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Sample records for dietary fish oil-supplementation

  1. Effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on performance, meat quality, and cecal fermentation of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Carro, M D; Valiente, V; Formoso-Rafferty, N; Rebollar, P G

    2017-08-01

    ). The results showed that dietary fish oil supplementation enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat and fat, being healthier for human consumption, without having negative effects on growth performance, cecal fermentation, and ileal morphology or carcass characteristics.

  2. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  3. Polymorphisms in genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation interact with dietary fat intakes to modulate the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-03-18

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9-2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  4. A minimum of 3 months of dietary fish oil supplementation is required to raise amygdaloid afterdischarge seizure thresholds in rats--implications for treating complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Taha, Ameer Y; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Ciobanu, Flaviu A; Taha, Nadeen M; Ahmed, Muaz; Zeng, Qiudi; Cheuk, Waiyin I; Ip, Bryan; Filo, Elvis; Scott, Brian W; Burnham, W M; Bazinet, Richard P

    2013-04-01

    Complex partial seizures, which typically originate in limbic structures such as the amygdala, are often resistant to antiseizure medications. Our goal was to investigate the effects of chronic dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish oil on seizure thresholds in the amygdala, as well as on blood and brain PUFA levels. The acute effects of injected n-3 PUFAs--eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--were also tested in the maximal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure model. In amygdala-implanted subjects, fish oil supplementation significantly increased amygdaloid afterdischarge thresholds, as compared with controls at 3, 5, and 7 months after the start of supplementation. Fish oil supplementation also increased serum EPA and DHA concentrations. DHA concentration in the pyriform-amygdala area increased in the fish-oil treated group by 17-34%, but this effect did not reach statistical significance (P=0.065). DHA significantly increased the latency to seizure onset in the PTZ seizure model, whereas EPA had no significant effect. These observations suggest that chronic dietary fish oil supplementation can raise focal amygdaloid seizure thresholds and that this effect is likely mediated by DHA rather than by EPA.

  5. [The effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the clinical course of asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Machura, E; Brus, R; Kalacinński, W; Lacheta, M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of fish oil on the clinical progress of asthma in children was examined in this study. Twenty-one children with mild asthma and 16 children with severe asthma were given 15 ml of fish oil daily for 12 weeks. A control group of 23 children took sunflower oil. The basic therapy of asthma was continued. Clinical symptoms, ratings of PEF, FEV1, FEF25-75 and blood levels of total cholesterol, triglicerydes and 25-OHD were monitored. After the 8-th week, only slight improvement in the case of mild asthma was observed. The changes in lipids were within the normal range, but there was a significant increase in the 25-OHD level.

  6. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G. Ed.; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprotectors? Probably not. A new study by Strong et al. challenges the role for fish oil supplementation in aging. Using a large cohort of genetically heterogeneous mice in three sites, part of the Interventions Testing Program of the NIA, Strong et al. show that fish oil supplementation at either low or high dosages has no effect on the lifespan of male or female mice. Although it is still possible that fish oil supplementation has health benefits for specific age-related diseases, it does not appear to slow aging or have longevity benefits. PMID:27564420

  7. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  8. Both dietary fish-oil supplementation and aspirin fail to inhibit atherosclerosis in long-term vein bypass grafts in moderately hypercholesterolemic nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Boerboom, L E; Olinger, G N; Almassi, G H; Skrinska, V A

    1997-08-05

    Aortocoronary vein bypass grafts are vulnerable to late atherosclerotic occlusion. Conventional platelet inhibitor therapy provides early but not persistent protection against graft failure. Evidence suggests that consumption of marine foods may reduce cardiovascular disease, possibly because of the unique long-chain unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids present in these foods. We hypothesized that dietary fish-oil supplementation would protect against atherosclerosis in vein bypass grafts. Thirty-three moderately hypercholesterolemic cynomolgus macaques were divided into four groups: control, control+aspirin, fish oil, and fish oil+aspirin. Each control group received olive oil as placebo to equalize calorie and fat consumption with that of the fish-oil groups. Both oils were in ethyl ester form, with the fish oil providing 0.88 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid. The aspirin dose was 40 mg/d. Cephalic vein grafts were interposed bilaterally in the carotid arteries and excised for analysis at 4 years. Bleeding time was significantly prolonged in all groups receiving fish oil or aspirin (P<.05). Plasma cholesterol levels were similar among groups, averaging 6.9+/-2.4 mmol/L (267+/-94 mg/dL). The extent of atherosclerosis in vein grafts did not differ among groups as evaluated both by Sudan IV staining of intimal lipid lesions (27+/-21% of total surface area, P=.89) and analysis of cholesterol content (236+/-203 nmol/mg, 9.1+/-7.8 microg/mg, P=.85). Vein graft connective tissue composition was also unaffected by treatment. Our findings do not support the use of concentrated dietary fish-oil supplements or aspirin for the prevention of atherosclerosis in long-term vein bypass grafts. Consumption of fish flesh or less refined oil preparations could have effects different from those of the purified fish-oil ethyl esters we used.

  9. Evaluating daily exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Ashley, J T F; Ward, J S; Schafer, M W; Stapleton, H M; Velinsky, D J

    2010-08-01

    Fish oil supplements have become a popular means of increasing one's dietary intake of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, there is growing concern that the levels and potential health effects of lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may diminish some of the health benefits associated with the daily consumption of fish oil supplements. In this study, ten over-the-counter fish oil supplements available in the United States were analysed for PCBs and PBDEs and daily exposures calculated. Based on manufacturers' recommended dosages, daily intakes of PCBs and PBDEs ranged from 5 to 686 ng day(-1) and from 1 to 13 ng day(-1), respectively. Daily consumption of fish oil supplements expose consumers to PCBs and PBDEs. However, in comparison with fish ingestion, fish supplements may decrease daily PCB exposure and provide a safer pathway for individuals seeking to maintain daily recommended levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Neuropathological Responses to Chronic NMDA in Rats Are Worsened by Dietary n-3 PUFA Deprivation but Are Not Ameliorated by Fish Oil Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Igarashi, Miki; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Rao, Jagadeesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may be beneficial for chronic brain illnesses, but the issue is not agreed on. We examined effects of dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation or supplementation, compared with an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (containing alpha-linolenic acid [18:3 n-3] but not docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6n-3]), on brain markers of lipid metabolism and excitotoxicity, in rats treated chronically with NMDA or saline. Methods Male rats after weaning were maintained on one of three diets for 15 weeks. After 12 weeks, each diet group was injected i.p. daily with saline (1 ml/kg) or a subconvulsive dose of NMDA (25 mg/kg) for 3 additional weeks. Then, brain fatty acid concentrations and various markers of excitotoxicity and fatty acid metabolism were measured. Results Compared to the diet-adequate group, brain DHA concentration was reduced, while n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6) concentration was increased in the n-3 deficient group; arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration was unchanged. These concentrations were unaffected by fish oil supplementation. Chronic NMDA increased brain cPLA2 activity in each of the three groups, but n-3 PUFA deprivation or fish oil did not change cPLA2 activity or protein compared with the adequate group. sPLA2 expression was unchanged in the three conditions, whereas iPLA2 expression was reduced by deprivation but not changed by supplementation. BDNF protein was reduced by NMDA in N-3 PUFA deficient rats, but protein levels of IL-1β, NGF, and GFAP did not differ between groups. Conclusions N-3 PUFA deprivation significantly worsened several pathological NMDA-induced changes produced in diet adequate rats, whereas n-3 PUFA supplementation did not affect NMDA induced changes. Supplementation may not be critical for this measured neuropathology once the diet has an adequate n-3 PUFA content. PMID:24798187

  11. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and fish oil supplementation on performance and egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C; Cachaldora, P; Méndez, J; García-Rebollar, P; De Blas, J C

    2004-08-01

    1. Laying hen performance, yolk fat fatty acid concentrations and firmness of eggs were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fish oil. 2. Nine diets were arranged factorially, with three levels of supplementation of CLA (1, 3 and 5 g/kg) and fish oil (0, 14 and 20 g/kg). 3. Type of diet did not affect egg production traits. 4. CLA addition increased yolk weight and yolk fat concentrations of CLA, saturated and total long-chain n-3 fatty acids, but decreased those of monounsaturated and total long-chain n-6 fatty acids. 5. Fish oil addition increased long-chain n-3 fatty acids yolk fat concentrations but decreased those of CLA, saturated and long-chain n-6 fatty acids. 6. Effects of CLA addition on yolk fat concentrations of C22:4 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 were greater when no fish oil was added to the diet. 7. CLA supplementation increased linearly yolk moisture and firmness and altered albumen and yolk pH.

  12. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne.

    PubMed

    Khayef, Golandam; Young, Julia; Burns-Whitmore, Bonny; Spalding, Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne.

  13. Are fish oil supplements safe in finned fish-allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Mark, Barry J; Beaty, Andrew D; Slavin, Raymond G

    2008-01-01

    Fish oil supplements are popular alternative medicines. Many manufacturers label their products with the warning "avoid this product if you are allergic to fish." The objective of this study was to determine if finned fish (FF)-allergic patients could safely tolerate fish oil supplements. Six FF-sensitive subjects as determined by history and skin testing were selected. They were skin tested with two different fish oil supplements and given an oral challenge of each supplement 1 hour apart. Vital signs were measured at baseline and at 20-minute intervals after each challenge. Spirometry was measured at baseline and 1 hour after each challenge. Six of six patients with positive skin tests to at least one FF had negative skin tests to both fish oil supplements. All six subjects then had negative oral challenges to both supplements. In this pilot study, FF-sensitive patients tolerated fish oil supplements.

  14. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Postresistance Exercise Muscle Soreness.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Gann, Joshua J; Huber, Stefan R; Andre, Thomas L; La Bounty, Paul M; Bowden, Rodney G; Gordon, Paul M; Grandjean, Peter W

    2016-07-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on the magnitude and time-course of postresistance exercise muscle soreness. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Nonresistance trained females were randomized into one of two groups: fish oil supplementation (6 g/day; 5:1 eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA)) or placebo (6 g/day corn/soy oil). After consuming the supplements for one week, participants underwent a single bout of resistance exercise consisting of 10 sets to failure of elbow flexion and leg extension machines. Muscle soreness was measured daily over the next week via grounded visual analog scale while participants continued to consume their assigned supplement. At 48 hours and one week postexercise, soreness during functional movements and limb circumferences were measured. The fish oil group perceived less static and functional muscle soreness than placebo, although the differences were not statistically significant. Effect sizes for resistance exercise-induced static and functional soreness responses were 33 to 42% lower in fish oil versus placebo without changes in upper arm and thigh circumferences. Supplementing the diet with 6 g per day of fish oil may alleviate muscle soreness experienced after resistance training in young untrained females.

  15. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    14. ABSTRACT: See next page. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer; Lipid Medtabolism, Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0296 TITLE: Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid ...SUBTITLE Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Randomized

  16. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of pork as influenced by duration and time of dietary linseed or fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Haak, L; De Smet, S; Fremaut, D; Van Walleghem, K; Raes, K

    2008-06-01

    In this experiment, the effect of duration and time of feeding n-3 PUFA sources on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated. Linseed (L) and fish oil (F), rich in alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA and DHA), respectively, were supplied equivalent to a level of 1.2% oil (as fed), either during the whole fattening period or only during the first (P1; 8 wk) or second (P2; 6 to 9 wk until slaughter) fattening phase. All diets were based on barley, wheat, and soybean meal and were fed ad libitum. Crossbred pigs (n = 154; Topigs 40 x Piétrain) were randomly allotted to the 7 feeding groups. In the basal diet (B), only animal fat was used as the supplementary fat source. Three dietary groups were supplied the same fatty acid source during both fattening phases (i.e., group BB, LL, and FF). For the other 4 dietary groups, the fatty acid source was switched after the first phase (groups BL, BF, LF, and FL; the first and second letter indicating the diet in P1 and P2, respectively). Twelve animals per feeding group were selected based on average live BW. The LT was analyzed for fatty acid composition; lipid stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and color stability (a* value, % of myoglobin pigments) were determined on the LT after illuminated chill storage for up to 8 d. The alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid incorporation was independent of the duration of linseed feeding (1.24, 0.54, and 0.75% of total fatty acids, respectively, for group LL). Supplying fish oil during both phases resulted in the greatest EPA and DHA proportions (1.37 and 1.02% of total fatty acids; P < 0.05), but the content of docosapentaenoic acid was not affected. The proportion of DHA was greater when fish oil was administered during P2 compared with P1 (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on meat ultimate pH and drip loss or on lipid or color oxidation.

  17. Fish Oil Supplementation and Urinary Oxalate Excretion in Normal Subjects on a Low-oxalate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Jessica N.; Mufarrij, Patrick W.; Easter, Linda; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if fish oil supplementation reduces endogenous oxalate synthesis in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen healthy non–stone-forming adults participated in this study. Subjects first abstained from using vitamins, medications, or foods enriched in omega-3 fatty acids for 30 days. Next, they collected two 24-hour urine specimens while consuming a self-selected diet. Subjects consumed an extremely low-oxalate and normal-calcium diet for 5 days and collected 24-hour urine specimens on the last 3 days of this diet. Next, the subjects took 2 fish oil capsules containing 650-mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 450-mg docosahexaenoic acid twice daily for 30 days. They consumed a self-selected diet on days 1–25 and the controlled diet on days 26–30. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on days 28–30. Excretion levels of urinary analytes including oxalate and glycolate were analyzed. RESULTS Although there was a significant reduction in urinary oxalate, magnesium, and potassium excretions and an increase in uric acid excretion during the controlled dietary phases compared with the self-selected diet, there were no significant differences in their excretion during controlled diet phases with and without fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION These results suggest that fish oil supplementation does not reduce endogenous oxalate synthesis or urinary oxalate excretion in normal adults during periods of extremely low oxalate intake. However, these results do not challenge the previously described reduction in urinary oxalate excretion demonstrated in normal subjects consuming a moderate amount of oxalate in conjunction with fish oil. PMID:25102784

  18. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  19. The effect of fish oil supplementation on serum phospholipid fatty acids profile during pregnancy: A double blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh; Mohamad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Darabi, Masoud; Hematzadeh, Shahla; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shaaker, Maghsod; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2017-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential unsaturated long-chain FAs necessary for proper health and growth. The objective of the authors in this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on maternal serum FA profiles. Participants (n = 150 pregnant women aged 18-35 years in Tabriz, Iran) were randomly assigned to receive either 1,000 mg fish oil supplements daily containing 120 mg docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or placebo from week 21 of pregnancy to delivery. The primary outcome measures were mean serum DHA and EPA proportion of total FAs at weeks 35-37 of pregnancy. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. No significant differences were observed between the groups in consumption of fish and serum FAs levels at baseline. Fish oil supplementation significantly increased the mean DHA proportion of total FAs in the intervention compared to the placebo group at weeks 35-37 [adjusted Mean Difference (aMD) = 0.15; 95% CI 0.08-0.23]. The mean EPA proportion of total FAs also increased in the intervention group, but the difference between the groups was not significant (aMD = 0.04; 95% CI -0.01 to 0.08). The dietary recommendation for consumption of 1,000 mg/day fish oil supplements during pregnancy seems beneficial for better serum FA composition.

  20. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  1. Dietary fish oil supplements modify ruminal biohydrogenation, alter the flow of fatty acids at the omasum, and induce changes in the ruminal Butyrivibrio population in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, Kevin J; Kairenius, Piia; Arölä, Anu; Paillard, Delphine; Muetzel, Stefan; Ahvenjärvi, Seppo; Vanhatalo, Aila; Huhtanen, Pekka; Toivonen, Vesa; Griinari, J Mikko; Wallace, R John

    2012-08-01

    Four lactating cows fitted with ruminal cannulae and fed a grass silage-based diet were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 28-d periods to investigate the effects of incremental dietary fish oil (FO) supplementation (0, 75, 150, or 300 g/d) on the flow of fatty acids at the omasum and populations of rumen bacteria capable of biohydrogenation. FO decreased silage intake and ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations and promoted an increase in molar butyrate and propionate proportions at the expense of acetate. Extensive ruminal biohydrogenation of 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) resulted in corresponding increases in numerous 20- and 22-carbon unsaturated fatty acids at the omasum. Omasal flow of several 20-, 21-, and 22-carbon all-cis (n-3) PUFA exceeded the intake from FO. Supplements of FO also induced a dose-dependent decrease in 18:0 and increased trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 flow at the omasum. Trans-11 was the major 18:1 intermediate in digesta, while FO induced quadratic increases in trans-10 18:1 flow, reaching a maximum of 300 g/d. FO had no substantial influence on omasal flow of CLA. Results suggest that one or more fatty acids in FO inhibit the reduction of trans-18:1 and trans-18:2 intermediates by ruminal microorganisms. qPCR based on 16S rRNA genes in omasal digesta indicated that key Butyrivibrio spp. declined linearly in response to FO. Dose-dependent increases in ruminal outflow of biohydrogenation intermediates containing one or more trans double bonds in response to FO has major implications for host metabolism and the nutritional quality of ruminant foods.

  2. Fish oil supplementation and insulin sensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huanqing; Geng, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Qinghua

    2017-07-03

    Fish oil supplementation has been shown to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome and benefit a wide range of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and several types of cancers. However, the evidence of fish oil supplementation on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still controversial. This meta-analysis summarized the exist evidence of the relationship between fish oil supplementation and insulin sensitivity and aimed to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation could improve insulin sensitivity. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase database for the relevant studies update to Dec 2016. Two researchers screened the literature independently by the selection and exclusion criteria. Studies were pooled using random effect models to estimate a pooled SMD and corresponding 95% CI. This meta-analysis was performed by Stata 13.1 software. A total of 17 studies with 672 participants were included in this meta-analysis study after screening from 498 published articles found after the initial search. In a pooled analysis, fish oil supplementation had no effects on insulin sensitivity compared with the placebo (SMD 0.17, 95%CI -0.15 to 0.48, p = 0.292). In subgroup analysis, fish oil supplementation could benefit insulin sensitivity among people who were experiencing at least one symptom of metabolic disorders (SMD 0.53, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.88, p < 0.001). Similarly, there were no significant differences between subgroups of methods of insulin sensitivity, doses of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) of fish oil supplementation or duration of the intervention. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were robust. Short-term fish oil supplementation is associated with increasing the insulin sensitivity among those people with metabolic disorders.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the Canadian market: polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, K; Verigin, V; Nicolidakis, H; Sit, D; Feeley, M

    2009-01-01

    Fish and seal oil dietary supplements, marketed to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids, are frequently consumed by Canadians. Samples of these supplements (n = 30) were collected in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2007. All oil supplements were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) and each sample was found to contain detectable residues. The highest SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT (1,1,1-trichloro-di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) concentrations (10400 ng/g and 3310 ng/g, respectively) were found in a shark oil sample while lowest levels were found in supplements prepared using mixed fish oils (anchovy, mackerel, and sardine) (0.711 ng SigmaPCB/g and 0.189 ng SigmaDDT/g). Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in oil supplements were 34.5, 24.2, 25.1, 95.3, 12.0, 5260, 321, and 519 ng/g in unidentified fish, mixed fish containing no salmon, mixed fish with salmon, salmon, vegetable with mixed fish, shark, menhaden (n = 1), and seal (n = 1), respectively. Maximum concentrations of the other OCs were generally observed in the seal oil. The hexachlorinated PCB congeners were the dominant contributors to SigmaPCB levels, while SigmaDDT was the greatest contributor to organochlorine levels. Intake estimates were made using maximum dosages on manufacturers' labels and results varied widely due to the large difference in residue concentrations obtained. Average SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT intakes were calculated to be 736 +/- 2840 ng/d and 304 +/- 948 ng/d, respectively.

  4. Effectiveness of omega-3 polysaturated fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation for treating hypertriglyceridemia in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Nita; Manlhiot, Cedric; Wong, Helen; McCrindle, Brian W

    2014-06-01

    Limited pharmacological options are available for management pediatric hypertriglyceridemia. We examined the effectiveness of dietary fish oil supplementation as a means to reduce triglyceride levels in pediatric patients. We reviewed 111 children aged 8 to 18 years with hypertriglyceridemia (≥1.5 mmol/L) undergoing treatment in a specialized dyslipidemia clinic. At the treating cardiologist's discretion, 60 subjects received nonprescription fish oil supplementation (500-1000 mg/d), while the remaining patients did not. Initially there were no baseline differences between groups, including the use of concomitant lipid-lowering medication. Treatment with fish oil was associated with a potential clinically relevant but non-statistically significant decrease in triglycerides and triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio. Fish oil had no effect on HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, or total cholesterol. All associations remained unchanged when adjusted for body mass index z score, nutrition, physical activity, and screen time. Fish oil supplementation was not significantly effective in treating hypertriglyceridemia in pediatric patients.

  5. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  6. Identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of hydrocarbons in commercial fish oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Anna-Jean M; Budge, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Heightened awareness of the health benefits of fish oil consumption has led to a great increase in the number of fish oil supplements available to the consumer. Therefore manufacturers are continually looking for ways to distinguish their products from those of competitors. Minimally refined or virgin fish oils provide a unique feature; however, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from oil spills is a reality in the world's oceans. The question arises whether oil produced from fish species caught in these polluted areas is free of petroleum hydrocarbons, with particular interest in unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). This study investigates the presence of UCMs in commercially available fish oil supplements advertised as being virgin, as well as refined. Weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the form of a UCM were found at 523 µg g(-1) in a virgin Alaskan salmon oil supplement. Supplements that were refined were free of this contamination. Fish used in the production of fish oil supplements appear to have accumulated petrogenic hydrocarbons in their tissues which were not removed by minimal oil refining. Further study is required to determine if there are any health implications associated with long-term consumption of these contaminated supplements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Murray, Rachael L; Ionescu, Alina A; Lindley, Martin R

    2003-11-15

    In elite athletes, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may respond to dietary modification, thereby reducing the need for pharmacologic treatment. Ten elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB (control subjects) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docohexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA] diet; n = 5) or placebo capsules containing olive oil (placebo diet; n = 5) taken daily for 3 weeks. Diet had no effect on preexercise pulmonary function in either group or on postexercise pulmonary function in control subjects. However, in subjects with EIB, the n-3 PUFA diet improved postexercise pulmonary function compared with the normal and placebo diets. FEV1 decreased by 3 +/- 2% on n-3 PUFA diet, 14.5 +/- 5% on placebo diet, and 17.3 +/- 6% on normal diet at 15 minutes postexercise. Leukotriene (LT)E4, 9alpha, 11beta-prostaglandin F2, LTB4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, all significantly decreased on the n-3 PUFA diet compared with normal and placebo diets and after the exercise challenge. These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties.

  8. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grenyer, Brin F S; Crowe, Trevor; Meyer, Barbara; Owen, Alice J; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth M; Caputi, Peter; Howe, Peter R C

    2007-10-01

    Dietary deficiencies in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish are associated with depression and some fish oils may have therapeutic benefits. We aimed to determine whether taking tuna fish oil confers any additional benefit to conventional outpatient treatment for major depression. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled four-month trial comparing tuna fish oil versus placebo was conducted on 83 outpatients with major depression. Despite large reductions in depression there were no significant differences at any assessment time point between patients receiving fish oil compared to placebo. Red blood cell incorporation of fatty acids indicated good compliance with oil supplementation, although this sample was not initially deficient in omega-3s. This particular dose and type of fish oil conferred no additional benefit to conventional treatment of depression in this sample. Future studies could target participants with pre-existing omega-3 deficiency and appraise alternate enriched types and higher doses of omega-3 supplementation.

  9. Fish oil supplementation decreases oxidative stress but does not affect platelet-activating factor bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic rats.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, A L; Miranda, D T S Z; Dias, B C L; Campos, R M; Massaro, M C; Michelotto, P V; West, A L; Miles, E A; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2014-07-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation increases the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cellular membranes. The highly unsaturated nature of n-3 PUFA could result in an enhanced lipid peroxidation in the oxidative environment characteristic of asthma. The oxidative reaction cascade culminates in an increased production of components associated to oxidative stress and of an important proinflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipid. We evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats upon the PAF bioactivity and parameters related to oxidative stress in the lung. Fish oil supplementation of asthmatic rats resulted in lower concentrations of nitrite (1.719 ± 0.137 vs. 2.454 ± 0.163 nmol/mL) and lipid hydroperoxide (72.190 ± 7.327 vs. 120.200 ± 11.270 nmol/mg protein). In asthmatic animals, fish oil increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (33.910 ± 2.325 vs. 24.110 ± 0.618 U/mg protein) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) (164.100 ± 31.250 vs. 12.590 ± 5.234 U/mg protein). However, fish oil did not affect PAF bioactivity in lung tissue of asthmatic rats (0.545 ± 0.098 340/380 vs. 0.669 ± 0.101 340/380 nm ratio). Considering the two-step process--oxidative stress and PAF bioactivity--fish oil exhibited a divergent action on these aspects of asthmatic inflammation, since the supplement lowered oxidative stress in the lungs of asthmatic rats, presenting an antioxidant effect, but did not affect PAF bioactivity. This suggests a dual effect of fish oil on oxidative stress and inflammation in asthma.

  10. A maternal high n-6 fat diet with fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in rats decreases breast cancer risk in the female offspring.

    PubMed

    Su, Hui-Min; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Feng

    2010-11-01

    The timing of dietary fat intake may modify breast cancer risk. In addition, n-3 fatty acids reduce, and n-6 fatty acids increase, the risk of breast cancer and a maternal high n-6 fat diet results in a greater risk of breast cancer in the female offspring. We hypothesized that the timing of n-3 fatty acid-enriched fish oil supplementation would be important for reducing the risk of breast cancer. Female rats were fed to a high n-6 fat diet containing 20% of the sunflower oil by weight during pregnancy and lactation, and the female offspring were exposed to fish oil by oral gavage either during the perinatal period via maternal intake or during puberty or adulthood. Exposure during the perinatal period to a maternal high n-6 fat diet with fish oil supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in the female offspring compared to a maternal high n-6 fat diet with no fish oil supplementation or fish oil supplementation later in life (P=.0228 by Cox proportional hazards model). We found that a maternal high n-6 fat diet during pregnancy is more important in increasing the risk of mammary tumors in the female offspring than a maternal high n-6 fat diet during lactation. This study suggests that fish oil supplementation during the perinatal period decreases the effect of a maternal high n-6 fat diet on subsequent carcinogen-induced mammary tumor risk, whereas fish oil supplementation during puberty or adulthood does not. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods. PMID:27635249

  12. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.

  13. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd T; Zelnik, Danielle L; Dobs, Adrian S

    2003-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic cancer often experience a loss of weight and appetite, known as the anorexia-cachexia syndrome, which is associated with decreased quality of life and reduced survival. Research into the biological mechanisms of cachexia has demonstrated that an array of inflammatory mediators and tumor-derived factors cause appetite suppression, skeletal muscle proteolysis, and lipolysis,producing an overall hypercatabolic state that contributes to loss of fat and lean body mass. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been shown to modulate levels of proinflammatory cytokines, hepatic acute phase proteins, eicosanoids, and tumor-derived factors in animal models of cancer and may reverse some aspects of the process of cachexia. Results of clinical trials of n-3 PUFAs in the form of fish oils have been mixed, but should encourage further investigation into dietary fish oil supplementation, including the most effective route of administration and the proper dosage to promote optimal weight maintenance and to limit side effects. Concerns about standardization and quality control should also be considered. With the current available evidence, a recommendation for the use of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pancreatic cancer cachexia is premature.

