the continuous survey from 1999 to 2008. Mean daily dietary fiber intake for 1999-2000 was 15.6 g/day, for 2001-2002 intake was 16.1g/day, for 2003-2004 intake was 15.5 g/day, for 2005-2006 intake was 15.8 g/day, and for 2007-2008 intake was 15.9 g/day. Participants with obesity (body mass index ≥30) consistently reported lower fiber intake than did individuals with normal weight or overweight (14.6 to 15.4 g/day and 15.6 to 16.8 g/day, respectively; P<0.0001). Mexican Americans had significantly higher intake in 1999-2000 than non-Hispanic whites (18.0 vs 16.1g/day; P<0.05), but Mexican Americans' intake did not increase over time (17.7 g/day in 2007-2008). Non-Hispanic blacks had fiber intake of 12.5 g/day at baseline that increased modestly to 13.1 g/day by 2007-2008. Daily fiber intake generally has not progressed toward national goals during the past decade, but there are some differences according to health and social factors. Additional clinical practice and public health strategies are needed. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc

  14. [Effect of dietary fiber on fecal excretion and liver distribution of PCDF in rats].

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Matsueda, T; Iida, T

    1995-05-01

    Forty male rats (126 g body weight) consisting of four rats a group were housed and rats of each group were given a treatment diets containing cellulose, rice-bran fiber, spinach fiber, burdock fiber, cabbage fiber, soybean fiber, Japanese-radish fiber, carrot fiber and corn fiber for five days. The remaining four rats were fed a non-fiber diet as controls. The animals were orally administered with 0.5 ml of the rice-bran oil used by Yusho patients and kept on the same diets for five days. The rice-bran oil was contaminated with 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2, 3, 7, 8-T4CDF, 458.7 ng/ml), 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2, 3, 4, 7, 8-P5CDF, 802.4 ng/ml) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-hexachlorodibenzofuran (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-H6CDF, 752.3 ng/ml). PCDF in feces and liver were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The fecal excretion of 2, 3, 7, 8-T4CDF in the group fed rice-bran fiber and spinach fiber was significantly (p < 0.01) stimulated 11.3 and 6.8 times, respectively, as compared with controls. Moreover, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-P5CDF and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-H6CDF were excreted in stool at the rate of 4.1 and 3.4 times, respectively and 2.1 and 2.2 times, respectively, as compared with controls. These results suggest that administration of dietary fiber is useful for a new approach to therapy of Yusho patients.

  15. [Dietary Fiber and Pubertal Development among Children and Adolescents--a Cross-sectional Study in Chengdu, Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Tian, Guo; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hong-mei; Luo, Jiao; Chen, Yan-rong; Bao, Yu-xin; Duan, Ruo-nan; Yang, Ming-zhe; Cheng, Guo

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between intake of dietary fiber and pubertal development among children and adolescents in Chengdu. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1 340 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years. Data about dietary intake were collected through 24-h dietary self-recall. Pubertal development was measured by trained investigators using Tanner criteria. Consumptions of total fiber and fiber from different sources were compared among the participants with different stages of pubertal development. Data from 1 328 children and adolescents were analyzed. Boys (n = 667) at a later stage of pubertal development consumed less total fiber and fruit fiber than those at an earlier stage (P < 0.05). Similarly, girls (n = 651) at a later stage of pubertal development consumed less fruit fiber than those at an earlier stage (P < 0.05). Dietary fiber intake, especially fruit fiber, is lower in children and adolescents with early commencement of puberty development. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between dietary fiber and pubertal development.

  16. Association of dietary fiber with temporal changes in serum cholesterol in Japanese-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Teresa Gontijo; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2006-06-01

    To examine dietary intakes in relation to long-term serum lipoprotein changes in a prospective cohort study with 7 y of follow-up, serum lipids were analyzed by enzymatic methods, while food intake was calculated from validated food frequency questionnaires. First- and second-generation Japanese-Brazilians (n = 316) living in Bauru, São Paulo/Brazil, of both genders, aged 40 to 79 y were assessed at baseline in 1993. Multiple linear regression models were used with changes in serum lipoproteins as the dependent variable and changes in dietary intakes as the independent variables, adjusted for confounding factors. In energy-adjusted analyses, changes in serum total cholesterol were inversely associated with changes in total dietary fiber, fruits/fruit juices and vegetables after adjustment for age and gender. Each increase of 10 g in the consumption of total dietary fiber was associated with a reduction of 12.5 mg/dL in the serum total cholesterol (p<0.05). Our results highlight the importance of increased intakes of total fiber, fruits and vegetables to prevent and control dyslipidemia in Japanese migrants.

  17. Comparative content of total polyphenols and dietary fiber in tropical fruits and persimmon.

    PubMed

    Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Haruenkit, R; Chuthakorn, R; Grauer, F; Martin-Belloso, O; Trakhtenberg, S

    1999-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary fiber and polyphenols of vegetables and fruits improve lipid metabolism and prevent the oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which hinder the development of atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to measure the total polyphenol and dietary fiber contents of some tropical fruits (i.e., pineapple, wax apple, rambutan, lichi, guava, and mango) and compare the results to the content of these substances in the better characterized persimmon. It was found that lichi, guava, and ripe mango (cv. Keaw) have 3.35, 4.95, and 6.25 mg of total polyphenols in 100 g fresh fruit, respectively. This is significantly higher than in persimmon, pineapple, wax apple, mature green mango, and rambutan [P < 0.0005 for pineapple (Smooth Cayene variant), wax apple, persimmon, rambutan, mature green mango (cv. Keaw); the value of P < 0.001 is found only for pineapple (Phuket, Queen variant)]. The same relationship was observed for the contents of gallic acid and of dietary fiber. It can be supposed that among the studied fruit, lichi, guava, and ripe mango may be preferable for dietary prevention of atherosclerosis.

  18. [Relationship between dietary fiber intake and food intake patterns of the general population, evaluated by a regional nutrition survey].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, I; Notsu, A; Noda, H; Otsuka, Y

    1998-07-01

    This study was performed to estimate the dietary fiber intake calculated using individual food intake data and the dietary fiber tables, and to ascertain the relationship between food intake patterns and dietary fiber intake of the general population. The 805 subjects over 15 years old were obtained from the Tottori Prefecture Nutrition Survey. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The average dietary fiber intake per capita per day was 18.19 g; 18.67 g in men, and 17.81 g in women. Dietary fiber intake per energy was different among sexes and ages: women had more dietary fiber than men and the aged had more than the young. Those who had high fiber intake per energy took green vegetables, fruits, milk, soybean products, seaweed and potatoes more frequently, and did not take oil so frequently. 2. Total dietary fiber intake from 20 food-group sources was analyzed by Multiple Regression Analysis. For both men and women fruits, vegetables and soybean products mostly influenced dietary fiber intake. 3. Based on the intake of the 20 food-groups obtained from 356 men and 449 women, the correlation matrix among these foods was calculated. The correlation matrix was also submitted to a Principal Component Analysis. The result of the Principal Component Analysis told that food intake patterns were different among the levels of dietary fiber intake. Food intake patterns of men and women who had high fiber intake per energy had an eating pattern characterized by relatively more non-processed vegetable food, bread and milk. 4. The level of blood pressure was significantly related to dietary fiber intake per energy in men over 60 years old. In the hypertensive men over 60 years old, 23.3% were in the low fiber intake group, 37.2% in the middle group, and 39.5% in the high group. But in the normal blood pressure men over 60 years old, 50.0% were in the low fiber intake group, 8.3% in the middle group, and 41.7% in the high group.

  19. Dietary carbohydrate, fiber and sugar and risk of breast cancer according to menopausal status in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Suhaina; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Shaharudin, Soraya Hanie; Hussin, Sharifah Noor Akmal Syed

    2014-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate, fiber and sugar intake has been shown to play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, but the findings have been inconsistent and limited to developed countries with higher cancer incidence. To examine the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with dietary carbohydrate, fiber and sugar intake. This population based case-control study was conducted in Malaysia with 382 breast cancer patients and 382 controls. Food intake pattern was assessed via an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad range of potential confounders were included in analysis. A significant two fold increased risk of breast cancer among premenopausal (OR Q4 to Q1=1.93, 95%CI: 1.53-2.61, p-trend=0.001) and postmenopausal (OR Q4 to Q1=1.87, 95%CI: 1.03-2.61, p-trend=0.045) women was observed in the highest quartile of sugar. A higher intake of dietary fiber was associated with a significantly lower breast cancer risk among both premenopausal (OR Q4 to Q1=0.31, 95%CI: 0.12-0.79, p-trend=0.009) and postmenopausal (OR Q4 to Q1=0.23, 95%CI: 0.07-0.76, p-trend=0.031) women. Sugar and dietary fiber intake were independently related to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. However, no association was observed for dietary carbohydrate intake.

  20. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrate Quality and Quantity, and Mortality Risk of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Koert N. J.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Dethlefsen, Claus; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rolandsson, Olov; Huerta, José María; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. Objective To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. Methods This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992–2000) with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. Results During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75–0.91]) and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64–0.89]). No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07–1.88]), carbohydrate (1.67[1.18–2.37]) and sugar intake (1.53[1.12–2.09]) were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m2; 22% of study population) but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04). These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. Conclusions High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes. PMID:22927948

  1. [Dietary fiber content and nitrogen digestibility in Central American foods: Guatemala].

    PubMed

    Acevedo, E; Bressani, R

    1990-09-01

    The study herein reported presents information on the dietary fiber content of four food groups consumed in Central America. These are: cereals, grains and products; raw and processed beans; raw and processed vegetables, and starchy foods such as potatoes, cassava and plantain. Besides data on soluble and insoluble fiber, data on in vitro protein digestibility are included. The total dietary fiber content of the wheat flour products varied from 1.62 to 2.83% on a fresh basis, with the exception of whole-wheat bread, which showed a 7.57% content. The maize tortilla presented values ranging from 3.96 to 5.21% in respect to beans, and the values for cooked and raw beans fluctuated between 6.36 and 7.00%, independent of the color; however, fried beans reported values from 15.28 to 17.58%. Vegetables contained total dietary fiber values of 1.51 to 4.34, and the tubers, from 1.31 to 2.86%.

  2. Effect of dietary rhubarb stalk fiber on the bioavailability of calcium in rats.

    PubMed

    Goel, V; Ooraikul, B; Basu, T K

    1996-03-01

    Ground rhubarb stalk fiber containing, on a dry weight basis, 74% total dietary fiber (66% insoluble and 8% soluble) was prepared from rhubarb plants. This fiber source has been shown to have a pronounced lipid lowering effect in mice. Its high oxalic acid content may, however, be a limiting factor for its use. The present study was undertaken to determine the safe dose level of the fiber in terms of its effect on calcium bioavailability. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-purified diet (AIN 76) for 4 weeks containing 0, 1, 3, or 5% rhubarb fiber, or pure oxalic acid equivalent to 5% rhubarb fiber. The fiber content of each diet was brought to 5% by adding cellulose, and the calcium level of all diets was the same. As the rhubarb stalk fiber content of the diet increased, a consistent trend of increasing total retention and apparent absorption of calcium was manifested. In contrast, however, cellulose, due to its increased effect on intestinal motility resulted in a decreased calcium bioavailability. Overall results suggest that an addition of rhubarb stalk powder up to the level of 5% in a diet does not have detrimental effect on calcium bioavailability.

  3. Dietary fiber for dogs: IV. In vitro fermentation of selected fiber sources by dog fecal inoculum and in vivo digestion and metabolism of fiber-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Sunvold, G D; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Titgemeyer, E C; Bourquin, L D; Bauer, L L; Reinhart, G A

    1995-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate single sources and blends of dietary fiber in dog food. In Exp. 1, 14 fibrous substrates were fermented in vitro using dog feces as the source of inoculum. Organic matter disappearance was lowest (P < .05; < 10%) for Solka Floc and oat fiber and greatest (P < .05; > 80%) for fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and lactulose. Solka Floc, oat fiber, gum karaya, and xanthan gum produced the least (P < .05; < 1 mmol/g of substrate OM) total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Lactulose, citrus pectin, and guar gum produced the greatest (P < .05; > 6.8 mmol/g of substrate OM) total SCFA. In Exp. 2, six diets were formulated based on results obtained in Exp. 1. Treatments included 1) beet pulp (BP), 2) Solka Floc (SF), 3) citrus pulp (CP), 4) stool blend (SB), 5) SCFA blend (SC), and 6) combination blend (CB). Digestibility of DM and total dietary fiber (TDF) was greatest (P < .05; 87.3 and 60.8%, respectively) for dogs consuming the SC diet. Feces from dogs fed SC were scored as more unformed and liquid in consistency than feces from dogs fed the other diets. Dogs consuming the SF and SB diets had the lowest (P < .05; 11.0 and 4.1%, respectively) TDF digestibilities. Organic matter disappearance values derived from substrates fermented in vitro reasonably predicted the fiber digestibility of diets fed to dogs. Moderately fermentable dietary fiber sources, such as BP, promote excellent stool characteristics without compromising nutrient digestibility, and may promote gastrointestinal tract health by optimizing SCFA production.

  4. Quantification of the fate of dietary fiber in humans by a newly developed radiolabeled fiber marker

    SciTech Connect

    Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    A radiolabeled cellulose (/sup 131/I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested /sup 131/I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of /sup 131/I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, /sup 99/mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99/mTc-DTPA), showed that /sup 131/I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some /sup 131/I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. /sup 131/I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of /sup 131/I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet.

  5. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Candida J; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-02-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety.

  6. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety. PMID:26724486

  7. Dietary fiber enhances TGF-β signaling and growth inhibition in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yanna; Gao, Xuxia; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Guohua; Nguyen, Anthony K.; Liu, Xianghua; Jimenez, Fernando; Cox, Charles S.; Townsend, Courtney M.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber intake links to decreased risk of colorectal cancers. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, we found that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in gut by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, enhances TGF-β signaling in rat intestinal epithelial cells (RIE-1). Furthermore, TGF-β represses inhibitors of differentiation (Ids), leading to apoptosis. We hypothesized that dietary fiber enhances TGF-β's growth inhibitory effects on gut epithelium via inhibition of Id2. In this study, Balb/c and DBA/2N mice were fed with a regular rodent chow or supplemented with a dietary fiber (20% pectin) and Smad3 level in gut epithelium was measured. In vitro, RIE-1 cells were treated with butyrate and TGF-β1, and cell functions were evaluated. Furthermore, the role of Ids in butyrate- and TGF-β-induced growth inhibition was investigated. We found that pectin feeding increased Smad3 protein levels in the jejunum (1.47 ± 0.26-fold, P = 0.045, in Balb/c mice; 1.49 ± 0.19-fold, P = 0.016, in DBA/2N mice), and phospho-Smad3 levels (1.92 ± 0.27-fold, P = 0.009, in Balb/c mice; 1.83 ± 0.28-fold, P = 0.022, in DBA/2N mice). Butyrate or TGF-β alone inhibited cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest. The combined treatment of butyrate and TGF-β synergistically induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in RIE-1 cells and repressed Id2 and Id3 levels. Furthermore, knockdown of Id2 gene expression by use of small interfering RNA caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We conclude that dietary fiber pectin enhanced Smad3 expression and activation in the gut. Butyrate and TGF-β induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which may be mediated by repression of Id2. Our results implicate a novel mechanism of dietary fiber in reducing the risk of colorectal cancer development. PMID:21454444

  8. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation. Methods Literature searches were conducted to identify nationally representative input parameters for the U.S. population, which included prevalence of functional constipation; current dietary fiber intakes; proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes; and the percentage that would be expected to respond, in terms of alleviation of constipation, to a change in dietary fiber consumption. A dose–response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to U.S. $ 2012. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact on adult vs. pediatric populations and the robustness of the model to each input parameter. Results The base case direct medical cost-savings was $12.7 billion annually among adults. The base case assumed that 3% of men and 6% of women currently met recommended dietary fiber intakes; each 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake would lead to a reduction of 1.9% in constipation prevalence; and all adults would increase their dietary fiber intake to recommended levels (mean increase of 9 g/day). Sensitivity analyses, which explored numerous alternatives, found that even if only 50% of the adult population increased dietary fiber intake by 3 g/day, annual medical costs savings exceeded $2 billion. All plausible scenarios resulted in cost savings of at least $1 billion. Conclusions Increasing dietary fiber

  9. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model.