  14. Fish oil and flax seed oil supplemented diets increase FFAR4 expression in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Cheshmehkani, Ameneh; Senatorov, Ilya S; Kandi, Praveen; Singh, Monalisa; Britt, April; Hayslett, Renee; Moniri, Nader H

    2015-10-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have long been associated with anti-inflammatory activity and general benefit toward human health. Over the last decade, the identification of a family of cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by free-fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, suggest that many effects of PUFA are receptor-mediated. One such receptor, free-fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), previously described as GPR120, has been shown to modulate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects in response to PUFA such as ALA and DHA. Additionally, FFAR4 stimulates secretion of the insulin secretagogue glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the GI tract and acts as a dietary sensor to regulate energy availability. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on FFAR4 expression in the rat colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control soybean oil diets or alternatively, diets supplemented with either fish oil, which is enriched in DHA and EPA, or flaxseed oil, which is enriched in ALA, for 7 weeks. GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were monitored weekly and at the end of the study period, expression of FFAR4 and the inflammatory marker TNF-α was assessed. Our findings indicate that GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were unaffected by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, however, animals that were fed fish or flaxseed oil-supplemented diets had significantly heightened colonic FFAR4 and actin expression, and reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α compared to animals fed control diets. These results suggest that similar to ingestion of other fats, dietary-intake of omega-3 fatty acids can alter FFAR4 expression within the colon.

  15. Fish-oil supplementation in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins MD, David J.A.; Josse, Andrea R.; Beyene, Joseph; Dorian, Paul; Burr, Michael L.; LaBelle, Roxanne; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Cunnane, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Background A recent Cochrane meta-analysis did not confirm the benefits of fish and fish oil in the secondary prevention of cardiac death and myocardial infarction. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of fish-oil supplementation on ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia to determine the overall effect and to assess whether heterogeneity exists between trials. Methods We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL) from inception to May 2007. We included randomized controlled trials of fish-oil supplementation on ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The primary outcome was implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge. We calculated relative risk [RR] for outcomes at 1-year follow-up for each study. We used the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects methods when there was significant heterogeneity between trials and the Mantel-Hanzel fixed-effects method when heterogeneity was negligible. Results We identified 3 trials of 1–2 years' duration. These trials included a total of 573 patients who received fish oil and 575 patients who received a control. Meta-analysis of data collected at 1 year showed no overall effect of fish oil on the relative risk of implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge. There was significant heterogeneity between trials. The second largest study showed a significant benefit of fish oil (relative risk [RR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56–0.98). The smallest showed an adverse tendency at 1 year (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92–1.65) and significantly worse outcome at 2 years among patients with ventricular tachycardia at study entry (log rank p = 0.007). Conclusion These data indicate that there is heterogeneity in the response of patients to fish-oil supplementation. Caution should be used when prescribing fish-oil supplementation for

  16. Prenatal fish oil supplementation and early childhood development in the Upstate KIDS Study.

    PubMed

    Vollet, K; Ghassabian, A; Sundaram, R; Chahal, N; Yeung, E H

    2017-08-01

    Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, which play a vital role in fetal growth and development. In utero exposure to omega-3 fatty acids is exclusively dependent on maternal nutrition. Previous studies have suggested that prenatal fish oil supplementation has positive impacts on child neurodevelopment later in life. This study examines the associations between fish oil supplementation both before pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and subsequent child development. Mother-child pairs from the Upstate KIDS Study, a birth cohort consisting of children born between 2008 and 2010, were included. Self-reported prenatal fish oil supplementation data were available for 5845 children (3807 singletons and 2038 twins). At multiple time points, from 4 months to 3 years of age, child development was reported by the parents on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Five developmental domains were assessed: fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning and problem solving. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) while adjusting for covariates. Primary analyses showed that the risk of failing the ASQ problem-solving domain was significantly lower among children of women who took fish oil before pregnancy (OR 0.40, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.18-0.89) and during pregnancy (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.83). Gender interaction was not statistically significant, although stratified results indicated stronger associations among girls. Similarly, associations were primarily among singletons. Prenatal fish oil supplementation may be beneficial in regards to neurodevelopment. Specifically, it is associated with a lower risk of failing the problem-solving domain up to 3 years of age.

  17. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Mirgafourvand, Mozhgan; Yaghoubi, Sina; Shahrisa, Elham; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh

    2016-01-01

    Context One of the most common complications of pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is increasing worldwide. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may decrease the risk of various diseases such as diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil supplementation on the prevention and treatment of GDM. Evidence Acquisition This systematic review was performed by searching several databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Science Direct SID, Magiran and IranMedex since 1983. The researchers also searched for references in reviewed clinical trial articles in which fish oil supplementation was compared with placebo or no supplementation. Results Only two published and in-press articles are included in this review. Based on these studies, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil (800 mg/d) had no effect on prevention of GDM [0.97 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.27)]. Furthermore, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation containing 180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120 mg DHA had beneficial effects on insulin resistance in women with GDM (change from baseline: 1.5 ± 7.5 vs ‏3.5 ± 8.5 mIU/mL, P = 0.02) but did not influence fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment-Beta cell function (HOMA-B), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), or lipid profiles (P > 0.05). Conclusions There is not enough evidence to support or refute the routine use of fish oil supplements during pregnancy for the prevention or treatment of diabetes. It is suggested that further randomized controlled trials be conducted to evaluate the role of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy. PMID:28191333

  18. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  19. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R

    2014-04-01

    Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

  20. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Montori, V M; Farmer, A; Wollan, P C; Dinneen, S F

    2000-09-01

    To determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on lipid levels and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Lilacs, the Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry bibliographies of relevant papers, and expert input updated through September 1998 was undertaken. All randomized placebo-controlled trials were included in which fish oil supplementation was the only intervention in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Three investigators performed data extraction and quality scoring independently with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Eighteen trials including 823 subjects followed for a mean of 12 weeks were included. Doses of fish oil used ranged from 3 to 18 g/day The outcomes studied were glycemic control and lipid levels. Meta-analysis of pooled data demonstrated a statistically significant effect of fish oil on lowering triglycerides (-0.56 mmol/l [95% CI -0.71 to -0.41]) and raising LDL cholesterol (0.21 mmol/l [0.02 to 0.41]). No statistically significant effect was observed for fasting glucose. HbA1c total cholesterol, or HDL cholesterol. The triglyceride-lowering effect and the elevation in LDL cholesterol were most marked in those trials that recruited hypertriglyceridemic subjects and used higher doses of fish oil. Heterogeneity was observed and explained by the recruitment of subjects with baseline hypertriglyceridemia in some studies. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes lowers triglycerides, raises LDL cholesterol, and has no statistically significant effect on glycemic control. Trials with hard clinical end points are needed.

  1. Fish oil supplementation improves neutrophil function during cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bonatto, Sandro J R; Oliveira, Heloisa H P; Nunes, Everson A; Pequito, Daniele; Iagher, Fabiola; Coelho, Isabela; Naliwaiko, Katya; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Brito, Gleisson A P; Repka, João; Sabóia, Luciano V; Fukujima, George; Calder, Philip C; Fernandes, Luiz C

    2012-04-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is associated with neutropenia and impaired neutrophil function. This study aimed to investigate whether supplementation with low dose fish oil (FO), providing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy after surgical tumor (mainly gastrointestinal) removal is able to improve the function of blood neutrophils. Patients (n = 38) receiving chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and leucovorin) were randomized into two groups; one group (control) did not receive a supplement, while the other group (FO) received 2 g FO/day for 8 weeks; the FO provided 0.3 g eicosapentaenoic acid plus 0.4 g docosahexaenoic acid per day. Patients in the control group lost an average of 2.5 kg of weight over the 8 weeks of the study. The number of blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNC), mainly neutrophils, and their functions (phagocytosis and hydrogen peroxide production) decreased in the control group (average decreases of approximately 30, 45 and 17%, respectively). FO prevented these decreases and actually increased body weight (average of 1.7 kg weight gain; p < 0.002 vs. control group), PMNC number (average 29% increase), phagocytosis (average 14% increase) and superoxide production (average 28% increase). FO may be useful in preventing chemotherapy-induced decline in neutrophil number and function.

  2. Plasma and neutrophil fatty acid composition in advanced cancer patients and response to fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pratt, V C; Watanabe, S; Bruera, E; Mackey, J; Clandinin, M T; Baracos, V E; Field, C J

    2002-12-02

    Metabolic demand and altered supply of essential nutrients is poorly characterised in patients with advanced cancer. A possible imbalance or deficiency of essential fatty acids is suggested by reported beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation. To assess fatty acid status (composition of plasma and neutrophil phospholipids) in advanced cancer patients before and after 14 days of supplementation (12+/-1 g day(-1)) with fish (eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive) oil. Blood was drawn from cancer patients experiencing weight loss of >5% body weight (n=23). Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes of isolated neutrophils were determined using gas liquid chromatography. At baseline, patients with advanced cancer exhibited low levels (<30% of normal values) of plasma phospholipids and constituent fatty acids and elevated 20 : 4 n-6 content in neutrophil phospholipids. High n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in neutrophil and plasma phospholipids were inversely related to body mass index. Fish oil supplementation raised eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in plasma but not neutrophil phospholipids. 20 : 4 n-6 content was reduced in neutrophil PI following supplementation with fish oil. Change in body weight during the supplementation period related directly to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma. Advanced cancer patients have alterations in lipid metabolism potentially due to nutritional status and/or chemotherapy. Potential obstacles in fatty acid utilisation must be addressed in future trials aiming to improve outcomes using nutritional intervention with fish oils.

  3. Phase II prospective randomized trial of a low-fat diet with fish oil supplementation in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Aronson, William J; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R James; Henning, Susanne; Huang, Min; Jardack, Patricia M; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-12-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control Western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for four to six weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2, and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil versus Western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki-67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, four to six weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses, the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. 2011 AACR

  4. Phase II Prospective Randomized Trial of a Low-Fat Diet with Fish Oil Supplementation in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, William J.; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R. James; Henning, Susanne; Jardack, Patricia M.; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J.; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for 4–6 weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum IGF-1 between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E-2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2 and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil vs. western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex-vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, 4–6 weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. PMID:22027686

  5. The effects of dietary oregano oil supplementation on pig meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Symeon, G K; Charismiadou, M A; Bizelis, J A; Deligeorgis, S G

    2010-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of dietary oregano essential oil supplementation on finishing pig meat characteristics were investigated in the present study. Thirty-two barrows and thirty-two gilts were divided into four equal groups. During the experimental period, which started when the animals were 5 months old and finished after 35 days, the first group was fed the control diet (group C), whereas the other three groups consumed the same diet, with the only difference that the feed was supplemented with oregano essential oil at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 ml/kg of fed diet (groups OR1, OR2 and OR3, respectively). At the end of the experiment, pigs were fasted for 12 h, weighed and slaughtered. After overnight chilling, a 50 cm loin section was removed from the half of the carcasses (8 pigs per nutritional treatment; 4 barrows and 4 gilts) and transported to laboratory for further examination. No significant differences were observed after dietary oregano essential oil supplementation in final body weight (kg), body weight gain (g) and dressing out (%). Tenderness of longissimus muscle, expressed as shear force value, pH values at 45 min and 24 h postmortem, colour parameters and sensory attributes of eating quality were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatment. Moreover, the lipid oxidation results suggested a lack of antioxidant effect for the oregano essential oil. In conclusion, carcass and meat quality attributes were unchanged, indicating that the dietary administration of different levels of oregano essential oil did not exert any effect on pig meat parameters in the present experiment. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Insomnia and exacerbation of anxiety associated with high-EPA fish oil supplements after successful treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Lauren B; McCarter, Gordon C

    2015-03-01

    A 54-year-old male consulted his general practitioner for increasing general anxiety and mild panic attacks despite effective treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder, which included a fish oil supplement enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The patient would awaken suddenly at night with shortness of breath and overwhelming worry. During the daytime, he felt a general, nonspecific anxiety and frequently experienced sympathetic activation upon confronting routine challenges. He also experienced dyspnea-induced feelings of panic. He reported that he stopped taking the fish oil supplements after several more months of symptoms, and his anxiety and insomnia then largely disappeared. Several weeks later, he resumed consumption of high-EPA fish oil at the prior dosage for 2 days. On both nights, the patient reported nighttime awakening similar to the previous episodes, followed by daytime agitation. Since halting the fish oil supplements, the anxiety and insomnia have not returned and his depression remains in remission.

  7. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S F; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D; Weber, T; Tabor, A; Secher, N J

    2007-08-01

    To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed at randomisation. Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)) from around week 20 (groups 1 and 2) or 6.3 g n-3 PUFA from week 33 (group 3). The control regimen was capsules with olive oil. Effect on timing of spontaneous delivery was examined by Cox regression, assuming elective delivery (occurring in 40%) as a censoring event. Analyses of effect of fish oil were intention to treat, and all analyses were adjusted for maternal smoking, age, and parity. In group 1, fish oil reduced the hazard rate of spontaneous delivery (HR) by 44% (95% confidence interval 14-64%) and 39% (16-56%) in low and middle fish consumers, respectively, with no detectable effect (-56 to 33%) in high fish consumers. In groups 2 and 3, no significant effect of fish oil was detected in any of the sub-strata defined by baseline fish consumption. In pregnant women with previous pregnancy complications, fish oil supplementation delayed onset of delivery in low and middle, but not in high, fish consumers. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, Concerted Action (ERB-BMH1-CT92-1906) and PECO (ERB-CIPD-CT94-0235) programmes of the European Commission, and the Danish National Research Foundation. Lube Ltd donated

  8. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a 12 year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Dunstan, Janet A; Foster, Jonathan K; Simmer, Karen; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-03-20

    A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant's mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age).

  9. Plasma and neutrophil fatty acid composition in advanced cancer patients and response to fish oil supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, V C; Watanabe, S; Bruera, E; Mackey, J; Clandinin, M T; Baracos, V E; Field, C J

    2002-01-01

    Metabolic demand and altered supply of essential nutrients is poorly characterised in patients with advanced cancer. A possible imbalance or deficiency of essential fatty acids is suggested by reported beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation. To assess fatty acid status (composition of plasma and neutrophil phospholipids) in advanced cancer patients before and after 14 days of supplementation (12±1 g day−1) with fish (eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive) oil. Blood was drawn from cancer patients experiencing weight loss of >5% body weight (n=23). Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and the major phospholipid classes of isolated neutrophils were determined using gas liquid chromatography. At baseline, patients with advanced cancer exhibited low levels (<30% of normal values) of plasma phospholipids and constituent fatty acids and elevated 20 : 4 n-6 content in neutrophil phospholipids. High n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios in neutrophil and plasma phospholipids were inversely related to body mass index. Fish oil supplementation raised eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content in plasma but not neutrophil phospholipids. 20 : 4 n-6 content was reduced in neutrophil PI following supplementation with fish oil. Change in body weight during the supplementation period related directly to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma. Advanced cancer patients have alterations in lipid metabolism potentially due to nutritional status and/or chemotherapy. Potential obstacles in fatty acid utilisation must be addressed in future trials aiming to improve outcomes using nutritional intervention with fish oils. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1370–1378. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600659 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12454764

  10. DNA Methylation Changes Induced by a High-Fat Diet and Fish Oil Supplementation in the Skeletal Muscle of Mice.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Catia L; Crisma, Amanda R; Masi, Laureane N; Martins, Amanda R; Hirabara, Sandro M; Curi, Rui

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the global changes in DNA methylation and methylation of the promoter region of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcript variant 2 (Pparg2) gene resulting from a high-fat diet (HFD) and/or fish oil supplementation. Fish oil, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, or water was orally administered to male mice for 12 weeks. After the first 4 weeks, the animals were fed a control diet or an HFD until the end of the experimental protocol, when the epididymal fat, gastrocnemius muscle and liver were excised. Pparg2 mRNA expression was upregulated by obesity and downregulated by fish oil supplementation in the liver. In the gastrocnemius muscle, diet-induced obesity increased global DNA methylation. Fish oil prevented the decrease in Pparg2 promoter methylation induced by obesity in the gastrocnemius muscle. Regardless of the diet given, fish oil supplementation increased Pparg2 promoter methylation at CpG-263 in muscle and adipose tissue. HFD and fish oil modified global and Pparg2 promoter DNA methylation in a tissue-specific manner. Fish oil supplementation attenuated body weight gain, abolished the increase in Pparg2 expression in the liver and prevented the decrease in Pparg2 promoter methylation in the muscle induced by the HFD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of temperature and fish oil supplementation on ovarian development and foxl2 mRNA expression in spotted scat Scatophagus argus.

    PubMed

    Li, G-L; Zhang, M-Z; Deng, S-P; Chen, H-P; Zhu, C-H

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete foxl2 complementary (c)DNA sequence was isolated by simple modular-architecture research tool (SMART)er rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Two year-old female spotted scat, Scatophagus argus, were reared at different temperatures (23, 26 and 29° C) for 6 weeks, or fed with different concentrations of dietary fish oil (0, 2 or 6%) for 8 weeks. Ovarian development, serum oestradiol-17β (E2 ) levels, as well as ovarian foxl2 expression were measured. At the end of experiment, ovarian foxl2 messenger (m)RNA expression in fish reared at 23 and 26° C was significantly higher than that in fish reared at 29° C, and that in 2 and 6% fish oil groups was also significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0·05). Serum E2 levels exhibited the same trend with foxl2 mRNA expression in temperature treatment groups and fish oil fed groups. There was a significant positive correlation between stage of oocytes and foxl2 expressions. Results showed that from 23 to 29° C, the optimal temperature for ovarian development in S. argus was 23-26° C, and 6% fish oil supplementation could effectively promote ovarian development. Optimal temperature and fish oil supplement might increase ovarian foxl2 mRNA expressions to promote ovarian development in S. argus. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Fish Oil Supplementation and Quality of Life in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients: A 24-Month Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cari; Xun, Pengcheng; Fly, Alyce D; Luo, Juhua; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that cancer survivors have an interest in lifestyle changes following a diagnosis. However, few studies have prospectively investigated whether these changes result in positive outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between fish oil supplementation and quality of life (QoL), cancer recurrence, and all-cause mortality in Stage 2 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients following diagnosis. Four hundred fifty-three patients were enrolled from the North Carolina Cancer Registry from 2009 to 2011. Data on demography, treatment, and health behaviors were collected at diagnosis, 12-, and 24 mo postdiagnosis. Generalized estimating equations were performed to examine fish oil supplementation in relation to QoL, recurrence, and all-cause mortality. An increase in fish oil supplementation over 24 mo postdiagnosis was associated with an increase in the physical component score of the 12-item Medical Outcomes Short Form (β = 2.43, 95% CI: 0.10-4.76). Supplementation showed no association with the Functional Assessment of Cancer-Colorectal, cancer recurrence or mortality across the 24-mo follow-up. This study suggests that fish oil supplementation may improve symptom-related QoL (i.e., physical functioning) in Stage 2 CRC patients following diagnosis. Future research should address the dose-dependent effects of this relationship.

  13. The effects of sodium valproate with fish oil supplementation or alone in migraine prevention: A randomized single-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tajmirriahi, Marzieh; Sohelipour, Maryam; Basiri, Keivan; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Ghorbani, Asgar; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have beneficial effects on both specific and non-specific inflammatory reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil in migraine prevention. A 12-week, randomized, single-blind clinical trial was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009. A total of 67 patients (52 women, 15 men) with migraine headache were randomly allocated to 2 groups. In the first group, 38 patients (30 females with a mean age of 35 ± 9 year) received 400 mg/day sodium valproate. In the second group, 29 patients (22 females with a mean age of 36 ± 9 years) received sodium valproate 400 mg daily plus fish oil supplementation (180 mg). Response to the treatment was assessed at 0, 1, 2, and 3 months after start of the therapy. A significant decrease in duration, monthly frequency, and severity of headache after month 1, 2, and 3 in comparison with month 0 occurred in both groups. There was a significant reduction in headache severity (P = 0.046) and frequency (P = 0.044) in the group with fish oil supplementation after month 1 in comparison with sodium valproate alone. In contrast, there was no significant difference between two treatment groups in duration of the headache after month 1. Mean intensity, mean duration and mean frequency of the attacks after month 2 and 3 were not significantly different between the two groups. This study demonstrated that sodium valproate plus fish oil supplementation significantly reduces migraine headache more than sodium valproate alone but only at the beginning of the treatment.

  14. Determination of omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil supplements using vibrational spectroscopy and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Michael Yemane; Grung, Bjørn; Mjøs, Svein Are

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopic techniques combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression (PLSR) to predict concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) in fish oil supplements was investigated. FT-IR spectroscopy predicted EPA (coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.994, standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 2.90%, and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 2.49%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.983, SECV = 2.89%, and SEP = 2.55%) with six to seven PLS factors, whereas a simpler PLS model with two factors was obtained for total n-3 FAs (R(2) = 0.985, SECV = 2.73%, and SEP = 2.75%). Selected regions in the NIR spectra gave models with good performances and predicted EPA (R(2) = 0.979, SECV = 2.43%, and SEP = 3.11%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.972, SECV = 2.34%, and SEP = 2.60%) with four to six PLS factors. Both the whole and selected NIR regions gave simple models (two PLS factors) with similar results (R(2) = 0.997, SECV = 2.18%, and SEP = 1.60%) for total n-3 FAs. The whole and selected regions of Raman spectra provided models with comparable results and predicted EPA (R(2) = 0.977, SECV = 3.18%, and SEP = 2.73%) and DHA (R(2) = 0.966, SECV = 3.31%, and SEP = 2.56%) with seven to eight PLS factors, whereas a simpler model (three PLS factors) with R(2) = 0.993, SECV = 2.82%, and SEP = 3.27% was obtained for total n-3 FAs. The results demonstrated that FT-IR, NIR, and Raman spectroscopy combined with PLSR can be used as simple, fast, and nondestructive methods for quantitative analysis of EPA, DHA, and total n-3 FAs. FT-IR and NIR spectroscopy, in particular, have the potential to be applied in process industries during production of fish oil supplements.

  15. Association of fish oil supplement use with preservation of brain volume and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Daiello, Lori A.; Gongvatana, Assawin; Dunsiger, Shira; Cohen, Ronald A.; Ott, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of fish oil supplements (FOSs) is associated with concomitant reduction in cognitive decline and brain atrophy in older adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the relationship between FOS use during the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and indicators of cognitive decline. Older adults (229 cognitively normal individuals, 397 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 193 patients with Alzheimer’s disease) were assessed with neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging every 6 months. Primary outcomes included (1) global cognitive status and (2) cerebral cortex gray matter and hippocampus and ventricular volumes. Results FOS use during follow-up was associated with significantly lower mean cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale and higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores among those with normal cognition. Associations between FOS use and the outcomes were observed only in APOE ε4–negative participants. FOS use during the study was also associated with less atrophy in one or more brain regions of interest. PMID:24954371

  16. Fish oil supplementation inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress and improves insulin resistance: involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenqi; Chen, Xu; Chen, Ming; Li, Yanping; Li, Qing; Jiang, Xinwei; Yang, Yan; Ling, Wenhua

    2017-04-19

    The beneficial effects of fish oil consumption on glucose metabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism underlying the fish oil-induced protective effects against insulin resistance remains unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as an important contributor to insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation reduces ER stress and ameliorates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, and to investigate the molecular mechanism of fish oil-induced benefits on ER stress. C57BL/6J mice were fed one of the following diets for 12 weeks: the low-fat diet (LFD), the high-fat diet (HFD) or the fish oil-supplemented high-fat diet (FOD). Fish oil supplementation led to lower blood glucose, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Importantly, fish oil administration inhibited high-fat feeding-induced ER stress and reduced adipose tissue dysfunction. The fish oil-induced improvements were accompanied by the elevation of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression in white adipose tissue. Correspondingly, the results of in vitro experiments showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the fish oil used in the study, led to a dose-dependent increase in AMPK phosphorylation and suppressed palmitic acid (PA)-triggered ER stress in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, AMPK inhibitor (compound C) treatment largely blocked the effects of DHA to inhibit PA-induced ER stress. Our data indicate that n-3 PUFAs suppress ER stress in adipocytes through AMPK activation, and may thereby exert protective effects against high-fat feeding-induced adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance.

  17. Predictors of change in omega-3 index with fish oil supplementation in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Drudi, Laura M; Schaller, Melinda S; Hiramoto, Jade; Gasper, Warren; Harris, William S; Hills, Nancy K; Grenon, S Marlene

    2017-04-01

    The omega-3 index represents the red blood cell (RBC) content of two major long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. We sought to determine factors associated with a favorable response to fish oil treatment and to characterize changes in RBC PUFAs associated with fish oil supplementation. This study was a secondary analysis of the OMEGA-PAD I trial, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial investigating short-duration, high-dose n-3 PUFA oral supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in subjects with peripheral arterial disease. Patients with mild to severe claudication received either 4.4 g of fish oil providing 2.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.8 g of docosahexaenoic acid daily (n = 40) or placebo capsules (n = 40) for 1 mo. The RBC fatty acid content was measured by gas chromatography and expressed as a percent of total fatty acids. The change in omega-3 index was calculated as the difference between pre- and post-supplementation in the fish oil and placebo groups. Univariate analysis identified predictors of change in omega-3 index, with these variables included in our multivariable model. In the fish oil group, there was an increase in the omega-3 index (5.1± 1.3% to 9.0± 1.8%; P < 0.0001), whereas there was no change in the control group. Factors associated with a favorable response (i.e., greater than the median change of 4.06%) included a lower body mass index and higher concentrations of low-density lipoproteins. Other demographic and/or lifestyle factors such as age, race, or smoking status were unrelated to the response. Oral n-3 PUFA supplementation also decreased the n-6 PUFA content in RBCs. Short-term, high-dose n-3 PUFA supplementation increases the omega-3 index to a greater extent in patients with a lower body mass index and higher total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The effect of fish oil supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a triple-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Farshbaf-Khalili, Shadi; Jafarilar-Agdam, Nayyer; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh

    2017-01-31

    To evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation on pregnancy outcomes in mother and newborn. This randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 150 pregnant women aged 18-35 years from Feburary 2014 to April 2015 in Tabriz, Iran. Participants were assigned to receive either 1000 mg fish oil supplements containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120 mg docosahexanoic acid or placebo from week 20 of gestation to birth. The primary outcome measure was birth weight. Gestational duration, preterm labor low birth weight (LBW), length, head circumference, and maternal serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and EPA level at 35-37 weeks were also examined. The statistical analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Demographic characteristics were similar in both groups (P>0.05). The mean (SD) birth weight values in the fish oil and placebo groups were 3256 (362) g and 3172 (447) g, respectively (adjusted mean difference (MD)=84.1 g, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-24.8 to 193.2). Five (7.6%) neonates in the placebo versus no case in the fish oil group were born with LBW (P=0.02). The rate of preterm labor was lower in the fish oil group (adjusted OR=0.74, 95% CI=0.16-3.42). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the maternal outcomes (P>0.05) with the exception of the proportion of maternal serum DHA fatty acid at 35-37 weeks (P<0.001). Although low dose fish oil supplementation increased birth weight, its effect was not statistically significant. The frequency of LBW was significantly reduced in the intervention group, but the observed reduction needs to be confirmed in future larger investigations using different doses of omega-3.