    PubMed

    Schmier, Jordana K; Miller, Paige E; Levine, Jessica A; Perez, Vanessa; Maki, Kevin C; Rains, Tia M; Devareddy, Latha; Sanders, Lisa M; Alexander, Dominik D

    2014-04-17

    Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation. Literature searches were conducted to identify nationally representative input parameters for the U.S. population, which included prevalence of functional constipation; current dietary fiber intakes; proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes; and the percentage that would be expected to respond, in terms of alleviation of constipation, to a change in dietary fiber consumption. A dose-response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to U.S. $ 2012. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact on adult vs. pediatric populations and the robustness of the model to each input parameter. The base case direct medical cost-savings was $12.7 billion annually among adults. The base case assumed that 3% of men and 6% of women currently met recommended dietary fiber intakes; each 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake would lead to a reduction of 1.9% in constipation prevalence; and all adults would increase their dietary fiber intake to recommended levels (mean increase of 9 g/day). Sensitivity analyses, which explored numerous alternatives, found that even if only 50% of the adult population increased dietary fiber intake by 3 g/day, annual medical costs savings exceeded $2 billion. All plausible scenarios resulted in cost savings of at least $1 billion. Increasing dietary fiber consumption is associated with

  10. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (p<0.001), and 62% of the participants were grouped into the same tertile of intake according to the two methods. The estimates of mean dietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  11. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  12. Symptoms Associated with Dietary Fiber Supplementation over Time in Individuals with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge about adverse symptoms over time from fiber supplementation is lacking. Purpose To compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and emotional upset and their association with study attrition and reducing fiber dose. Methods Subjects (N=189, 77% female, 92% white, (age = 58 years, SD = 14) with fecal incontinence were randomly assigned to placebo or a supplement of 16g total dietary fiber/day from one of three sources: gum arabic, psyllium, or carboxymethylcellulose. They reported GI symptoms daily during baseline (14 days), incremental fiber dosing (6 days), and two segments of steady full fiber dose (32 days total). Results Severity of symptoms in all groups was minimal. Adjusting for study segment and day, a greater feeling of fullness in the psyllium group was the only symptom that differed from symptoms in the placebo group. Odds of having greater severity of flatus, belching, fullness, and bloating were 1.2–2.0 times greater in the steady dose segment compared to baseline. There was a positive association between symptom severity and emotional upset. Subjects with a greater feeling of fullness or bloating or higher scores for total symptom severity or emotional upset were more likely to withdraw from the study sooner or reduce fiber dose. Conclusions Persons with fecal incontinence experience a variety of GI symptoms over time. Symptom severity and emotional upset appear to influence fiber tolerance and study attrition. Supplements seemed well tolerated. PMID:21543963

  13. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

  14. Whole Grains Contribute Only a Small Proportion of Dietary Fiber to the U.S. Diet.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sibylle; Dodd, Kevin W; Juan, Wen Yen; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-02-17

    Dietary fiber (DF), found in whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (WG), is considered a nutrient of concern in the US diet and increased consumption is recommended. The present study was designed to highlight this critical importance of the difference between WG, high-fiber WG, and sources of fiber that are not from WG. The study is based on the two-day diets reported consumed by the nationally representative sample of Americans participating in What We Eat In America, the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003-2010. Foods consumed were classified into tertiles of DF and WG and the contribution of fiber by differing levels of WG content were examined. Foods containing high amounts of WG and DF only contributed about 7% of total fiber intake. Overall, grain-based foods contributed 54.5% of all DF consumed. Approximately 39% of DF came from grain foods that contained no WG, rather these foods contained refined grains, which contain only small amounts of DF but are consumed in large quantities. All WG-containing foods combined contributed a total of 15.3% of DF in the American diet. Thus, public health messaging needs to be changed to specifically encourage consumption of WG foods with high levels of DF to address both recommendations.

  15. Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on beta-carotene utilization by the chick.

    PubMed

    Erdman, J W; Fahey, G C; White, C B

    1986-12-01

    Effects of various purified dietary fiber components on beta-carotene utilization by the chick were investigated in two experiments (expt.). Eight-day-old Columbian X New Hampshire male (expt. 1) or female (expt. 2) chicks were fed a vitamin A-deficient diet for 1 wk and then fed beta-carotene-supplemented diets containing 0% fiber, 7% arenaceous flour or 7% of a purified fiber source for 4 wk. Results of expt. 1 showed that hemicellulose, lignin and citrus pectin, but not arenaceous flour or polygalacturonic acid, depressed beta-carotene utilization by the chick, as measured by percentage of consumed beta-carotene stored in liver as vitamin A relative to the 0% fiber control. In expt. 2, effects of the methoxyl content of pectin were studied. High and medium methoxyl apple pectin, citrus pectin and polygalacturonic acid reduced storage of vitamin A in liver. Low methoxyl apple pectin had no significant effect on beta-carotene utilization. Thus, several purified forms of dietary fiber significantly reduced beta-carotene utilization by chicks when fed at the 7% supplementary level. Moreover, with pectin, there was an inverse relationship between methoxyl content of pectin and beta-carotene utilization.

  16. Whole Grains Contribute Only a Small Proportion of Dietary Fiber to the U.S. Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; Dodd, Kevin W.; Juan, Wen Yen; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF), found in whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (WG), is considered a nutrient of concern in the US diet and increased consumption is recommended. The present study was designed to highlight this critical importance of the difference between WG, high-fiber WG, and sources of fiber that are not from WG. The study is based on the two-day diets reported consumed by the nationally representative sample of Americans participating in What We Eat In America, the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003–2010. Foods consumed were classified into tertiles of DF and WG and the contribution of fiber by differing levels of WG content were examined. Foods containing high amounts of WG and DF only contributed about 7% of total fiber intake. Overall, grain-based foods contributed 54.5% of all DF consumed. Approximately 39% of DF came from grain foods that contained no WG, rather these foods contained refined grains, which contain only small amounts of DF but are consumed in large quantities. All WG-containing foods combined contributed a total of 15.3% of DF in the American diet. Thus, public health messaging needs to be changed to specifically encourage consumption of WG foods with high levels of DF to address both recommendations. PMID:28218657

  17. Gut microbiota metabolism of dietary fiber influences allergic airway disease and hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Trompette, Aurélien; Gollwitzer, Eva S; Yadava, Koshika; Sichelstiel, Anke K; Sprenger, Norbert; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Blanchard, Carine; Junt, Tobias; Nicod, Laurent P; Harris, Nicola L; Marsland, Benjamin J

    2014-02-01

    Metabolites from intestinal microbiota are key determinants of host-microbe mutualism and, consequently, the health or disease of the intestinal tract. However, whether such host-microbe crosstalk influences inflammation in peripheral tissues, such as the lung, is poorly understood. We found that dietary fermentable fiber content changed the composition of the gut and lung microbiota, in particular by altering the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. The gut microbiota metabolized the fiber, consequently increasing the concentration of circulating short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Mice fed a high-fiber diet had increased circulating levels of SCFAs and were protected against allergic inflammation in the lung, whereas a low-fiber diet decreased levels of SCFAs and increased allergic airway disease. Treatment of mice with the SCFA propionate led to alterations in bone marrow hematopoiesis that were characterized by enhanced generation of macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) precursors and subsequent seeding of the lungs by DCs with high phagocytic capacity but an impaired ability to promote T helper type 2 (TH2) cell effector function. The effects of propionate on allergic inflammation were dependent on G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41, also called free fatty acid receptor 3 or FFAR3), but not GPR43 (also called free fatty acid receptor 2 or FFAR2). Our results show that dietary fermentable fiber and SCFAs can shape the immunological environment in the lung and influence the severity of allergic inflammation.

  18. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have distinct physicochemical properties). The main carbohydrate component of the LF diet was starch and nonstarch polysaccharides (cellulose and noncellulosic polysaccharides) for the 2 high dietary fiber diets. Consumption of the LF diet resulted in increased and rapid glucose absorption at 0 to 4 h postfeeding. With the HF-I diet, the glucose absorption pattern was similar but at a decreased rate, whereas it was decreased and delayed with the HF-S diet (diet, P < 0.001; time, P < 0.001). These differences were also reflected in the insulin response. The quantitative absorption of SCFA at 0 to 10 h postfeeding was greater when feeding the HF-S diet compared with the LF diet (P < 0.001) and intermediate when feeding the HF-I diet (P < 0.001). The study showed that feeding the high dietary fiber diets resulted in a increased and more uniform uptake of SCFA than when feeding the LF control. Moreover, the HF-S diet reduced diurnal variation in glucose and insulin concentrations.

  19. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Increased luminal mucin does not disturb glucose or ovalbumin absorption in rats fed insoluble dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Yuto, Shunsuke; Matsubara, Takeshi; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Sugiyama, Kimio; Kiriyama, Shuhachi

    2006-10-01

    We tested whether increased mucin secretion due to ingestion of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) affects small intestinal nutrient absorption in rats. Polystyrene foam (PSF) with a true expansion ratio of 54.9 was used as a model for IDF with high bulk-forming properties. In Expt. 1, rats were fed a control diet or diet containing 50 g PSF/kg for 1, 3, 5, or 7 d. Small intestinal mucin fractions were isolated, and O-linked oligosaccharide chains were measured. The luminal mucin content reached a maximum within 5 d after PSF ingestion. In Expt. 2, rats were fed a control diet or diet containing 50 g PSF/kg for 7 d, and then all rats were switched to the control diet for 1, 3, or 5 d. The increased capacity for luminal mucin secretion disappeared within 5 d after ceasing PSF ingestion. In Expt. 3, rats were fed a control diet or diet containing 70 g PSF/kg for 7 d. Glucose (1g/kg) was administered orally after 12 h of food deprivation. The blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the groups. In Expt. 4, rats were fed a control diet or diet containing 90 g PSF/kg for 14 d. At d 7, portal cannulae were installed. A mixed solution of glucose (1g/kg) and ovalbumin (OVA, 250 mg/kg) was orally administered after 12 h of food deprivation, and responses of portal glucose and OVA concentrations were monitored for 120 min. Although luminal mucin contents were almost doubled in the 9% PSF group compared with the control group, neither portal glucose nor OVA concentration differed at any time point. The results suggest that the short-term ingestion of IDF significantly increases the luminal mucin content, but that this does not disturb nutrient absorption.

  1. Binding of water, oil, and bile acids to dietary fibers of the cellan type.

    PubMed

    Dongowski, G; Ehwald, R

    1999-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) of the "cellan" type (consisting mainly or exclusively of undestroyed cells) were prepared as ethanol-dried materials from apple, cabbage, sugar-beet, soybean hulls, wheat bran, and suspension cultures of Chenopodium album L. and investigated with respect to their interactions with water, water-oil dispersions, bile acids, and oil. Water binding and retention capacities were found to be especially high in cellans obtained from thin-walled raw material. Water damp sorption by dry cellans, when analyzed according to the GAB and BET equations, shows a considerable fraction of monolayer water. At a water activity of 0.98, the cell and capillary spaces outside the walls remained in the air-filled state but the cell wall pores are filled with water. When the water content of a concentrated aqueous cellan suspension was equal to or below the water binding capacity, its rheological behavior was found to be of pseudoplastic nature. At a given dry weight concentration, yield stress and viscosity of such concentrated suspensions were highest for cellans with the highest water binding capacity. Dry cellan particles absorbed fatty oils without swelling but swell in a detergent-stabilized oil/water emulsion with a similar liquid absorption capacity as in water. In contrast to the dry or alkane-saturated cell wall, the hydrated wall is not permeable to oils in the absence of a detergent. Oil droplets may be entrapped within the cells, yielding a stable dispersion of oil in water. As DF of the cellan type absorb bile acids, preferentially glycoconjugates, from diluted solutions, they may have a potential to decrease the serum cholesterol level.

  2. Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Physical Performance in Older Adults: A Nationwide Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, I-Chien; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Yu, Shu-Han; Tsai, Yi-Fen; Shen, Shi-Chen; Kuo, Ken N.; Chen, Ching-Yu; Liu, Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical performance is a major determinant of health in older adults, and is related to lifestyle factors. Dietary fiber has multiple health benefits. It remains unclear whether fiber intake is independently linked to superior physical performance. We aimed to assess the association between dietary fiber and physical performance in older adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted with community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older (n=2680) from the ongoing Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study (HALST) in Taiwan 2008-2010. Daily dietary fiber intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Physical performance was determined objectively by measuring gait speed, 6-minute walk distance, timed “up and go” (TUG), summary performance score, hand grip strength. Results Adjusting for all potential confounders, participants with higher fiber intake had significantly faster gait speed, longer 6-minute walk distance, faster TUG, higher summary performance score, and higher hand grip strength (all P <.05). Comparing with the highest quartile of fiber intake, the lowest quartile of fiber intake was significantly associated with the lowest sex-specific quartile of gait speed (adjusted OR, 2.18 in men [95% CI, 1.33-3.55] and 3.65 in women [95% CI, 2.20-6.05]), 6-minute walk distance (OR, 2.40 in men [95% CI, 1.38-4.17] and 4.32 in women [95% CI, 2.37-7.89]), TUG (OR, 2.42 in men [95% CI, 1.43-4.12] and 3.27 in women [95% CI, 1.94-5.52]), summary performance score (OR, 2.12 in men [95% CI, 1.19-3.78] and 5.47 in women [95% CI, 3.20-9.35]), and hand grip strength (OR, 2.64 in men [95% CI, 1.61-4.32] and 4.43 in women [95% CI, 2.62-7.50]). Conclusions Dietary fiber intake was independently associated with better physical performance. PMID:24244650

  3. Dietary fiber's benefit for gallstone disease prevention during rapid weight loss in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Bezarashvili, S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of very low calorie diets - protein rich and dietary fiber rich food based - on gallstones formation during rapid weight loss. 68 patients were involved into the study. The body weight index in all cases exceeding normal value and equaled to 35±4,7 kg/m2. For weight correction purposes during 5 weeks the patients in first group were kept on a 520-800 kcal diet of "Margi" food products, prepared according our technology, and in the second group on a protein rich diet of the same calorie content. The body weight and changes in the gall-bladder wall and content were assessed by sonography before starting the diet, after three weeks from the commencement of the diet and upon its completion. The measurement of the body weight after completion of the 5 week diet revealed decrease by 10.9±1,5kg in the first group and by 11,2±1,1kg in the second group. Sonography disclosed growth in the amount of biliary sludge in 3 cases in the first group and in 9 cases in the second group. The statistical analyses of results indicate successful and nearly equal reduction of body weight by means of dietary fiber rich and protein rich diet, but high fiber consumption showed statistically significant benefits for prevention of biliary slug accumulation. The study showed that, in the respect to weight loss, diets based on fiber rich and protein rich food are equal, but fiber rich diet has considerable privilege in prevention of gallstone disease. Our findings support the presence of known association between increased dietary fiber consumption and reduction of gallstone formation. Obesity and rapid weight loss are risk factors for development of gallstones. Taking in an account the beneficial effect of dietary fiber, the food rich with this nutrient, particularly low-calorie fiber rich food "Margi", can be recommended for rapid weight loss in obese patients.

  4. Solid state NMR study of dietary fiber powders from aronia, bilberry, black currant and apple.

    PubMed

    Wawer, I; Wolniak, M; Paradowska, K

    2006-09-01

    13C CPMAS NMR spectra of dietary fiber powders from aronia (chokeberry), bilberry, black currant and apple were recorded. The spectra are complex owing to superposition of resonances from different polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds. Standard, dipolar dephased and the TH(1rho) partially relaxed spectra enabled the identification of several constituents: microcrystalline cellulose, pectins, lignins, cutin-like polymers and condensed tannins. The fiber powders obtained from berries contain significant amounts of anthocyanins, as indicated by their dark violet color, but not verified by chemical shifts. The anthocyanin-rich extract from aronia berries and its major components, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and (-)epicatechin were also studied.

  5. Fractionated photothermolysis: the Fraxel 1550-nm glass fiber laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Robert J; Kridel, Russell W H

    2007-05-01

    The carbon dioxide laser has been long considered to be the gold standard for cosmetic skin resurfacing. Although Fraxel laser treatment results are in general not as dramatic as with carbon dioxide lasering, they still are remarkable, measurable, and consistent. The lack of downtime and the decreased risk for complications make Fraxel laser treatment a particularly attractive choice for patients. Although a carbon dioxide laser cannot be used on the neck because of the risks of scarring, the Fraxel laser treatment is an excellent modality for reducing neck wrinkling and upper chest hyperpigmentation and sun damage throughout the entire body. Fractional photothermolysis also represents a particularly useful modality for difficult-to-treat conditions, such as melasma and acne scarring.

  6. Fractionation, characterization and study of emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber gum has been fractionated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin using ionic, acidic, basic and hydrophobic solvents of different polarity. Characterization, including determination of total carbohydrate, acidic sugar and protein content has been done for e...

  7. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols.

  8. In vitro starch digestion and cake quality: impact of the ratio of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Oh, Im Kyung; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2014-02-01

    The influence of the ratio of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) on the in vitro starch digestion, predicted glycemic index (pGI), and the physicochemical properties of fiber-enriched cakes were evaluated. The hydration and pasting properties were affected by the ratio of SDF and IDF. According to the increase of IDF ratio (SDF ratio reduction) in 3 g fiber-enriched cakes, slowly digestible starch (SDS) contents increased, while the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased. The pGI values were significantly different with control in 3 g fiber-enriched cake containing more than 50% IDF contents (p<0.05). But the pGI values of 6g fiber-enriched cake samples were not significantly different by SDF and IDF ratio. With the exception of the SDF 100% cake, volume index, hardness, and color values of the fiber-enriched cakes increased according to reductions in the SDF ratio. The cakes containing 3 g of total dietary fiber (the same ratio of SDF and IDF) per serving were shown to have low pGI and acceptable quality attributes. Specially, total dietary fiber amount and IDF ratio are more effective than SDF ratio to lower the pGI value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary fiber is positively associated with cognitive control among prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence now indicates that aerobic fitness and adiposity are key correlates of childhood cognitive function and brain health. However, the evidence relating dietary intake to executive function/cognitive control remains limited. The current study assessed cross-sectional associations between performance on an attentional inhibition task and dietary fatty acids (FAs), fiber, and overall diet quality among children aged 7-9 y (n = 65). Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task. Three-day food records were used to conduct nutrient-level analyses and to calculate diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005) scores. Bivariate correlations revealed that socioeconomic status and sex were not related to task performance or diet measures. However, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), pubertal staging, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and percentage of fat mass (%fat mass) correlated with task accuracy. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the relation between diet variables and task accuracy and reaction time across both congruent and incongruent trials of the flanker task. After adjustment of confounding variables (age, IQ, pubertal staging, V̇O2max, and %fat mass), congruent accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.26, P = 0.03) and total dietary fiber (β = 0.23, P = 0.05). Incongruent response accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.35, P < 0.01), pectins (β = 0.25, P = 0.04), and total dietary fiber (β = 0.32, P < 0.01). Higher diet quality was related to lower accuracy interference (β = -0.26, P = 0.03), whereas higher total FA intake was related to greater accuracy interference (β = 0.24, P = 0.04). No statistically significant associations were observed between diet variables and reaction time measures. These results demonstrate that children's diet quality, specifically dietary fiber, is an important correlate of performance on a cognitive task requiring variable

  10. Dietary Fiber Is Positively Associated with Cognitive Control among Prepubertal Children12

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Converging evidence now indicates that aerobic fitness and adiposity are key correlates of childhood cognitive function and brain health. However, the evidence relating dietary intake to executive function/cognitive control remains limited. Objective: The current study assessed cross-sectional associations between performance on an attentional inhibition task and dietary fatty acids (FAs), fiber, and overall diet quality among children aged 7–9 y (n = 65). Methods: Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task. Three-day food records were used to conduct nutrient-level analyses and to calculate diet quality (Healthy Eating Index–2005) scores. Results: Bivariate correlations revealed that socioeconomic status and sex were not related to task performance or diet measures. However, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), pubertal staging, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and percentage of fat mass (%fat mass) correlated with task accuracy. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the relation between diet variables and task accuracy and reaction time across both congruent and incongruent trials of the flanker task. After adjustment of confounding variables (age, IQ, pubertal staging, V̇O2max, and %fat mass), congruent accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.26, P = 0.03) and total dietary fiber (β = 0.23, P = 0.05). Incongruent response accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.35, P < 0.01), pectins (β = 0.25, P = 0.04), and total dietary fiber (β = 0.32, P < 0.01). Higher diet quality was related to lower accuracy interference (β = −0.26, P = 0.03), whereas higher total FA intake was related to greater accuracy interference (β = 0.24, P = 0.04). No statistically significant associations were observed between diet variables and reaction time measures. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that children’s diet quality, specifically dietary fiber, is an important

  11. Effect of Functional Oligosaccharides and Ordinary Dietary Fiber on Intestinal Microbiota Diversity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Lu, Jing; Li, Boxing; Lin, Weishi; Zhang, Zheng; Wei, Xiao; Sun, Chengming; Chi, Mingguo; Bi, Wei; Yang, Bingjun; Jiang, Aimin; Yuan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Functional oligosaccharides, known as prebiotics, and ordinary dietary fiber have important roles in modulating the structure of intestinal microbiota. To investigate their effects on the intestinal microecosystem, three kinds of diets containing different prebiotics were used to feed mice for 3 weeks, as follows: GI (galacto-oligosaccharides and inulin), PF (polydextrose and insoluble dietary fiber from bran), and a GI/PF mixture (GI and PF, 1:1), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic analysis of mice feces were then conducted. Compared to the control group, the different prebiotics diets had varying effects on the structure and diversity of intestinal microbiota. GI and PF supplementation led to significant changes in intestinal microbiota, including an increase of Bacteroides and a decrease of Alloprevotella in the GI-fed, but those changes were opposite in PF fed group. Intriguing, in the GI/PF mixture-fed group, intestinal microbiota had the similar structure as the control groups, and flora diversity was upregulated. Fecal metabolic profiling showed that the diversity of intestinal microbiota was helpful in maintaining the stability of fecal metabolites. Our results showed that a single type of oligosaccharides or dietary fiber caused the reduction of bacteria species, and selectively promoted the growth of Bacteroides or Alloprevotella bacteria, resulting in an increase in diamine oxidase (DAO) and/or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) values which was detrimental to health. However, the flora diversity was improved and the DAO values was significantly decreased when the addition of nutritionally balanced GI/PF mixture. Thus, we suggested that maintaining microbiota diversity and the abundance of dominant bacteria in the intestine is extremely important for the health, and that the addition of a combination of oligosaccharides and dietary fiber helps maintain the health of the intestinal microecosystem.

  12. Dietary fiber is associated with circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein in breast cancer survivors: the HEAL study

    PubMed Central

    Villaseñor, Adriana; Ambs, Anita; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a suspected risk factor for breast cancer and its subsequent prognosis. The extent to which dietary and lifestyle factors might influence inflammation is important to examine. Specifically, dietary fiber may reduce systemic inflammation, but this relationship has not been examined among breast cancer survivors. We examined associations between dietary fiber and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), among 698 female breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Data are from interviews and clinical visits conducted 24 months post-study enrollment. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression estimated associations of total, soluble and insoluble fiber with serum concentrations of CRP and SAA. Logistic regression estimated the odds of elevated CRP (defined as >3.0 mg/L) across tertiles of dietary fiber intake. Mean total dietary fiber intake was 13.9 ± 6.4 g/day. Mean CRP and SAA were 3.32 ± 3.66 mg/L and 7.73 ± 10.23 mg/L, respectively. We observed a multivariate-adjusted inverse association between total dietary fiber intake and CRP concentrations (β, −0.029; 95% CI, −0.049, −0.008). Results for insoluble fiber were similar (β, −0.039; 95% CI, −0.064, −0.013). Among survivors who consumed >15.5 g/day of insoluble dietary fiber, a 49% reduction in the likelihood of having elevated CRP concentrations (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27, 0.95) was observed compared to those who consumed <5.4 g/day (p = 0.053). Our results suggest that diets high in fiber may benefit breast cancer survivors via reductions in systemic inflammation; elevated inflammation may be prognostic for reduced survival. PMID:21455669

  13. Dietary fiber is associated with circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein in breast cancer survivors: the HEAL study.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Adriana; Ambs, Anita; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Baumgartner, Kathy B; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2011-09-01

    Inflammation is a suspected risk factor for breast cancer and its subsequent prognosis. The extent to which dietary and lifestyle factors might influence inflammation is important to examine. Specifically, dietary fiber may reduce systemic inflammation, but this relationship has not been examined among breast cancer survivors. We examined associations between dietary fiber and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA), among 698 female breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Data are from interviews and clinical visits conducted 24-months post-study enrollment. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression estimated associations of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber with serum concentrations of CRP and SAA. Logistic regression estimated the odds of elevated CRP (defined as >3.0 mg/l) across tertiles of dietary fiber intake. Mean total dietary fiber intake was 13.9 ± 6.4 g/day. Mean CRP and SAA were 3.32 ± 3.66 and 7.73 ± 10.23 mg/l, respectively. We observed a multivariate-adjusted inverse association between total dietary fiber intake and CRP concentrations (β, -0.029; 95% CI, -0.049, -0.008). Results for insoluble fiber were similar (β, -0.039; 95% CI, -0.064, -0.013). Among survivors who consumed >15.5 g/day of insoluble dietary fiber, a 49% reduction in the likelihood of having elevated CRP concentrations (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27, 0.95) was observed compared to those who consumed <5.4 g/day (P = 0.053). Our results suggest that diets high in fiber may benefit breast cancer survivors via reductions in systemic inflammation; elevated inflammation may be prognostic for reduced survival.

  14. Dietary fiber intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Eshak, Ehab S; Iso, Hiroyasu; Date, Chigusa; Kikuchi, Shogo; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wada, Yasuhiko; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2010-08-01

    Dietary fiber protects against coronary heart disease (CHD), but evidence in Asia is limited. We examined the association between dietary fiber intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Japanese population in a prospective study of 58,730 Japanese men and women aged 40-79 y in which dietary fiber intake was determined by a self-administered FFQ. The participants were followed up from 1988-1990 to the end of 2003. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI of mortality were calculated per quintile of fiber intake. During the 14-y follow-up, a total of 2080 CVD deaths (983 strokes, 422 CHD, and 675 other CVD) were documented. Total, insoluble, and soluble dietary fiber intakes were inversely associated with risk of mortality from CHD and total CVD for both men and women. For men, the multivariable HR (95% CI) for CHD in the highest vs. the lowest quintiles were 0.81 [(95% CI, 0.61-1.09); P-trend = 0.02], 0.48 [(95% CI, 0.27-0.84); P-trend < 0.001], and 0.71 [(95% CI, 0.41-0.97); P-trend = 0.04] for total, insoluble, and soluble fiber, respectively. The respective HR (95% CI) for women were 0.80 [(95% CI, 0.57-0.97); P-trend = 0.01], 0.49 [(95% CI, 0.27-0.86); P-trend = 0.004], and 0.72 [(95% CI, 0.34-0.99); P-trend = 0.03], respectively. For fiber sources, intakes of fruit and cereal fibers but not vegetable fiber were inversely associated with risk of mortality from CHD. In conclusion, dietary intakes of fiber, both insoluble and soluble fibers, and especially fruit and cereal fibers, may reduce risk of mortality from CHD.

  15. Optimization of technology for dietary fiber extraction from Maixiansan by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our study aims to determine whether response surface methodology can optimize the extraction of dietary fiber from Maixiansan. Methods A Box–Behnken design was employed to optimize the extraction parameters, including α-amylase concentration (X1: 0.3 – 0.5%), enzymolysis time (X2: 30 – 60 min) and NaOH content (X3: 1.0 – 5.0%), of dietary fiber from Maixiansan using an enzyme–alkali extraction technique. Results The optimal technological conditions were as follows: α-amylase concentration: 0.4%; enzymolysis time: 45 min; NaOH content: 4.0%. Under these conditions, the extraction yield reached 57.14%, which was well consistent with the predicted models with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9818. An evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity indicated that Maixiansan was able to significantly inhibit dextran sodium sulfate-induced ulcerative colitis in rats by increasing the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), among which the butyrate content was significantly higher in the Maixiansan group than in the other groups. Conclusion Our experiments showed that response surface methodology can optimize the extraction of dietary fiber from Maixiansan. Maixiansan could be explored as an anti-ulcerative colitis agent. PMID:23273216

  16. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber.

  17. Dietary Fiber Information for Individuals with Crohn Disease: Reports of Gastrointestinal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Carol S.; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-01-01

    The experiences of individuals with Crohn disease before and after receiving dietary fiber information have not been described in the literature. This article offers findings from a study that used four semi-structured audio recorded interviews during a 4-week time period for the purpose of exploring the experiences of 11 individuals before and after receiving dietary fiber information from a healthcare professional. The first and second interviews occurred immediately before and after the presentation of information. Follow-up interviews occurred at 2-week intervals. Thematic analysis of the baseline interviews revealed two themes: (a) accepting a redefined (lower expectations) definition of normal quality of life, and (b) continuing to look for answers. Three themes emerged from the follow-up interviews at week 4: (a) re-evaluating old diet-related concepts, (b) enjoying a healthier lifestyle at a self-set pace, and (c) enjoying positive physical effects of wheat bran consumption. This paper examines the third post-intervention theme, “enjoying physical effects of wheat bran consumption.” The relevance of this research is that nurses equipped with dietary fiber information may be better able to help some individuals with Crohn disease to explore the potential benefits of a well-rounded nutritious pattern of eating that includes wheat bran cereal. PMID:24084130

  18. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets.

    PubMed

    Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) higher water holding capacity (56.65%), cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than microwave cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly (p<0.05) highest, whereas, oven cooked nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) highest gumminess and chewiness values. Steam cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.

  19. The role of dietary fiber in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of fruit and vegetable antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Fruit and Vegetable Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Palafox-Carlos, Hugo; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant compounds primarily found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of each compound differs greatly, and the most abundant antioxidants in ingested fruit are not necessarily those leading to the highest concentrations of active metabolites in target tissues. Fruit antioxidants are commonly mixed with different macromolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to form a food matrix. In fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates are the major compounds found, mainly in free and conjugated forms. Dietary fiber, the indigestible cell wall component of plant material, is considered to play an important role in human diet and health. Most studies on antioxidant bioavailability are focused on foods and beverages from which antioxidants are easily released. There is evidence indicating that food microstructure affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of several nutrients, referring mostly to antioxidants. Nevertheless, the specific role of dietary fiber in the absorption of antioxidants has not been widely discussed. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to compile and analyze evidence relating to the association between dietary fiber and antioxidants, and the physical and chemical interactions that modulate their release from the chyme in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21535705

  1. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) higher water holding capacity (56.65%), cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than microwave cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly (p<0.05) highest, whereas, oven cooked nuggets had significantly (p<0.05) highest gumminess and chewiness values. Steam cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content. PMID:28747827

  2. Dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to total intake. The dietary intake data were from a twenty-four hour recall provided by 9,042 individuals ages two and older, except breast-fed children, who par...

  3. Effect of dietary fiber on the methanogen community in the hindgut of Lantang gilts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Liang, J B; Liao, X D; Wright, A D G; Wu, Y B; Yu, B

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary fiber on methanogenic diversity and community composition in the hindgut of indigenous Chinese Lantang gilts to explain the unexpected findings reported earlier that Lantang gilts fed low-fiber diet (LFD) produced more methane than those fed high-fiber diet (HFD). In total, 12 Lantang gilts (58.7±0.37 kg) were randomly divided into two dietary groups (six replicates (pigs) per group) and fed either LFD (NDF=201.46 g/kg) or HFD (NDF=329.70 g/kg). Wheat bran was the main source of fiber for the LFD, whereas ground rice hull (mixture of rice hull and rice bran) was used for the HFD. Results showed that the methanogens in the hindgut of Lantang gilts belonged to four known species (Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanobrevibacter wolinii, Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii), with about 89% of the methanogens belonging to the genus Methanobrevibacter. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies of Methanobrevibacter were more than three times higher (P0.05) was observed in 16S rRNA gene copies of Fibrobacter succinogenes between the two dietary groups, and 18S rRNA gene copies of anaerobic fungi in gilts fed LFD were lower than (P<0.05) those fed HFD. To better explain the effect of different fiber source on the methanogen community, a follow-up in vitro fermentation using a factorial design comprised of two inocula (prepared from hindgut content of gilts fed two diets differing in their dietary fiber)×four substrates (LFD, HFD, wheat bran, ground rice hull) was conducted. Results of the in vitro fermentation confirmed that the predominant methanogens belonged to the genus of Methanobrevibacter, and about 23% methanogens was found to be distantly related (90%) to Thermogymnomonas acidicola. In vitro fermentation also seems to suggest that fiber source did change the methanogens community. Although the density of Methanobrevibacter species was positively correlated with CH

  4. Lack of preventive effects of dietary fibers or chlorophyllin against acrylamide toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Shibutani, Makoto; Kuroiwa, Keiko; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Takahashi, Miwa; Inoue, Kaoru; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Hirose, Masao

    2007-08-01

    Dietary fibers and chlorophyllin have shown to exert anti-carcinogenic effects against co-administered carcinogens. To test the possibility of chemoprevention by such dietary supplements on subacutely induced acrylamide (ACR) toxicity, Sprague-Dawley male rats were administered 2.5% sodium alginate, 5% glucomannan, 5% digestion resistant maltodextrin, 2.5% chitin or 1% chlorophyllin in the diet, and starting one week later, co-administered 0.02% ACR in the drinking water for 4 weeks. For comparison, untreated control animals given basal diet and tap water were also included. Neurotoxicity was examined with reference to gait abnormalities and by quantitative assessment of histopathological changes in the sciatic and trigeminal nerves, as well as aberrant dot-like immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in the cerebellar molecular layer. Testicular toxicity was assessed by quantitation of seminiferous tubules with exfoliation of germ cells into the lumen and cell debris in the ducts of the epididymides. Development of testicular toxicity as well as neurotoxicity was evident with ACR-treatment, but was not suppressed by dietary addition of fibers or chlorophyllin, suggesting no apparent beneficial influence of these dietary supplements on experimentally induced subacute ACR toxicity.