  19. Omega-3 and fish oil supplements do not cause increased bleeding during spinal decompression surgery.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Huang, Russel C; Meredith, Dennis; Kim, Joon-Hyung; Sharma, Amit K

    2012-05-01

    Retrospective case-control study. The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative use of fish oil supplements increases intraoperative blood loss and postoperative bleeding complications during lumbar decompression surgery. Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) are widely used as over-the-counter supplements because of well-established cardioprotective and antiplatelet effects. Concern over bleeding associated with changes in platelet function have led to prohibiting these supplements before surgery although there are no clinical data available in the spinal surgery literature to guide such recommendations. Ninety-five consecutive patients who underwent posterior-only lumbar decompression by a single surgeon were included. Patients who had taken n-3FA within 14 days of surgery were compared with a control group with respect to demographics, preoperative use of other anticoagulants, surgical time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications including reoperation for epidural hematoma and wound infection. Power analysis suggested 11 patients taking n-3FA were necessary to reach statistical significance based on pilot data. Sixteen patients took n-3FA supplements, stopping an average of 2.3 days before surgery. These were no significant between-group differences in demographic parameters, use of other anticoagulants, and surgical time. Estimated blood loss was higher in the control group but the difference was not significant (154 vs. 138 mL, P=0.53). There were 2 complications related to bleeding in the control group and none in the n-3FA group. We found no increase in intraoperative blood loss or postoperative bleeding complications associated with preoperative use of n-3FA supplements up to an average of 2.3 days before surgery. Although further studies are necessary before this finding can be generalized to other types of spinal surgery, our study corroborates findings from investigations in other surgical specialties that suggest

  20. The effectiveness of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats is limited by an inefficient action on ASM function.

    PubMed

    Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2013-09-01

    Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.

  1. Effect of fish oil supplementation in a rat model of multiple mild traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Van, Ken C; Gavitt, Brian J; Grayson, J Kevin; Lu, Yi-Cheng; Lyeth, Bruce G; Pichakron, Kullada O

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major military and sports health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine if a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids would reduce cognitive deficits and neuronal cell death in a novel fluid percussion rat model of repetitive mild TBIs. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either an experimental rat chow enhanced with 6% fish oil (source of omega-3 fatty acids) or a control rat chow. Both rat chows contained equivalent quantities of calories, oil, and nutrients. After four weeks, both groups received mild repetitive bilateral fluid percussion TBIs on two sequential days. Pre-injury diets were resumed, and the animals were monitored for two weeks. On post-injury days 10-14, Morris Water Maze testing was performed to assess spatial learning and cognitive function. Animals were euthanized at 14 days post-injury to obtain specimens for neurohistopathology. There was no difference in pre-injury weight gain between groups. Post-injury, animals on the fish oil diet lost less weight and recovered their weight significantly faster. By 14 days, the fish oil diet group performed significantly better in the Morris Water Maze. Neurohistopathology identified a non-significant trend toward a higher density of hippocampal neurons in the fish oil diet group. Pre-injury dietary supplementation with fish oil improves recovery of body weight and provides a small improvement in cognitive performance in a rat model of multiple mild TBIs.

  2. Effect of fish oil supplementation for two generations on changes of lymphocyte function induced by Walker 256 cancer cachexia in rats.

    PubMed

    Folador, Alessandra; de Lima-Salgado, Thais Martins; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Aikawa, Júlia; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Martins, Edgair F; de Oliveira, Heloisa Helena P; Pizatto, Nathalia; Kanunfre, Carla C; Peres, Carmem M; Fernandes, Luiz C; Curi, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation has been shown to improve the cachectic state of tumor-bearing animals and humans. Our previous study showed that fish oil supplementation (1 g per kg body weight per day) for 2 generations had anticancer and anticachetic effects in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats as demonstrated by reduced tumor growth and body weight loss and increased food intake and survival. In this study, the effect of fish oil supplementation for 2 generations on membrane integrity, proliferation capacity, and CD4/CD8 ratio of lymphocytes isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus of Walker 256 tumor-bearing animals was investigated. We also determined fish oil effect on plasma concentration and ex vivo production of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-10]. Lymphocytes from thymus of tumor-bearing rats presented lower viability, but this change was abolished by fish oil supplementation. Tumor growth increased proliferation of lymphocytes from all lymphoid organs, and fish oil supplementation abolished this effect. Ex vivo production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 was reduced in supplemented animals, but IL-4 and IL-10 secretion was stimulated in both nontumor and tumor-bearing rats. IL-10 and IFN-gamma plasma levels was also decreased in supplemented animals. These results suggest that the anticachetic effects of fish oil supplementation for a long period of time (2 generations) in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats may be associated to a decrease in lymphocyte function as demonstrated by reduced viability, proliferation capacity, and cytokine production.

  3. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; R León, Ileana; Kulej, Katarzyna; Sprenger, Richard R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Christensen, Bjørn J; Berge, Rolf K; Jensen, Ole N; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-06-12

    involvement of PPAR mediated signalling is provided linking the different metabolic effects. The global and systematic viewpoint of this study compiles many of the known phenomena related to the effects of fish oil and fatty acids giving a solid foundation for further exploratory and more directed studies of the mechanisms behind the beneficial and detrimental effects of fish oil and TTA diet supplementation. This work is already a second article in a series of studies conducted using this model of dietary intervention. In the previous study (Vigerust et al., [21]) the effects of fish oil and TTA on the plasma lipids and cholesterol levels as well as key metabolic enzymes in the liver have been studied. In an ongoing study more work is being done to explore in detail for example the link between the down regulation of the components of the respiratory chain (observed in this study) and the strong antioxidant effects of TTA. The reference diet in this study has been designed to mimic an unhealthy - high fat diet that is thought to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome - a condition that is strongly associated with diabetes, obesity and heart failure. Fish oil and TTA are known to have beneficial effects for the fatty acid metabolism and have been shown to alleviate some of the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. To date very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these beneficial effects and the potential pitfalls of the consumption of those two compounds. Only studies of each compound separately and using only small scale molecular biology approaches have been carried out. The results of this work provide an excellent starting point for further studies that will help to understand the metabolic effects of fish oil and TTA and will hopefully help to design dietary programs directed towards reduction of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fish Oil Supplementation in Humans: Effects on Platelet Responses, Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeaff, Clark Murray

    Platelets are believed to play a significant role in the development of occlusive vascular diseases. Epidemiological reports have correlated the high intake of marine foods, rich in omega3 fatty acids, with diminished platelet responses and a low incidence of arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The activation of platelet responses is mediated by the accelerated metabolism of membrane phospholipid; therefore, it was of interest to examine, in human volunteers, the effect of a dietary fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA), enriched in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on platelet aggregation and phospholipid composition/metabolism. For the complete separation of cellular phospholipids, a one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography system using silica-gel pre-coated glass plates was developed. The solvent system consisted of CHCl_3/CH_3OH/CH _3COOH/H_2O (50/37.5/3.5/2.0, by vol), required approximately 90-120 minutes for full phospholipid separation, and was highly reproducible even under conditions of variable humidity and temperature. The consumption of a fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA) for 6 weeks (3.6 g of 20:5omega 3 and 2.4 g of 22:6omega3 per day) diminished both the collagen- and platelet activating factor-induced maximum aggregation responses in washed human platelet suspensions by 50.1% and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to initial unsupplemented baseline responses. Thrombin -induced aggregation remained unchanged. Thrombin stimulation of intact human platelets produced a significant decrease in the mass of phosphatidylinositol in plasma membrane. In platelets pre-labelled with (2-^3H) glycerol and stimulated with either thrombin or low-dose collagen, the loss of (^3H) phosphatidylinositol did not differ between those subjects consuming olive oil or fish oil. Likewise, the thrombin-stimulated accumulation of diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, was unaffected by fish oil consumption. The ratio of collagen -induced increase in radioactivity

  5. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol and fish-oil intake on the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) in SMC cultures. Methods An in vivo/in vitro cell model was used, culturing SMC isolated from chicks exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet with 5% of cholesterol (SMC-Ch) alone or followed by an anti-atherogenic fish oil-rich diet with 10% of menhaden oil (SMC-Ch-FO) and from chicks on standard diet (SMC-C). Cells were exposed to 25-HC, studying apoptosis levels by flow cytometry (Annexin V) and expressions of caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Exposure to 25-HC produced apoptosis in all three SMC cultures, which was mediated by increases in caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 gene expression. Changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C, indicating that dietary cholesterol makes SMC more susceptible to 25-HC-mediated apoptosis. Expression of p53 gene was elevated in SMC-Ch-FO. This supports the proposition that endogenous levels of p53 protect SMC against apoptosis and possibly against the development of atherosclerosis. Fish oil attenuated the increase in c-myc levels observed in SMC-C and SMC-Ch, possibly through its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of the cholesterol-induced changes, increasing the resistance of SMC to apoptosis. PMID:20630092

  6. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  7. Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation and Aspirin Use on Arteriovenous Fistula Failure in Patients Requiring Hemodialysis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Irish, Ashley B; Viecelli, Andrea K; Hawley, Carmel M; Hooi, Lai-Seong; Pascoe, Elaine M; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Badve, Sunil V; Mori, Trevor A; Cass, Alan; Kerr, Peter G; Voss, David; Ong, Loke-Meng; Polkinghorne, Kevan R

    2017-02-01

    Vascular access dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients requiring hemodialysis. Arteriovenous fistulae are preferred over synthetic grafts and central venous catheters due to superior long-term outcomes and lower health care costs, but increasing their use is limited by early thrombosis and maturation failure. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oils) have pleiotropic effects on vascular biology and inflammation and aspirin impairs platelet aggregation, which may reduce access failure. To determine whether fish oil supplementation (primary objective) or aspirin use (secondary objective) is effective in reducing arteriovenous fistula failure. The Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular Access Outcomes in Renal Disease (FAVOURED) study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial that recruited participants with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease from 2008 to 2014 at 35 dialysis centers in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Participants were observed for 12 months after arteriovenous fistula creation. Participants were randomly allocated to receive fish oil (4 g/d) or matching placebo. A subset (n = 406) was also randomized to receive aspirin (100 mg/d) or matching placebo. Treatment started 1 day prior to surgery and continued for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was fistula failure, a composite of fistula thrombosis and/or abandonment and/or cannulation failure, at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. Of 1415 eligible participants, 567 were randomized (359 [63%] male, 298 [53%] white, 264 [47%] with diabetes; mean [SD] age, 54.8 [14.3] y). The same proportion of fistula failures occurred in the fish oil and placebo arms (128 of 270 [47%] vs 125 of 266 [47%]; relative risk [RR] adjusted for aspirin use, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.23; P = .78). Fish oil did not reduce fistula thrombosis (60 [22%] vs 61 [23%]; RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0

  8. Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content and Oxidation State of Fish Oil Supplements in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bannenberg, Gerard; Mallon, Craig; Edwards, Holly; Yeadon, Derek; Yan, Kevin; Johnson, Holly; Ismail, Adam

    2017-05-03

    Forty-seven fish oil products available on the New Zealand market were analyzed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content, as well as for oxidative status in a collaborative effort by several analytical laboratories. Of the tested products, 72%, 86% and 77% complied with voluntary industry-set maximum limits on Peroxide Value (PV), para-Anisidine Value (p-AV), and TOTOX, respectively. 91% of the products complied with EPA/DHA content claims. All fish oils complied with a p-AV limit of 30, 98% with a PV limit of 10 meq O2/kg, and 96% with a calculated TOTOX value of 50, which are less stringent limits used by the European and British Pharmacopeia and the Australian authorities. The results are in stark contrast to the very low percentage of fish oil products reported to be in compliance with primary oxidation limits and EPA/DHA content by a recently published assessment of fish oil supplements in New Zealand. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are evaluated and discussed.

  9. Milk cytokines and subclinical breast inflammation in Tanzanian women: effects of dietary red palm oil or sunflower oil supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, S M; Lietz, G; Mulokozi, G; Bilotta, S; Henry, C J K; Tomkins, A M

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have found that subclinical breast inflammation, as indicated by raised breastmilk concentrations of sodium and the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), was highly prevalent in Bangladesh and associated with poor infant growth. In order to investigate further the prevalence of subclinical breast inflammation and to assess the impact of dietary intervention, we studied rural Tanzanian women taking part in a study of dietary sunflower or red palm oil supplementation during late pregnancy and lactation. We measured breastmilk concentrations of IL-8, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β) and the ratio of sodium to potassium. We also estimated systemic inflammation by plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein. There were highly significant intercorrelations among milk Na/K ratio and concentrations of IL-8 and TGF-β, the last only after treatment with bile salts which also improved TGF-β recovery in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma acute phase protein concentrations tended to correlate with milk Na/K ratio and IL-8, suggesting that subclinical breast inflammation was related to systemic inflammation. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E-rich sunflower oil but not provitamin A-containing red palm oil decreased milk Na/K, IL-8 and TGF-β at 3 months postpartum; however, the effect was significant only for Na/K ratio. The results suggest that milk Na/K ratio, IL-8, and TGF-β all measure the same phenomenon of subclinical breast inflammation but that Na/K ratio, having the lowest assay variability, is the most useful. Subclinical breast inflammation may result in part from systemic inflammation and may be improved by increased dietary intake of vitamin E-rich sunflower oil. PMID:10457212

  10. Fish oil supplementation enhanced CPT-11 (irinotecan) efficacy against MCF7 breast carcinoma xenografts and ameliorated intestinal side-effects

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, W E; Moyer, M P; Cameron, I L

    1999-01-01

    The cancer chemotherapeutic efficacy of the topoisomerase I inhibitor, CPT-11 (irinotecan) is often limited by the induction of severe delayed diarrhoea. In animal studies, CPT-11 use is associated with histopathological damage to the mucosa of the small and large intestines. Results from the present study demonstrate that 60 mg CPT-11 per kg body weight (i.v. q4d × 6) halted the growth, but did not cause significant regression, of MCF7 human breast carcinoma xenografts in mice fed a diet containing 7% corn oil. However, when the diet of the MCF7-bearing mice was supplemented with 3% or 6% fish oil, the same CPT-11 treatment caused significant regression of the MCF7 xenograft. Histomorphometric analyses of intestinal mucosa of mice treated with CPT-11 and fed the diet containing 7% corn oil indicated that treatment with CPT-11 induced structural changes in the intestinal mucosa which persisted at least 5 days after the last dose of CPT-11. The intestinal mucosal architecture of mice that were treated with CPT-11 and fed the diets containing fish oil was largely unchanged from the architecture of the group of mice which did not receive CPT-11. These findings indicate that fish oil supplements may be a useful adjunct to CPT-11 treatment. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10507768

  11. Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adults.

    PubMed

    Oelrich, B; Dewell, A; Gardner, C D

    2013-04-01

    The well-established triglyceride (TG) lowering effect of fish oil is accompanied by an increase in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Less is known about the differential impact on LDL particle distribution - the smaller particles being associated with a greater risk for atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults. This was a secondary analysis from a double-blind, parallel design, placebo controlled trial with 42 adults that experienced significant TG lowering and modest increases in total LDL-C concentrations after 12 weeks of 4 g/d EPA + DHA. Reduction in serum TG concentrations (mean ± SEM) was -26 ± 4% (-0.81 ± 10.12 mmol/L), p < 0.0001. Total LDL-C concentration increased by 13 ± 3% (+0.31 ± 0.08 mmol/L), p < 0.0001. The 12-week changes in concentrations of LDL1, LDL2, LDL3 and LDL4 were +0.06 ± 0.02 mmol/L [+2.2 ± 0.7 mg/dL], +0.07 ± 0.03 mmol/L [+2.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL], +0.16 ± 0.05 mmol/L [+6.3 ± 1.8 mg/dL], and +0.04 ± 0.04 mmol/L [+1.4 ± 1.7 mg/dL], respectively (+20 ± 5%, +64 ± 13%, +26 ± 6%, and +17 ± 9%), p < 0.05 for all but LDL4. Changes in LDL phenotype patterns A, B and A/B were negligible and not statistically significant. In this population of hypertriglyceridemic adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High potency fish oil supplement improves omega-3 fatty acid status in healthy adults: an open-label study using a web-based, virtual platform.

    PubMed

    Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W

    2013-08-08

    The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p < 0.001), while physical health scores remained unchanged. The use of a virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.

  14. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    randomized to receive three months of either fish oil capsules (treatment 1) or olive oil (placebo) capsules (treatment 2). Potential...sensitivity to fish oil, olive oil or green tea • Subject reported history of hemophilia, van Willebrands disease or other bleeding disorder, except

  15. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid-concentrated fish oil supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a 12-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lai Kuan; Shahar, Suzana; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Yusoff, Noor Aini Mohd

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a beneficial effect of fish oil supplementation in halting the initial progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unclear whether fish oil affects cognitive function in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on cognitive function in elderly person with MCI. This was a 12-month, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using fish oil supplementation with concentrated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Thirty six low-socioeconomic-status elderly subjects with MCI were randomly assigned to receive either concentrated DHA fish oil (n = 18) or placebo (n = 18) capsules. The changes of memory, psychomotor speed, executive function and attention, and visual-constructive skills were assessed using cognitive tests. Secondary outcomes were safety and tolerability of the DHA concentrate. The fish oil group showed significant improvement in short-term and working memory (F = 9.890; ηp (2) = 0.254; p < 0.0001), immediate verbal memory (F = 3.715; ηp (2) = 0.114; p < 0.05) and delayed recall capability (F = 3.986; ηp (2) = 0.121; p < 0.05). The 12-month change in memory (p < 0.01) was significantly better in the fish oil group. Fish oil consumption was well tolerated, and the side effects were minimal and self-limiting. This study suggested the potential role of fish oil to improve memory function in MCI subjects. Studies with larger sample sizes, longer intervention periods, different fish oil dosages and genetic determinations should be investigated before definite recommendations can be made.

  17. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  18. Effects of energy restriction and fish oil supplementation on renal guanidino levels and antioxidant defences in aged lupus-prone B/W mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jung; Yokozawa, Takako; Chung, Hae Young

    2005-06-01

    Energy restriction (ER) and dietary fish oil (FO) are known to reduce the severity of glomerulonephritis and increase the lifespan of lupus-prone (NZB x NZW) F1 (B/W) mice. In the present study, mice were fed either ad libitum or energy-restricted (a 40 % lower energy intake than the diet ad libitum), semi-purified diets containing 5 % maize oil or 5 % fish oil supplementation. To estimate the renal damage associated with oxidative stress, the total amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cyclooxygenase-derived ROS and levels of guanidino compounds were measured. Additionally, we assessed the putative action of ER and FO on several key antioxidant enzymes measured in the kidney post-mitochondrial fraction. Results showed that the age-related increase in creatinine level was significantly reduced by ER and FO in old mice. In contrast, arginine and guanidino acetic acid levels showed a decrease with age but were increased by ER and FO. The GSH:GSSG ratio showed a significant decrease with age, whereas ER and FO feeding prevented the decrease. The age-related decrease in antioxidant scavenging superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were all reversed by ER and FO. The moderately decreased glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities with age were significantly increased by ER and FO. Furthermore, the increased total ROS and cyclooxygenase-derived ROS levels were effectively reduced by ER and FO. In conclusion, our data strongly indicate that ER and FO maintain antioxidant status and GSH:GSSG ratio, thereby protecting against renal deterioration from oxidative insults during ageing.

  19. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-20

    olive oil (placebo) capsules (treatment 2). Potential confounding variables are assessed through completion of a comprehensive diet history...reported allergy or sensitivity to fish oil, olive oil or green tea • Subject reported history of hemophilia, van Willebrands disease or other

  20. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease.

  1. ELOVL2 gene polymorphisms are associated with increases in plasma eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid proportions after fish oil supplement.

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Aseel; Maniou, Zoitsa; Lewis, Fiona J; Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Thomas A B; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation provides an inconsistent degree of protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may be attributed to genetic variation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the elongation-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-2 (ELOVL2) gene have been strongly associated with plasma proportions of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). We investigated the effect of genotype interaction with fish oil dosage on plasma n-3 LC-PUFA proportions in a parallel double-blind controlled trial, involving 367 subjects randomised to treatment with 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (1.51:1) or olive oil placebo for 6 months. We genotyped 310 subjects for ELOVL2 gene SNPs rs3734398, rs2236212 and rs953413. At baseline, carriers of all minor alleles had lower proportions of plasma DHA than non-carriers (P = 0.021-0.030). Interaction between genotype and treatment was a significant determinant of plasma EPA (P < 0.0001) and DHA (P = 0.004-0.032). After the 1.8 g/day dose, carriers of ELOVL2 SNP minor alleles had approximately 30 % higher proportions of EPA (P = 0.002-0.004) and 9 % higher DHA (P = 0.013-0.017) than non-carriers. Minor allele carriers could therefore particularly benefit from a high intake of EPA and DHA in maintaining high levels of plasma n-3 PUFA conducive to protection from CVD.

  2. Fish oil supplementation attenuates changes in plasma lipids caused by dexamethasone treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Amanda Marreiro; Francisco, Priscila de Cássia; Motta, Katia; Chagas, Thayz Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Cristiane; Rafacho, Alex; Nunes, Everson Araújo

    2016-04-01

    Dexamethasone is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid that may alter glucose and lipid homeostasis when administered in high doses or for long periods of time. Omega-3 fatty acids, present in fish oil (FO), can be used as potential modulators of intermediary glucose and lipid metabolism. Herein, we evaluate the effects of FO supplementation (1 g·kg(-1) body weight (BW)) on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats treated with dexamethasone (0.5 mg·kg(-1) BW) for 15 days. Adult male Wistar rats were distributed among 4 groups: control (saline, 1 mL·kg(-1) BW and mineral oil, 1 g·kg(-1) BW), DEX (dexamethasone and mineral oil), FO (fish oil and saline), and DFO (fish oil and dexamethasone). Dexamethasone and saline were administered intraperitoneally, and fish oil and mineral oil were administered by gavage. We evaluated functional and molecular parameters of lipid and glycemic profiles at 8 days and at the end of treatment. FO supplementation increased hepatic docosahexaenoic acid (DEX: 5.6% ± 0.7%; DFO: 10.5% ± 0.8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (DEX: 0.3% ± 0.0%; DFO: 1.3% ± 0.1%) contents and attenuated the increase of plasma triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in DFO rats compared with DEX rats. These effects seem not to depend on hepatic expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. There was no effect of supplementation on body weight loss, fasting glycemia, and glucose tolerance in rats treated with dexamethasone. In conclusion, we show that FO supplementation for 15 days attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by dexamethasone treatment.

  3. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation on motor nerve function after eccentric contractions.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Eisuke; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of supplementation with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the M-wave latency of biceps brachii and muscle damage after a single session of maximal elbow flexor eccentric contractions (ECC). Twenty-one men were completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-design study. The subjects were randomly assigned to the fish oil group (n = 10) or control group (n = 11). The fish oil group consumed eight 300-mg EPA-rich fish oil softgel capsules (containing, in total, 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA) per day for 8 weeks before the exercise, and continued this for a further 5 days. The control group consumed an equivalent number of placebo capsules. The subjects performed six sets of ten eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors using a dumbbell set at 40% of their one repetition maximum. M-wave latency was assessed as the time taken from electrical stimulation applied to Erb's point to the onset of M-wave of the biceps brachii. This was measured before and immediately after exercise, and then after 1, 2, 3, and 5 days. Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at the same time points. Compared with the control group, M-wave latency was significantly shorter in the fish oil group immediately after exercise (p = 0.040), MVC torque was significantly higher at 1 day after exercise (p = 0.049), ROM was significantly greater at post and 2 days after exercise (post; p = 0.006, day 2; p = 0.014), and there was significantly less delayed onset muscle soreness at 1 and 2 days after exercise (day 1; p = 0.049, day 2; p = 0.023). Eight weeks of EPA and DHA supplementation may play a protective role against motor nerve function and may attenuate muscle damage after eccentric contractions. This trial was registered on July 14th 2015 (https

  4. Adult cardiorenal benefits from postnatal fish oil supplement in rat offspring of low-protein pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Mariana; Oliveira, Daniel Alves; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2006-12-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) treatment on cardiorenal structure of adult offspring from low-protein pregnancies. Three month old offspring were assigned to eight groups (four male groups and four female groups, n=8 each) (NP=normal-protein diet, LP=low-protein diet): NP, LP, NP plus FO, and LP plus FO. Left ventricle and kidney were analyzed with light microscopy and stereology. The both sexes of LP offspring showed 30% lower birth weights than the respective NP offspring and high blood pressure (BP) levels in adulthood which was efficiently reduced by FO treatment. In the heart, FO treated the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, the vascularization impairment, and decreased the cardiomyocyte loss usually observed in adult LP offspring. In the kidney, FO treated, in the male, the imbalance of the cortex-to-medulla ratio observed in both sexes of LP offspring, and reduced the glomeruli loss in the LP offspring. The positive correlation between the number of cardiomyocyte nuclei later in life and the body mass (BM) at birth was significant only in both sexes of LP offspring and this correlation disappeared in LP plus fish oil offspring. The positive correlation between the number of glomeruli later in life and the BM at birth was significant in NP male offspring and in both sexes of LP offspring. In conclusion, FO supplement, which is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA), has beneficial effects on BP control and cardiac and renal adverse remodeling usually seen in offspring of the LP pregnancies.

  5. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in their fatty acid compositions (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) to determine which combination would lead to maximum conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA) and transvaccenic acid (TVA) concentrations in milk fat. Twelve Holstein cows (eight multiparous and four primiparous cows) at 73 (+/- 32) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% fat source high in stearic acid (HS), 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO), 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO), and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets formulated to contain 18% crude protein were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa haylage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production (35.8, 36.3, 34.9, and 35.0 kg/d for diets 1 to 4) was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentages (3.14, 2.81, 2.66, and 3.08) and yields (1.13, 1.02, 0.93, and 1.08 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were lowest for HLO. Milk protein percentages (3.04, 3.03, 3.10, and 3.08) and dry matter intake (DMI) (25.8, 26.0, 26.2, and 26.2 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were similar for all diets. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations (0.70, 1.04, 1.70, and 1.06 g/100 g fatty acids) for diet 1 to 4 and yields (7.7, 10.7, 15.8, and 11.3 g/d) for diets 1 to 4 were greatest with HLO and were least with HS. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and yields were similar for cows fed the HO and the HLN diets. Similar to milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, milk TVA concentration (1.64, 2.49, 3.74, and 2.41 g/100 g fatty acids) for diets 1 to 4 was greatest with the HLO diet and least with the HS diet. Feeding a high linoleic acid fat source with fish oil most effectively increased concentrations and yields of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA.

  6. Adiponectin gene variant interacts with fish oil supplementation to influence serum adiponectin in older individuals.

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Aseel; Crepostnaia, Daria; Maniou, Zoitsa; Lewis, Fiona J; Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Thomas A B; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2013-07-01

    Marine n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) activate the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), which modulates the expression of adiponectin. We investigated the interaction of dietary n3 PUFAs with adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes as a determinant of serum adiponectin concentration. The Modulation of Atherosclerosis Risk by Increasing Doses of n3 Fatty Acids study is a parallel design, double-blind, controlled trial. Serum adiponectin was measured in 142 healthy men and 225 women aged 45-70 y randomized to treatment with doses of 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 g/d 20:5n3 and 22:6n3 (1.51:1), or placebo for 12 mo. The 310 participants who completed the study were genotyped for 5 SNPs at the ADIPOQ locus: -11391 G/A (rs17300539), -11377 C/G (rs266729), -10066 G/A (rs182052), +45 T/G (rs2241766), and +276 G/T (rs1501299). The -11391 A-allele was associated with a higher serum adiponectin concentration at baseline (n = 290; P < 0.001). The interaction between treatment and age as a determinant of adiponectin was significant in participants aged >58 y after the highest dose (n = 92; P = 0.020). The interaction between +45 T/G and treatment and age was a nominally significant determinant of serum adiponectin after adjustment for BMI, gender, and ethnicity (P = 0.029). Individuals homozygous for the +45 T-allele aged >58 y had a 22% increase in serum adiponectin concentration compared with baseline after the highest dose (P-treatment effect = 0.008). If substantiated in a larger sample, a diet high in n3 PUFAs may be recommended for older individuals, especially those of the +45 TT genotype who have reported increased risk of hypoadiponectinemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.