  5. Adolescent dietary fiber, vegetable fat, vegetable protein, and nut intakes and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Colditz, Graham A; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-06-01

    The importance of early-life exposures in breast cancer development is increasingly recognized. However, limited research has evaluated the relationship between adolescent diet and subsequent risk of breast cancer and reported inconsistent results. This population-based case-control study investigated the associations of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence with adult breast cancer risk. Women, ages 25-74 years, who were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2003, were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Controls were identified through random-digit dialing and age-frequency matched to cases. Diet at ages 10-15 was assessed with a 55-item food frequency questionnaire among 2,865 cases and 3,299 controls. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Inverse associations were found between intakes of dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts during adolescence and breast cancer risk, which persisted after controlling for adult intakes. The ORs (95 % CI) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 0.66 (0.55-0.78; P trend < 0.0001) for fiber, 0.80 (0.68-0.95; P trend = 0.01) for vegetable protein, 0.74 (0.63-0.87; P trend = 0.002) for vegetable fat, and 0.76 (0.61-0.95 for ≥1 serving/day vs. <1 serving/month intake; P trend = 0.04) for nuts. The reduced risk for adolescent intakes of fiber, vegetable protein, and nuts was largely limited to postmenopausal women (P interaction ≤ 0.05). Dietary fiber, vegetable protein, vegetable fat, and nuts consumed during adolescence were associated with reduced breast cancer risk.

  6. Dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a dose-response analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Yao, Baodong; Fang, Hong; Xu, Wanghong; Yan, Yujie; Xu, Huilin; Liu, Yinan; Mo, Miao; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yanping

    2014-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes, but the results are inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies evaluating the associations of dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Relevant studies were identified by searching EMBASE (from 1974 to April 2013) and PubMed (from 1966 to April 2013). The fixed or random-effect model was selected based on the homogeneity test among studies. In addition, a 2-stage random-effects dose-response meta-analysis was performed. We identified 17 prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes involving 19,033 cases and 488,293 participants. The combined RR (95 % CI) of type 2 diabetes for intake of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, fruit fiber and insoluble fiber was 0.81 (0.73-0.90), 0.77 (0.69-0.85), 0.94 (0.88-0.99) and 0.75 (0.63-0.89), respectively. A nonlinear relationship was found of total dietary fiber intake with risk of type 2 diabetes (P for nonlinearity < 0.01), and the RRs (95 % CI) of type 2 diabetes were 0.98 (0.90-1.06), 0.97 (0.87-1.07), 0.89 (0.80-0.99), 0.76 (0.65-0.88), and 0.66 (0.53-0.82) for 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 g/day. The departure from nonlinear relationship was not significant (P for nonlinearity = 0.72), and the risk of type 2 diabetes decreased by 6 % (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.93-0.96) for 2 g/day increment in cereal fiber intake. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that the intakes of dietary fiber may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.

  7. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.

    PubMed

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), α-amylase inhibition activity, cholesterol and sodium cholate binding capacity, but less significant (>0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  8. Novel vinegar-derived product enriched with dietary fiber: effect on polyphenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Dodero, M Carmen; Natera-Marín, Ramón; Castro-Mejías, Remedios; García-Barroso, Carmelo; Durán-Guerrero, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Dietary fiber derived from citrus fruits was added to vinegar. Different sources and quantities of fiber and storage conditions have been scrutinized. Formulated vinegars were evaluated on the basis of their phenolic profile, volatile composition and sensory analysis. The addition of citrus fiber enhanced the phenolic and volatile profile of the resulted vinegars. Whereas lemon fiber contributed mostly to the enrichment of the polyphenolic composition, orange fiber was that which increased in a higher way the volatile composition of the vinegars. Moreover, the content of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and the majority of volatile compounds decreased as the dose of fiber increased. Furthermore, the judges preferred fiber-enriched vinegars, but in different quantities depending of the fiber source. This preference was mainly based on citric attribute, contributing several terpenes and ketones derived from them. The addition of citrus fiber to vinegar did not result in a marked storage-dependence.

  9. Characterization of soluble dietary fiber from Moringa oleifera seeds and its immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Anudeep, Sandanamudi; Prasanna, Vaddi K; Adya, Shruthi M; Radha, Cheruppanpullil

    2016-10-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa or drumstick) seeds are a potential source of dietary fiber with 6.5% w/w soluble dietary fiber. Biochemical characterization of moringa seed soluble fiber revealed that it is a glycoprotein with 5% neutral sugars. Arabinose and xylose are the major neutral sugars identified by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Moringa seed soluble fiber was identified as protease resistant-glycoprotein and termed as moringa seed resistant protein (MSRP). MSRP was found to be a homodimer (18kDa) containing two 9kDa monomeric units as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis with pI 10.8. Immunostimulating activity of MSRP was assessed by murine splenocyte proliferation and production of NO from macrophages. MSRP at low concentration (0.01μg/well) strongly increased proliferation of splenocytes, while MSRP at high concentration weakly responded. MSRP induced 6-fold increase in NO production when compared to the control which indicates the activation of macrophages. MSRP isolated from defatted moringa seed flour is a potent mitogen, enhancing the proliferation of lymphocytes and inducing NO from macrophages. This study concludes that moringa seed is a potential nutritional source to promote the immune system of the host.

  10. Radiographic analysis of the effect of dietary fibers on rat colonic transit time

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, J.R.; Meacher, M.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The effect of different fiber sources on colonic transit time was charted using serial radiographs. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 10 rats per group, were provided with either a fiber-free control diet or the control diet uniformly diluted to provide 8% dietary fiber from guar, pectin, cellulose, wheat bran, or oat bran. At surgery, radiopaque markers were inserted at defined distances in the mesentary closest to the large bowel. Three weeks postsurgery, the animals were intubated with 0.5 ml of a radiopaque marker, and radiographs were taken at 15-min intervals. Of the two poorly fermented fibers, cellulose was as slow as and wheat bran was faster than the fiber-free controls at five out of the six bowel segments measured. The fermentable fibers (pectin, guar, and oat bran) were fast through some bowel segments and slow through others. This study provides in vivo data on colonic transit time and shows that neither 24-h fecal weight nor total transit time is a good predictor of the rate of transit through particular gut segments.

  11. Influence of dietary fiber consumption on oxidative metabolism and anaplerotic flux in isolated rat colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Marsman, K E; McBurney, M I

    1996-09-01

    Colonic fermentation of dietary fiber produces short-chain fatty acids which are energetic substrates for colonocytes. A high-fiber diet may lead to adaptations in colonocyte energy utilization, product formation and anaplerotic fluxes. For 2 weeks, Sprague-Dawley rats consumed diets containing 0, 150 or 300 g/kg fiber in place of digestible carbohydrate. Colonocytes were isolated; substrate oxidation and anaplerotic flux were measured. Glutamine oxidation was higher and glutamate formation was lower with increasing levels of fiber. Glucose, propionate and butyrate oxidation were not altered by diet. ATP yield from glutamine was higher in fiber-fed rats, but ATP from propionate, butyrate and glucose were not affected by the diets. Assessment of anaplerotic flux using the CO2 ratios method revealed no changes attributable to diet. The amount by which CO2 production is greater from C-1 vs C-2 of short-chain fatty acids in this system was established to be approximately 2-fold. Colonocytes use fuels in the preferential order of: glucose & butyrate > > propionate & glutamine. Because differences attributable to diet do not lead to physiologically significant alterations in anaplerotic flux or ATP yield, only minor adaptations of colonocyte oxidative metabolism occur after 2 weeks of consuming a high fiber diet.

  12. Dietary fiber and the risk of precancerous lesions and cancer of the esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Helen G; Murray, Liam J; Hicks, Blanaid; Bhat, Shivaram K; Kubo, Ai; Corley, Douglas A; Cardwell, Chris R; Cantwell, Marie M

    2013-07-01

    Dietary fiber has several anticarcinogenic effects and is thought to be protective against esophageal cancer. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the association between dietary fiber and the risk of esophageal cancer by investigating histological subtypes of esophageal cancer and the stage at which fiber may influence the carcinogenic pathway. Systematic search strategies were used to identify relevant studies, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were combined using random-effects meta-analyses to assess the risk of cancer when comparing extreme categories of fiber intake. Ten relevant case-control studies were identified within the timeframe searched. Pooled estimates from eight studies of esophageal adenocarcinoma revealed a significant inverse association with the highest fiber intakes (OR 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.98). Two studies also identified protective effects of dietary fiber against Barrett's esophagus. Similar, though nonsignificant, associations were observed when results from five studies of fiber intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma were combined (OR 0.61; 95%CI 0.31-1.20). Dietary fiber is associated with protective effects against esophageal carcinogenesis, most notably esophageal adenocarcinoma. Potential methods of action include modification of gastroesophageal reflux and/or weight control. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Sandi L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Tinker, Lesley F; Shikany, James M; Snetselaar, Linda; Martinez, Jessica A; Kato, Ikuko; Beresford, Shirley A A; Chapkin, Robert S; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-11-30

    Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women's Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993-2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans.

  14. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Tinker, Lesley F.; Shikany, James M.; Snetselaar, Linda; Martinez, Jessica A.; Kato, Ikuko; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2016-01-01

    Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans. PMID:27916893

  15. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    PubMed

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P < 0.0001). Cellobiose (≈90 %) and glucose (≈10 %) were the major soluble hexoses present in RF. Maltose was not detected. Soluble glucose concentration (13.0 μM) was not modified by either UIPC (P = 0.40) nor DFC (P = 0.61). However, a DFC by post-prandial time interaction was detected (P = 0.02). Pentose concentrations were greater (P = 0.02) in RF of steers fed high DFC (100.2 μM) than steers fed low DFC (177.0 μM). UIPC did not influence (P = 0.35) soluble pentose concentration. The identity of soluble pentoses in ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.

  16. Lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissues as new potential mechanisms for metabolic benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Fen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Weiguo; Fu, Chun-Ling; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fiber consumption is associated with reduced risk for the development of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on the levels of proteins involved in lipolysis and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of C57 BL/6 J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed normal chow diet (Chow), HFD, HFD plus oat fiber (H-oat), or HFD plus wheat bran fiber (H-wheat) for 24 wk. Body weight and food intake were recorded weekly. Serum adiponectin was assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Western blotting was used to assess the protein expressions of adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), cAMP protein kinase catalytic subunit (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), perilipin A, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR), and proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 α (PGC-1 α) in the WAT and BAT. At the end of the feeding period, body and adipose tissues weight in both H-oat and H-wheat groups were lower than in the HFD group. Mice in the H-oat and H-wheat groups showed an increasing trend in serum adiponectin level. Compared with the HFD group, cereal dietary fiber increased protein expressions involved in the lipolysis and browning process. Compared with the H-wheat group, H-oat was more effective in protein expressions of PKA, PGC-1 α, and UCP1 of the WAT samples. Compared with the H-oat group, H-wheat was more effective in protein expressions of PKA, ATGL, UCP1, β3AR, and FGF-21 of the BAT samples. Taken together, our results suggested that cereal dietary fiber enhanced adipocyte lipolysis by the cAMP-PKA-HSL pathway and promoted WAT browning by activation of UCP1, and consequently reduced visceral fat mass in response to HFD feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Addition of soluble soybean polysaccharides to dairy products as a source of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenpu; Duizer, Lisa; Corredig, Milena; Goff, H Douglas

    2010-08-01

    Increasing consumption of dietary fiber in food leads to many important health benefits: for example, reduction in blood cholesterol, reduced risk of diabetes, and improved laxation. Water soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) is a dietary fiber extracted and refined from okara, a byproduct of soy manufacturing. It was incorporated into 3 categories of dairy-based products, thickened milkshake-style beverages, puddings, and low-fat ice cream, to the maximum amount without over-texturing the food. Rheological measurements and sensory tests were used to develop desirable SSPS-fortified products. From the rheological data, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverages and 4% SSPS -fortified puddings were in the range of commercial products. From sensory analyses, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverage with 0.015%kappa-carrageenan, 4% SSPS-fortified pudding with 0.1%kappa-carrageenan, and 2% SSPS-fortified low-fat ice cream gained the highest scores in consumer hedonic rating. Panelists also indicated their willingness to consume those products if they were available commercially. Practical Application: Since the dietary fiber intake of many people is below their suggested adequate intake values, strategies to successfully fortify foods with fiber may help alleviate this gap. We have developed 3 dairy products, a beverage, a pudding, and a low-fat ice cream, that have been fortified with soluble soybean polysaccharide at levels of 4%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. These products were within acceptable ranges of rheological parameters and other physical stability measurements and were judged to be acceptable by sensory analyses.

  18. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-degradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    PubMed

    Lascano, G J; Koch, L E; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-rumen-degradable protein (RDP) diet when dietary fiber content is manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six cannulated Holstein heifers (486.98±15.07kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 2 F:C, low- (45% forage; LF) and high-forage (90% forage; HF) diets and to a fiber proportion sequence [33% grass hay and wheat straw (HS), 67% corn silage (CS; low fiber); 50% HS, 50% CS (medium fiber); and 67% HS, 33% CS (high fiber)] within forage proportion administered according to a split-plot, 3×3 Latin square design (16-d periods). Heifers fed LF had greater apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility coefficients (dC), neutral detergent fiber, and cellulose than those fed LC diets. Substituting CS with HS resulted in a linear reduction in dry matter, organic matter, and cellulose dC. Nitrogen dC was not different between F:C or with increasing proportions of HS in diets, but N retention tended to decrease linearly as HS was increased in the diets. Predicted microbial protein flow to the duodenum decreased linearly with HS addition and protozoa numbers HS interacted linearly, exhibiting a decrease as HS increased for LF, whereas no effects were observed for HF. Blood urea N increased linearly as HS was incorporated. The LF-fed heifers had a greater ruminal volatile fatty acids concentration. We noted a tendency for a greater dry matter, and a significantly higher liquid fraction turnover rate for HF diets. There was a linear numerical increase in the liquid and solid fraction turnover rate as fiber was added to the diets. Rumen fermentation parameters and fractional passages (solid and liquid) rates support the reduction in dC, N retention, and microbial protein synthesis observed as more dietary fiber is added to the rations of dairy heifers precision-fed a constant proportion of rumen

  19. Effects of dietary fibers with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carol Souza; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2012-09-10

    The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes.

  1. Dietary Inulin Fibers Prevent Proton-Pump Inhibitor (PPI)-Induced Hypocalcemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Mark W.; de Baaij, Jeroen H. F.; Gommers, Lisanne M. M.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.; Bindels, René J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Proton-pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia (PPIH) is the most recognized side effect of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). Additionally, PPIH is associated with hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. It is hypothesized that PPIs reduce epithelial proton secretion and thereby increase the pH in the colon, which may explain the reduced absorption of and Mg2+ and Ca2+. Fermentation of dietary oligofructose-enriched inulin fibers by the microflora leads to acidification of the intestinal lumen and by this enhances mineral uptake. This study aimed, therefore, to improve mineral absorption by application of dietary inulin to counteract PPIH. Methods Here, C57BL/J6 mice were supplemented with omeprazole and/or inulin. Subsequently, Mg2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis was assessed by means of serum, urine and fecal electrolyte measurements. Moreover, the mRNA levels of magnesiotropic and calciotropic genes were examined in the large intestine and kidney by real-time PCR. Results Treatment with omeprazole significantly reduced serum Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels. However, concomitant addition of dietary inulin fibers normalized serum Ca2+ but not serum Mg2+ concentrations. Inulin abolished enhanced expression of Trpv6 and S100g in the colon by omeprazole. Additionally, intestinal and renal mRNA levels of the Trpm6 gene were reduced after inulin intake. Conclusions This study suggests that dietary inulin counteracts reduced intestinal Ca2+ absorption upon PPI treatment. In contrast, inulin did not increase intestinal absorption of Mg2+ sufficiently to recover serum Mg2+. The clinical potential of dietary inulin treatment should be the subject of future studies. PMID:26397986

  2. Dietary Inulin Fibers Prevent Proton-Pump Inhibitor (PPI)-Induced Hypocalcemia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hess, Mark W; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Gommers, Lisanne M M; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M

    2015-01-01

    Proton-pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia (PPIH) is the most recognized side effect of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). Additionally, PPIH is associated with hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. It is hypothesized that PPIs reduce epithelial proton secretion and thereby increase the pH in the colon, which may explain the reduced absorption of and Mg2+ and Ca2+. Fermentation of dietary oligofructose-enriched inulin fibers by the microflora leads to acidification of the intestinal lumen and by this enhances mineral uptake. This study aimed, therefore, to improve mineral absorption by application of dietary inulin to counteract PPIH. Here, C57BL/J6 mice were supplemented with omeprazole and/or inulin. Subsequently, Mg2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis was assessed by means of serum, urine and fecal electrolyte measurements. Moreover, the mRNA levels of magnesiotropic and calciotropic genes were examined in the large intestine and kidney by real-time PCR. Treatment with omeprazole significantly reduced serum Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels. However, concomitant addition of dietary inulin fibers normalized serum Ca2+ but not serum Mg2+ concentrations. Inulin abolished enhanced expression of Trpv6 and S100g in the colon by omeprazole. Additionally, intestinal and renal mRNA levels of the Trpm6 gene were reduced after inulin intake. This study suggests that dietary inulin counteracts reduced intestinal Ca2+ absorption upon PPI treatment. In contrast, inulin did not increase intestinal absorption of Mg2+ sufficiently to recover serum Mg2+. The clinical potential of dietary inulin treatment should be the subject of future studies.

  3. Hollow-Fiber Flow Field-Flow Fractionation for Mass Spectrometry: From Proteins to Whole Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Zattoni, Andrea; Rambaldi, Diana Cristina; Roda, Aldo; Hee Moon, Myeong

    Mass spectrometry (MS) provides analyte identification over a wide molar-mass range. However, particularly in the case of complex matrices, this ability is often enhanced by the use of pre-MS separation steps. A separation, prototype technique for the "gentle" fractionation of large/ultralarge analytes, from proteins to whole cells, is here described to reduce complexity and maintain native characteristics of the sample before MS analysis. It is based on flow field-flow fractionation, and it employs a micro-volume fractionation channel made of a ca. 20 cm hollow-fiber membrane of sub-millimeter section. The key advantages of this technique lie in the low volume and low-cost of the channel, which makes it suitable to a disposable usage. Fractionation performance and instrumental simplicity make it an interesting methodology for in-batch or on-line pre-MS treatment of such samples.

  4. Intakes of dietary fiber, vegetables, and fruits and incidence of cardiovascular disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Okumura, Ryota; Ito, Hideki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito

    2013-12-01

    Foods rich in fiber, such as vegetables and fruits, prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy adults, but such data in patients with diabetes are sparse. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes aged 40-70 years whose HbA1c values were ≥ 6.5% in Japan Diabetes Society values. In this cohort study, 1,414 patients were analyzed after exclusion of patients with history of CVDs and nonresponders to a dietary survey. Primary outcomes were times to stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Hazard ratios (HRs) of dietary intake were estimated by Cox regression adjusted for systolic blood pressure, lipids, energy intake, and other confounders. Mean daily dietary fiber in quartiles ranged from 8.7 to 21.8 g, and mean energy intake ranged from 1,442.3 to 2,058.9 kcal. Mean daily intake of vegetables and fruits in quartiles ranged from 228.7 to 721.4 g. During the follow-up of a median of 8.1 years, 68 strokes and 96 CHDs were observed. HRs for stroke in the fourth quartile vs. the first quartile were 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29, P = 0.12) for dietary fiber and 0.35 (0.13-0.96, P = 0.04) for vegetables and fruits. There were no significant associations with CHD. The HR per 1-g increase was smaller for soluble dietary fiber (0.48 [95% CI 0.30-0.79], P < 0.01) than for total (0.82 [0.73-0.93], P < 0.01) and insoluble (0.79 [0.68-0.93], P < 0.01) dietary fiber. Increased dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and vegetables and fruits were associated with lower incident stroke but not CHD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Inverse associations of dietary fiber and menopausal hormone therapy with colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2016-09-15

    In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we previously reported that dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men only. In women, the inverse relationship was weaker and appeared to be confounded by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). We re-examined this observation with a greatly increased power. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed data from 187,674 participants with 4,692 cases identified during a mean follow-up period of 16 years. In multivariable-adjusted models, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in both sexes: HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.89 for highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend  = 0.0020 in men and HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91, ptrend  = 0.0067 in women. Postmenopausal women who ever used MHT had a 19% lower risk of colorectal cancer (95% CI: 0.74-0.89) compared with MHT never users. In a joint analysis of dietary fiber and MHT, dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk in MHT never users (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95, ptrend  = 0.045), but did not appear to further decrease the colorectal cancer risk of MHT ever users (ptrend  = 0.11). Our results support the overall protective roles of dietary fiber and MHT against colorectal cancer and suggest that dietary fiber may not lower risk further among women who ever used MHT. If confirmed, these results would suggest that MHT and dietary fiber may share overlapping mechanisms in protecting against colorectal cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Inverse associations of dietary fiber and menopausal hormone therapy with colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we previously reported that dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men only. In women, the inverse relationship was weaker and appeared to be confounded by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). We re-examined this observation with a greatly increased power. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed data from 187,674 participants with 4,692 cases identified during a mean follow-up period of 16 years. In multivariable-adjusted models, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in both sexes: HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61–0.89 for highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend = 0.0020 in men and HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62–0.91, ptrend = 0.0067 in women. Postmenopausal women who ever used MHT had a 19% lower risk of colorectal cancer (95% CI: 0.74–0.89) compared to MHT never users. In a joint analysis of dietary fiber and MHT, dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk in MHT never users (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59–0.95, ptrend =0.045), but did not appear to further decrease the colorectal cancer risk of MHT ever users (ptrend = 0.11). Our results support the overall protective roles of dietary fiber and MHT against colorectal cancer and suggest that dietary fiber may not lower risk further among women who ever used MHT. If confirmed, these results would suggest that MHT and dietary fiber may share overlapping mechanisms in protecting against colorectal cancer. PMID:27137137

  7. Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Champ, Martine; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37 degrees C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization > or =3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (S(R)) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.

  8. A prospective study of long-term intake of dietary fiber and risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Khalili, Hamed; Konijeti, Gauree G; Higuchi, Leslie M; de Silva, Punyanganie; Korzenik, Joshua R; Fuchs, Charles S; Willett, Walter C; Richter, James M; Chan, Andrew T

    2013-11-01

    Increased intake of dietary fiber has been proposed to reduce the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]). However, few prospective studies have examined associations between long-term intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident CD or UC. We collected and analyzed data from 170,776 women, followed up over 26 years, who participated in the Nurses' Health Study, followed up for 3,317,425 person-years. Dietary information was prospectively ascertained via administration of a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Self-reported CD and UC were confirmed through review of medical records. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders, were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). We confirmed 269 incident cases of CD (incidence, 8/100,000 person-years) and 338 cases of UC (incidence, 10/100,000 person-years). Compared with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted cumulative average intake of dietary fiber, intake of the highest quintile (median of 24.3 g/day) was associated with a 40% reduction in risk of CD (multivariate HR for CD, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.90). This apparent reduction appeared to be greatest for fiber derived from fruits; fiber from cereals, whole grains, or legumes did not modify risk. In contrast, neither total intake of dietary fiber (multivariate HR, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.17) nor intake of fiber from specific sources appeared to be significantly associated with risk of UC. Based on data from the Nurses' Health Study, long-term intake of dietary fiber, particularly from fruit, is associated with lower risk of CD but not UC. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that mediate this association. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of dietary fiber and reduced crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S A; Xin, H; Kerr, B J; Russell, J R; Bregendahl, K

    2007-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emission is a major concern for the poultry industry. The objective of this research was to determine whether inclusion of dietary fiber and a reduced dietary CP content would decrease NH(3) emission from laying-hen manure. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 levels of CP (normal and reduced) and 4 fiber treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. The fiber treatments included a corn and soybean meal-based control diet and diets formulated with either 10.0% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 7.3% wheat middlings (WM), or 4.8% soybean hulls (SH) to contribute equal amounts of additional neutral detergent fiber. The CP contents of the reduced-CP diets were approximately 1 percentage unit lower than those of the normal-CP diets. All diets were formulated on the basis of digestible amino acid content and were formulated to be isoenergetic. Fresh manure was collected such that pH, uric acid, and Kjeldahl N contents could be measured. The NH(3) emission from manure was measured over 7 d by placing pooled 24-h manure samples in NH(3) emission vessels. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple-comparisons procedure to compare results from the fiber treatments with the control, whereas the main effect of protein was used to compare the normal- and reduced-CP treatments. Dietary corn DDGS, WM, or SH lowered (P dietary inclusion of 10.0% corn DDGS, 7.3% WM, or 4.8% SH lowered NH(3) emission from laying-hen manure; however, reducing the CP content by 1 percentage unit had no measurable effect on NH(3) emission.

  10. Dietary intake of fibers: differential effects in men and women on perceived general health and immune functioning.

    PubMed

    Fernstrand, Amanda M; Bury, Didi; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2017-01-01

    Background: It has been reported previously that dietary fiber intake provides health benefits. Nevertheless, only a limited number of human studies have investigated whether gender differences exist in the relationship between fiber intake and perceived health and immune status. Objective: To investigate potential gender differences in the effects of dietary fiber intake on perceived health and immune status of healthy young adults. Design: A survey was conducted among university students in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Data were collected on perceived general health status and perceived immune functioning. Dietary intake of fibers was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Perceived general health status and immune functioning were associated with daily intake of fibers using nonparametric (Spearman) correlations. Statistical analyses were conducted for the group as a whole, and for men and women separately. Results: N = 509 subjects completed the survey. Mean (SD) age was 20.8 (2.6) years old. 71.9% of the samples were females. Mean daily dietary fiber intake was 15.5 (6.9) g. Daily dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with general health rate (r = 0.171, p = 0.0001) and perceived immune functioning (r = 0.124, p = 0.008). After controlling for total caloric intake, the partial correlation between fiber intake and general health remained significant (r = 0.151, p = 0.002). In men, dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with perceived general health status (r = 0.320, p = 0.0001) and immune functioning (r = 0.281, p = 0.002). After controlling for caloric intake, the association between dietary fiber intake and perceived general health (r = 0.261, p = 0.005) remained significant. Remarkably, no significant correlations were observed in women. Conclusion: A significant association between daily dietary fiber intake and perceived general health status and immune rate was found in men, but not in women. Future studies

  11. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets.

  12. Dietary interventions (plant sterols, stanols, omega-3 fatty acids, soy protein and dietary fibers) for familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Anita; Shafiq, Nusrat; Arora, Anjuman; Singh, Meenu; Kumar, Rajendra; Malhotra, Samir

    2014-06-10

    assessment. Only short-term outcomes could be assessed due to the short duration of follow up in the included trials. None of the primary outcomes, (incidence of ischaemic heart disease, number of deaths and age at death) were evaluated in any of the included trials. No significant differences were noted for the majority of secondary outcomes for any of the planned comparisons. However, a significant difference was found for the following comparisons and outcomes: for the comparison between plant sterols and cholesterol-lowering diet (in favour of plant sterols), total cholesterol levels, mean difference 0.30 mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.48); decreased serum LDL cholesterol, mean difference -0.60 mmol/l (95% CI -0.89 to -0.31). Fasting serum HDL cholesterol levels were elevated, mean difference -0.04 mmol/l (95% CI -0.11 to 0.03) and serum triglyceride concentration was reduced, mean difference -0.03 mmol/l (95% CI -0.15 to -0.09), although these changes were not statistically significant. Similarly, guar gum when given as an add on therapy to bezafibrate reduced total cholesterol and LDL levels as compared to bezafibrate alone. No conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering diet, or any of the other dietary interventions suggested for familial hypercholesterolaemia, for the primary outcomes: evidence and incidence of ischaemic heart disease, number of deaths and age at death,due to the lack of data on these. Large, parallel, randomised controlled trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering diet and the addition of omega-3 fatty acids, plant sterols or stanols, soya protein, dietary fibers to a cholesterol-lowering diet.

  13. Impact of dietary fiber/starch ratio in shaping caecal microbiota in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanli; Wang, Chunyang; Li, Fuchang

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine whether changing the dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF)/starch ratio affected caecal microbiota when 4 different diets (diet A: 2.3 NDF/starch, diet B: 1.9, diet C: 1.4, diet D: 1.0) were formulated. A total of 200 weaned rabbits (35 days old, 50 per group) were used for the experiment, which started after an adaptation period of 7 days (i.e., day 42). Caecal contents were obtained from rabbits fed different NDF/starch diets at 52, 62, 72, and 82 days of life. The bacterial community structure was characterized by high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Synergistetes, and Tenericutes did not significantly change with diet or age. However, Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05), Proteobacteria (P < 0.01), and Verrucomicrobia (P < 0.05) reads were significantly affected by diet, and Proteobacteria (P < 0.01) and Verrucomicrobia (P < 0.05) reads were significantly influenced by age. At the genus level, Escherichia/Shigella (P < 0.01) was overrepresented in diet A (high fiber) relative to diet D (high starch) in 52- and 62-day-old rabbits. Venn diagrams and heat map plot analyses revealed that the number of gut species shared between animals with different diet treatments increased with age. These results suggest that dietary fiber per starch ratios and age significantly alter the composition of caecal microbiota in growing rabbits.

  14. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  15. Modification of deoiled cumin dietary fiber with laccase and cellulase under high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengmei; Mu, Taihua

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzyme (laccase and cellulase) treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and functional properties and antioxidant activity of deoiled cumin dietary fiber (DF). HHP-enzyme treatment increased the contents of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) (30.37 g/100g), monosaccharides (except for glucose), uronic acids, and total polyphenol. HHP-enzyme treatment altered the honey-comb structure of DF and generated new polysaccharides. DF modified by HHP-enzyme treatment exhibited improved water retention capacity (10.02 g/g), water swelling capacity (11.19 mL/g), fat and glucose absorption capacities (10.44 g/g, 22.18-63.54 mmol/g), α-amylase activity inhibition ration (37.95%), and bile acid retardation index (48.85-52.58%). The antioxidant activity of DF was mainly correlated to total polyphenol content (R=0.8742). Therefore, DF modified by HHP-enzyme treatment from deoiled cumin could be used as a fiber-rich ingredient in functional foods.

  16. Dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hui; Qiao, Chong; Wang, Ruo-Chen; Zhou, Wen-Ping

    2015-06-02

    Evidence on the association between dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk has been controversial. Therefore, we carried out this meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from epidemiologic studies on this point. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases as well as by reviewing the rence lists of relevant articles. Random or fixed-effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This meta-analysis included one cohort and thirteen case-control studies which involving a total of 3287 subjects with pancreatic cancer. After summarizing the risk estimates of these studies, we yielded a significant association between dietary fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk among case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.54; 95%CI = 0.44-0.67; I(2) = 41.4%; P = 0.043) but a non-significant result in cohort study (hazard ratio = 1.01; 95%CI = 0.59-1.74). Additionally, significant inverse associations were observed when we carried out the stratify analyses by the study characteristics and adjustment for potential confounders among case-control studies. Given only one cohort study included in the present meta-analysis, further prospective-designed studies should validate our findings and report more detail results, including those for subtypes of fiber, the risk estimates which corrected the impact of measurement errors and fully adjust for the potential confounders.

  17. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  18. Bubble velocity, diameter, and void fraction measurements in a multiphase flow using fiber optic reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ho-Joon; Chang, Kuang-An; Su, Chin B.; Chen, Chi-Yueh

    2008-12-01

    A fiber optic reflectometer (FOR) technique featuring a single fiber probe is investigated for its feasibility of measuring the bubble velocity, diameter, and void fraction in a multiphase flow. The method is based on the interference of the scattered signal from the bubble surface with the Fresnel reflection signal from the tip of the optical fiber. Void fraction is obtained with a high accuracy if an appropriate correction is applied to compensate the underestimated measurement value. Velocity information is accurately obtained from the reflected signals before the fiber tip touches the bubble surface so that several factors affecting the traditional dual-tip probes such as blinding, crawling, and drifting effects due to the interaction between the probe and bubbles can be prevented. The coherent signals reflected from both the front and rear ends of a bubble can provide velocity information. Deceleration of rising bubbles and particles due to the presence of the fiber probe is observed when they are very close to the fiber tip. With the residence time obtained, the bubble chord length can be determined by analyzing the coherent signal for velocity determination before the deceleration starts. The bubble diameters are directly obtained from analyzing the signals of the bubbles that contain velocity information. The chord lengths of these bubbles measured by FOR represent the bubble diameters when the bubble shape is spherical or represent the minor axes when the bubble shape is ellipsoidal. The velocity and size of bubbles obtained from the FOR measurements are compared with those obtained simultaneously using a high speed camera.