  7. Analysis of omega-3 fatty acid content of South African fish oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Maretha; Marais, de Wet; Spinnler Benade, A J

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence describes the protective effects of marine-derived omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular diseases as well as many other conditions. Numerous fatty acid preparations are marketed for supplementing the Western diet, which is low in n-3 fats. Since these preparations may vary in their n-3 PUFA content, we tested 45 commercially available products on the South African market for their fatty acid composition. Forty-five commercially available n-3 fatty acid supplements were analysed using gas-liquid chromatography to determine their fatty acid content. More than half of the n-3 supplements available on the South African market contained ≤ 89% of the claimed content of EPA and/or DHA as stated on the product labels. To meet ISSFAL's recommendation of 500 mg EPA + DHA/day can cost consumers between R2 and R5 per person per day (R60 to R150 p/p/month). Regarding rancidity, the majority of capsules contained conjugated diene (CD) levels higher than that of vegetable oil obtained from opened containers (three months) used for domestic cooking purposes, despite the addition of vitamin E as antioxidant. Since no formal regulatory structure for dietary supplements currently exists in South Africa, consumers depend on self-regulation within the nutraceutical industry for assurance of product quality, consistency, potency and purity. Our results indicate that more than half of the n-3 fatty acid supplements on the South African market do not contain the claimed EPA and/or DHA contents as stated on product labels, and they contained CD levels higher than that in unused vegetable oils obtained from opened containers used for domestic cooking purposes.

  8. Fish oil supplementation alters levels of lipid mediators of inflammation in microenvironment of acute human wounds

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Jodi C.; Massey, Karen; Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wounds often result from prolonged inflammation involving excessive polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity. Studies show that the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oils generate bioactive lipid mediators that reduce inflammation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in numerous inflammatory disease models. This study’s purpose was to test the hypotheses that boosting plasma levels of EPA and DHA with oral supplementation would alter lipid mediator levels in acute wound microenvironments and reduce polymorphonuclear leukocyte levels. Eighteen individuals were randomized to 28 days of either EPA + DHA supplementation (Active Group) or placebo. After 28 days, the Active Group had significantly higher plasma levels of EPA (p < 0.001) and DHA (p < 0.001) than the Placebo Group and significantly lower wound fluid levels of two 15-lipoxygenase products of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid [p=0.033] and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid [p=0.006]), at 24 hours postwounding. The Active Group also had lower mean levels of myeloperoxidase, a leukocyte marker, at 12 hours and significantly more reepithelialization on Day 5 postwounding. We suggest that lipid mediator profiles can be manipulated by altering polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to create a wound microenvironment more conducive to healing. PMID:21362086

  9. Effect of fish and krill oil supplementation on glucose tolerance in rabbits with experimentally induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Zhenya; Bjørndal, Bodil; Grigorova, Natalia; Roussenov, Anton; Vachkova, Ekaterina; Berge, Kjetil; Burri, Lena; Berge, Rolf; Stanilova, Spaska; Milanova, Anelia; Penchev, Georgi; Vik, Rita; Petrov, Vladimir; Georgieva, Teodora Mircheva; Bivolraski, Boycho; Georgiev, Ivan Penchev

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO) and krill oil (KO) supplementation on glucose tolerance in obese New Zealand white rabbits. The experiments were carried out with 24 male rabbits randomly divided into four groups: KO-castrated, treated with KO; FO-castrated, treated with FO; C-castrated, non-treated; NC-non-castrated, non-treated. At the end of treatment period (2 months), an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed in all rabbits. Fasting blood glucose concentrations in FO and KO animals were significantly lower than in group C. The blood glucose concentrations in FO- and KO-treated animals returned to initial values after 30 and 60 min of IVGTT, respectively. In liver, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were significantly increased in FO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (Acaca) expression was significantly reduced in both KO- and FO-fed rabbits. In skeletal muscle, Hmgcs2 and Cd36 were significantly higher in KO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. Acaca expression was significantly lower in KO- and FO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. The present results indicate that FO and KO supplementation decreases fasting blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance in obese New Zealand white rabbits. This could be ascribed to the ameliorated insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion and modified gene expressions of some key enzymes involved in β-oxidation and lipogenesis in liver and skeletal muscle.

  10. Fish oil and krill oil supplementations differentially regulate lipid catabolic and synthetic pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Tillander, Veronika; Bjørndal, Bodil; Burri, Lena; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K; Alexson, Stefan Eh

    2014-01-01

    Marine derived oils are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have long been associated with health promoting effects such as reduced plasma lipid levels and anti-inflammatory effects. Krill oil (KO) is a novel marine oil on the market and is also rich in EPA and DHA, but the fatty acids are incorporated mainly into phospholipids (PLs) rather than triacylglycerols (TAG). This study compares the effects of fish oil (FO) and KO on gene regulation that influences plasma and liver lipids in a high fat diet mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF) containing 24% (wt/wt) fat (21.3% lard and 2.3% soy oil), or the HF diet supplemented with FO (15.7% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.8% FO) or KO (15.6% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.7% KO) for 6 weeks. Total levels of cholesterol, TAG, PLs, and fatty acid composition were measured in plasma and liver. Gene regulation was investigated using quantitative PCR in liver and intestinal epithelium. Plasma cholesterol (esterified and unesterified), TAG and PLs were significantly decreased with FO. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein particles indicated that the lipid lowering effect by FO is at least in part due to decreased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) content in plasma with subsequent liver lipid accumulation. KO lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with a minor effect on fatty acid accumulation in the liver. In spite of a lower omega-3 fatty acid content in the KO supplemented diet, plasma and liver PLs omega-3 levels were similar in the two groups, indicating a higher bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from KO. KO more efficiently decreased arachidonic acid and its elongation/desaturation products in plasma and liver. FO mainly increased the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, while KO specifically decreased the expression of genes involved in the early steps of

  11. Fish oil and krill oil supplementations differentially regulate lipid catabolic and synthetic pathways in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Marine derived oils are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have long been associated with health promoting effects such as reduced plasma lipid levels and anti-inflammatory effects. Krill oil (KO) is a novel marine oil on the market and is also rich in EPA and DHA, but the fatty acids are incorporated mainly into phospholipids (PLs) rather than triacylglycerols (TAG). This study compares the effects of fish oil (FO) and KO on gene regulation that influences plasma and liver lipids in a high fat diet mouse model. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF) containing 24% (wt/wt) fat (21.3% lard and 2.3% soy oil), or the HF diet supplemented with FO (15.7% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.8% FO) or KO (15.6% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.7% KO) for 6 weeks. Total levels of cholesterol, TAG, PLs, and fatty acid composition were measured in plasma and liver. Gene regulation was investigated using quantitative PCR in liver and intestinal epithelium. Results Plasma cholesterol (esterified and unesterified), TAG and PLs were significantly decreased with FO. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein particles indicated that the lipid lowering effect by FO is at least in part due to decreased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) content in plasma with subsequent liver lipid accumulation. KO lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with a minor effect on fatty acid accumulation in the liver. In spite of a lower omega-3 fatty acid content in the KO supplemented diet, plasma and liver PLs omega-3 levels were similar in the two groups, indicating a higher bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from KO. KO more efficiently decreased arachidonic acid and its elongation/desaturation products in plasma and liver. FO mainly increased the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, while KO specifically decreased the expression of genes involved in

  12. A comparison of fish oil, flaxseed oil and hempseed oil supplementation on selected parameters of cardiovascular health in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Nalini; Kreml, Renee; Austria, J Alejandro; Richard, Melanie N; Edel, Andrea L; Dibrov, Elena; Hirono, Satoru; Zettler, Marjorie E; Pierce, Grant N

    2008-02-01

    The impact of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series on the cardiovascular system is well documented. To directly compare the effects of three dietary oils (fish, flaxseed and hempseed) given in concentrations expected to be self-administered in the general population on specific cardiovascular parameters in healthy volunteers. 86 healthy male and female volunteers completed a 12 week double blinded, placebo controlled, clinical trial. They were randomly assigned to one of the four groups. Subjects were orally supplemented with two 1 gm capsules of placebo, fish oil, flaxseed oil or hempseed oil per day for 12 weeks. Plasma levels of the n-3 fatty acids docosahexanoic acid and eicosapentanoic acid increased after 3 months supplementation with fish oil. Alpha linolenic acid concentrations increased transiently after flaxseed supplementation. However, supplementation with hempseed oil did not significantly alter the concentration of any plasma fatty acid. The lipid parameters (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG) did not show any significant differences among the four groups. Oxidative modification of LDL showed no increase in lag time over the 12 wk period. None of the dietary interventions induced any significant change in collagen or thrombin stimulated platelet aggregation and no increase in the level of inflammatory markers was observed. From a consumer's perspective, ingesting 2 capsules of any of these oils in an attempt to achieve cardiovascular health benefits may not provide the desired or expected result over a 3 month period.

  13. Kinetics of 13C-DHA before and during fish-oil supplementation in healthy older individuals.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Mélanie; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Rioux-Perreault, Christine; Fortier, Mélanie; Dang, Marie Thuy Mai; Allard, Marie-Julie; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Zhang, Ying; Lawrence, Peter; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Perron, Patrice; Lorrain, Dominique; Brenna, J Thomas; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2014-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) kinetics appear to change with intake, which is an effect that we studied in an older population by using uniformly carbon-13-labeled DHA ((13)C-DHA). We evaluated the influence of a fish-oil supplement over 5 mo on the kinetics of (13)C-DHA in older persons. Thirty-four healthy, cognitively normal participants (12 men, 22 women) aged between 52 and 90 y were recruited. Two identical kinetic studies were performed, each with the use of a single oral dose of 40 mg (13)C-DHA. The first kinetic study was performed before participants started taking a 5-mo supplementation that provided 1.4 g DHA/d plus 1.8 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/d (baseline); the second study was performed during the final month of supplementation (supplement). In both kinetic studies, blood and breath samples were collected ≤8 h and weekly over 4 wk to analyze (13)C enrichment. The time × supplement interaction for (13)C-DHA in the plasma was not significant, but there were separate time and supplement effects (P < 0.0001). The area under the curve for plasma (13)C-DHA was 60% lower while subjects were taking the supplement than at baseline (P < 0.0001). The uniformly carbon-13-labeled EPA concentration was 2.6 times as high 1 d posttracer while patients were taking the supplement as it was at baseline. The mean (±SEM) plasma (13)C-DHA half-life was 4.5 ± 0.4 d at baseline compared with 3.0 ± 0.2 d while taking the supplement (P < 0.0001). Compared with baseline, the mean whole-body half-life was 61% lower while subjects were taking the supplement. The loss of (13)C-DHA through β-oxidation to carbon dioxide labeled with carbon-13 increased from 0.085% of dose/h at baseline to 0.208% of dose/h while subjects were taking the supplement. In older persons, a supplement of 3.2 g EPA + DHA/d increased β-oxidation of (13)C-DHA and shortened the plasma (13)C-DHA half-life. Therefore, when circulating concentrations of EPA and DHA are increased, more DHA is available

  14. Analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid content of South African fish oil supplements: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Maretha; Benade, Spinnler

    2013-09-01

    Globally the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplement industry is expanding rapidly while consumers are becoming more aware of the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids. Our group conducted a survey in 2009 on 45 commercially available fish oil supplements on the South African market. The aim of the study was to determine the fatty acid composition and content of supplements for comparison with the claimed contents on the product label. The survey was repeated in 2012 on 63 supplements. Sixty-three commercially available n-3 fatty acid supplements were analysed using gas-liquid chromatography to determine their fatty acid composition and content. This analysis has shown an improvement in the accuracy of EPA content (44% in 2009) declared on supplement labels compared to the 2012 (52%) survey. It was also evident that a higher percentage of supplements (13% in 2009 vs 35% in 2012) contained DHA levels higher than declared. In 2009, 64% of supplements cost R2.01 to R5.00 or more to achieve a daily intake of 500 mg EPA + DHA, compared to 81% in 2012. Forty-four per cent of supplements were found to be in the early stages of rancidity [conjugated diene (CD) levels] compared to 73% in 2009. More than 80% of supplements had peroxide levels higher than the recommended content as specified by the Global Organisation for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED). The majority (81%; n = 51) of the supplements under study in 2012 had a 1.1-1.5:1 EPA-to-DHA ratio or less, compared to 56% in 2009. Almost a third (32%) of the supplements in the 2012 survey contained ethyl esters (EE) or a combination of ethyl esters and triglycerides. Although the results of the 2012 versus the 2009 analysis were encouraging in terms of the accuracy of EPA declared on the supplement labels, the high peroxide levels found in the supplement oils are of concern. High peroxide levels are associated with potential health implications. EE were present in some of the supplements, even though the safety of EE has not been

  15. Effect of dietary corn oil supplementation on equine gastric fluid acid, sodium, and prostaglandin E2 content before and during pentagastrin infusion.

    PubMed

    Cargile, Jana L; Burrow, James A; Kim, Inyoung; Cohen, Noah D; Merritt, A M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of corn oil (approximately 60% [wt/vol] linoleic acid) dietary supplementation on various components of equine gastric secretion was studied by use of a repeated-measures experimental design. Four healthy adult ponies were surgically fitted with gastric cannulas. The ponies were then fed a free-choice hay diet for 5 weeks, which was followed by 5 weeks of the same diet supplemented with 45 mL of corn oil daily. Gastric contents were analyzed under basal and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions once weekly during the latter 2 weeks on each diet. Gastric contents were collected at 30-minute intervals, and volume, hydrogen ion concentration, sodium content, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content were measured. Data were analyzed by a linear fixed-effect modeling procedure. During the diet supplemented with corn oil, the ponies had, under basal and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions, significantly decreased acid output and significantly increased PGE2 and sodium outputs compared to those measured before corn oil supplementation. We conclude that corn oil supplementation may be an effective and inexpensive way to increase the protective properties of equine glandular gastric mucosa. This could be particularly helpful in reducing the chances of ulceration associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration.

  16. Fish Oil Supplementation Alters the Plasma Lipidomic Profile and Increases Long-Chain PUFAs of Phospholipids and Triglycerides in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ottestad, Inger; Hassani, Sahar; Borge, Grethe I.; Kohler, Achim; Vogt, Gjermund; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Orešič, Matej; Brønner, Kirsti W.; Holven, Kirsten B.; Ulven, Stine M.; Myhrstad, Mari C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background While beneficial health effects of fish and fish oil consumption are well documented, the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipid classes is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, healthy subjects received capsules containing either 8 g/d of fish oil (FO) (1.6 g/d EPA+DHA) (n = 16) or 8 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) (n = 17) for seven weeks. During the first three weeks of intervention, the subjects completed a fully controlled diet period. BMI and total serum triglycerides, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged during the intervention period. Lipidomic analyses were performed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS), where 568 lipids were detected and 260 identified. Both t-tests and Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression (MBPLSR) analysis were performed for analysing differences between the intervention groups. The intervention groups were well separated by the lipidomic data after three weeks of intervention. Several lipid classes such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and triglycerides contributed strongly to this separation. Twenty-three lipids were significantly decreased (FDR<0.05) in the FO group after three weeks compared with the HOSO group, whereas fifty-one were increased including selected phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. After seven weeks of intervention the two intervention groups showed similar grouping. Conclusions/Significance In healthy subjects, fish oil supplementation alters lipid metabolism and increases the proportion of

  17. Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Heart Levels of Interleukin-6 in Rats with Chronic Inflammation due to Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Haidar, André Abou; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Almeida, Antonio-Carlos Guimarães; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Scorza, Carla Alessandra; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of premature death related to epilepsy. The causes of SUDEP remain unknown, but cardiac arrhythmias and asphyxia have been suggested as a major mechanism of this event. Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and ventricular arrhythmia, with interleukin-6 (IL-6) being recognized as a crucial orchestrator of inflammatory states. Our group previously reported that levels of IL-6 were increased in the hearts of epileptic rats. In this scenario, anti-inflammatory actions are among the beneficial effects of fish oil dietary supplementation. This investigation revealed that elevated levels of IL-6 in the heart were markedly reduced in epileptic rats that were treated in the long-term with fish oil, suggesting protective anti-inflammatory actions against dangerously high levels of IL-6. Based on these findings, our results suggest beneficial effects of long-term intake of fish oil in reducing the inflammation associated with chronic epilepsy. PMID:28649227

  18. Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Heart Levels of Interleukin-6 in Rats with Chronic Inflammation due to Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Haidar, André Abou; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Almeida, Antonio-Carlos Guimarães; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Scorza, Carla Alessandra; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of premature death related to epilepsy. The causes of SUDEP remain unknown, but cardiac arrhythmias and asphyxia have been suggested as a major mechanism of this event. Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and ventricular arrhythmia, with interleukin-6 (IL-6) being recognized as a crucial orchestrator of inflammatory states. Our group previously reported that levels of IL-6 were increased in the hearts of epileptic rats. In this scenario, anti-inflammatory actions are among the beneficial effects of fish oil dietary supplementation. This investigation revealed that elevated levels of IL-6 in the heart were markedly reduced in epileptic rats that were treated in the long-term with fish oil, suggesting protective anti-inflammatory actions against dangerously high levels of IL-6. Based on these findings, our results suggest beneficial effects of long-term intake of fish oil in reducing the inflammation associated with chronic epilepsy.

  19. The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS): design and research protocol of a double-blind, randomised controlled n--3 LCPUFA intervention trial in term infants.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Dunstan, J; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2011-09-01

    The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study is a double-blind randomised controlled trial investigating whether the incidence of allergic disease can be reduced and developmental outcomes enhanced through supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Infants at high risk of developing allergic disease will be randomised to receive either fish oil or olive oil supplements until 6 months of age and followed up at six postnatal clinic visits to assess allergy outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Study groups to consist of a treatment group allocated to receive 650 mg of fish oil daily (250-280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and at least 60 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and a placebo group (olive oil) from birth to 6 months of age. Allergy outcomes will be assessed by clinical history, clinical assessments and allergen skin prick tests at the 12, 30 and 60 month visits. Neurodevelopmental assessments to be conducted at 18 months, and language questionnaires at 12, 18 and 30 months. Samples will be collected from mothers antenatally, from infants at birth, and at clinic visits from 6 months onwards for immunological assessments. Fatty acid composition to be measured in erythrocytes and plasma (at birth and after the supplementation period) to assess the effect of the intervention on fatty acid status. Information on medical history, diet and other lifestyle factors at an antenatal clinic visit and postnatal clinic visits will also be collected. This study is designed to examine clinically relevant effects of a novel, non-invasive and potentially low cost approach to reduce the incidence of allergic disease and facilitate neurodevelopment during early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Long-Term Fish Oil Supplementation on Semen Quality and Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Male Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Analía; Pellegrino, Francisco Javier; Relling, Alejandro Enrique; Corrada, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Background Manipulating the dietary fatty acid (FA) content can alter FA profiles of reproductive tissues. Numerous researchers have evaluated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on reproductive characteristics in domestic animals, but reliable information concerning dietary FO effects on semen quality and testosterone concentrations in dogs has not been reported. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of dietary FO on semen quality and serum testosterone concentrations in dogs. Materials and Methods In this cross-over experimental study, 5 male dogs consumed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 54 mg FO/kg metabolic body weight (BW) for 120 days. After the 120-day wash-out period, control (C) dogs received FO and FO-fed dogs consumed the control diet. In the first period, 2 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 3 to the C group. In the second period, 3 dogs were allocated to the FO group and 2 to the C group. Semen samples collected on days 0, 60, 90 and 120 were evaluated by standard methods. Day 120 semen samples were analyzed for FA profiles. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 to measure serum testosterone concentrations. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS (version 9.0, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Animals and period of time (first or second 120 days) were random variables; and treatment, time, and the treatment by time interaction were considered fixed effects. Results FO supplementation increased the percentage of motile sperm (P=0.02), total sperm count (P<0.01), total sperm viability (P<0.01), and total morphologically normal sperm (P<0.01). Supplementation decreased the percentage of viable sperm (P=0.03) and serum testosterone concentration (P<0.01). FO supplementation also increased the percentage of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and total n-3 in semen samples (P≤0.05). Conclusion These results are

  1. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  2. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation Affects the Social Behavior, Brain Fatty Acid Profile, and Sickness Response of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Souza, Adriana S; Gerrits, Walter Jj; Hovenier, Robert; Lammers, Aart; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake is thought to affect development in the offspring. We assessed the impact of maternal dietary DHA on behavior, brain fatty acid (FA) profile, and sickness response of offspring in pigs, a pertinent model for human nutrition. Sows (n = 24) were fed a diet with DHA-rich fish oil (FO) (20 g/kg) or high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSF) (20 g/kg) from day 61 of gestation through lactation. At 4 wk of age, 4 piglets per litter were weaned and mixed with piglets from other litters. Behavior was observed in 4- to 8-wk-old piglets, and brain FA composition was analyzed at 4 (n = 15) and 14 (n = 12) wk. Thirteen-week-old piglets (n = 48) were subjected to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Body temperature, plasma cytokines, and motivation to approach a familiar human, indicative of a sickness response, were measured. FO-fed pigs displayed more social activities (+262%, P = 0.02), played more (+61%, P = 0.03), and tended to show fewer oral manipulative behaviors directed at pen mates (-25%, P = 0.06) than did HOSF-fed pigs up to 4 wk after weaning. Brain DHA concentrations were higher in FO- than in HOSF-fed pigs up to 10 wk after supplementation (+10-50%, P < 0.001), although differences declined with age. Body temperature (P < 0.001) and tumor necrosis factor α and interferon γ concentrations (P < 0.05) increased after LPS injection, but no diet effect was found (P > 0.10). LPS-treated pigs were less likely to approach the human than saline-treated pigs in the HOSF-fed (-29%, P = 0.0003), but not in the FO-fed group (-13%, P = 0.11). Maternal DHA beneficially affected offspring social behavior after weaning and mildly attenuated sickness behavior after an inflammatory challenge in pigs. These behavioral changes may be mediated by increased brain DHA proportions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Fish oil supplementation to rats fed high-fat diet during pregnancy prevents development of impaired insulin sensitivity in male adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2017-07-17

    We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage. Dams were fed the allocated diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation, but daily gavage occurred only during pregnancy. After weaning, male offspring consumed a chow diet ad libitum until adulthood. Maternal high-fat diet led to increased food consumption, adiposity, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides and plasma leptin in adult HF-Con offspring. HF-Con offspring also exhibited lower insulin sensitivity than Con-Con rats. Male offspring from HF-FO group were similar to HF-Con regarding food consumption and most metabolic parameters. However, insulin sensitivity in the HF-FO group was improved relative to the HF-Con offspring. Supplementation with unoxidised n-3 PUFA rich oils in the setting of a maternal obesogenic diet improved insulin sensitivity, but had no impact on body composition of adult male offspring.

  4. Effect of fish oil supplementation for 2 generations on changes in macrophage function induced by Walker 256 cancer cachexia in rats.

    PubMed

    Folador, Alessandra; Hirabara, Sandro M; Bonatto, Sandro J R; Aikawa, Júlia; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Curi, Rui; Fernandes, Luiz C

    2007-01-15

    The effect of coconut fat (rich in medium saturated fatty acids) or fish oil (rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) supplementation for 2 generations on tumor growth, cancer cachexia, animal survival and macrophage function was investigated in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Female Wistar rats were supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil prior to mating and then throughout pregnancy and gestation. Both supplementations were daily and orally given at 1 g per kg body weight as a single bolus. Same treatment was performed by the 2 following generations. At 90 days of age, male offspring (50%) from F2 generation were subcutaneously inoculated with 2 x 10(7) Walker 256 tumor cells. At 14 days after tumor implantation, rats not supplemented displayed cancer cachexia characterized by loss of body weight, hypoglycemia, hyperlacticidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased food intake and depletion of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscles. Supplementation with coconut fat did not affect these parameters. However, supplementation with fish oil decreased tumor growth (59%), prevented body weight loss and food intake reduction and attenuated cancer cachexia. In addition, fish oil increased animal survival up to 20 days (from 25% in rats not supplemented to 67% in rats supplemented with fish oil) and improved macrophage function characterized by increased phagocytosis capacity and production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. These results suggest that fish oil supplementation for 2 generations improves macrophage function in association to reduced tumor growth and attenuated cancer cachexia, maintaining food intake and increasing animal survival. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Fish Oil Supplementation Improves Body Composition without Influence of the PPARγ Pro12Ala Polymorphism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Anahita; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmoud; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Keramatipour, Mohammad; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh; Shidfar, Farzad; Alvandi, Ehsan; Toupchian, Omid; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to investigate (1) the impact of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil supplementation on body composition, plasma adiponectin level, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) gene expression, and (2) whether the effect of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the aforementioned variables is modulated by PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism. We genotyped PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ala carriers and non-Ala carriers were randomly assigned to DHA-rich fish oil or placebo intake for 8 weeks. Glycemic control was not affected by the intervention. The supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil decreased waist circumference (p < 0.001), body fat mass (p = 0.01), body fat percent (p = 0.04), and viscera fat rating (p = 0.02) as well as trunk fat mass (p = 0.04). Weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, adiponectin level, and PPARγ gene expression changes showed no significant difference. No gene-diet interaction was found on body composition, adiponectin level, and PPARγ gene expression. DHA-rich fish oil supplementation favorably modulated body composition in patients with T2DM and could be useful to reduce visceral obesity. However, the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism did not influence the changes in the desired variables. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid-containing fish oil suppresses F2-isoprostanes but enhances inflammatory cytokine response in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huiyong; Liu, Wei; Goleniewska, Kasia; Porter, Ned A; Morrow, Jason D; Peebles, R Stokes

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological and clinical evidence has suggested that increased dietary intake of fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with a reduced risk of asthma. However, interventional studies on these effects have been equivocal and controversial. Free radical oxidation products of lipids and cyclooxygenases-derived prostaglandins are believed to play an important role in asthma, and fish oil supplementation may modulate the levels of these critical lipid mediators. We employed a murine model of allergic inflammation produced by sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) to study the effects of fish oil supplementation on airway inflammation. Our studies demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids were dose dependently incorporated into mouse lung tissue after dietary supplementation. We examined the oxidative stress status by measuring the levels of isoprostanes (IsoPs), the gold standard for oxidative stress in vivo. OVA challenge caused significant increase of F(2)-IsoPs in mouse lung, suggesting an elevated level of oxidative stress. Compared to the control group, fish oil supplementation led to a significant reduction of F(2)-IsoP (from arachidonic acid) with a concomitant increase of F(3)-IsoPs (from EPA) and F(4)-IsoPs (from DHA). Surprisingly, however, fish oil supplementation enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation suppressed the production of pulmonary protective PGE(2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) while the level of urinary metabolites of the PGE(2) was increased. Our data suggest that augmented lung inflammation after fish oil supplementation may be due to the reduction of PGE(2) production in the lung and these dichotomous results bring into question the role of fish oil supplementation in the treatment of asthma.

  7. Effect of low-to-moderate amounts of dietary fish oil on neutrophil lipid composition and function.

    PubMed

    Healy, D A; Wallace, F A; Miles, E A; Calder, P C; Newsholm, P

    2000-07-01

    Although essential to host defense, neutrophils are also involved in numerous inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. Dietary supplementation with relatively large amounts of fish oil [containing >2.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus 1.4 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day] can attenuate neutrophil functions such as chemotaxis and superoxide radical production. In this study, the effects of more moderate supplementation with fish oil on neutrophil lipid composition and function were investigated. The rationale for using lower supplementary doses of fish oil was to avoid adverse gastrointestinal problems, which have been observed at high supplementary concentrations of fish oil. Healthy male volunteers aged <40 yr were randomly assigned to consume one of six dietary supplements daily for 12 wk (n = 8 per treatment group). The dietary supplements included four different concentrations of fish oil (the most concentrated fish oil provided 0.58 g EPA plus 1.67 g DHA per day), linseed oil, and a placebo oil. The percentages of EPA and DHA increased (both P < 0.05) in neutrophil phospholipids in a dose-dependent manner after 4 wk of supplementation with the three most concentrated fish oil supplements. No further increases in EPA or DHA levels were observed after 4 wk. The percentage of arachidonic acid in neutrophil phospholipids decreased (P < 0.05) after 12 wk supplementation with the linseed oil supplement or the two most concentrated fish oil supplements. There were no significant changes in N-formyl-met-leu-phe-induced chemotaxis and superoxide radical production following the dietary supplementations. In conclusion, low-to-moderate amounts of dietary fish oil can be used to manipulate neutrophil fatty acid composition. However, this may not be accompanied by modulation of neutrophil functions such as chemotaxis and superoxide radical production.

  8. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C.; Knab, Amy M.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40–70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F2-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women. PMID:27187447

  9. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C; Knab, Amy M; Shanely, R Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-05-11

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40-70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F₂-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women.

  10. Relationship between the omega-3 index and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators in patients with peripheral arterial disease taking fish oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Melinda S; Zahner, Greg J; Gasper, Warren J; Harris, William S; Conte, Michael S; Hills, Nancy K; Grenon, S Marlene

    2017-06-24

    Oral supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases the omega-3 index, a biomarker of red blood cell eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and plasma levels of biosynthesis pathway markers and potent lipid mediators involved in the resolution of inflammation among patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We aimed to quantify the association between an upstream change in the omega-3 index and downstream changes in lipid mediator production. We conducted a secondary analysis of the OMEGA-PAD I Trial, a randomized, placebo controlled trial investigating high-dose n-3 PUFA oral supplementation in PAD patients. Eighty subjects were randomized to either 4.4 g of fish oil or placebo for 1 month. Regression analyses using generalized estimating equation techniques were used to investigate the relationship between changes in the omega-3 index and changes in lipid mediators, pre- and post-intervention. In the fish oil group, there was a significant increase in the omega-3 index (5 ± 1% to 9 ± 2%, P < .001) as well as in the plasma levels of several downstream lipid mediator pathway markers of resolution, which are involved with the regulation of leukocyte effector function and host defense. A doubling of the omega-3 index correlated with increases of 2.3-fold in 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE; P < .0001), 1.7-fold in 15-HEPE (P = .03), 1.9-fold in 5-HEPE (P = .04), and 3.6-fold in 4-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (P < .001). Among subjects with symptomatic PAD who took oral fish oil supplements for 1 month, observed changes in the omega-3 index were strongly associated with increases in downstream mediators in the biochemical pathways of resolution. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of hospital cost outcome of DHA-rich fish-oil supplementation in pregnancy: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sharmina; Makrides, Maria; Sim, Nicholas; McPhee, Andy; Quinlivan, Julie; Gibson, Robert; Umberger, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    Recent research emphasized the nutritional benefits of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) during pregnancy. Based on a double-blind randomised controlled trial named "DHA to Optimize Mother and Infant Outcome" (DOMInO), we examined how omega 3 DHA supplementation during pregnancy may affect pregnancy related in-patient hospital costs. We conducted an econometric analysis based on ordinary least square and quantile regressions with bootstrapped standard errors. Using these approaches, we also examined whether smoking, drinking, maternal age and BMI could influence the effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on hospital costs. Our regressions showed that in-patient hospital costs could decrease by AUD92 (P<0.05) on average per singleton pregnancy when DHA supplements were consumed during pregnancy. Our regression results also showed that the cost savings to the Australian public hospital system could be between AUD15 - AUD51 million / year. Given that a simple intervention like DHA-rich fish-oil supplementation could generate savings to the public, it may be worthwhile from a policy perspective to encourage DHA supplementation among pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Murphy, Karen J; Howe, Peter R C

    2007-05-01

    Regular exercise and consuming long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish or fish oil can independently improve cardiovascular and metabolic health, but combining these lifestyle modifications may be more effective than either treatment alone. We examined the individual and combined effects of n-3 FA supplements and regular exercise on body composition and cardiovascular health. Overweight volunteers [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): >25] with high blood pressure, cholesterol, or triacylglycerols were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: fish oil (FO), FO and exercise (FOX), sunflower oil (SO; control), or SO and exercise (SOX). Subjects consumed 6 g tuna FO/d ( approximately 1.9 g n-3 FA) or 6 g SO/d. The exercise groups walked 3 d/wk for 45 min at 75% age-predicted maximal heart rate. Plasma lipids, blood pressure, and arterial function were assessed at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0 and 12 wk only. FO supplementation lowered triacylglycerols, increased HDL cholesterol, and improved endothelium-dependent arterial vasodilation (P<0.05). Exercise improved arterial compliance (P<0.05). Both fish oil and exercise independently reduced body fat (P<0.05). FO supplements and regular exercise both reduce body fat and improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Increasing intake of n-3 FAs could be a useful adjunct to exercise programs aimed at improving body composition and decreasing cardiovascular disease risk.

  13. Multiple differences between patients who initiate fish oil supplementation post-myocardial infarction and those who do not: the TRIUMPH Study.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Kennedy, K F; Maddox, T M; Kutty, S; Spertus, J A

    2016-01-01

    The utility of fish oil supplements (FOS) in patients who survive an acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial, with randomized trials showing less benefit than observational studies would suggest. The differences in the characteristics of MI patients who use FOS in routine clinical care are unknown but may help explain this discrepancy. We used data from a 24-site registry study in which extensive information was available on 4340 MI patients at admission and 1, 6, and 12 months postdischarge. After excluding those using FOS at admission (n = 651), those who died before the 1-month follow-up visit (n = 63), and those with missing data at 1 month (n = 1228), 2398 remained. Of them, 377 (16%) started FOS within 1 month of their MI. We analyzed 53 patient characteristics associated with FOS use. We observed differences (P < .001) in 20 demographic, socioeconomic, treatment, disease severity, and health status domains. The FOS users were more likely than nonusers to be white, married, financially secure, highly educated, and eating fish. They also had a higher ejection fraction at discharge, were more likely to have had in-hospital percutaneous coronary interventions, and were more likely to have participated in cardiac rehabilitation programs. The FOS users were less likely to have a history of diabetes, alcohol abuse, stroke, MI, and angina. In conclusion, post-MI patients who initiate FOS within 1 month of discharge in routine clinical practice differ substantially from those who do not. These differences are strongly associated with a better post-MI prognosis and may illuminate several sources of unmeasured confounding in observational studies.

  14. Fish oil-supplemented parenteral nutrition prolongs survival while beneficially altering phospholipids' Fatty Acid composition and modulating immune function in rat sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shougen; Ren, Jianan; Sun, Liqun; Gu, Guosheng; Yuan, Yujie; Li, Jieshou

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of parenteral fish oil (FO) on survival and fatty acid profile in plasma and erythrocyte membranes, T-lymphocyte subsets, and plasma cytokines in a rat model of sepsis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. For recovery, central venous catheterization was performed 2 days before sepsis was induced. Rats were randomly assigned to receive normal saline (n = 20) or total parenteral nutrition (PN) containing a standard soybean oil emulsion (n = 20) or FO-supplemented TPN (n = 20) at the onset of sepsis for 5 days. In the control group, rats were challenged by sham operation and underwent appropriate control treatment (n = 10). Sepsis led to a high mortality and body weight loss compared with sham operation. Total PN supplemented with FO, but not without FO, improved the survival compared with normal saline. Furthermore, parenteral infusion of FO increased the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, as well as the ratio of (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) to arachidonic acid both in plasma and erythrocyte membrane. In addition, FO-supplemented TPN improved the percentages of CD3 and CD3CD4 T cells, as well as the CD4/CD8 ratio in spleen. Meanwhile, the percentage of regulatory T cells (CD4CD25Foxp3) among CD4 T cells was reduced by FO-supplemented TPN. Fish oil-supplemented TPN attenuated the production of high-mobility group box 1 and IL-10 in plasma. Moreover, parenteral FO decreased the bacterial loads in peritoneal lavage, blood, lung, and spleen. The present study suggests that FO-supplemented TPN initiated at the onset of sepsis improves survival, beneficially alters the lipids profile in plasma and erythrocyte membrane, modulates immune function, and regulates inflammatory response in a rat model.

  15. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA) are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids) and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO), on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT), liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1) the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2) two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3) the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS). Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis. PMID:21749725

  16. Fish oil supplementation is beneficial on caloric intake, appetite and mid upper arm muscle circumference in children with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Abu Zaid, Zalina; Shahar, Suzana; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Noor Aini

    2012-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the effect of supplementation of fish oil among 51 children with leukaemia aged 4 to 12 years on appetite level, caloric intake, body weight and lean body mass. They were randomly allocated into the trial group (TG) and the control group (CG). At baseline, 30.8% of TG subjects and 44.0% of CG subjects were malnourished and 7.7% of subject from TG and 28.0% from CG were classified as stunted. The majority of subjects from TG and CG were in the mild malnutrition category for mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC)-for-age. The TG group showed significant increment in MUAMC (0.13 cm vs -0.09 cm) compared with CG at 8 weeks (p<0.001). There was a significant higher increase for appetite level (0.12±0.33) (p<0.05) and an increasing trend on energy and protein intake in the TG group (213±554 kcal; 3.64 ±26.8 g) than in the CG group. In conclusion, supplementation of fish oil has a positive effect on appetite level, caloric intake and MUAMC among children with leukaemia.

  17. The immunomodulatory effects of fish-oil supplementation in elite paddlers: A pilot randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Delfan, Maryam; Ebrahim, Khosro; Baesi, Fatemeh; Mirakhori, Zahra; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Bakhshaei, Peyman; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Razavi, Alireza; Setayesh, Maryam; Yousefi, Mehdi; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad

    2015-08-01

    Physical exercise can induce imbalance of different cytokines by leading them towards an inflammatory and immunosuppressive milieu. Fish-oil (FO) supplementation may modulate the mentioned skewed balance following intense exercise. Therefore, we decided to investigate the effect of intense physical exercise and FO supplementation on cytokine production and helper T (Th) cell phenotype in male elite paddlers. Male elite paddlers consumed 6 g/day of either FO capsules (n=11) containing 3.6 g long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1.2 g docosahexaenoic acid and 2.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid) or placebo capsules (n=11) for 4 weeks. The paddlers simultaneously undertook a program of increasing exercise. Blood samples were taken from all the subjects 48 h before and after the 4 weeks of supplementation. Our results show that while FO supplementation decreases the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in the elite paddlers, it increases the production of IL-6. On the other hand, while there was no change in IL-4 secretion, the production of interferon (IFN)-γ was significantly decreased after 4 weeks FO consumption. We also showed that the production of IL-10 was significantly higher in the FO group compared to the placebo. Finally, we found that fish-oil consumption shifts the balance between Th cells towards Th2 phenotype during intensive exercise. Our results suggest that the consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids during intense exercise can induce the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine networks that are associated with a reduced Th1/Th2 ratio in elite paddlers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish oil supplementation reduces cachexia and tumor growth while improving renal function in tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Isabela; Casare, Fernando; Pequito, Danielle C T; Borghetti, Gina; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Brito, Gleisson A P; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio; Coimbra, Terezila M; Fernandez, Ricardo

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the renal function of healthy and tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with fish oil (FO), a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Weanling male rats were divided in two groups, one control (C) and another orally supplemented for 70 days with FO (1 g/kg body weight). After this time, half the animals of each group were injected in the right flank with a suspension of Walker 256 tumor cells (W and WFO). The W group had less proteinemia reflecting cachectic proteolysis, FO reversed this fact. Tumor weight gain was also reduced in WFO. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not different in FO or W compared to C, but was higher in WFO. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was higher in the FO supplemented groups. The W group had lower plasma osmolality than the C group, but FO supplementation resulted in normalization of this parameter. Fractional sodium excretion (FE(Na+)) of FO rats was similar to C. Proximal Na(+) reabsorption, evaluated by lithium clearance, was similar among the groups. Urinary thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) excretion was lower in the supplemented groups. The number of macrophages in renal tissue was higher in W compared to C rats, but was lower in WFO rats compared to W rats. In conclusion, FO supplementation resulted in less tumor growth and cachexia, and appeared to be renoprotective, as suggested by higher RPF and GFR.

  19. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  20. Effects of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on lymphocyte function before and after a marathon race.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Alves, Sâmia Rocha; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Curi, Rui; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic-(DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on lymphocyte function before and after a marathon race. Twenty-one athletes participated in this study. Eight marathon runners were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 60 d (FO group), and 13 athletes were not supplemented (C group). The following measures of lymphocytes were taken before and after the marathon: cell proliferation, cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-4), and signs of cell death. In the C group, the marathon had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation, DNA fragmentation, or mitochondrial membrane polarization; however, the marathon increased phosphatidylserine externalization (by 2.5-fold), induced a loss of plasma membrane integrity (by 20%), and decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production (by 55%, 95%, and 50%, respectively). FO supplementation did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by the marathon, as indicated by cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. However, FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation before and after the marathon, and before the race, FO supplementation decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production in concanavalin-A-stimulated lymphocytes (by 55%, 95%, and 58%, respectively) compared with cells from the C group. The production of cytokines was not altered before or after the race in the FO group. DHA-rich FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation and prevented a decrease in cytokine production, but it did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by participation in the marathon. Overall, DHA rich-FO supplementation has beneficial effects in preventing some of the changes in lymphocyte function induced by marathon participation.

  1. Effects of high-dose fish oil supplementation during early infancy on neurodevelopment and language: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; D'Vaz, Nina; Simmer, Karen; Dunstan, Janet A; Hird, Kathryn; Prescott, Susan L

    2012-10-28

    n-3 Long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) intake during infancy is important for neurodevelopment; however, previous studies of n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation have been inconclusive possibly due to an insufficient dose and limited methods of assessment. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of direct supplementation with high-dose fish oil (FO) on infant neurodevelopmental outcomes and language. In the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 420 healthy term infants were assigned to receive a DHA-enriched FO supplement (containing at least 250 mg DHA/d and 60 mg EPA/d) or a placebo (olive oil) from birth to 6 months. Assessment occurred at 18 months via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition; BSID-III) and the Child Behavior Checklist. Language assessment occurred at 12 and 18 months via the Macarthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory. The FO group had significantly higher erythrocyte DHA (P = 0·03) and plasma phospholipid DHA (P = 0·01) levels at 6 months of age relative to placebo. In a small subset analysis (about 40% of the total population), children in the FO group had significantly higher percentile ranks of both later developing gestures at 12 and 18 months (P = 0·007; P = 0·002, respectively) and the total number of gestures (P = 0·023; P = 0·006, respectively). There was no significant difference between the groups in the standard or composite scores of the BSID-III. The results suggest that improved postnatal n-3 LC-PUFA intake in the first 6 months of life using high-dose infant FO supplementation was not beneficial to global infant neurodevelopment. However, some indication of benefits to early communicative development was observed.

  2. Relation of fish oil supplementation to markers of atherothrombotic risk in patients with cardiovascular disease not receiving lipid-lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Christopher J; Bliden, Kevin P; Gesheff, Martin G; Pandya, Shachi; Guyer, Kirk E; Singla, Anand; Tantry, Udaya S; Toth, Peter P; Gurbel, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Fish oil supplementation (FOS) is known to have cardiovascular benefits. However, the effects of FOS on thrombosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine if the use of FOS is associated with lower indices of atherothrombotic risk in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (sCAD). This is a subgroup analysis of consecutive patients with sCAD (n=600) enrolled in the Multi-Analyte, Thrombogenic, and Genetic Markers of Atherosclerosis study. Patients on FOS were compared with patients not on FOS. Lipid profile was determined by vertical density gradient ultracentrifugation (n=520), eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid was measured by gas chromatography (n=437), and AtherOx testing was performed by immunoassay (n=343). Thromboelastography (n=419), ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation (n=137), and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels (n=259) were performed immediately before elective coronary angiography. In the total population, FOS was associated with higher eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid content (p<0.001), lower triglycerides (p=0.04), total very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.002), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.02), and AtherOx levels (p=0.02) but not in patients on lipid-lowering therapy. Patients not on lipid-lowering therapy taking FOS had lower very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, remnant lipoproteins, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, AtherOx levels, collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength, and shear elasticity (p<0.03 for all). In clopidogrel-treated patients, there was no difference in ADP-induced aggregation between FOS groups. Patients on FOS had lower urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels regardless of lipid-lowering therapy (p<0.04). In conclusion, the findings of this study support the potential benefit of FOS for atherothrombotic risk reduction in sCAD with

  3. The effects of short-term fish oil supplementation on pulmonary function and airway inflammation following a high-fat meal.

    PubMed

    Ade, Carl J; Rosenkranz, S K; Harms, C A

    2014-04-01

    Many environmental and dietary influences can cause immune cells to produce biological mediators that increase airway inflammation. A high-fat meal (HFM) is one stimulus that increases airway inflammation in healthy individuals. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids can reduce inflammation systemically and may be beneficial to the airways. To determine if omega-3 fatty acid supplementation via fish oil would mitigate the airway inflammatory response induced by a single HFM. Seventeen non-asthmatic men (22 ± 2 years.) were supplemented with 3,000 mg × day(-1) fish oil or a placebo for 3 weeks. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO; a marker of airway inflammation), impulse oscillometry (a measure of respiratory impedance), pulmonary function, and triglycerides were measured prior to and 2 h following a HFM. Following a HFM, triglycerides increased in both fish oil and placebo groups compared to pre-HFM (~59 and ~49 %, respectively, p < 0.05). The percent increase in FENO was greater in the placebo group compared to the fish oil group (25.7 ± 16.7 vs. -1.99 ± 10.5 %, respectively, p < 0.05). A significant correlation was observed between blood triglycerides and FENO in the placebo group (r = 0.61; p < 0.05), but not the fish oil group (p = 0.21). A single HFM increases airway inflammation and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation via fish oil protects against HFM associated changes in airway health.

  4. Dietary fish oil inhibits mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic rats by blocking nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Ying; Wang, Ya-Yun; Cao, Rui; Hou, Xiang-Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Rui-Hua; Wang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common complications of early-onset diabetes mellitus is peripheral diabetic neuropathy, which is manifested either by loss of nociception or by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease in human beings with characteristic symptoms of hyperglycemia, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Dietary fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown anti-inflammatory role in various experimental conditions. The present study investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on the inflammation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The effects of diabetes and fish oil treatment on the allodynia and hyperalgesia were also evaluated. Dietary fish oil effectively attenuated both allodynia and hyperalgesia induce by STZ injection. Along with the behavioral findings, DRG from fish oil-treated diabetic rats displayed a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) compared with untreated diabetic rats. Fish oil supplementation also increased the phosphorylation of AKT in DRG of diabetic rats. These results suggested that dietary fish oil-inhibited allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats may stem from its anti-inflammatory potential by regulating NF-κB and AKT. Fish oil might be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of type and level of fish oil supplementation on yolk fat composition and n-3 fatty acids retention efficiency in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cachaldora, P; García-Rebollar, P; Alvarez, C; De Blas, J C; Méndez, J

    2006-02-01

    1. Laying hen performance and yolk fat fatty acid (FA) concentrations were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of different sources and levels of marine fish oil (MFO). 2. Twelve diets were arranged factorially, with three sources (MFO1, MFO2_EPA, MFO3_DHA) and four levels of inclusion (15, 30, 45 and 60 g/kg) of MFO. 3. Type of diet had little effect on egg production traits, although laying rate and shell thickness slightly decreased at the highest level of MFO supplementation. 4. An increase in level of inclusion of MFO from 15 to 60 g/kg linearly increased concentrations of C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3 and total n-3 FA in yolk fat, but greatly impaired their efficiencies of deposition (g retained/g ingested). 5. An interaction between type and dietary concentration of MFO was found, as the reduction in efficiency of retention of n-3 FA in egg fat with level of MFO was less when the proportion of n-3 in total FA decreased or when that of DHA in total n-3 FA increased. 6. MFO3_ DHA was more efficiently used for total n-3 FA yolk deposition than MFO2_EPA at a similar total n-3 FA intake. 7. Dietary inclusion of MFO reduced LC n-6 FA yolk fat content, which additionally decreased the ratio between total n-6 and total n-3 FA in egg fat. 8. Regression equations were calculated in order to predict efficiency of retention and n-3 FA concentration of yolk fat in the range of diets studied.

  6. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, L; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, M F; Nielsen, M S; Olsen, S F; Stark, K D; Michaelsen, K F; Damsgaard, C T

    2016-12-01

    Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also followed-up 100 children with assessment of growth, blood pressure, diet by FFQ and physical activity by 7-d accelerometry at 13·5 (sd 0·4) years of age. Dried whole-blood fatty acid composition was analysed in a subgroup (n 49). At 13 years of age, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA, diet, physical activity and body composition did not differ between the three groups. The children from the FO group were 3·4 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·6) cm shorter (P=0·035) than those from the OO group, and tended to have less advanced puberty (P=0·068), which explained the difference in height. There was a sex-specific effect on diastolic blood pressure (P sex×group=0·020), which was driven by a 3·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 7·5) mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure in the FO compared with the OO group among boys only (P=0·041). Our results indicate that early n-3 LCPUFA intake may reduce height in early adolescence due to a delay in pubertal maturation and increase blood pressure specifically in boys, thereby tending to counteract existing sex differences.

  7. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation may adversely affect long-term blood pressure, energy intake, and physical activity of 7-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Asserhøj, Marie; Nehammer, Sofie; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2009-02-01

    Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7 y. Diet and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed by 4-d weighed dietary records and ActiReg. The PAL value was 4% lower (P = 0.048) and energy intake (EI) of the boys was 1.1 +/- 0.4 MJ/d higher (P = 0.014) in the FO group than in the OO group. Starch intake was 15 +/- 6 g/d higher (P = 0.012) in the FO group, but there were no other differences in diet. Body composition did not differ between the randomized groups with or without adjustment for starch intake, EI, and PAL. FO boys had 6 mm Hg higher diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure than OO boys (P < 0.01), but girls did not differ. Within the randomized groups, blood pressure was not correlated with maternal RBC (n-3) LCPUFA after the intervention, but PAL values were (r = -0.277; P = 0.038). We previously found higher BMI at 2.5 y in the FO group, but the difference did not persist. The differences in blood pressure, EI, and PAL, particularly among boys, suggest that early (n-3) LCPUFA intake may have adverse effects, which should be investigated in future studies.

  8. Effects of fish oil supplementation on the fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membrane and plasma phospholipids of pregnant women and their offspring: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Escolano-Margarit, M Victoria; Campoy, Cristina; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Demmelmair, Hans; Miranda, M Teresa; Gil, Angel; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold V

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation to pregnant women on the maternal and fetal fatty acid profile in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) and to identify the best compartment for the assessment of fatty acid status. A multi-centre, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted. Healthy pregnant women from three European centres were randomly assigned to receive from week 20 of gestation until delivery a daily dietary supplement with either FO (500 mg DHA+150 mg EPA), 400 μg 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, both or placebo. Fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte PL were determined in maternal blood (week 20, week 30 of pregnancy and delivery) and in cord blood (delivery). FO supplementation increased DHA levels in maternal and cord plasma and erythrocyte PL. Higher percentage changes were observed in erythrocyte PL than in plasma PL. There were significant correlations between plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid levels in maternal and cord blood. Significant correlations between maternal and cord fatty acid levels at delivery in plasma and erythrocytes were also observed; however, correlation coefficients were higher for erythrocyte phophatidylethanolamine. FO supplementation increases maternal and fetal DHA status. Both plasma and erythrocytes appear to be suitable to evaluate the fatty acid status of mothers but erythrocytes seem to be a more reliable marker in neonates.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the canadian market: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Rawn, D F K; Breakell, K; Verigin, V; Nicolidakis, H; Sit, D; Feeley, M; Ryan, J J

    2009-01-01

    Canadians are interested in improving their diet through the consumption of fish oil food supplements, which are marketed to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Convenience samples of omega-3 enriched dietary supplements (n = 30) were collected in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2007. All of the omega-3 supplements were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and, although every sample was found to contain detectable residues of PBDEs, only 24 samples were found to have PCDD/F concentrations above the level of detection. PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.05 pg TEQ/g lipid to 45.7 pg TEQ/g lipid in salmon and shark oils, respectively. Maximum PBDE concentrations similarly were observed in shark oil (113 microg/kg lipid), however, most supplements had concentrations below 5 microg/kg lipid. Average PCDD/F and PBDE intake estimates, based on consumption of maximum supplement dose following product label recommendations, were 4.32 pg TEQ/d and 25.1 ng/d lipid, respectively.

  10. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  11. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  12. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  13. Effect of fish oil supplementation on graft patency and cardiovascular events among patients with new synthetic arteriovenous hemodialysis grafts: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lok, Charmaine E; Moist, Louise; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Tonelli, Marcello; Vazquez, Miguel A; Dorval, Marc; Oliver, Matthew; Donnelly, Sandra; Allon, Michael; Stanley, Kenneth

    2012-05-02

    Synthetic arteriovenous grafts, an important option for hemodialysis vascular access, are prone to recurrent stenosis and thrombosis. Supplementation with fish oils has theoretical appeal for preventing these outcomes. To determine the effect of fish oil on synthetic hemodialysis graft patency and cardiovascular events. The Fish Oil Inhibition of Stenosis in Hemodialysis Grafts (FISH) study, a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial conducted at 15 North American dialysis centers from November 2003 through December 2010 and enrolling 201 adults with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (50% women, 63% white, 53% with diabetes), with follow-up for 12 months after graft creation. Participants were randomly allocated to receive fish oil capsules (four 1-g capsules/d) or matching placebo on day 7 after graft creation. Proportion of participants experiencing graft thrombosis or radiological or surgical intervention during 12 months' follow-up. The risk of the primary outcome did not differ between fish oil and placebo recipients (48/99 [48%] vs 60/97 [62%], respectively; relative risk, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.60 to 1.03; P = .06]). However, the rate of graft failure was lower in the fish oil group (3.43 vs 5.95 per 1000 access-days; incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.58 [95% CI, 0.44 to 0.75; P < .001]). In the fish oil group, there were half as many thromboses (1.71 vs 3.41 per 1000 access-days; IRR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.35 to 0.72; P < .001]); fewer corrective interventions (2.89 vs 4.92 per 1000 access-days; IRR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.44 to 0.78; P < .001]); improved cardiovascular event-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19 to 0.96; P = .04]); and lower mean systolic blood pressure (-3.61 vs 4.49 mm Hg; difference, -8.10 [95% CI, -15.4 to -0.85]; P = .01). Among patients with new hemodialysis grafts, daily fish oil ingestion did not decrease the proportion of grafts with loss of native patency within 12 months. Although fish oil improved some relevant secondary outcomes

  14. Short-Term, High-Dose Fish Oil Supplementation Increases the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Derived Mediators in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (the OMEGA-PAD I Trial).