  19. Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, D S; Pereira, M A; Kroenke, C H; Hilner, J E; Van Horn, L; Slattery, M L; Jacobs, D R

    1999-10-27

    Dietary composition may affect insulin secretion, and high insulin levels, in turn, may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To examine the role of fiber consumption and its association with insulin levels, weight gain, and other CVD risk factors compared with other major dietary components. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a multicenter population-based cohort study of the change in CVD risk factors over 10 years (1985-1986 to 1995-1996) in Birmingham, Ala; Chicago, III; Minneapolis, Minn; and Oakland, Calif. A total of 2909 healthy black and white adults, 18 to 30 years of age at enrollment. Body weight, insulin levels, and other CVD risk factors at year 10, adjusted for baseline values. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary fiber showed linear associations from lowest to highest quintiles of intake with the following: body weight (whites: 174.8-166.7 lb [78.3-75.0 kg], P<.001; blacks: 185.6-177.6 lb [83.5-79.9 kg], P = .001), waist-to-hip ratio (whites: 0.813-0.801, P = .004; blacks: 0.809-0.799, P = .05), fasting insulin adjusted for body mass index (whites: 77.8-72.2 pmol/L [11.2-10.4 microU/mL], P = .007; blacks: 92.4-82.6 pmol/L [13.3-11.9 microU/mL], P = .01) and 2-hour postglucose insulin adjusted for body mass index (whites: 261.1-234.7 pmol/L [37.6-33.8 microU/mL], P = .03; blacks: 370.2-259.7 pmol/L [53.3-37.4 microU/mL], P<.001). Fiber was also associated with blood pressure and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fibrinogen; these associations were substantially attenuated by adjustment for fasting insulin level. In comparison with fiber, intake of fat, carbohydrate, and protein had inconsistent or weak associations with all CVD risk factors. Fiber consumption predicted insulin levels, weight gain, and other CVD risk factors more strongly than did total or saturated fat consumption. High-fiber diets may protect

  20. [Optimization of a spaghetti formula enriched with dietary fiber and micronutrients for elderly people].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; Serrano, Lisis; Bunger, Andrea; Soto, Delia; López, Luis; Hernández, Nieves; Ruales, Jenny

    2002-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated low dietary fiber intake in elderly people, which increases the risk of diseases such as constipation, colon cancer and diverticulosis. A spaghetti formula enriched with lupin fibre was developed to increase the dietary fibre intake in elderly people, as spaghetti are frequently consumed in this age group. Sweet lupin bran (Vitafiber) was used as fibre source and gluten was used as improving additive. Response surface methodology with a two variable composite rotatable design was applied to optimize the formulations. The independent variables were lupin bran (7.14-14.29%) and gluten Vital (0.1-2.0%). The dependent variables were the responses of a trained 10-member sensory panel who evaluated the sensory quality parameters color, shape, aroma, flavor and texture by the Karlsruhe 9-point test. The optimized formula was prepared with 66.7% semoline, 7.14% lupin bran, 1.05% gluten and 24.7% water, enriched with 0.019% of a vitamin premix (A. E, D, B2, B12 and folic acid) and with 0.41% of a mineral premix (Ca, Fe, Zn), in order to meet 30% of the RDA for the elderly per 100 g dry spaghetti. The dietary fibre content of the optimized product was 11.05 g/100 g. The study showed that fibre-enriched spaghetti formula is a good way to increase dietary fibre intake in elderly people, as it is a common food, simple to prepare and easy to eat.

  1. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD). We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g.) administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight), respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) content in fecal samples using real-time PCR. Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly. Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper fiber supplementation promotes effectively the

  2. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD). Objective We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g.) administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight), respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) content in fecal samples using real-time PCR. Results Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly. Conclusion Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper

  3. Soluble dietary fiber from Canna edulis Ker by-product and its physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Wu

    2013-01-30

    Using Canna edulis Ker by-product as raw materials, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared using six different methods, including chemical, physical-chemical, enzymatic, physical-enzymatic, chemical-enzymatic and physical-chemical-enzymatic methods. As main component in the C. edulis by-product composed of cellulose, glucose converts to other single sugars, which form a series of compounds in the SDF. The treated methods have impact effects on single sugar composition, metal ion content, molecular size distribution, chemical bonds and groups in the structure, thermal property and color of the final product. In view of security, high yield and homogeneity as well as good thermal stability of final product, physical-enzymatic method will be a best choice for the production of SDF from C. edulis by-product. The SDF obtained can be used as dietary supplement and additive in the food industry.

  4. Decreased hardness of dietary fiber-rich foods by the enzyme-infusion method.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Koji; Shibata, Kenya; Ishihara, Masako

    2006-07-01

    A novel technique is reported for softening plant tissues while retaining their shape by impregnating them with macerating enzymes under reduced pressure after defrosting the frozen plants. Samples were removed immediately from the enzyme solution after the freeze-infusion treatment, and the hardness was measured. Six enzymes and three enzymes were respectively chosen from 18 commercial enzymes for softening burdock roots and bamboo shoots. The tissue degradation due to impregnation of the tissues with the enzymes and the reaction time were investigated. Burdock roots and bamboo shoots were progressively softened during the reaction: the hardness reached 1.0 x 10(4) N/m(2) or less. The water-soluble dietary fiber contents increased as a result of the freeze-infusion treatment. This softening technique, which retained the food shape, could enhance the production of food products for elderly persons and those under nursing care. Foods produced by this method can replace current minced and liquid dietary components.

  5. Content and molecular-weight distribution of dietary fiber components in whole-grain rye flour and bread.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Roger; Fransson, Gunnel; Tietjen, Markus; Aman, Per

    2009-03-11

    Content of dietary fiber and dietary fiber components in whole-grain rye (n = 18) were analyzed. The average total content, when fructan was included, was for dietary fiber 19.9% (range of 18.7-22.2%) and for extractable dietary fiber 7.4% (range of 6.9-7.9%). Arabinoxylan was the main dietary fiber component, with an average total content of 8.6%, followed by fructan (4.1%). During baking of whole-grain rye bread, only small changes in total content of arabinoxylan, arabinogalactan, and beta-glucan occurred, while the content of resistant starch increased and the content of fructan decreased in a baking-method-dependent manner. The molecular-weight distribution of extractable arabinoxylan in the flour was analyzed with a new method and ranged from 4 x 10(4) to 9 x 10(6) g/mol, with a weight average molecular weight of about 2 x 10(6) g/mol. During crisp bread making, only a limited degradation of arabinoxylan molecular weight was detected, while a notable degradation was observed in sour-dough bread. The molecular weight of extractable beta-glucan in the whole-grain rye flour ranged from 10(4) to 5 x 10(6) g/mol, with a weight average molecular weight of 0.97 x 10(6) g/mol. During bread making, the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was substantially degraded.

  6. Development of the dietary fiber functional food and studies on its toxicological and physiologic properties.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yan; Zi-Jun, Wang; Jian, Xiong; Ying-jie, Dai; Fang, Ma

    2012-09-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) obtained from wheat bran by microbial fermentation was used as a food additive to cookies. The cookies were evaluated sensorally through an orthogonal test to gain the optimized production conditions as follows: the suitable DF content 8%, leavening agent 1.5%, standing time 5 min, and baking time of the cookies is 8 min. A series of toxicological and physiological functions of the cookies were studied using KM mice as the experimental animal in this paper. No deaths or abnormal behaviors of mice occurred either in acute toxicity tests or in short-term feeding tests. Besides, the weight gains, food utilization ratios, blood and serum biochemical parameters, organ coefficients and the results of organ histopathology tests of all doses groups exhibited no significant differences with the control group. This reveals that the dietary fiber functional cookies made by this formula have no acute or sub-chronic toxicity. In terms of physiological function, compared with the control group, the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were 17.0-21.7% and 18.7-35.0% lower in mice serum of all DF cookie doses groups, respectively, but this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Compared with positive control group, the Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) excretion ratios of DF group were 27.4% and 25.2% higher, respectively. Thus, a conclusion has been drawn that dietary fiber functional cookies made by this formula have no toxic or harmful actions on animals or humans, and the DF food was able to decrease TC and TG concentrations to some extent in serum and increase excretion of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in Feces. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm(3) ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  9. Characterization of dietary fiber lignins from fruits and vegetables using the DFRC method.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Mirko; Seiler, Annika; Steinhart, Hans

    2005-11-30

    Insoluble fiber fractions from 11 fruits and vegetables were investigated for their lignin composition using the derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC) methodology. To enrich lignin contents and to minimize polysaccharide excess that led to nonanalyzable DFRC chromatograms, the insoluble fibers were degraded by a carbohydrolases mixture. The residues that were found to be representative for the insoluble fiber lignins were analyzed. The investigated fibers differ considerably in their lignin contents and also in their lignin compositions. With the exception of radish fiber, only trace amounts (or none) of the products resulting from p-hydroxyphenyl units were detected. Lignins noticeably differed in the ratio of the DFRC products resulting from syringyl units (S) and guaiacyl (G) units (G/S ratios ranged from approximately 39 to 0.2). The insoluble fiber lignins were classified as G-rich lignins (G/S ratio > 3; carrot, spinach, kiwi, curly kale, radish, and asparagus), S-rich lignins (S/G ratio > 3; rhubarb), or balanced lignins (0.3 < G/S ratio < 3; pear, apple, small radish, and kohlrabi). Information about further structural characteristics, for example, cinnamyl endgroups, was obtained from the analysis of DFRC minor products.

  10. Considerations regarding the volume fraction influence on the wear behavior of the fiber reinforced composite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliman, R.

    2017-08-01

    This paper contains an analysis of the factors that have an influence on the tribological characteristics of the composite material sintered with metal matrix reinforced with carbon fibers. These composites are used generally if it’s needed the wear resistant materials, whereas these composites have high specific strength in conjunction with a good corrosion resistance at low densities and some self-lubricating properties. Through the knowledge of the better tribological properties of the materials and their behavior to wear, can be generated by dry and the wet friction. Thus, where necessary the use of high temperature resistant material with low friction between the elements, carbon fiber composite materials are very suitable because they have: mechanical strength and good ductility, melting temperature on the higher values, higher electrical and thermal conductivity, lower wear speed and lower friction forces. For this purpose, this paper also contains an experimental program based on the evidence of formaldehyde resin made from fiber reinforced Cu-carbon with the aim to specifically determine the volume of fibers fraction for the consolidation of the composite material. In order to determine the friction coefficient and the wear rates of the various fiber reinforced polymer mixtures of carbon have been used special devices with needle-type with steel disc. These tests were conducted in the atmosphere at the room temperature without external lubrication study taking into consideration the sliding different speeds with constant loading task.

  11. Photodynamic therapy of malignant brain tumors: supplementary postoperative light delivery by implanted optical fibers: field fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.

    1991-06-01

    Sixty-three patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) using an argon dye pump laser and preoperatively administered hematoporphyrin derivative or dihematoporphyrin ether. In 13 cases, in addition to cavitary photo-illumination, cylindrical diffusion fibers were used to increase the amount of light energy administered to the tumor tissue intraoperatively. This interstitial photo-illumination was tolerated at light energy densities of less than 450 J/cm. In six recent cases, all of whom had large malignant gliomas and could not be illuminated adequately at a single session, cylindrical diffusion fibers were left in situ after intraoperative cavitary photo-illumination of the tumor residuum. The fibers were protected from fracturing by placing all but the exposed diffusing end in a red rubber catheter of the appropriate diameter. The fibers were externalized through a separate stab wound as would be the case for a ventricular drain. Photo-illumination was continued one or two days post-operatively. The optimal fiber couple to the argon dye pump laser was achieved by assessing the fiber side scatter with a photometer. These six patients received 585-2730 Joules during the post-operative photo-illumination. The patients tolerated the fractionated photo-illumination well. A transient scalp inflammation occurred as the consequence light transmission to skin from the implanted fibers in one case. The median survival for the whole series was 8.5 months (40 weeks) with a 1- and 2-year actuarial survival rate of 33, respectively.

  12. Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) is a term that reflects to a heterogenous group of natural food sources, processed grains and commercial supplements. Several forms of DF have been used as complementary or alternative agents in the management of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity. Not surprisingly, there is a great variation in the biological efficacy of DF in metabolic syndrome and body weight control. Diverse factors and mechanisms have been reported as mediators of the effects of DF on the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Among this array of mechanisms, the modulation of gastric sensorimotor influences appears to be crucial for the effects of DF, but also quite variable. This article focuses on the role, mechanism of action and benefits of different forms of fiber and supplements on obesity and metabolic syndrome, glycemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk, and explores the effects of DF on gastric sensorimotor function and satiety in mediating these actions of DF. PMID:19931537

  13. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products.

  14. Influence of two dietary fibers in the oral bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of ethinyloestradiol.

    PubMed

    García, J J; Fernández, N; Diez, M J; Sahagún, A; González, A; Alonso, M L; Prieto, C; Calle, A P; Sierra, M

    2000-11-01

    Dietary fibers are widely used in hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, slimming diets. It is probable that their ingestion coincides with the oral administration of drugs and a modification of their pharmacokinetics can appear. In the present study, the influence of two soluble fibers (guar gum and psyllium) was evaluated on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyloestradiol (EE) when they were administered together to female rabbits via the oral route. Three groups of rabbits were used. All animals received 1 mg/kg of EE; this compound was administered alone in the control group and with 3.5 g of guar gum or psyllium in the other two groups. When guar gum was administered, there was a decrease in the extent of EE absorbed, but no change was observed in the rate of absorption. When psyllium was administered, the extent of EE absorbed increased slightly and the rate of absorption was slower.

  15. Sex, Body Mass Index, and Dietary Fiber Intake Influence the Human Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dominianni, Christine; Sinha, Rashmi; Goedert, James J.; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying; Hayes, Richard B.; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the composition of the human gut microbiome is important in the etiology of human diseases; however, the personal factors that influence the gut microbiome composition are poorly characterized. Animal models point to sex hormone-related differentials in microbiome composition. In this study, we investigated the relationship of sex, body mass index (BMI) and dietary fiber intake with the gut microbiome in 82 humans. We sequenced fecal 16S rRNA genes by 454 FLX technology, then clustered and classified the reads to microbial genomes using the QIIME pipeline. Relationships of sex, BMI, and fiber intake with overall gut microbiome composition and specific taxon abundances were assessed by permutational MANOVA and multivariate logistic regression, respectively. We found that sex was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.001). The gut microbiome in women was characterized by a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (p=0.03). BMI (>25 kg/m2 vs. <25 kg/m2) was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.05), and this relationship was strong in women (p=0.03) but not in men (p=0.29). Fiber from beans and from fruits and vegetables were associated, respectively, with greater abundance of Actinobacteria (p=0.006 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.05) and Clostridia (p=0.009 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.09). Our findings suggest that sex, BMI, and dietary fiber contribute to shaping the gut microbiome in humans. Better understanding of these relationships may have significant implications for gastrointestinal health and disease prevention. PMID:25874569

  16. Effect of dietary fiber/starch balance on the cecal proteome of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanli; Wang, Chunyang; Wang, Xuepeng; Li, Bing; Li, Fuchang

    2014-05-30

    Dietary fiber/starch imbalance can lead to diarrhea in rabbits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, and this is the first study on the proteome profile of the cecal tissue of diarrheic rabbits. In this study, one group of weanling rabbits was fed a high fiber/starch diet (control group), and another group was fed a low fiber/starch diet (diarrhea group). We applied 2-D gel electrophoresis, coupled with histological and biochemical analyses, to study dynamic changes in the proteome of the cecal tissue from healthy and diarrheic growing rabbits. We identified 29 protein spots showing differential abundance between the two groups. We identified the proteins and found that they participated in key biological processes, including absorption, digestion and transport; cell structure and motility; inflammatory response; glucose and energy metabolism; mineral and vitamin metabolism; stress response and cell redox homeostasis. Moreover, the results of our proteomics analysis revealed continuous impairment and compensatory intestinal repair in the rabbits with diarrhea. Therefore, these findings shed light on the main mechanisms and the main proteins involved in intestinal degradation in diarrhea. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism of cecal damage and repair in diarrhea in rabbits caused by dietary factors. The different cecal protein expressions were compared between healthy and diarrhea in growing rabbit model fed different fiber/starch diets. Diarrhea caused by feeding high-starch diet induced mucosal injury and inflammation. In this work we identify protein spots by MALDI-TOF MS and classify by biological function. The finding that the expression of all other proteins belonging to seven functional groups was significantly increased in the diarrheic rabbits, except for CMBL, suggests that many intestinal functional proteins may be related to up-regulation, such as cell absorption, digestion, transport

  17. Sex, body mass index, and dietary fiber intake influence the human gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Dominianni, Christine; Sinha, Rashmi; Goedert, James J; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying; Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the composition of the human gut microbiome is important in the etiology of human diseases; however, the personal factors that influence the gut microbiome composition are poorly characterized. Animal models point to sex hormone-related differentials in microbiome composition. In this study, we investigated the relationship of sex, body mass index (BMI) and dietary fiber intake with the gut microbiome in 82 humans. We sequenced fecal 16S rRNA genes by 454 FLX technology, then clustered and classified the reads to microbial genomes using the QIIME pipeline. Relationships of sex, BMI, and fiber intake with overall gut microbiome composition and specific taxon abundances were assessed by permutational MANOVA and multivariate logistic regression, respectively. We found that sex was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.001). The gut microbiome in women was characterized by a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (p=0.03). BMI (>25 kg/m2 vs. <25 kg/m2) was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.05), and this relationship was strong in women (p=0.03) but not in men (p=0.29). Fiber from beans and from fruits and vegetables were associated, respectively, with greater abundance of Actinobacteria (p=0.006 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.05) and Clostridia (p=0.009 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.09). Our findings suggest that sex, BMI, and dietary fiber contribute to shaping the gut microbiome in humans. Better understanding of these relationships may have significant implications for gastrointestinal health and disease prevention.