    PubMed

    Grenon, S Marlene; Owens, Christopher D; Nosova, Emily V; Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Alley, Hugh F; Chong, Karen; Perez, Sandra; Yen, Priscilla K; Boscardin, John; Hellmann, Jason; Spite, Matthew; Conte, Michael S

    2015-08-21

    Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) experience significant morbidity and mortality. The OMEGA-PAD I Trial, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, addressed the hypothesis that short-duration, high-dose n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) oral supplementation improves endothelial function and inflammation in PAD. Eighty patients with stable claudication received 4.4 g of fish oil or placebo for 1 month. The primary end point was endothelial function as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Secondary end points included biomarkers of inflammation, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolome changes, lipid profile, and walking impairment questionnaires. Although there was a significant increase in FMD in the fish oil group following treatment (0.7±1.8% increase from baseline, P=0.04), this response was not different then the placebo group (0.6±2.5% increase from baseline, P=0.18; between-group P=0.86) leading to a negative finding for the primary endpoint. There was, however, a significant reduction in triglycerides (fish oil: -34±46 mg/dL, P<0.001; placebo -10±43 mg/dL, P=0.20; between-group differential P-value: 0.02), and an increase in the omega-3 index of 4±1% (P<0.001) in the fish oil group (placebo 0.1±0.9%, P=0.49; between-group P<0.0001). We observed a significant increase in the production of pathway markers of specialized pro-resolving mediators generated from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish oil group. High-dose, short-duration fish oil supplementation did not lead to a different response in the primary end point of endothelial function between the treatment and placebo group, but improved serum triglycerides and increased the production of downstream n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-derived products and mediators in patients with PAD. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01310270. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by

  15. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of fish-oil supplementation on mental well-being in older subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van de Rest, Ondine; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kok, Frans J; van Staveren, Wija A; Hoefnagels, Willibrord H; Beekman, Aartjan Tf; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm

    2008-09-01

    It is suggested that a low intake of fish and/or n-3 PUFA is associated with depressed mood. However, results from epidemiologic studies are mixed, and randomized trials have mainly been performed in depressed patients, yielding conflicting results. We investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on mental well-being in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Independently living individuals (n = 302) aged > or =65 y were randomly assigned to consume 1800 mg/d EPA+DHA, 400 mg/d EPA+DHA, or placebo capsules for 26 wk. Changes in mental well-being were assessed as the primary outcome with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale (MADRS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A). Plasma concentrations of EPA+DHA increased by 238% in the high-dose and 51% in the low-dose fish-oil group compared with the placebo group, reflecting excellent compliance. Baseline CES-D scores ranged from 5.9 to 6.8 in the 3 groups and were not significantly different between groups. Mean changes in CES-D scores after 26 wk were -0.2, 0.2, and -0.4 (P = 0.87) in the high-dose fish oil, low-dose fish oil, and placebo groups, respectively. Treatment with neither 1800 mg nor 400 mg EPA+DHA differentially affected any of the measures of mental well-being after 13 or 26 wk of intervention compared with placebo. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we observed no effect of EPA+DHA supplementation for 26 wk on mental well-being in the general older population studied. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00124852.

  17. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction of extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates lung injury and DNA damage of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaâbane, Mariem; Boudawara, Ons; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR) are well known as environmental pollutants inducing oxidative stress. Our study investigated the effects of these contaminants and if the hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil was able to prevent lung oxidative stress and DNA damage. Animals were divided into four groups of six each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received in drinking water aluminum chloride (50 mg/ kg body weight) and by gavage acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight); group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same way and the same dose as group 2 and hydrophilic fraction from olive oil (OOHF) (1 ml) by gavage; group 4 received only OOHF by gavage. Exposure of rats to both aluminum and acrylamide provoked oxidative stress in lung tissue based on biochemical parameters and histopathological alterations. In fact, we have observed an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also decreased. Histopathological changes in lung tissue were noted like emphysema, vascular congestion, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel in the lung of AlCl3 and acrylamide (ACR)-treated rats. Co-administration of OOHF to treated rats improved biochemical parameters to near control values and lung histoarchitecture. The smear formation of genomic DNA was reduced. The hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil might provide a basis for developing a new dietary supplementation strategy in order to prevent lung tissue damage.

  18. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Carey, Leeanne M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs) are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo-associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes.

  19. Genetic variation at the FADS1-FADS2 gene locus influences delta-5 desaturase activity and LC-PUFA proportions after fish oil supplement[S

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilal, Maryam; AlSaleh, Aseel; Maniou, Zoitsa; Lewis, Fiona J.; Hall, Wendy L.; Sanders, Thomas A. B.; O'Dell, Sandra D.

    2013-01-01

    Delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases (D5D and D6D) are key enzymes in endogenous synthesis of long-chain PUFAs. In this sample of healthy subjects (n = 310), genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs174537, rs174561, and rs3834458 in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster were strongly associated with proportions of LC-PUFAs and desaturase activities estimated in plasma and erythrocytes. Minor allele carriage associated with decreased activities of D5D (FADS1) (5.84 × 10−19 ≤ P ≤ 4.5 × 10−18) and D6D (FADS2) (6.05 × 10−8 ≤ P ≤ 4.20 × 10−7) was accompanied by increased substrate and decreased product proportions (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 2.49 × 10−16). The significance of haplotype association with D5D activity (P = 2.19 × 10−17) was comparable to that of single SNPs, but haplotype association with D6D activity (P = 3.39 × 10−28) was much stronger. In a randomized controlled dietary intervention, increasing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) intake significantly increased D5D (P = 4.0 × 10−9) and decreased D6D activity (P = 9.16 × 10−6) after doses of 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 g/day for six months. Interaction of rs174537 genotype with treatment was a determinant of D5D activity estimated in plasma (P = 0.05). In conclusion, different sites at the FADS1-FADS2 locus appear to influence D5D and D6D activity, and rs174537 genotype interacts with dietary EPA+DHA to modulate D5D. PMID:23160180

  20. Effects of fish oil supplementation on learning and behaviour of children from Australian Indigenous remote community schools: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Parletta, Natalie; Cooper, Patrick; Gent, Debra N; Petkov, John; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain function. We recruited 409 children aged 3-13 years (M=8.27, SD=2.17) for a randomised controlled trial supplementing with placebo or fish oil capsules (providing 750mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids, and 60mg gamma linolenic acid/school day) for 20 school weeks (Phase 1) followed by one-way crossover to fish oil (Phase 2). Children undertook assessments of reading, spelling and non-verbal cognitive development (Draw-A-Person) at baseline, 20 and 40 weeks. Teachers completed Conners Behaviour Rating Scales (CBRS). The treatment group showed improvements in Draw-A-Person compared with the placebo during Phase 1 (p=0.029), with strongest effects in Indigenous 7-12 year olds (p=0.008). The placebo group showed significant within-group improvements after switching to treatment (p<0.001). There was no treatment effect for reading or spelling, and CBRS data were unable to be analysed. These findings may be understood in the context that sustained school attendance and nutrition interact to produce school-related achievement.

  1. Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van de Rest, Ondine; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kok, Frans J; van Staveren, Wija A; Olderikkert, Marcel G M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. Three hundred two individuals aged 65 and older without depression or dementia. 1,800 mg/d EPA-DHA (n=96), 400 mg/d EPA-DHA (n=100), or placebo capsules (n=106) for 26 weeks. QOL was assessed using the short version of the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF). The WHOQOL-BREF covers four domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and satisfaction with environment. The total score range is 26 to 130, with higher scores indicating a more favorable condition. Mean age of the participants was 70, and 55% were male. Plasma concentrations of EPA-DHA increased 238% in the high-dose and 51% in the low-dose EPA-DHA group, reflecting excellent adherence. Median baseline total WHOQOL scores ranged from 107 to 110 in the three groups and were not significantly different from each other. After 26 weeks, the mean difference from placebo was -1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI)=-3.40-0.57) for the high-dose and 0.02 (95% CI=-1.95-1.99) for the low-dose fish oil group. Treatment with 1,800 mg or 400 mg EPA-DHA did not affect total QOL or any of the separate domains after 13 or 26 weeks of intervention. Supplementation with high or low doses of fish oil for 26 weeks did not influence the QOL of healthy older individuals.

  2. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Fish Oil) Supplementation and the Prevention of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Siscovick, David S; Barringer, Thomas A; Fretts, Amanda M; Wu, Jason H Y; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Costello, Rebecca B; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Jacobson, Terry A; Engler, Mary B; Alger, Heather M; Appel, Lawrence J; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-03-13

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease. In this scientific advisory, we take a clinical approach and focus on common indications for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements related to the prevention of clinical cardiovascular events. We limited the scope of our review to large RCTs of supplementation with major clinical cardiovascular disease end points; meta-analyses were considered secondarily. We discuss the features of available RCTs and provide the rationale for our recommendations. We then use existing American Heart Association criteria to assess the strength of the recommendation and the level of evidence. On the basis of our review of the cumulative evidence from RCTs designed to assess the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events, we update prior recommendations for patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, and we offer recommendations, when data are available, for patients with other clinical indications, including patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes and those with high risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  3. Genome-wide identification of mononuclear cell DNA methylation sites potentially affected by fish oil supplementation in young infants: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lind, M V; Martino, D; Harsløf, L B S; Kyjovska, Z O; Kristensen, M; Lauritzen, L

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the effects of n-3LCPUFA might be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA-methylation, during pregnancy and early life. A randomized trial was conducted in 133 9-mo-old, infants who received 3.8g/day of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) for 9 mo. In a subset of 12 children, buffy-coat DNA was extracted before and after intervention and analyzed on Illumina-Human-Methylation 450-arrays to explore genome-wide differences between the FO and SO groups. Genome-wide-methylation analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups after adjustment for multiple testing. However, analysis of the top-ranked CpG-sites revealed 43 CpG׳s that appear modified with an absolute difference in methylation of ≥10%. Methylation levels at these sites were associated with phenotypic changes mainly in blood pressure. In conclusion, our analyses suggest potential epigenome effects that might be associated with functional outcomes, yet the effect sizes were small and should be verified by additional investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on mild asthma.

    PubMed

    Arm, J P; Horton, C E; Mencia-Huerta, J M; House, F; Eiser, N M; Clark, T J; Spur, B W; Lee, T H

    1988-02-01

    Recruitment of inflammatory leucocytes to the airways may play a part in the pathogenesis of asthma. As dietary enrichment with fish oil lipids can suppress leucocyte function, the effect of these lipids on asthma control and neutrophil function was studied in 20 subjects with mild asthma. Twelve subjects received capsules containing 3.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g of docosahexaenoic acid daily and eight subjects received placebo capsules containing olive oil for 10 weeks in a double blind fashion. Baseline specific airways conductance, airways responsiveness to histamine and exercise, diurnal peak expiratory flow, symptom scores, and bronchodilator use were measured. Neutrophil fatty acid composition was evaluated by gas chromatography, calcium ionophore induced neutrophil leukotriene (LT)B4 and LTB5 generation were measured by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay, and neutrophil chemotactic responses to formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and LTB4 were assessed by a microchemotaxis technique. Although the fish oil supplemented diet produced a greater than 10 fold increase in the eicosapentaenoic acid content of neutrophil phospholipids, there was no significant change in airways responsiveness to histamine or any change in any of the clinical measurements. After dietary supplementation with fish oil there was a 50% inhibition of total LTB (LTB4 + LTB5) generation by ionophore stimulated neutrophils and neutrophil chemotaxis was substantially suppressed. Neutrophil function remained unchanged in the placebo group. It is concluded that in subjects with mild asthma a fish oil enriched diet attenuates neutrophil function without changing the severity of asthma.

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on mild asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Arm, J P; Horton, C E; Mencia-Huerta, J M; House, F; Eiser, N M; Clark, T J; Spur, B W; Lee, T H

    1988-01-01

    Recruitment of inflammatory leucocytes to the airways may play a part in the pathogenesis of asthma. As dietary enrichment with fish oil lipids can suppress leucocyte function, the effect of these lipids on asthma control and neutrophil function was studied in 20 subjects with mild asthma. Twelve subjects received capsules containing 3.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g of docosahexaenoic acid daily and eight subjects received placebo capsules containing olive oil for 10 weeks in a double blind fashion. Baseline specific airways conductance, airways responsiveness to histamine and exercise, diurnal peak expiratory flow, symptom scores, and bronchodilator use were measured. Neutrophil fatty acid composition was evaluated by gas chromatography, calcium ionophore induced neutrophil leukotriene (LT)B4 and LTB5 generation were measured by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay, and neutrophil chemotactic responses to formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and LTB4 were assessed by a microchemotaxis technique. Although the fish oil supplemented diet produced a greater than 10 fold increase in the eicosapentaenoic acid content of neutrophil phospholipids, there was no significant change in airways responsiveness to histamine or any change in any of the clinical measurements. After dietary supplementation with fish oil there was a 50% inhibition of total LTB (LTB4 + LTB5) generation by ionophore stimulated neutrophils and neutrophil chemotaxis was substantially suppressed. Neutrophil function remained unchanged in the placebo group. It is concluded that in subjects with mild asthma a fish oil enriched diet attenuates neutrophil function without changing the severity of asthma. PMID:3353893

  6. Long-term fish oil supplementation attenuates seizure activity in the amygdala induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mancilla, L E; Hernández-González, M; Guevara, M A; Benavides-Haro, D E; Martínez-Arteaga, P

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have provided evidence of significant effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain functionality, including seizures and disorders such as epilepsy. Fish oil (FO) is a marine product rich in unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Considering that the amygdala is one of the brain structures most sensitive to seizure generation, we aimed to evaluate the effect of long-term chronic FO supplementation (from embryonic conception to adulthood) on the severity of seizures and amygdaloid electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)-induced seizure model using adult rats. Female Wistar rats were fed a commercial diet supplemented daily with FO (300mg/kg) from puberty through mating, gestation, delivery, and weaning of the pups. Only the male pups were then fed daily with a commercial diet supplemented with the same treatment as the dam up to the age of 150days postpartum, when they were bilaterally implanted in the amygdala to record behavior and EEG activity before, during, and after seizures induced by administering 3-MPA. Results were compared with those obtained from rats supplemented with palm oil (PO) and rats treated with a vehicle (CTRL). The male rats treated with FO showed longer latency to seizure onset, fewer convulsive episodes, and attenuated severity compared those in the PO and CTRL groups according to the Racine scale. Moreover, long-term FO supplementation was associated with a reduction of the absolute power (AP) of the fast frequencies (12-25Hz) in the amygdala during the seizure periods. These findings support the idea that chronic supplementation with omega-3 of marine origin may have antiseizure properties as other studies have suggested.

  7. Effects of DHA-rich fish oil supplementation on the lipid profile, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball athletes before and after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Marques, Camila Garcia; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Jacintho, Thiago Manzoni; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the lipid profile, levels of plasma inflammatory mediators, markers of muscle damage, and neutrophil function in wheelchair basketball players before and after acute exercise. We evaluated 8 male basketball wheelchair athletes before and after acute exercise both prior to (S0) and following (S1) FO supplementation. The subjects were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 30 days. The following components were measured: the plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), plasma inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α), markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), and neutrophil function (cytokine production, phagocytic capacity, loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, neutral lipid accumulation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Acute exercise increased the plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDH, IL1ra, and IL-6, led to the loss of membrane integrity, ROS production, and a high mitochondrial membrane potential in neutrophils, and reduced the phagocytic capacity and IL-6 production by the neutrophils (S0). However, supplementation prevented the increases in the plasma levels of LDH and IL-6, the loss of membrane integrity, and the alterations in ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential in the neutrophils that were induced by exercise (S1). In conclusion, DHA-rich FO supplementation reduces the markers of muscle damage, inflammatory disturbances, and neutrophil death induced by acute exercise in wheelchair athletes.

  8. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    PubMed

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateral RE followed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillar MP Sat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and following RE and protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPS was significantly elevated above REST during FEDEX in both the FO and CO groups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase in MPS in both groups above REST during FED but no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased pan PKB activity at RESTin the FO group but not the CO group. There was a significant increase from REST at post-RE for PKB and AMPKα2 activity in the CO group but not in the FO group. In FEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity from REST at 3 h in the CO group only. These data highlight that 8 weeks of FO supplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response to RE plus protein ingestion without influencing MPS.

  9. Changes in milk fatty acid profile and animal performance in response to fish oil supplementation, alone or in combination with sunflower oil, in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    Ruminant diet supplementation with sunflower oil (SO) and fish oil (FO) has been reported as a good strategy for enhancing some milk fat compounds such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dairy cows, but no information is available regarding dairy sheep. In this work, ewe diet was supplemented with FO, alone or in combination with SO, with the aim of improving milk nutritional value and evaluating its effect on animal performance. Sixty-four Assaf ewes in mid lactation, fed a high-concentrate diet, were distributed in 8 lots of 8 animals each and assigned to 4 treatments (2 lots/treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 20 g of SO/kg (SO), 10 g of FO/kg (FO), or 20 g of SO plus 10 g of FO/kg (SOFO). Milk production and composition, including a complete fatty acid profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatments. Supplementation with FO tended to reduce dry matter intake compared with the control treatment (-15%), and its use in combination with SO (SOFO) resulted in a significant decrease in milk yield as well (-13%). All lipid supplements reduced milk protein content, and FO also reduced milk fat content by up to 21% alone (FO) and 27% in combination with SO (SOFO). Although the mechanisms involved in FO-induced milk fat depression are not yet well established, the observed increase in some milk trans-FA that are putative inhibitors of milk fat synthesis, such as trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and the 63% decrease in C18:0 (consistent with the theory of reduced milk fat fluidity) may be involved. When compared with the control, lipid supplementation remarkably improved the milk content of rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA; up to 4-fold increases with SO and SOFO diets), whereas FO-containing diets also increased milk n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (with mean contents of 0.29 and 0.38% of total fatty acids for SOFO and FO, respectively), and reduced the n-6:n-3 FA

  10. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Roke, Kaitlin; Boville, Stephanie; Mutch, David M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22.8 ± 2.6 yr). Subjects were matched for age, RMR, physical activity, VO2max and body mass, and were randomly separated into a group supplemented with either OO (3 g/d) or FO containing 2 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Participants visited the lab for RMR and substrate oxidation measurements after an overnight fast (10-12 hr) at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. There were significant increases in the EPA (413%) and DHA (59%) levels in red blood cells after FO supplementation, with no change of these fatty acids in the OO group. RMR and substrate oxidation did not change after supplementation with OO or FO after 6 and 12 weeks. Since there was no effect of supplementation on metabolic measures, we pooled the two treatment groups to determine whether there was a seasonal effect on RMR and substrate oxidation. During the winter season, there was an increase in FA oxidation (36%) with a concomitant decrease (34%) in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (p < 0.01), with no change in RMR. These measures were unaffected during the summer season. In conclusion, FO supplementation had no effect on RMR and substrate oxidation in healthy young males. Resting FA oxidation was increased and CHO oxidation reduced over a 12 week period in the winter, with no change in RMR.

  11. Effects of fish oil supplementation on prefrontal metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder: a preliminary 1H MRS study.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Chu, Wen-Jang; Weber, Wade A; Welge, Jeffrey A; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P

    2016-05-01

    To use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on cortical metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Metabolite concentrations were determined by (1)H MRS in the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of adolescents with MDD before and following 10-week open-label supplementation with low (2.4 g/day, n = 7) or high (16.2 g/day, n = 7) dose FO. Depressive symptom severity scores and erythrocyte fatty acid levels were also determined. Baseline erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition was positively correlated, and arachidonic acid (AA) and the AA/EPA ratio were inversely correlated, with choline (Cho) concentrations in the right DLPFC. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was inversely correlated with myo-inositol (mI) concentrations in the left DLPFC. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition increased, and AA decreased, significantly following low-dose and high-dose FO supplementation. In the intent-to-treat sample, depressive symptom severity scores decreased significantly in the high-dose group (-40%, P < 0.0001) and there was a trend in the low-dose group (-20%, P = 0.06). There were no significant baseline-endpoint changes in metabolite levels in each voxel. In the low-dose group there were changes with large effect sizes, including a decrease in mI in the left DLPFC (-12%, P = 0.18, d = 0.8) and increases in glutamate + glutamine (Glx) (+12%, P = 0.19, d = 0.8) and Cho (+15%, P = 0.08, d = 1.2) in the right DLPFC. In the high-dose group, there was a trend for increases in Cho in the right DLPFC (+10%, P = 0.09, d = 1.2). These preliminary data suggest that increasing the LCn-3 fatty acid status of adolescent MDD patients is associated with subtle changes in Glx, mI, and Cho concentrations in the DLPFC that warrant further evaluation in a larger

  12. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Roke, Kaitlin; Boville, Stephanie; Mutch, David M.; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22.8 ± 2.6 yr). Subjects were matched for age, RMR, physical activity, VO2max and body mass, and were randomly separated into a group supplemented with either OO (3 g/d) or FO containing 2 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Participants visited the lab for RMR and substrate oxidation measurements after an overnight fast (10–12 hr) at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. There were significant increases in the EPA (413%) and DHA (59%) levels in red blood cells after FO supplementation, with no change of these fatty acids in the OO group. RMR and substrate oxidation did not change after supplementation with OO or FO after 6 and 12 weeks. Since there was no effect of supplementation on metabolic measures, we pooled the two treatment groups to determine whether there was a seasonal effect on RMR and substrate oxidation. During the winter season, there was an increase in FA oxidation (36%) with a concomitant decrease (34%) in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (p < 0.01), with no change in RMR. These measures were unaffected during the summer season. In conclusion, FO supplementation had no effect on RMR and substrate oxidation in healthy young males. Resting FA oxidation was increased and CHO oxidation reduced over a 12 week period in the winter, with no change in RMR. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02092649 PMID:28212390

  13. Effects of fish oil supplementation on prefrontal metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder: A preliminary 1H MRS study

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Chu, Wen-Jang; Weber, Wade A.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Adler, Caleb M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on cortical metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Metabolite concentrations were determined by 1H MRS in the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of adolescents with MDD before and following 10-week open-label supplementation with low (2.4 g/day, n = 7) or high (16.2 g/day, n = 7) dose FO. Depressive symptom severity scores and erythrocyte fatty acid levels were also determined. Results Baseline erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition was positively correlated, and arachidonic acid (AA) and the AA/EPA ratio were inversely correlated, with choline (Cho) concentrations in the right DLPFC. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was inversely correlated with myo-inositol (mI) concentrations in the left DLPFC. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition increased, and AA decreased, significantly following low-dose and high-dose FO supplementation. In the intent-to-treat sample, depressive symptom severity scores decreased significantly in the high-dose group (−40%, P < 0.0001) and there was a trend in the low-dose group (−20%, P = 0.06). There were no significant baseline–endpoint changes in metabolite levels in each voxel. In the low-dose group there were changes with large effect sizes, including a decrease in mI in the left DLPFC (−12%, P = 0.18, d = 0.8) and increases in glutamate + glutamine (Glx) (+12%, P = 0.19, d = 0.8) and Cho (+15%, P = 0.08, d = 1.2) in the right DLPFC. In the high-dose group, there was a trend for increases in Cho in the right DLPFC (+10%, P = 0.09, d = 1.2). Discussion These preliminary data suggest that increasing the LCn-3 fatty acid status of adolescent MDD patients is associated with subtle changes in Glx, mI, and Cho concentrations in the DLPFC that warrant further evaluation in a larger controlled trial. PMID

  14. Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Da Boit, Mariasole; Sibson, Rachael; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Meakin, Judith R; Greig, Carolyn A; Aspden, Richard M; Thies, Frank; Jeromson, Stewart; Hamilton, D Lee; Speakman, John R; Hambly, Catherine; Mangoni, Arduino A; Preston, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n–3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training–induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women. Design: Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n–3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P < 0.05) extent in the long-chain n–3 PUFA group than in the placebo group in women, with no differences (P > 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s−1, 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in muscle quality in women after exercise training in the long-chain n–3 PUFA group than in the placebo group, with no such differences in men (P > 0.05). Long-chain n–3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P < 0.05) than the placebo in plasma triglyceride concentrations in both sexes, with no differences (P > 0.05) in

  15. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peiru; Sun, Min; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora; Fisher, Gary J.; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (<24 mm2 for mice and <12 mm2 for humans) skin specimens that can be readily obtained from live mice and humans. We determined mouse skin FA composition after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of consuming a control diet or a diet supplemented with fish oil. Fish oil markedly enhanced EPA and DHA in mouse skin within 2 weeks, and this increase plateaued after 4 weeks. The FA composition in mouse skin was different from that of serum, indicating that skin has homeostatic control of FA metabolism. Mice fed the control diet designed to simulate Western human diet displayed similar skin FA composition as that of humans. The present study presents a validated method for FA quantification that is needed to investigate the mechanisms of actions of dietary treatments in both mouse and human skin. PMID:28195161

  16. Dietary fish oil effects on seasonal hay fever and asthma in pollen-sensitive subjects.

    PubMed

    Thien, F C; Mencia-Huerta, J M; Lee, T H

    1993-05-01

    The effects of taking 18 capsules a day of Max-EPA (3.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid) on clinical symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were studied in pollen-sensitive subjects over a pollen season in a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled (olive oil) fashion. The study was conducted over the 1990 and 1991 pollen seasons in London, England. A total of 37 nonsmoking pollen-sensitive asthmatic subjects were entered into the trial, and 25 completed the 6-month study period over the 2 yr. The preseasonal geometric mean PD35 SGaw of histamine for the fish oil (n = 12) and placebo (n = 9) groups were 0.62 and 0.42 mumol, respectively. During the middle of the pollen season, histamine PD35 SGaw fell significantly for both the fish oil (0.11 mumol, p < 0.0001) and placebo groups (0.10 mumol, p < 0.007), indicating increased bronchial reactivity compared with preseasonal values, but there was no significant difference between the groups. Similarly, morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF), diurnal variability in PEF, nocturnal cough and wheeze, daytime wheeze, and activity, as well as nasal symptoms and increased usage of medication, were not significantly different between the groups. Compliance was confirmed by neutrophil and plasma phospholipid analysis, which showed significant rises in eicosapentaenoic acid content in the fish oil group but not in the placebo group. We conclude that dietary fish oil supplementation does not prevent seasonal hay fever and asthma in pollen-sensitive subjects during the pollen season.

  17. Dietary burden calculations relating to fish metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Schlechtriem, Christian; Pucher, Johannes; Michalski, Britta

    2016-03-30

    Fish farming is increasingly dependent on plant commodities as a source of feed leading to an increased risk for pesticide residues in aquaculture diets and consequently their transfer into aquaculture food products. The European pesticide regulation requires fish metabolism and fish feeding studies where residues in fish feed exceed 0.1 mg kg(-1) of the total diet (dry weight basis) to enable the setting of appropriate maximum residue levels in fish commodities. Fish dietary burden calculation is therefore an important prerequisite to decide on further experimental testing as part of the consumer risk assessment. In this review, the different aquaculture production systems are compared with regard to their specific feeding practices and the principles of dietary burden calculation are described. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Dietary burden calculations relating to fish metabolism studies

    PubMed Central

    Pucher, Johannes; Michalski, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish farming is increasingly dependent on plant commodities as a source of feed leading to an increased risk for pesticide residues in aquaculture diets and consequently their transfer into aquaculture food products. The European pesticide regulation requires fish metabolism and fish feeding studies where residues in fish feed exceed 0.1 mg kg−1 of the total diet (dry weight basis) to enable the setting of appropriate maximum residue levels in fish commodities. Fish dietary burden calculation is therefore an important prerequisite to decide on further experimental testing as part of the consumer risk assessment. In this review, the different aquaculture production systems are compared with regard to their specific feeding practices and the principles of dietary burden calculation are described. © 2016 Fraunhofer‐Institut für Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26749492

  19. Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture will play a major role in global food security by 2050. Production of fish will need to double by 2050 to meet global demand for this important source of protein. Proper fish nutrition is essential for the overall health and well-being of fish. Sustainable and profitable production is...

  20. Are those in need taking dietary supplements? A survey of 21 923 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Holt, D; Pattison, D J; Elton, P J

    2004-04-01

    Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70.5 % of the sample (15 465 from a total sample of 21 923), with at least one-third (35.5 %) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community.

  1. Dietary fish oil alters the lysophospholipid metabolomic profile and decreases urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B₂ concentration in healthy Beagles.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Brockman, Jeffrey A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2011-12-15

    TXB(2)) was followed by EPA concentration as a significant negative predictor of urine 11-dehydro TXB(2) concentration (increasing serum concentrations of EPA decrease 11-dehydro TXB(2)), and then lean-body mass (decreases 11-dehydro TXB(2)). Serum docosahexaenoyl-glycerophosphocholine concentration was increased by feeding fish oil in a dose-response manner. In summary, serum vitamin E concentration is enhanced primarily by feeding vitamin E and secondarily by serum cholesterol concentration. When feeding diets enriched with fish oil, the major negative predictor of urinary 11-dehydro TXB(2) concentration is serum EPA concentration. Plasma lysophospholipids can be dynamically regulated by dietary fish oil supplementation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. From alga to omega; have we reached peak (fish) oil?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Paul R; Ladi, Szabolcs

    2015-09-01

    SummaryWhile the Inuit diet was highly cardio-protective and consuming oily fish within a Western diet is to a lesser degree, the case for purified fish oil supplements is less convincing. Purification of fish oil removes lipophilic polyphenols which likely contribute to the health benefits of oily fish; leaving the ω3 highly unsaturated fatty acids exposed and prone to conferring oxidative and inflammatory stress. The authors believe that due to such issues as dietary shift, it may now be inadvisable to prescribe or sell purified ω3 highly unsaturated fatty acids supplements, unless the appropriate co-factors are included. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  3. Dietary Refinements in a Sensitive Fish Liver Tumor Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-20

    aflatoxin B1 , was significantly higher in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a diet based on fish protein concentrate compared to trout fed...be reared until sexual maturity. At this time they shall be exposed to their original diet to which aflatoxin B1 has been added. Using the various...dietary protein on the response of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to aflatoxin B1 . J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 60:317-320. 93. Malins DC, McCain BB, Landahl

  4. Dietary high oleic canola oil supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid attenuates plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels in participants with cardiovascular disease risk: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel circulating protein which plays an important role in regulation of cholesterol metabolism by promoting hepatic LDL receptor degradation. However, the action of dietary fat composition on PCSK9 levels remains to be fully elucidated. The objective was to investigate the action of different dietary oils on circulating PCSK9 levels in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT). COMIT employed a double-blinded crossover randomized control design, consisting of five 30-d treatment periods. Diets were provided based on a 3000Kcal/d intake, including a 60g/d treatment of conventional canola oil (Canola), a high oleic canola/DHA oil blend (CanolaDHA), a corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff), a flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff) or a high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic). Plasma PCSK9 levels were assessed using ELISA at the end of each phase. Lipid profiles (n=84) showed that CanolaDHA feeding resulted in the highest (P<0.05) serum total cholesterol (TC, 5.06±0.09mmol/L) and LDL-cholesterol levels (3.15±0.08mmol/L) across all five treatments. CanolaDHA feeding also produced the lowest (P<0.05) plasma PCSK9 concentrations (216.42±8.77ng/mL) compared to other dietary oil treatments. Plasma PCSK9 levels positively correlated (P<0.05) with serum TC, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B levels but did not correlate to HDL-cholesterol levels. Results indicate that post-treatment response in PCSK9 may be altered with the CanolaDHA diet. In conclusion, the elevated LDL-C levels from a DHA oil treatment may not be relevant for the observed decline in PCSK9 levels.

  5. Fish Oil Supplements Lower Serum Lipids and Glucose in Correlation with a Reduction in Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 and Prostaglandin E2 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Associated with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Ran, Li; Zeng, Xiang-Long; Wu, Ying; Chen, Jun-Li; Kang, Chao; Shu, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Qian-Yong; Mi, Man-Tian

    2015-01-01

    Fish oil has been used effectively in the treatment of cardiovascular disease via triglyceride reduction and inflammation modulation. This study aimed to assess the effects of fish oil on patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with hyperlipidemia. Eighty participants with NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to consume fish oil (n=40, 4 g/d) or corn oil capsules (n=40, 4 g/d) for 3 months in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Blood levels of lipids, glucose and insulin, liver enzymes, kidney parameters and cytokines at baseline and the end of the study were measured. Seventy people finished the trial. Plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid significantly increased in the fish oil group after intervention. After adjustment for age, gender and BMI, fish oil significantly decreased fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoprotein B and glucose (by (mean±SD) 0.49±0.43 mmol/L, 0.58±0.89 mmol/L, 0.28±0.33 g/L and 0.76±0.56 mmol/L, respectively, P<0.05), as well as alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels (by (median (interquartile)) 9.0(0.5, 21.5) and 7.0(2.2, 20.0) IU/L, respectively, P<0.05), significantly increased serum adiponectin levels (by 1.29±0.62 μg/mL, P<0.001), and reduced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α, leukotrienes B4, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), cytokeratin 18 fragment M30 and prostaglandin E2 (by 1.70±1.18 pg/mL, 0.59±0.28 ng/mL, 121±31 pg/mL, 83±60 IU/L and 10.9±2.3 pg/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Corn oil had no effect except for increasing serum creatinine concentrations by 7.7±8.9 μmol/L (P=0.008). The effects of fish oil on lipids, glucose and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were positively correlated with the reductions of serum FGF21 and prostaglandin E2 concentrations after adjustment for age, gender and BMI (r = 0.275 to 0.360 and 0.261 to 0.375, respectively, P<0.05). In

  6. Dietary sodium protects fish against copper-induced olfactory impairment.

    PubMed

    Azizishirazi, Ali; Dew, William A; Bougas, Berenice; Bernatchez, Louis; Pyle, Greg G

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to low concentrations of copper impairs olfaction in fish. To determine the transcriptional changes in the olfactory epithelium induced by copper exposure, wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed to 20 μg/L of copper for 3 and 24h. A novel yellow perch microarray with 1000 candidate genes was used to measure differential gene transcription in the olfactory epithelium. While three hours of exposure to copper changed the transcription of only one gene, the transcriptions of 70 genes were changed after 24h of exposure to copper. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the effect of exposure duration on two specific genes of interest, two sub-units of Na/K-ATPase. At 24 and 48 h, Na/K-ATPase transcription was down-regulated by copper at olfactory rosettes. As copper-induced impairment of Na/K-ATPase activity in gills can be ameliorated by increased dietary sodium, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used to determine if elevated dietary sodium was also protective against copper-induced olfactory impairment. Measurement of the olfactory response of rainbow trout using electro-olfactography demonstrated that sodium was protective of copper-induced olfactory dysfunction. This work demonstrates that the transcriptions of both subunits of Na/K-ATPase in the olfactory epithelium of fish are affected by Cu exposure, and that dietary Na protects against Cu-induced olfactory dysfunction.

  7. A comparison of actual versus stated label amounts of EPA and DHA in commercial omega-3 dietary supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Alison C; Cladis, Dennis P; Santerre, Charles R

    2015-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits throughout life and are obtained primarily through fish and fish oil supplements. Due to the growing popularity of dietary supplements, 47 commercial fish, krill, and algal oil supplements were analyzed for EPA, DHA, and other fatty acids. For fish- and krill-based supplements, the range of EPA was 81.8 to 454.6 mg g(-1) oil and DHA was 51.6 to 220.4 mg g(-1) oil. For algal oil supplements, EPA ranged from 7.7 to 151.1 mg g(-1) oil and DHA ranged from 237.8 to 423.5 mg g(-1) oil. The percentage of the stated label amount for EPA and DHA ranged from 66 to 184% and 62 to 184%, respectively. Only 10 supplements (21% of those tested) had at least 100% of the stated label amount of EPA, while 12 supplements (25% of those tested) had at least 100% of the stated amount of DHA. Over 70% of the supplements tested did not contain the stated label amount of EPA or DHA. These results indicate that the quality of fish oil supplements is not being adequately monitored by manufacturers or government agencies and increased testing is needed to ensure regulatory compliance. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Polymorphisms in the CD36 gene modulate the ability of fish oil supplements to lower fasting plasma triacyl glycerol and raise HDL cholesterol concentrations in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Madden, Jacqueline; Carrero, Juan J; Brunner, Andreas; Dastur, Neville; Shearman, Cliff P; Calder, Philip C; Grimble, Robert F

    2008-06-01

    Five SNPs in the CD36 gene, 25444G>A, 27645del>ins, 30294G>C, -31118G>A and -33137A>G in haplotypic combinations, link to fasting plasma NEFA concentrations. Fish oil lowers TAG concentrations. The influence of CD36 SNPs on hypotriglyceridemic effects is unknown. The study examines how four of the SNPs modify the effects of fish oil on fasting plasma TAG, NEFA, glucose LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations in 111 healthy, middle-aged, Caucasian men. Subjects consumed habitual diets while taking 6g MaxEPA daily for 12 weeks. TAG decreased from 1.48 mol/l to 0.11 mmol/l, and glucose and HDL rose from 5.92 to 0.15 mmol/l and from 1.27 to 0.04 mmol/l, respectively, irrespective of genotype. NEFA was unaffected. Significant falls in TAG only occurred in individuals with the GG variant of the 25444, 30294, -31118 or -33137 SNPs. The TAG-lowering effects may be via stimulation of CD36 activity in extrahepatic tissue in individuals with the GG variants of these SNPs.

  9. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited joint range of motion after eccentric contractions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Nakazato, Koichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil (EPA + DHA) supplementation on eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage. Twenty-four healthy men were randomly assigned to consume the EPA + DHA supplement (EPA, n = 12) or placebo (PL, n = 12) by the double-blind method. Participants consumed EPA + DHA or placebo supplement for 8 weeks prior to exercise and continued it until 5 days after exercise. The EPA group consumed EPA + DHA-rich fish oil containing 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA per day. Subjects performed five sets of six maximal eccentric elbow flexion exercises. Changes in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle soreness as well as serum creatine kinase, myoglobin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in blood were assessed before, immediately after, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. MVC was significantly higher in the EPA group than in the PL group at 2-5 days after exercise (p < 0.05). ROM was also significantly greater in the EPA group than in the PL group at 1-5 days after exercise (p < 0.05). At only 3 days after exercise, muscle soreness of the brachialis was significantly greater in the PL group than in the EPA group (p < 0.05), with a concomitant increase in serum IL-6 levels in the PL group. Eight-week EPA + DHA supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited ROM after exercise. The supplementation also attenuates muscle soreness and elevates cytokine level, but the effect is limited.

  10. Dietary fish oil enhances renal hypertrophy in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Logan, J L; Benson, B; Lee, S M

    1990-10-01

    Renal hypertrophy occurs early in the natural history of human and experimental diabetes and may be a manifestation of the same pathophysiological process which ultimately results in diabetic nephropathy. The precise biological events which stimulate and regulate this growth process remain incompletely understood. We postulated that renal eicosanoids contribute to the development of renal hypertrophy in diabetes. We elected to test the effects of suppression of dienoic eicosanoid metabolism (arachidonic acid metabolism) on renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats by feeding fish oil. Diabetic rats fed fish oil had markedly reduced insulin requirements compared to control rats pair-fed a beef tallow-rich diet. The concentrations of prostaglandin E2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 were depressed in the renal cortex of diabetic rats fed fish oil. This alteration in eicosanoid metabolism was associated with a substantial enhancement of diabetic renal hypertrophy. These results indicate that dietary fish oil has profound effects on renal eicosanoid metabolism in experimental diabetes and that these autocoids may participate in the biological events which regulate diabetic renal hypertrophy.

  11. Fish oil promotes survival and protects against cognitive decline in severely undernourished mice by normalizing satiety signals

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Yosefa; Saidian, Mayer; Burston, James J.; Mevorach, Raphael; Vorobiev, Lia; Magen, Iddo; Kunkes, Eithan; Borges, Beatriz; Lichtman, Aron H.; Berry, Elliot M.

    2010-01-01

    Severe malnutrition resulting from anorexia nervosa or involuntary starvation leads to low weight, cognitive deficits, and increased mortality rates. In the present study, we examined whether fish oil supplementation, compared with canola oil, would ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions by normalizing endocannabinoid and monoaminergeric systems as well as other systems involved in satiety and cognitive function within the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Female Sabra mice restricted to 40% of their daily food intake exhibited decreased body weight, were sickly in appearance, displayed cognitive deficits, and had increased mortality rates. Strikingly, fish oil supplementation that contains high omega-3 fatty acids levels decreased mortality and morbidity, and normalized the expression of genes and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Fish oil supplementation, but not canola oil, increased survival rates, improved general appearance, and prevented cognitive decline, despite the facts that both diets contained an equivalent number of calories and that there were no differences in weight between mice maintained on the two diets in 100% but decrease in the 40%. In the hypothalamus, the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation were related to normalization of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), serotonin (5-HT) (p<0.056), dopamine (DA), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (Camkk2). In the hippocampus, fish oil supplementation normalized 5-HT, Camkk2, silent mating type information regulation 1 (SIRT-1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In conclusion, dietary supplements of fish oil, as source of omega-3 fatty acids, may alleviate cognitive impairments associated with severe diet restriction and prolong survival independently of weight gain by normalizing neurochemical systems. PMID:21109417

  12. Fish oil promotes survival and protects against cognitive decline in severely undernourished mice by normalizing satiety signals.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Yosefa; Saidian, Mayer; Burston, James J; Mevorach, Raphael; Vorobiev, Lia; Magen, Iddo; Kunkes, Eithan; Borges, Beatriz; Lichtman, Aron H; Berry, Elliot M

    2011-08-01

    Severe malnutrition resulting from anorexia nervosa or involuntary starvation leads to low weight, cognitive deficits and increased mortality rates. In the present study, we examined whether fish oil supplementation, compared with that of canola oil, would ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions by normalizing endocannabinoid and monoaminergic systems as well as other systems involved in satiety and cognitive function within the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Female Sabra mice restricted to 40% of their daily food intake exhibited decreased body weight, were sickly in appearance, displayed cognitive deficits and had increased mortality rates. Strikingly, fish oil supplementation that contains high omega-3 fatty acids levels decreased mortality and morbidity, and normalized the expression of genes and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Fish oil supplementation, but not canola oil, increased survival rates, improved general appearance and prevented cognitive decline, despite the facts that both diets contained an equivalent number of calories and that there were no differences in weight between mice maintained on the two diets in 100% but decrease in the 40%. In the hypothalamus, the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation were related to normalization of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol, serotonin (5-HT) (P<.056), dopamine, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (Camkk2). In the hippocampus, fish oil supplementation normalized 5-HT, Camkk2, silent mating type information regulation 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. In conclusion, dietary supplements of fish oil, as source of omega-3 fatty acids, may alleviate cognitive impairments associated with severe diet restriction and prolong survival independently of weight gain by normalizing neurochemical systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatty acid composition and sensory traits of beef fed palm oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Partida, J A; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Campo, M M

    2007-07-01

    This study measured the effect of replacing dietary fat from an animal source with palm oil supplements on the intramuscular fatty acid profile and sensory quality traits of the meat from young bulls. Thirty-six entire male Friesian calves (mean age=6.8±1.1 months, mean live weight=162.5±28.6kg) were assigned to one of four isoenergetic (1.03 MFU/kg DM) and isoproteinic (15.5% CP) diets, that differed in their fat additives: (D1) lard-tallow mix (control); (D2) hydrogenated palm oil fatty acids (PFA); (D3) calcium salt of partially hydrogenated PFA, and (D4) calcium salt of the fatty acid distillate from palm oil. Bulls (mean live weight=391.3±30.3kg) were slaughtered under commercial conditions and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of the four diets and ageing time (1, 10, and 21d). Only the proportions of C16:0 and C18:0 were significantly affected by the palm oil dietary supplement. Ageing time affected grass odour, tenderness, juiciness, fibrosity, liver flavour, and acid flavour. Nevertheless, palm oil supplements did not negatively alter the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  14. Dietary fish oil results in a greater bone mass and bone formation indices in aged ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Barrios, Jill A; Shea, Jill E; Miller, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    Postmenopausal bone loss and the possible progression to osteoporosis is a major health concern. Until recently, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was the standard for preventing the development of osteoporosis and possible hip fractures following menopause. However, because of some adverse effects of HRT, new therapies, lifestyle habits, and nutritional interventions are being developed and better characterized in their ability to prevent bone loss after menopause. One such option is to increase the amount of fish oil consumed in the diet. The goal of the current research was to determine the impact of fish oil supplementation on bone mass, density, formation, and resorption in an aged ovariectomized rat model. Twelve-month-old female retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (Control) or fish oil (Fish) diet. Two weeks following the introduction of the diets, the rats were either sham-operated (Sham) or bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX). Ten weeks after surgery, indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. Bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole femur was significantly higher in the Fish/OVX than in the Control/OVX, and the differences were most pronounced in the distal and proximal ends of the femur. However, the Fish/Sham and the Control/Sham did not differ in the measures of BMC. Although the Control/OVX had significantly lower cortical area and greater endosteal perimeter compared with the Control/Sham, the differences were not significant between the Fish/Sham and the Fish/OVX. In addition, the Fish/OVX had a significantly larger percent double-labeled surface and mineral apposition rate at the endocortical surface than the Control/OVX. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and might be a possible intervention to slow the loss of bone observed following menopause.

  15. Krill Oil Supplementation Improves Dyslipidemia and Lowers Body Weight in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet Through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Goowon; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Sangsu; Kwak, Dongyun; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2016-12-01

    Krill oil is a novel, commercially available marine oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Compared with fish oil, the effects of krill oil supplementation on human health and its underlying action mechanisms are currently poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of krill oil supplementation on metabolic parameters of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Krill oil supplementation in mice fed a HFD for 10 weeks resulted in an ∼15% lower body weight gain and a dramatic suppression of hepatic steatosis. These effects were associated with significantly lower serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. We further uncovered a novel underlying mechanism, showing that AMP-activated protein kinase, a master regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, mediates the beneficial effects of krill oil.

  16. Measurement of organochlorines in commercial over-the-counter fish oil preparations: implications for dietary and therapeutic recommendations for omega-3 fatty acids and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Stacy Foran; Lewandrowski, Elizabeth Lee; Flood, James G; Lewandrowski, Kent B

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids is advocated by the American Heart Association to decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. However, fish contain environmental toxins such as mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, which may negate the beneficial cardiovascular effects of fish meals. Toxin levels vary depending on both the fish source and the specific toxin, and neither farm-raised nor wild fish are toxin free. Fish oil supplements also prevent the progression of coronary artery disease and reduce cardiovascular mortality. However, only sparse data exist on the level of toxins in fish oil. In a previous study we showed that the amount of mercury in 5 over-the-counter brands of fish oil was negligible. To determine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines in 5 over-the-counter preparations of fish oil. The contents of 5 commercial fish oil brands were sent for organochlorine analysis. The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorines were all below the detectable limit. Fish oil supplements are more healthful than the consumption of fish high in organochlorines. Fish oils provide the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids without the risk of toxicity. In addition, fish oil supplements have been helpful in a variety of diseases, including bipolar disorder and depression.

  17. Marine Oil Supplements for Arthritis Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens R.; Bliddal, Henning; Tarp, Simon; Lauritzen, Lotte; Furst, Daniel E.; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.; Lyddiatt, Anne; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta-regression analysis. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to rate the overall quality of the evidence. Forty-two trials were included; 30 trials reported complete data on pain. The standardized mean difference (SMD) suggested a favorable effect (−0.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, −0.42 to −0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; −0.21; 95% CI, −0.42 to −0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; −0.63; 95% CI, −1.20 to −0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; −0.17; 95% CI, −0.57–0.24). The evidence for using marine oil to alleviate pain in arthritis patients was overall of low quality, but of moderate quality in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:28067815

  18. Marine Oil Supplements for Arthritis Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Senftleber, Ninna K; Nielsen, Sabrina M; Andersen, Jens R; Bliddal, Henning; Tarp, Simon; Lauritzen, Lotte; Furst, Daniel E; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Lyddiatt, Anne; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-06

    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta-regression analysis. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to rate the overall quality of the evidence. Forty-two trials were included; 30 trials reported complete data on pain. The standardized mean difference (SMD) suggested a favorable effect (-0.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I² = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0.57-0.24). The evidence for using marine oil to alleviate pain in arthritis patients was overall of low quality, but of moderate quality in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  19. Effect of dietary fish oil on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Gröne, B; Rosenbaum, S; Most, E; Hillen, S; Becker, S; Erhardt, G; Reiner, G; Eder, K

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of fish oil as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences the expression of target genes of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and (SREBP)-2 involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism in the liver, and moreover activates the expression of target genes of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)-α involved in TAG and fatty acid catabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. Twenty lactating sows were fed a control diet or a fish oil diet with either 50 g of a mixture of palm oil and soya bean oil (4:1, w/w) or fish oil per kg. The diet of the fish oil group contained 19.1 g of n-3 PUFA (mainly 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3) per 100 g of total fatty acids, while the diet of the control group contained 2.4 g of n-3 PUFA (mainly 18:3 n-3) per 100 g of total fatty acids. The fish oil group had reduced relative mRNA concentrations of various target genes of SREBP-1 involved in fatty acid and TAG synthesis in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of target genes of PPARα involved in fatty acid catabolism in both liver and muscle, and mRNA concentrations of target genes of SREBP-2 involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake were not influenced by fish oil supplementation. Concentrations of cholesterol and TAG in plasma, fat content of milk and weight gains of litters during the suckling period were not different between the two groups of sows. In conclusion, this study suggests that fish oil has only minor effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, which are non-critical with respect to milk production in sows. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. USE OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODEL TO SIMULATE CHRONIC DIETARY EXPOSURE IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe dietary uptake of hydrophobic organic chemicals by fish. The GI tract was modeled as four compartments corresponding to the stomach, pyloric ceca, upper intestine, and lower intestine. Partitioning coeff...

  1. Dietary Uptake Models Used for Modeling the Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous models have been developed to predict the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in fish. Although chemical dietary uptake can be modeled using assimilation efficiencies, bioaccumulation models fall into two distinct groups. The first group implicitly assumes that assimila...

  2. USE OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODEL TO SIMULATE CHRONIC DIETARY EXPOSURE IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe dietary uptake of hydrophobic organic chemicals by fish. The GI tract was modeled as four compartments corresponding to the stomach, pyloric ceca, upper intestine, and lower intestine. Partitioning coeff...

  3. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption.

  4. Effect of type and timing of oil supplements to sows during pregnancy on the growth performance and endocrine profile of low and normal birth weight offspring.

    PubMed

    Laws, John; Litten, Jennie C; Laws, Alison; Lean, Ian J; Dodds, Peter F; Clarke, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-eight multiparous sows were used to evaluate whether type and timing of oil supplementation during gestation influences the incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Sows were allocated (eight per treatment) commercial sow pellets (3 kg/d; control diet) or an experimental diet consisting of control diet plus 10 % extra energy in the form of excess pellets, palm oil, olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SO) or fish oil; experimental diets were fed during either the first half (G1) or second half (G2) of gestation. Growth performance and endocrine profile of LBW (<1.09 kg) and normal birth weight (NBW; 1.46-1.64 kg) offspring were compared. Maternal dietary supplementation altered the distribution curve for piglet birth weight. SOG1 sows had a greater proportion of LBW piglets (P<0.05), whilst it was reduced in the OOG1 group (P<0.05). Growth rate of LBW piglets was lower compared with their NBW siblings (P<0.05) when dietary supplementation was offered in G2 but were similar for G1. At birth, LBW offspring of supplemented animals possessed more fat compared with the control group (P<0.05); LBW offspring of control animals exhibited a more rapid decline in fat free mass/kg prior to weaning. Plasma metabolites and insulin concentrations were influenced by maternal diet and birth weight. In conclusion, maternal dietary supplementation altered the distribution of piglet birth weights and improved the energy status of LBW piglets. Supplementation with MUFA during G1 reduced the incidence of LBW, whereas PUFA had the reverse effect.

  5. Fish oil improves gene targets of Down syndrome in C57BL and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zmijewski, Peter A; Gao, Linda Y; Saxena, Abhinav R; Chavannes, Nastacia K; Hushmendy, Shazaan F; Bhoiwala, Devang L; Crawford, Dana R

    2015-05-01

    We have considered a novel gene targeting approach for treating pathologies and conditions whose genetic bases are defined using diet and nutrition. One such condition is Down syndrome, which is linked to overexpression of RCAN1 on human chromosome 21 for some phenotypes. We hypothesize that a decrease in RCAN1 expression with dietary supplements in individuals with Down syndrome represents a potential treatment. Toward this, we used in vivo studies and bioinformatic analysis to identify potential healthy dietary RCAN1 expression modulators. We observed Rcan1 isoform 1 (Rcan1-1) protein reduction in mice pup hippocampus after a 4-week curcumin and fish oil supplementation, with only fish oil reduction being statistically significant. Focusing on fish oil, we observed a 17% Rcan1-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and 19% Rcan1-1 protein reduction in BALB/c mice after 5 weeks of fish oil supplementation. Fish oil supplementation starting at conception and in a different mouse strain (C57BL) led to a 27% reduction in hippocampal Rcan1-1 mRNA and a 34% reduction in spleen Rcan1-1 mRNA at 6 weeks of age. Hippocampal protein results revealed a modest 11% reduction in RCAN1-1, suggesting translational compensation. Bioinformatic mining of human fish oil studies also revealed reduced RCAN1 mRNA expression, consistent with the above studies. These results suggest the potential use of fish oil in treating Down syndrome and support our strategy of using select healthy dietary agents to treat genetically defined pathologies, an approach that we believe is simple, healthy, and cost-effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dietary fish and weight reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in overweight hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Bao, D Q; Mori, T A; Burke, V; Puddey, I B; Beilin, L J

    1998-10-01

    Obesity is a major factor contributing to hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Regular consumption of dietary fish and omega3 fatty acids of marine origin can lower blood pressure (BP) levels and reduce cardiovascular risk. This study examined the potential effects of combining dietary fish rich in omega3 fatty acids with a weight loss regimen in overweight hypertensive subjects, with ambulatory BP levels as the primary end point. Using a factorial design, 69 overweight medication-treated hypertensives were randomized to a daily fish meal (3.65 g omega3 fatty acids), weight reduction, the 2 regimens combined, or a control regimen for 16 weeks. Sixty-three subjects with a mean+/-SEM body mass index of 31.6+/-0.5 kg/m2 completed the study. Weight fell by 5.6+/-0.8 kg with energy restriction. Dietary fish and weight loss had significant independent and additive effects on 24-hour ambulatory BP. Effects were greatest on awake systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.01); relative to control, awake pressures fell 6.0/3.0 mm Hg with dietary fish alone, 5.5/2.2 mm Hg with weight reduction alone, and 13.0/9.3 mm Hg with fish and weight loss combined. These results also remained significant after further adjustment for changes in urinary sodium, potassium, or the sodium/potassium ratio, as well as dietary macronutrients. Dietary fish also significantly reduced 24-hour (-3.1+/-1.4 bpm, P=0.036) and awake (-4.2+/-1.6 bpm, P=0. 013) ambulatory heart rates. Weight reduction had a significant effect on sleeping heart rate only (-3.2+/-1.7 bpm, P=0.037). Combining a daily fish meal with a weight-reducing regimen led to additive effects on ambulatory BP and decreased heart rate. The effects were large, suggesting that cardiovascular risk and antihypertensive drug requirements are likely to be reduced substantially by combining dietary fish meals rich in omega3 fatty acids with weight-loss regimens in overweight medication-treated hypertensives. The reduction in heart

  7. Effects of fish oil on ovarian development in spotted scat (Scatophagus argus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min-Zhi; Li, Guang-Li; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Deng, Si-Ping

    2013-09-01

    The effects of different concentrations of dietary fish oil (0, 2%, or 6%) on ovarian development in 2-year-old female Scatophagus argus were investigated. The levels of serum sex steroid hormones (estradiol-17β, E2; testosterone, T), protein phosphorus (SPP), and protein calcium (SPC), as well as vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA expression in livers and ovaries were measured. Over the eight week experimental period, oocytes did not develop further and remained at phase III in fish fed with the control diet with no supplement of fish oil. Fish fed with 2% fish oil supplement had oocytes at transition phase from III to IV. Fish fed with 6% fish oil supplement had oocytes at late phase IV. Higher gonadosmatic index, serum E2, SPP, SPC, and liver vtg expression were found in 6% fish oil group compared to that in the 2% fish oil group (except E2) and the control group (P<0.05). In addition, vtg expression in livers was 600-1000 times higher than that in the ovaries. Gonadosmatic index, E2, and SPP, as well as liver vtg expression increased during the experiment and peaked at the end of experiment. However, hepatosomatic index, serum T, and ovarian vtg expression peaked at 4 weeks, and then decreased at 8 weeks, with no significant difference among the 3 groups. In summary, we showed that 6% fish oil supplementation in S. argus could effectively promote ovarian development, with associated increases in E2 secretion and increased liver vtg mRNA expression.