  18. Fiber-bound nitrogen in gorilla diets: implications for estimating dietary protein intake of primates.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Pell, Alice N

    2008-07-01

    Protein is essential for living organisms, but digestibility of crude protein is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Nitrogen is used to estimate protein content because nitrogen is a component of the amino acids that comprise protein, but a substantial portion of the nitrogen in plants may be bound to fiber in an indigestible form. To estimate the amount of crude protein that is unavailable in the diets of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, foods routinely eaten were analyzed to determine the amount of nitrogen bound to the acid-detergent fiber residue. The amount of fiber-bound nitrogen varied among plant parts: herbaceous leaves 14.5+/-8.9% (reported as a percentage of crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis), tree leaves (16.1+/-6.7% DM), pith/herbaceous peel (26.2+/-8.9% DM), fruit (34.7+/-17.8% DM), bark (43.8+/-15.6% DM), and decaying wood (85.2+/-14.6% DM). When crude protein and available protein intake of adult gorillas was estimated over a year, 15.1% of the dietary crude protein was indigestible. These results indicate that the proportion of fiber-bound protein in primate diets should be considered when estimating protein intake, food selection, and food/habitat quality.

  19. Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols enhances lipid oxidation and lowers postprandial acylated ghrelin in humans.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Garcia, Ada L; Otto, Baerbel; Mueller, Corinna; Steiniger, Jochen; Weickert, Martin O; Speth, Maria; Katz, Norbert; Koebnick, Corinna

    2006-06-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that may affect substrate utilization in humans. Ghrelin is influenced by macronutrients, but the effects of insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols are unknown. We investigated the effects of a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fiber preparation from carob pulp (carob fiber) on postprandial ghrelin responses and substrate utilization. Dose-dependent effects of the consumption of carob fiber were investigated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study in 20 healthy subjects, aged 22-62 y. Plasma total and acylated ghrelin, triglycerides, and serum insulin and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels were repeatedly assessed before and after ingestion of an isocaloric standardized liquid meal with 0, 5, 10, or 20 g of carob fiber over a 300-min period. The respiratory quotient (RQ) was determined after consumption of 0 or 20 g of carob fiber. Carob fiber intake lowered acylated ghrelin to 49.1%, triglycerides to 97.2%, and NEFA to 67.2% compared with the control meal (P < 0.001). Total ghrelin and insulin concentrations were not affected by consumption of a carob fiber-enriched liquid meal. Postprandial energy expenditure was increased by 42.3% and RQ was reduced by 99.9% after a liquid meal with carob fiber compared with a control meal (P < 0.001). We showed that the consumption of a carob pulp preparation, an insoluble dietary fiber rich in polyphenols, decreases postprandial responses of acylated ghrelin, triglycerides, and NEFA and alters RQ, suggesting a change toward increased fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that carob fiber might exert beneficial effects in energy intake and body weight.

  20. Association between dietary fiber and lower risk of all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Long-Gang; Wu, Qi-Jun; Ma, Xiao; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-15

    Although in vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that dietary fiber might have beneficial effects on health, results on the association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality in epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess this association. Pertinent studies were identified by searching articles in PubMed and Web of Knowledge through May 2014 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects models. Seventeen prospective studies (1997-2014) that had a total of 67,260 deaths and 982,411 cohort members were included. When comparing persons with dietary fiber intakes in the top tertile with persons whose intakes were in the bottom tertile, we found a statistically significant inverse association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality, with an overall relative risk of 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.87; I(2) = 41.2%). There was a 10% reduction in risk for per each 10-g/day increase in fiber intake (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.94; I(2) = 77.2%). The combined estimate was robust across subgroup and sensitivity analyses. No publication bias was detected. A higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk of death. These findings suggest that fiber intake may offer a potential public health benefit in reducing all-cause mortality.

  1. Prospective study of dietary fiber and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among US women and men.

    PubMed

    Varraso, Raphaëlle; Willett, Walter C; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about the relation between dietary fiber intake and the incidence of respiratory diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors investigated this issue among 111,580 US women and men (Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study), with 832 cases of newly diagnosed COPD being reported between 1984 and 2000. The cumulative average intake of total fiber and of fiber from specific sources (cereal, fruit, and vegetables) was calculated from food frequency questionnaires and a food composition database and divided into quintiles. After adjustment for 11 factors (age, sex, smoking, energy intake, body mass index, US region, physician visits, physical activity, diabetes, and intakes of omega-3 and cured meat), total dietary fiber intake was negatively associated with risk of newly diagnosed COPD (for highest vs. lowest intake, relative risk = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.90; P(trend) = 0.03). For specific fiber sources (cereal, fruit, and vegetables), only cereal fiber was significantly associated with newly diagnosed COPD independently of other fiber sources (for highest vs. lowest intake, relative risk = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.99; P(trend) = 0.04). These data suggest that a diet high in fiber, and possibly specifically cereal fiber, may reduce risk of developing COPD.

  2. Fractional Zinc Absorption for Men, Women, and Adolescents Is Overestimated in the Current Dietary Reference Intakes.

    PubMed

    Armah, Seth M

    2016-06-01

    The fractional zinc absorption values used in the current Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for zinc were based on data from published studies. However, the inhibitory effect of phytate was underestimated because of the low phytate content of the diets in the studies used. The objective of this study was to estimate the fractional absorption of dietary zinc from the US diet by using 2 published algorithms. Nutrient intake data were obtained from the NHANES 2009-2010 and the corresponding Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Data were analyzed with the use of R software by taking into account the complex survey design. The International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG; Brown et al. Food Nutr Bull 2004;25:S99-203) and Miller et al. (Br J Nutr 2013;109:695-700) models were used to estimate zinc absorption. Geometric means (95% CIs) of zinc absorption for all subjects were 30.1% (29.9%, 30.2%) or 31.3% (30.9%, 31.6%) with the use of the IZiNCG model and Miller et al. model, respectively. For men, women, and adolescents, absorption values obtained in this study with the use of the 2 models were 27.2%, 31.4%, and 30.1%, respectively, for the IZiNCG model and 28.0%, 33.0%, and 31.6%, respectively, for the Miller et al. model, compared with the 41%, 48%, and 40%, respectively, used in the current DRIs. For preadolescents, estimated absorption values (31.1% and 32.8% for the IZiNCG model and Miller et al. model, respectively) compare well with the conservative estimate of 30% used in the DRIs. When the new estimates of zinc absorption were applied to the current DRI values for men and women, the results suggest that the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and RDA for these groups need to be increased by nearly one-half of the current values in order to meet their requirements for absorbed zinc. These data suggest that zinc absorption is overestimated for men, women, and adolescents in the current DRI. Upward adjustments of the DRI for these groups are recommended.

  3. Dietary fiber intake and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Otani, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2006-09-15

    Results on the association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk were inconsistent among previous large prospective studies, but studies in non-Western populations are lacking. Consequently, the authors investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and the subsequent risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort study of a Japanese population. Dietary fiber intake was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires comprising 44 or 52 items at the baseline survey and 138 food items at a 5-year follow-up survey. The authors identified 907 cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed pathologically in 86,412 subjects during a 10-year follow-up from the baseline survey. After the 5-year follow-up survey, 522 cases were identified in 78,326 subjects during a 5.8-year follow-up. The authors estimated the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of colorectal cancer for dietary fiber intake using Cox's proportional hazards model. The authors found no statistically significant association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer in analyses using data either from the baseline survey or from the 5-year follow-up survey. However, the risk of only the lowest quintile was high, compared with the second to the fifth quintiles. Furthermore, the lowest subtertile in the lowest quintile was associated with an increased risk in women (hazard ratio(Sub1 vs. Q5), 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-5.2). In conclusion, although a minor effect cannot be ruled out, the results did not support a hypothesis of a dose-dependent protective effect of dietary fiber intake against colorectal cancer.

  4. Dietary Fat Content and Fiber Type Modulate Hind Gut Microbial Community and Metabolic Markers in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2×2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity. PMID:23573202

  5. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  6. Role of dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids in the colon.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Akira; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    Luminal nutrition is important for maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosal structure and function. In particular, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and resistant starch, are particularly important as the preferred respiratory fuel of the colonocytes. A variety of biological effects of SCFAs have been reported, and there is now increasing number of experimental works showing new aspects of these molecules. For example, as the mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs, several investigators identified the inhibitory effect of butyrate on proinflammatory cytokine-induced NF-kappaB activation. Various inflammatory responses are now discussed with the central role of NF-kappaB activation, and thus the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation represents the efficacy of dietary fiber and SCFAs in the treatment with inflammatory bowel disease. Furthermore, recent advance in molecular technology has identified mechanisms mediating anti-tumor effects of SCFAs. SCFAs modulate expression of cell cycle-regulating proteins and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. SCFAs increase the susceptibility of colon cancer cells to complement-mediated cell injury. In this review, new aspects of functions of SCFAs are focused and summarized.

  7. Fermentable dietary fiber potentiates the localization of immune cells in the rat large intestinal crypts.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Seiji; Xu, Hong; Hara, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    Intestinal crypts are composed of a well-defined hierarchy of epithelial cells, and proliferating epithelial cells reside close to the bottom of the crypts-even in the large intestine. We investigated whether CD8(+)and CD4(+)intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and CD161(+) natural killer (NK) cells localized in proliferating or differentiated epithelial region of cecum and colon. Both proliferating epithelial layer cells and the immune cells along the longitudinal crypt axis of the large intestine were measured histochemically. Dietary intervention revealed that the physiological localization of the immune cells in the longitudinal crypt axis depended on the immune cell type. CD8(+) IELs were preferentially located among differentiated epithelial cells. In contrast, CD161(+) NK cells were located adjacent to the epithelial cells at the bottom of crypt. Cecal crypts contained significantly larger numbers of CD8(+) IELs than did colonic crypts. However, there was only a minor population of CD4(+) IEL in the cecal and colonic epithelia. Some dietary fibers increased the densities of CD8(+) IELs and CD161(+) NK cells in the cecum, with the magnitude of response varying among the types of fiber. There was a significant relationship between SCFA and the localization of immune cells, especially CD8(+) IEL and CD161(+) NK cells, which are considered to be involved in the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis.

  8. Randomized trial of dietary fiber and Lactobacillus casei administration for prevention of colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Akedo, Ikuko; Otani, Toru; Suzuki, Takaichiro; Nakamura, Tomiyo; Takeyama, Ikuko; Ishiguro, Shingo; Miyaoka, Etsuo; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kakizoe, Tadao

    2005-09-20

    The epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer is equivocal. No large-scale clinical study of the administration of Lactobacillus casei has been reported. We examined whether dietary fiber and L. casei prevented the occurrence of colorectal tumors. Subjects were 398 men and women presently free from tumor who had had at least 2 colorectal tumors removed. Subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups administered wheat bran, L. casei, both or neither. The primary end point was the presence or absence of new colorectal tumor(s) diagnosed by colonoscopy after 2 and 4 years. Among 380 subjects who completed the study, 95, 96, 96 and 93 were assigned to the wheat bran, L. casei, both and no treatment groups, respectively. Multivariate adjusted ORs for occurrence of tumors were 1.31 (95% CI 0.87-1.98) in the wheat bran group and 0.76 (0.50-1.15) in the L. casei group compared to the control group. There was a significantly higher number of large tumors after 4 years in the wheat bran group. The occurrence rate of tumors with a grade of moderate atypia or higher was significantly lower in the group administered L. casei. No significant difference in the development of new colorectal tumors was observed with administration of either wheat bran or L. casei. However, our results suggest that L. casei prevented atypia of colorectal tumors.

  9. How to Feed the Mammalian Gut Microbiota: Bacterial and Metabolic Modulation by Dietary Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Chiara; Statello, Rosario; Carnevali, Luca; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Milani, Christian; Mangifesta, Marta; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele A.; Jimenez, Beatriz; Lodge, Samantha; Viappiani, Alice; Alessandri, Giulia; Dall’Asta, Margerita; Del Rio, Daniele; Sgoifo, Andrea; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota of mammals is greatly influenced by diet. Therefore, evaluation of different food ingredients that may promote changes in the gut microbiota composition is an attractive approach to treat microbiota disturbances. In this study, three dietary fibers, such as inulin (I, 10%), resistant starch (RS, 10%), and citrus pectin (3%), were employed as supplements to normal chow diet of adult male rats for 2 weeks. Fecal microbiota composition and corresponding metabolite profiles were assessed before and after prebiotics supplementation. A general increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was detected with a concurrent reduction in Firmicutes, in particular for I and RS experiments, while additional changes in the microbiota composition were evident at lower taxonomic levels for all the three substrates. Such modifications in the microbiota composition were correlated with changes in metabolic profiles of animals, in particular changes in acetate and succinate levels. This study represents a first attempt to modulate selectively the abundance and/or metabolic activity of various members of the gut microbiota by means of dietary fiber.

  10. Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 1. Preparation and physicochemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K

    2005-11-30

    Preparation of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuberregium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, by a scale-up modified AOAC procedure using industrial enzymes was investigated. A remarkably high level of total dietary fiber (TDF) ranging from 81.7 to 96.3% sample dry matter (DM), in which a content of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) ranging from 86.6 to 94.3% sclerotial TDF DM, was obtained from the three sclerotia. All sclerotial DFs were rich in beta-glucan (the glucose residue ranged from 89.7 to 94.5% NSP DM) with a very low level of resistant glycogen (ranged from 3.77 to 3.94% sclerotial TDF DM). All three novel sclerotial DFs also exhibited similar, if not better, physicochemical and functional properties (pH, color, water binding capacity, oil holding capacity, and emulsifying properties) as those of barely DF control and commercial DF-rich ingredients. The potential use of the three mushroom sclerotial DFs as a new beta-glucan type DF-rich ingredient in the food industry was discussed.

  11. How to Feed the Mammalian Gut Microbiota: Bacterial and Metabolic Modulation by Dietary Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Chiara; Statello, Rosario; Carnevali, Luca; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Milani, Christian; Mangifesta, Marta; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele A; Jimenez, Beatriz; Lodge, Samantha; Viappiani, Alice; Alessandri, Giulia; Dall'Asta, Margerita; Del Rio, Daniele; Sgoifo, Andrea; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota of mammals is greatly influenced by diet. Therefore, evaluation of different food ingredients that may promote changes in the gut microbiota composition is an attractive approach to treat microbiota disturbances. In this study, three dietary fibers, such as inulin (I, 10%), resistant starch (RS, 10%), and citrus pectin (3%), were employed as supplements to normal chow diet of adult male rats for 2 weeks. Fecal microbiota composition and corresponding metabolite profiles were assessed before and after prebiotics supplementation. A general increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was detected with a concurrent reduction in Firmicutes, in particular for I and RS experiments, while additional changes in the microbiota composition were evident at lower taxonomic levels for all the three substrates. Such modifications in the microbiota composition were correlated with changes in metabolic profiles of animals, in particular changes in acetate and succinate levels. This study represents a first attempt to modulate selectively the abundance and/or metabolic activity of various members of the gut microbiota by means of dietary fiber.

  12. Effect of Dietary Fibers on Cecal Microbiota and Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane Treated A/J Min/+ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Måge, Ingrid; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Rud, Ida; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Paulsen, Jan Erik

    2016-01-01

    Foods naturally high in dietary fiber are generally considered to protect against development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the intrinsic effect of dietary fiber on intestinal carcinogenesis is unclear. We used azoxymethane (AOM) treated A/J Min/+ mice, which developed a significantly higher tumor load in the colon than in the small intestine, to compare the effects of dietary inulin (IN), cellulose (CE) or brewers spent grain (BSG) on intestinal tumorigenesis and cecal microbiota. Each fiber was tested at two dose levels, 5% and 15% (w/w) content of the AIN-93M diet. The microbiota was investigated by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4). We found that mice fed IN had approximately 50% lower colonic tumor load than mice fed CE or BSG (p<0.001). Surprisingly, all three types of fiber caused a dose dependent increase of colonic tumor load (p<0.001). The small intestinal tumor load was not affected by the dietary fiber interventions. Mice fed IN had a lower bacterial diversity than mice fed CE or BSG. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly (p = 0.003) different between the three fiber diets with a higher mean value in IN fed mice compared with BSG and CE. We also found a relation between microbiota and the colonic tumor load, where many of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to low tumor load were significantly enriched in mice fed IN. Among the OTUs related to low tumor load were bacteria affiliated with the Bacteroides genus. These results suggest that type of dietary fiber may play a role in the development of CRC, and that the suppressive effect of IN on colonic tumorigenesis is associated with profound changes in the cecal microbiota profile. PMID:27196124

  13. DIETARY FIBER AND SERUM 16α-HYDROXYESTRONE, AN ESTROGEN METABOLITE ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shawn; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cacioppo, John T.; Masi, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We recently identified an inverse relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone, a metabolite of 17β-estradiol, in postmenopausal women. Formation of 16α-hydroxyestrone is catalyzed primarily by CYP1A2, a cytochrome P450 enzyme. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between known modifiers of CYP1A2 activity and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that fruits, vegetables, and grains, which contain more soluble fiber (a known inducer of CYP1A2) as a proportion of total fiber, would be more positively associated with serum 16α-hydroxyestrone than legumes, which contain less soluble fiber as a proportion of total fiber. Materials and Methods Serum from a population-based sample of 42 postmenopausal women aged 55–69 living in Cook County, Illinois, was assayed for 16α-hydroxyestrone using mass spectrometry. Ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between dietary fiber and serum 16α-hydroxyestrone after adjusting for multiple covariates. Results Relative to dietary fiber from legumes, dietary fiber from fruits and vegetables was associated with a greater log odds (B = 0.201, p = 0.036) of having higher serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone. The log odds of having higher serum concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone was also lower among African-American women (B = −2.300, p = .030) compared to white women. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating a negative relationship between SBP and dietary fruits and vegetables and a positive relationship between African-American race and SBP. Further research is needed regarding dietary factors that may influence the serum concentration of 16α-hydroxyestrone. PMID:21035306

  14. New NIRS calibrations for fiber fractions reveal broad genetic variation in Brassica napus seed quality.

    PubMed

    Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2012-03-07

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for the estimation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) in intact seeds of oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ). A set of 338 diverse winter oilseed rape genotypes showing broad variation for seed color was used as a basis for the new calibrations. Different calibrations were generated for 10 or 1 mL seed volumes, respectively. In both seed volumes good coefficients of determination for external validation (R(2)) of the calibrations were obtained for ADL, the major antinutritional fiber fraction in oilseed rape meal, and adequate calibrations for NDF and ADF. Evaluation of diverse B. napus germplasm with the new calibrations revealed a surprisingly broad variation in contents of ADL in dark-seeded oilseed rape. The ability to use NIRS for efficient selection of low-fiber genotypes, irrespective of seed color, represents an important breakthrough in breeding for improved nutritional quality of seed extraction meals from oilseed rape.

  15. Dietary fiber and reduced ischemic heart disease mortality rates in men and women: a 12-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T; Barrett-Connor, E

    1987-12-01

    The authors examined the relation between 24-hour dietary fiber intake at baseline survey in 1972-1974 and subsequent 12-year ischemic heart disease mortality in a southern Californian population-based cohort of 859 men and women aged 50-79 years. Relative risks of ischemic heart disease mortality in those with dietary fiber intake of 16 gm/24 hours or more compared with those with intake less than 16 gm/24 hours were 0.33 in men and 0.37 in women. A 6 gm increment in daily fiber intake was associated with a 25% reduction in ischemic heart disease mortality (p less than 0.01). This effect was independent of other dietary variables, including calories, fat, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, alcohol, calcium, and potassium. Some, but not all, of this effect appears to be mediated through the known cardiovascular risk factors: after multivariate adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and cigarette smoking habit, the magnitude of the protective effect of fiber was reduced but still significant in both sexes combined. These findings support the hypothesis that high dietary fiber intake is protective for ischemic heart disease mortality.

  16. [Chemical and sensory characterization of cakes enriched with dietary fiber and micronutrient for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; Avendaño, Paula; Soto, Delia; Bunger, Andreá

    2003-03-01

    This study presents the development of individual cakes enriched with dietary fiber (lupin and oat fiber), vitamins and minerals; as recent research has shown that the average daily dietary fibre intake of the elderly population in Chile is only 12 g. Each cake contains 4.8 g of dietary fibre and a 30% of the RDA of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, nicotinamide and folic acid, 40% of the RDA of vitamin D3, 15% of the RDA of calcium, 12% of the RDA of magnesium and 3% the RDA of zinc. Polydextrose and sorbitol were added to improve flavor and texture. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for optimization, based on a two-variable composite design. Thirteen experimental runs were carried out, with polydextrose (1 to 40% based on flour content) and sorbitol (1 to 30% based on flour content) as independent variables. The response variable was sensory quality obtained by the Karlsruhe test. Sensory attributes of texture and overall quality showed a good fitting with high determination coefficients and were used for optimization. The optimized cake contained 11.5% polydextrose and 4.4% sorbitol (both based on flour content). Quality of the optimized product was controlled by means of physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses. Overall sensory quality was 8.18 ("very good") and good quality and nutritive value were achieved. In an acceptance test carried out with 150 adults, 100% acceptability was obtained in the hedonic scale categories "like it" and "like it very much". A shelf life study performed with cakes packaged in polypropylene bags of 30 microns thickness indicated a shelf life of 13 days stored at room conditions (25 degrees C and 55-60% R.H.).

  17. Dietary fiber suppresses elevations of uric acid and allantoin in serum and urine induced by dietary RNA and increases its excretion to feces in rats.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hisao; Wada, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuji; Innami, Satoshi; Maekawa, Akio; Tadokor, Tadahiro

    2002-06-01

    This study was performed to examine the effects of several kinds of dietary fibers (DF) with different physical properties on dietary RNA metabolism. Male Wistar strain rats, 4 wk old, were fed diets with or without a 3% yeast RNA and a 5% DF (cellulose, chitin, chitosan, inulin, and xanthan gum) for 20 d (Experiment 1) or 5 d (Experiment 2). Feeding DF tested lowered the serum uric acid and allantoin concentrations and the urinary excretions of their compounds and increased the amount of RNA excreted into the feces compared with fiber-free. The water-holding capacity and nucleotide adsorption of chitin and chitosan in acidic solutions were higher than those of cellulose. The digestion rate of RNA by RNase A in vitro was found to be lower in the DF tested than in fiber-free. The decrease was remarkable in chitosan and xanthan gum. The uptakes of 14C-labeled adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) in the rat jejunum were markedly decreased in regard to chitosan and xanthan gum in comparison with the fiber-free. These phenomena suggest that DF with high viscosity is more strongly associated with the suppression of RNA digestion by RNase A and the depression of the uptake of purine compounds to jejunum. The present results reveal that the elevation of serum uric acid concentration induced by dietary RNA can be suppressed by DF in rats.

  18. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.01), whereas Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fecal fat and energy excretion increased by 50 and 23% with Flax drink consumption compared to control (p < 0.05), but only fecal fat excretion was increased with Flax bread compared to control (p < 0.05). Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004 PMID:22305169

  19. Protease and Hemicellulase Assisted Extraction of Dietary Fiber from Wastes of Cynara cardunculus

    PubMed Central

    Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Soria, Marcelo; Rojas, Ana M.; Fissore, Eliana N.; Gerschenson, Lía N.

    2015-01-01

    The action of protease and hemicellulase for the extraction of fractions enriched in soluble fiber from bracts and stems of Cynara cardunculus was evaluated. Using a two-factor simplex design comprising protease amounts of 0–200 μL and hemicellulase amounts of 0–200 mg for 5 g of material, we explored the effect of a 5 h enzymatic treatment at 40 °C on the chemical composition and yield of the fractions isolated. The fractions contained inulin and pectin. In general, the protein, inulin, and polyphenol contents and also the yields were higher for fractions obtained from stems. The most marked effects were observed when enzymes were used at higher concentrations, especially for hemicellulase. The inclusion of a pre-heating step increased the yield and the inulin content for fractions isolated from bracts and stems and decreased the protein and polyphenol contents, and the galacturonic acid for bracts. These fractions, in general, contained the polyphenolic compounds monocaffeoylquinic acid, apigenin, and pinoresinol. PMID:25809605

  20. Soluble Dietary Fiber Can Protect the Gastrointestinal Mucosa Against Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Urushidani, Tetsuro

    2016-07-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal damage is a serious problem in patients, but effective therapy is not available at present. The effects of feeding conditions and dietary fiber (DF) on NSAID-induced gastrointestinal lesions were examined in mice. NSAIDs (indomethacin, diclofenac, loxoprofen, aspirin) were administered to male mice in various feeding conditions. Gastrointestinal lesions were examined 24 h after NSAID dosing. Regular diets, dietary-fiber-free diet (FFD), and diets supplemented with various types of DF were given to mice. NSAIDs produced marked ulcers and perforations selectively in the gastric antrum when they were administered after feeding of regular diet for 2 h after a 22-h fast. When NSAIDs, except for aspirin, were administered in unfasted conditions, they caused marked lesions in the small intestine. When mice were given FFD, antral ulcers and intestinal lesions induced by indomethacin (30 mg/kg, s.c.) markedly decreased, but when cellulose, an insoluble DF, was added to FFD, the lesions appeared again. The addition of pectin, a soluble DF, to regular diet containing 4.1 % crude fiber significantly inhibited the formation of antral ulcers as well as intestinal lesions caused by indomethacin or diclofenac (100 mg/kg, s.c.). The results indicated that NSAIDs given after feeding of diet produced ulcers selectively in the gastric antrum. The severity of the gastrointestinal lesions depended on the concentration of soluble or insoluble DF in food. Our results suggest that soluble DF such as pectin may be a safe means for protecting the gastrointestinal mucosa against NSAIDs.

  1. [Dietary fiber potential in Iberian-American countries: food, products and residues].

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Eliana B; Lajolo, Franco M; de Menezes, Elizabete W

    2003-03-01

    The reduced intake of dietary fiber (DF) has been associated with the increase in the incidence of several non-transmissible chronic diseases. Recently many researchers from Iberian-American countries have been studying DF of food and industrial residues in order to improve technological knowledge about concentrates production as well as the development and test of enriched products originated from regional food. The present study aimed to evaluate the regional DF potential based on compilation of data about this nutrient. There is great availability of regional and traditional food with considerable DF amounts as we may find in fruits, vegetables and cereals and legumes. Concentrated sources of DF obtained from different industrial residues were characterized and evaluated making possible their utilization in food enrichment. Cookies added to corn residues (16.8% DF in integral weight) in Colombia, and pasta added to lupine fiber in Chile (11.2%) are examples of tested enriched products. Products like bread with whole wheat (12%), products for especial uses as well as pills of citric DF (55%) and food for enteral diets (1-1.9%) are already available on Cuba market. The dietary fiber contents presented in this work allow us to have an idea of the potential of such nutrient in Iberian-American countries. Such potential has been proved to be considerably representative. It is worth to inform that the complete DF database is available on the CYTED X1.6/CNPq Project Web site (http://www.fcf.usp.br/cytedxi16). It provides data on 817 regional, traditional and not conventional foods, that can be searched and utilized by professional from different areas.

  2. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Raj Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C.; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B.; Raphael, Kalani L.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) was 5.8%. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the odds of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels were decreased by 11% and 38% in those without and with kidney disease, respectively. Dietary total fiber intake was not significantly associated with mortality in those without but was inversely related to mortality in those with kidney disease. The relationship of total fiber with inflammation and mortality differed significantly in those with and without kidney disease. Thus, high dietary total fiber intake is associated with lower risk of inflammation and mortality in kidney disease and these associations are stronger in magnitude in those with kidney disease. Interventional trials are needed to establish the effects of fiber intake on inflammation and mortality in kidney disease. PMID:22012132

  3. [Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals and legumes cultivated in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pak, N; Ayala, C; Vera, G; Pennacchiotti, I; Araya, H

    1990-03-01

    Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber (DF) were determined in 35 varieties of certified whole seeds (without processing) of cereals (rice, oat, rye, and wheat) and legumes (pea, cowpea, beans, chikpea, lentil and lupine). The enzymatic method of Asp, Johansson and Siljestrom was used, with modifications in relation to time of incubation with alpha amylase, filtration system and volumes of the filtrates. Results were expressed as g/100 g dry weight. Total DF for cereals showed a range from 10.1 (wheat var. Chasqui) to 22.2 (rice var Quella). Rye, var. Tetra Baer and oats var. Pony Baer presented the highest soluble fiber content (3.3 and 3.9, respectively). In legumes, total DF fluctuated between 12.7 (pea, var. yellow) and 36.6 (lupine, var. Multolupa). Bean, var. Pinto INIA and lupine var. Multolupa presented the highest soluble fiber values (5.8 for both). Based on the results of this research work, it might be concluded that great variation exists in regard to the amount of total soluble and insoluble DF in cereals and legumes, a fact which impedes generalization as to its content in each food item.

  4. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of barley dietary fiber by chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Park, Ka Hwa; Lee, Kwang Yeon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Chemical modification of dietary fiber (DF), extracted from whole grain barley, was carried out to obtain cross-linked (CL) DF, carboxymethyl (CM) DF, and hydroxypropyl (HP) DF. The DF components, physicochemical properties, and subsequent influence on the in vitro digestibility of wheat starch gels were comparatively investigated. The redistribution of fiber components from chemically modified DF was observed. An increase in the total DF (TDF) content of CL- and HP-DF was observed, which was mainly due to an increase of insoluble DF. Carboxymethylation led to an appreciable increase of soluble DF (1.17-6.20%) but TDF contents slightly decreased. Chemical modification of barley DF led to increases in arabinose (7.1-11.5%) and xylose (10.7-17.5%), but glucose contents decreased (67.4-79.9%). The treatments, especially carboxymethylation, effectively (P<0.05) increased hydration properties (e.g. water solubility, swelling power, and water absorption index). Substitution of 5% wheat starch with CL-, and HP-DF led to decreased in vitro digestibility in comparison to the control starch. Our results suggest that chemical modification improve the DF characteristics of barley and to exploit its potential application as a functional ingredient in fiber-rich products.

  5. Effect of level and source of dietary fiber on food intake in the dog.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, R F; Markwell, P J; Thorne, C J

    1994-12-01

    The effects of dietary fiber on challenge meal intake and on the perception of hunger in dogs were evaluated. A program of testing variants of a standard low energy diet, to which one of five fiber containing raw materials was added, was undertaken. Diets were fed to a group of six dogs for 12-d periods in a latin square design and in amounts that corresponded to the food allowance for weight reduction. Behavioral characteristics of dogs were recorded on videotape for 30-min periods after introduction of test diets. On two occasions during each 12-d feeding period dogs were presented with a challenge meal. At the end of each 12-d feeding period all dogs entered a 6-d washout period. There was no significant effect of diet on the intake of the challenge meal or on intake of food during the subsequent washout period. In addition, diet had no apparent effect on the perception of hunger, as represented by behavioral characteristics during the 30-min period after presentation of test diets. It was concluded that inclusion of moderate levels of raw materials, composed primarily of insoluble fiber, in a commercial low energy diet had no apparent beneficial effects on satiety, when fed to dogs on an energy intake corresponding to allowances for weight reduction.

  6. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-12-11

    Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

  7. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Results Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. Conclusion We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life. PMID:24330576

  8. Randomized controlled trial of dietary fiber for the prevention of radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wedlake, Linda; Shaw, Clare; McNair, Helen; Lalji, Amyn; Mohammed, Kabir; Klopper, Tanya; Allan, Lindsey; Tait, Diana; Hawkins, Maria; Somaiah, Navita; Lalondrelle, Susan; Taylor, Alexandra; VanAs, Nicholas; Stewart, Alexandra; Essapen, Sharadah; Gage, Heather; Whelan, Kevin; Andreyev, H Jervoise N

    2017-09-01

    Background: Therapeutic radiotherapy is an important treatment of pelvic cancers. Historically, low-fiber diets have been recommended despite a lack of evidence and potentially beneficial mechanisms of fiber.Objective: This randomized controlled trial compared low-, habitual-, and high-fiber diets for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy.Design: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber [≤10 g nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)/d], habitual-fiber (control), or high-fiber (≥18 g NSP/d) diets and received individualized counseling at the start of radiotherapy to achieve these targets. The primary endpoint was the difference between groups in the change in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-Bowel Subset (IBDQ-B) score between the starting and nadir (worst) score during treatment. Other measures included macronutrient intake, stool diaries, and fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations.Results: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber (n = 55), habitual-fiber (n = 55), or high-fiber (n = 56) dietary advice. Fiber intakes were significantly different between groups (P < 0.001). The difference between groups in the change in IBDQ-B scores between the start and nadir was not significant (P = 0.093). However, the change in score between the start and end of radiotherapy was smaller in the high-fiber group (mean ± SD: -3.7 ± 12.8) than in the habitual-fiber group (-10.8 ± 13.5; P = 0.011). At 1-y postradiotherapy (n = 126) the difference in IBDQ-B scores between the high-fiber (+0.1 ± 14.5) and the habitual-fiber (-8.4 ± 13.3) groups was significant (P = 0.004). No significant differences were observed in stool frequency or form or in short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Significant reductions in energy, protein, and fat intake occurred in the low- and habitual-fiber groups only.Conclusions: Dietary advice to follow a high-fiber diet during pelvic radiotherapy resulted in reduced gastrointestinal

  9. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids and energy content of nine corn coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Kerr, B J; Zijlstra, R T; Patience, J F

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine a best fitting dietary fiber (DF) component to estimate the effect of