  8. Enhanced Bioavailability of EPA From Emulsified Fish Oil Preparations Versus Capsular Triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Bukowski, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    For those individuals who are unable to consume adequate long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LCn3) from dietary sources, fish oil supplementation is an attractive alternative Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations (Emulsions S, B and N) on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations in ten healthy volunteers compared to oil capsules over 48 h after a single dose and chylomicron fatty acid (CMFA) was evaluated over 8 h. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and fatty acid concentrations of PLFA and CMFA were determined by gas chromatography and the integrated area under the curve over 40 h (iAUC0-48) was determined. Emulsion S and Emulsion N promoted increased uptake of EPA into PLFA over 48 h when evaluating by iAUC0-48 or individual time points of assessment. No differences were observed between supplements in the CMFA concentrations.

  9. Dietary Fish Oil in Reducing Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    inhibitory effect of fish oil on growth of breast cancer cells last year wereported that fish oil or w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) (1...needs to be verified using larger animal pool and statisticalanalysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Omega 3- fatty acids ; Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2...membrane of the apoptotic cells. In addition we tested fish oil diet, rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) such as DHA and EPA, for its

  10. Dietary Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Recent Controversies and Advances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong D; Hu, Frank B

    2017-08-21

    Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intake of industrially produced trans fat is consistently associated with higher CVD risk. Both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with lower CVD risk, although the effects of fish oil supplementation remains inconsistent. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans place greater emphasis on types of dietary fat than total amount of dietary fat and recommend replacing SFAs with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids for CVD prevention.

  11. Enhanced bioavailability of EPA from emulsified fish oil preparations versus capsular triacylglycerol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations on phospholipid (PLFA) and chylomicron fatty ...

  12. Dietary fish oil stimulates hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, M A; Woollett, L A; Spady, D K

    1989-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to examine the effect of fish oil, safflower oil, and hydrogenated coconut oil on the major processes that determine the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, i.e., the rate of LDL production and the rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL uptake in the various organs of the body. When fed at the 20% level, fish oil reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol levels by 38% primarily by increasing LDL receptor activity in the liver. Dietary safflower oil also increased hepatic LDL receptor activity; however, since the rate of LDL production also increased, plasma LDL-cholesterol levels remained essentially unchanged. Hydrogenated coconut oil had no effect on LDL receptor activity but increased the rate of LDL-cholesterol production causing plasma LDL-cholesterol levels to increase 46%. Dietary fish oil had no effect on the receptor-dependent transport of asialofetuin by the liver, suggesting that the effect of fish oil on hepatic LDL receptor activity was specific and not due to a generalized alteration in the physical properties of hepatic membranes. Finally, dietary fish oil increased hepatic cholesteryl ester levels and suppressed hepatic cholesterol synthesis rates, suggesting that the up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptor activity in these animals was not simply a response to diminished cholesterol availability in the liver. PMID:2760200

  13. Assessment of dietary fish consumption in pregnancy: comparing one-, four- and thirty-six-item questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Guthrie, Lauren B; Bloomingdale, Arienne; Gillman, Matthew W; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Platek, Deborah N; Bellinger, David C; Wright, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    Fish consumption influences a number of health outcomes. Few studies have directly compared dietary assessment methods to determine the best approach to estimating intakes of fish and its component nutrients, including DHA, and toxicants, including methylmercury. Our objective was to compare three methods of assessing fish intake. We assessed 30 d fish intake using three approaches: (i) a single question on total fish consumption; (ii) a brief comprehensive FFQ that included four questions about fish; and (iii) a focused FFQ with thirty-six questions about different finfish and shellfish. Obstetrics practices in Boston, MA, USA. Fifty-nine pregnant women who consumed ≤2 monthly fish servings. Estimated intakes of fish, DHA and Hg were lowest with the one-question screener and highest with the thirty-six-item fish questionnaire. Estimated intake of DHA with the thirty-six-item questionnaire was 4·4-fold higher (97 v. 22 mg/d), and intake of Hg was 3·8-fold higher (1·6 v. 0·42 μg/d), compared with the one-question screener. Plasma DHA concentration was correlated with fish intake assessed with the one-question screener (Spearman r = 0·27, P = 0·04), but not with the four-item FFQ (r = 0·08, P = 0·54) or the thirty-six-item fish questionnaire (r = 0·01, P = 0·93). In contrast, blood and hair Hg concentrations were similarly correlated with fish and Hg intakes regardless of the assessment method (r = 0·35 to 0·52). A longer questionnaire provides no advantage over shorter questionnaires in ranking intakes of fish, DHA and Hg compared with biomarkers, but estimates of absolute intakes can vary by as much as fourfold across methods.

  14. Dietary Fish Oil in Reducing Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) (1) increase the level of tumor suppressor protein PTEN, (2) inhibit the activity of PI 3 kinase, thus blocking a potent...15. SUBJECT TERMS Omega 3- fatty acids , bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), breast cancer bone metastasis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...complications must be of highest priority in formulating breast cancer therapy. Fish oil, rich in (o-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) such as

  15. Dietary Fish Oil Blocks the Microcirculatory Manifestations of Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury in Striated Muscle in Hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hubner, Christoph; Nolte, Dirk; Kohlschutter, Alfried; Messmer, Konrad

    1991-08-01

    Epidemiologic observations and experimental studies have demonstrated a protective effect of dietary fish oil on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we used the dorsal skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy of the microcirculation in striated muscle of awake hamsters. In control hamsters (n = 7), reperfusion after a 4-hr pressure-induced ischemia to the muscle tissue elicited the adhesion of fluorescently stained leukocytes to the endothelium of postcapillary venules, capillary obstruction, and the breakdown of endothelial integrity. These microvascular manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury were significantly attenuated in animals (n = 7) when fed with a fish oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks prior to the experiments. In leukocyte total lipids, the fish oil diet resulted in a substantial displacement of arachidonic acid, the precursor of the potent adhesionpromoting leukotriene (LT) B_4, by fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid, the precursor of biologically less potent LTB_5, emphasizing the mediator role of LTB_4 in ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results suggest that the preservation of microvascular perfusion by dietary fish oil contributes to its protective effects on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  16. Effects of dietary fish oil and trans fat on rat aorta histopathology and cardiovascular risk markers.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonhye; Park, Yongsoon

    2009-01-01

    Fish oil and shortening have been suggested to have opposite effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effect of shortening and fish oil on CVD risk factors and aorta histopathology, and the association between risk factors and aorta histopathology. Male Wister rats (n=30) were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 20% fat in the form of fish oil, shortening, or soybean oil for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TG), and C-reactive protein levels were significantly (P<0.001) lower in the fish oil than in soybean oil and shortening groups. HDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly different (P<0.001) between groups. In addition, LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.001) lower in the fish oil and shortening groups than in the soybean oil group. Insulin and glucose concentrations did not differ among groups. Effect of dietary fat on tissue fatty acid composition significantly differed in abdominal fat and brain compared with RBC, heart, kidney and liver. The aortic wall was significantly (P=0.02) thinner in the fish oil group than in the soybean oil and shortening groups. The aortic wall thickness was positively correlated with TG and TC, but negatively with EPA + DHA levels of all tissues. These results suggested that fish oil had protective effects on aorta histopathology by hypolipidemic action in this rat model.

  17. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong secondary school students to total mercury and methylmercury from fish intake.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anna Shiu Ping; Kwong, Ka Ping; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Fish is the main source of dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), which is a public health concern owing to its potential neurotoxicity. To evaluate the public health risk, this study estimated the total mercury (tHg) and MeHg exposure from fish intake in Hong Kong secondary school students. Median tHg and MeHg concentrations of 280 samples purchased from different commercial outlets (covering 89 species of whole fish and three types of canned tuna), together with the local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000, were used to estimate dietary exposure from fish intake for the average and high consumer (95th percentile exposure). For tHg, the median concentration was 63 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1370 µg kg(-1)) and estimated exposures ranged 0.5-0.6 µg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.6-1.9 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. For MeHg, median concentration was 48 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1010 µg kg(-1)) and estimated dietary exposures were 0.4-0.5 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.2-1.4 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. These values are below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The health risk is greater for high consumers since MeHg exposures may approach or exceed the PTWI when other dietary sources are taken into account.

  18. 3D tooth microwear texture analysis in fishes as a test of dietary hypotheses of durophagy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnell, Mark A.; Darras, Laurent P. G.

    2016-03-01

    An understanding of how extinct animals functioned underpins our understanding of past evolutionary events, including adaptive radiations, and the role of functional innovation and adaptation as drivers of both micro- and macroevolution. Yet analysis of function in extinct animals is fraught with difficulty. Hypotheses that interpret molariform teeth in fishes as evidence of durophagous (shell-crushing) diets provide a good example of the particular problems inherent in the methods of functional morphology. This is because the assumed close coupling of form and function upon which the approach is based is weakened by, among other things, behavioural flexibility and the absence of a clear one to one relationship between structures and functions. Here we show that ISO 25178-2 standard parameters for surface texture, derived from analysis of worn surfaces of molariform teeth of fishes, vary significantly between species that differ in the amount of hard-shelled prey they consume. Two populations of the Sheepshead Seabream (Archosargus probatocephalus) were studied. This fish is not a dietary specialist, and one of the populations is known to consume more vegetation and less hard-shelled prey than the other; this is reflected in significant differences in their microwear textures. The Archosargus populations differ significantly in their microwear from the specialist shell-crusher Anarhichas lupus (the Atlantic Wolffish). Multivariate analysis of these three groups of fishes lends further support to the relationship between diet and tooth microwear, and provides robust validation of the approach. Application of the multivariate models derived from microwear texture in Archosargus and Anarhichas to a third fish species—the cichlid Astatoreochromis alluaudi—successfully separates wild caught fish that ate hard-shelled prey from lab-raised fish that did not. This cross-taxon validation demonstrates that quantitative analysis of tooth microwear texture can

  19. Metabolic phenotyping of an adoptive transfer mouse model of experimental colitis and impact of dietary fish oil intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Lichti, Pia; Bosco, Nabil; Brahmbhatt, Viral; Oliveira, Manuel; Haller, Dirk; Benyacoub, Jalil

    2015-04-03

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are acute and chronic disabling inflammatory disorders with multiple complex etiologies that are not well-defined. Chronic intestinal inflammation has been linked to an energy-deficient state of gut epithelium with alterations in oxidative metabolism. Plasma-, urine-, stool-, and liver-specific metabonomic analyses are reported in a naïve T cell adoptive transfer (AT) experimental model of colitis, which evaluated the impact of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet. Metabolic profiles of AT animals and their controls under chow diet or fish oil supplementation were compared to describe the (i) consequences of inflammatory processes and (ii) the differential impact of n-3 fatty acids. Inflammation was associated with higher glycoprotein levels (related to acute-phase response) and remodeling of PUFAs. Low triglyceride levels and enhanced PUFA levels in the liver suggest activation of lipolytic pathways that could lead to the observed increase of phospholipids in the liver (including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins). In parallel, the increase in stool excretion of most amino acids may indicate a protein-losing enteropathy. Fecal content of glutamine was lower in AT mice, a feature exacerbated under fish oil intervention that may reflect a functional relationship between intestinal inflammatory status and glutamine metabolism. The decrease in Krebs cycle intermediates in urine (succinate, α-ketoglutarate) also suggests a reduction in the glutaminolytic pathway at a systemic level. Our data indicate that inflammatory status is related to this overall loss of energy homeostasis.

  20. Characterization and dietary regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in different ploidy fishes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Shaojun; Zhong, Huan; Zhang, Chun; kang, Xuewei; Liu, Yun

    2012-12-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays a crucial role in amino acid deamination and has been used as an inductor of nutrients metabolism. In this study, we cloned and analyzed the GDH cDNAs in diploids (red crucian carp), triploids and tetraploids and characterized their expression profiles upon dietary treatments. Results showed a high sequence similarity of GDH among the three kinds of ploidy fishes and other vertebrates. Expression analysis revealed that GDH exhibited a distinct spatial pattern of expression in different types of fishes. The triploids and tetraploids had higher levels of expression than diploids in heart, liver, gill, muscle, fore-gut and mid-gut. The GDH expression was also developmentally regulated with a stronger expression around blastula stage. The maternal GDH transcripts were first detected from eggs and their expression dropped down from the gastrula stage to heart beat stage. Adult triploids showed the highest levels of GDH expression in liver during breeding season which may contribute to the good appetite and fast growth. In addition, triploids exhibited high growth rates and excess GDH expression compared with other two types of fishes. The liver GDH enzyme activities were also higher in triploids than red crucian carp and tetraploids. Moreover, GDH expression is regulated by dietary protein levels. Fish fed with either high or low protein diets showed higher levels of GDH expression. In summary, our results demonstrated for the first time that the different ploidy fishes had different patterns of GDH mRNA expression during development, breeding and non-breeding seasons, and as well dietary effects from different protein levels in diet. These data indicate that abundant GDH expression may play an important role in growth rates in triploids.

  1. Effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Erlong; Qin, Zhenyang; Zhou, Zhen; Geng, Yi; Chen, Defang

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish. A total of 320 healthy common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were randomized into four groups; the control group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 IUkg-1 of vitamin E, while the three experimental groups were fed the same basal diet with reduced vitamin E content (0, 25, or 50 IUkg-1). Findings showed that fish in the experimental groups mainly presented with sekoke disease, exophthalmia, leprnorthsis, and ascites. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes comprised nutritional myopathy with muscle fiber denaturation and necrosis, and multi-tissue organ swelling, degeneration, and necrosis. Compared with the control group, RBC count, hemoglobin content, vitamin E concentration, and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower in all three experimental groups. However, malondialdehyde content was considerably higher in experimental groups than in the control group. However, there was no difference in glutathione peroxidase activity among groups. In conclusion, dietary vitamin E deficiency (<100 IUkg-1) can cause severe injury and, in particular, oxidative damage in common carp. The oxidative damage might be a main influence caused by vitamin E deficiency in fish. These findings reveal the complete systematic pathological effect of vitamin E deficiency in common carp, which may be applicable to other fish and animals.

  2. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). However, antioxidant enzyme genes significantly down-regulated in the treated group compared with control (P < 0.05). Also, HSP70 gene expression was higher in the liver of fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  3. Dietary fish and evening primrose oil with vitamin E effects on semen variables in cockerels.

    PubMed

    Cerolini, S; Surai, P F; Speake, B K; Sparks, N H C

    2005-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the effect of n-3 (2%, wt/wt, fish oil rich diet) and n-6 (2%, wt/wt, evening primrose oil rich diet) fatty acid dietary supplementation and their combination with two concentrations of vitamin E (40 vs 200 mg/kg) on semen variables and on fatty acid and vitamin E profiles of spermatozoa in broiler breeders at 32, 42 and 52 weeks of age. The inclusion of fish oil in the cockerel diets increased the docosahexaenoic acid proportion in the sperm phospholipid fraction, which was almost threefold higher compared to the other two groups irrespective of vitamin E supplementation. In contrast, an increase in the proportion of total n-6 polyunsaturates, mainly 22:4n-6, was observed in the evening primrose oil group compared to the control only when the dietary content of vitamin E was increased to 200 mg/kg. Sperm concentration was decreased in the fish and evening primrose oil groups if vitamin E was 40 mg/kg, but such an effect was prevented in the fish, not the evening primrose oil group, by increasing the vitamin E to 200 mg. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was improved by the increased supplementation of vitamin E in all oil treatments.

  4. A benchmarking method to measure dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals by fish.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruiyang; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Åkerman, Gun; McLachlan, Michael S; MacLeod, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals in the gastrointestinal tract of fish is important from both a scientific and a regulatory point of view. However, reported fish absorption efficiencies for well-studied chemicals are highly variable. In the present study, the authors developed and exploited an internal chemical benchmarking method that has the potential to reduce uncertainty and variability and, thus, to improve the precision of measurements of fish absorption efficiency. The authors applied the benchmarking method to measure the gross absorption efficiency for 15 chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties and structures. They selected 2,2',5,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB53) and decabromodiphenyl ethane as absorbable and nonabsorbable benchmarks, respectively. Quantities of chemicals determined in fish were benchmarked to the fraction of PCB53 recovered in fish, and quantities of chemicals determined in feces were benchmarked to the fraction of decabromodiphenyl ethane recovered in feces. The performance of the benchmarking procedure was evaluated based on the recovery of the test chemicals and precision of absorption efficiency from repeated tests. Benchmarking did not improve the precision of the measurements; after benchmarking, however, the median recovery for 15 chemicals was 106%, and variability of recoveries was reduced compared with before benchmarking, suggesting that benchmarking could account for incomplete extraction of chemical in fish and incomplete collection of feces from different tests.

  5. Dietary fish oil reduces the acute inflammatory response and enhances resolution of antigen-induced peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Tomasdottir, Valgerdur; Vikingsson, Arnor; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2013-10-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence the inductive phase of inflammation but less is known about their effects on the resolution phase. This study examined the effects of dietary fish oil on induction and resolution of antigen-induced inflammation in mice. Mice were fed a control diet with or without 2.8% fish oil, immunized twice with methylated BSA (mBSA) and inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of mBSA. Prior to and at different time points after mBSA administration, peritoneal cells were analyzed and expression of surface molecules determined by flow cytometry. Concentration of chemokines, cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors was determined by ELISA. Mice fed the fish oil diet had fewer peritoneal neutrophils, shorter resolution interval and lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than mice fed the control diet. In mice fed the fish oil diet there was an early peak in peritoneal levels of the immunosuppressive molecules sIL-6R and TGF-β, that was not seen in mice fed the control diet. In the resolution phase, peritoneal macrophages from mice fed the fish oil diet expressed more of the atypical chemokine receptor D6 and peritoneal TGF-β levels were higher than that in mice fed the control diet. Furthermore, in the late-resolution phase there were more peritoneal eosinophils and macrophages in mice fed the fish oil diet than in mice fed the control diet. These results demonstrate a suppressive effect of n-3 PUFA on the inductive phase of inflammation and indicate an enhancing effect of n-3 PUFA on resolution of inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in asthma- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, T D; Rundell, K W

    2005-12-01

    Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of asthma, the prevalence and burden of this disease has continued to increase. While pharmacological treatment of asthma is usually highly effective, medications may have significant side effects or exhibit tachyphylaxis. Alternative therapies for treatment that reduce the dose requirements of pharmacological interventions would be beneficial, and could potentially reduce the public health burden of this disease. Ecological and temporal data suggest that dietary factors may have a role in recent increases in the prevalence of asthma. A possible contributing factor to the increased incidence of asthma in Western societies may be the consumption of a proinflammatory diet. In the typical Western diet, 20- to 25-fold more omega (n)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than n-3 PUFA are consumed, which promotes the release of proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotrienes and prostanoids). This review will analyze the evidence for the health effects of n-3 PUFA in asthma- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). While clinical data evaluating the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in asthma has been equivocal, it has recently been shown that fish oil supplementation, rich in n-3 PUFA, reduces airway narrowing, medication use, and proinflammatory mediator generation in nonatopic elite athletes with EIB. These findings are provocative and suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation may be a viable treatment modality and/or adjunct therapy in asthma and EIB.

  7. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia M M; Ferreira, Célia C D; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat.

  8. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia MM; Ferreira, Célia CD; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Background Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Methods We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Results Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat. PMID:26543357

  9. Randomized study of the safety and efficacy of fish oil (omega-3 fatty acid) supplementation with dietary and exercise counseling for the treatment of antiretroviral therapy-associated hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Wohl, David A; Tien, Hsiao-Chuan; Busby, Marjorie; Cunningham, Catherine; Macintosh, Beth; Napravnik, Sonia; Danan, Elisheva; Donovan, Kimberly; Hossenipour, Mina; Simpson, Ross J

    2005-11-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oils) reduce fasting serum triglyceride levels and cardiovascular disease risk in individuals without HIV infection. Whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can reduce hypertriglyceridemia associated with antiretroviral therapy is not known. We conducted an open-label, randomized trial that enrolled 52 patients receiving > or =3 active antiretrovirals who had fasting triglyceride levels of >200 mg/dL and were randomized to receive nutritionist-administered dietary and exercise counseling with or without fish oil supplementation for 16 weeks. Patients assigned to receive fish oil experienced a 25% mean decline in fasting triglyceride levels at week 4 (95% CI, -34.6% to -15.7% change), compared with a 2.8% mean increase among patients assigned to receive counseling alone (95% CI, -17.5% to +23.1% change) (P=.007). By week 16, the mean reduction in triglyceride levels in the fish oil arm remained significant, at 19.5% (95% CI, -34.9% to -4.0% change), whereas the mean decrease in the diet and exercise only arm was 5.7% (95% CI, -24.6% to +13.2% change); however, the difference between study arms was no longer statistically significant (P=.12). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had increased by 15.6% (95% CI, +4.8% to +26.4% change) at week 4 and by 22.4% (95% CI, +7.91% to +36.8% change) at week 16 in the fish oil arm but did not change in the diet and exercise only group. Fish oil was well tolerated; only 1 patient experienced treatment-limiting toxicity. Patients assigned to receive fish oil experienced a 25% mean decline in fasting triglyceride levels at week 4 (95% CI, -34.6% to -15.7% change), compared with a 2.8% mean increase in patients assigned to receive counseling alone (95% CI, -17.5% to 23.1% change) (P=.007). By week 16, the mean reduction in triglyceride levels in the fish oil arm remained significant, at 19.5% (95% CI, -34.9% to -4.0% change), whereas the mean decrease in the diet and exercise only arm was 5.7% (95

  10. Occurrence and human dietary assessment of fluoroquinolones antibiotics in cultured fish around Tai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Chao; Zhang, Cong; Kamira, Barry; Qiu, Liping; Fan, Limin; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Chen, Jiazhang

    2017-06-06

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are widely used in the production of aquatic products and considered to be a significant contributing factor to the burden of both natural and aquaculture environments. However, the main types of fluoroquinolones present in aquaculture systems have not been determined. The objectives of the present study were to explore the occurrence of residual fluoroquinolone antibiotics in fish muscle tissues sampled from across the entire aquaculture season in the Tai Lake basin in China and to assess the dietary risks associated with the upcoming vendible fish in the last month of the aquaculture season. Fluoroquinolones were detected in 95.69% of all fish samples, and the concentrations ranged from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 47 108.00 μg · kg(-1) . Enrofloxacin contributed the most among the 9 fluoroquinolone antibiotics tested. Of the 4 fish species studied, enrofloxacin was present in bream at significant (p < 0.05) concentrations in August, with an average value of 321.45 μg · kg(-1) , while enrofloxacin concentrations peaked in crab and shrimp in September, with average values of 6949.60 and 460.82 μg · kg(-1) , respectively. However, different patterns were observed in perch, suggesting that other categories of antibiotics may be used in the production of this fish. Dietary risk assessment showed that the residual levels and estimated daily intake in bream, perch, and shrimp were far below the maximum residual level and acceptable daily intake. However, the average residual level in crab exceeded the maximum residual level, and the estimated daily intake value accounted for 78.49% of the acceptable daily intake, indicating potential consumption risk. In summary, the present study aims to guide the production and consumption of aquatic products. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-7. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Dietary combination of fish oil and taurine decreases fat accumulation and ameliorates blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic/obese KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Nana; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2012-06-01

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and taurine are functional compounds abundantly present in seafoods. In this study, we examined the combined effects of EPA- and DHA-rich fish oil and taurine on white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and blood glucose levels in diabetic/obese KK-A(y) mice. After a 4-wk administration of experimental diets (soybean oil or fish oil, supplemented with 0%, 2%, or 4% taurine), the increase in WAT weight of the mice fed the "fish oil + 4% taurine" diet was significantly suppressed compared to the "soybean oil + 4% taurine" and "fish oil only" diets. Serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels decreased by fish oil administration. In addition, fish oil and taurine increased the activity of acyl-CoA oxidase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme of peroxisomal β-oxidation, increased in the liver of KK-A(y) mice. The activity of fatty acid synthase decreased by fish oil diets. Furthermore, blood glucose and insulin levels were significantly lower in the mice fed fish oil than in the soybean oil-fed mice. In fish oil + 4% taurine group, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were effectively improved in KK-A(y) mice compared to the fish oil only groups. In particular, the combination of fish oil and taurine enhanced the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) distribution in the plasma membrane of muscle tissue. These results suggest that EPA- and DHA-rich fish oil, especially in combination with taurine, exhibits preventive effects on WAT weight gain and hyperglycemia in diabetic/obese KK-A(y) mice. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Evolution of ontogenetic dietary shifts and associated gut features in prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae).

    PubMed

    German, D P; Gawlicka, A K; Horn, M H

    2014-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an ontogenetic dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory or omnivory, and concomitant changes in the gut facilitating digestion of algae, are synapomorphies of the tribes Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini in the family Stichaeidae (pricklebacks). Previous investigations have revealed that two xiphisterine pricklebacks-Xiphister mucosus and Xiphister atropurpureus-become herbivorous or omnivorous, respectively, as their bodies grow larger, and that their guts show related changes in length and function. In this study we found that, with increase in size, the basal member of the Xiphisterini, Phytichthys chirus, showed an increased proportion of algae in its diet, increased activity of α-amylase and decreased activity of aminopeptidase, all of which support the synapomorphy hypothesis. Cebidichthys violaceus, a herbivore in the Esselenichthyini, shows similar ontogenetic changes in diet and digestive tract length and physiology, but these features were not observed in two derived carnivores, Dictyosoma burgeri and Dictyosoma rubrimaculatum, within the clade. These results suggest that herbivory is isolated to C. violaceus within the Esselenichthyini. Allometric relationships of gut length as a function of body size generally follow diet within the Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini, with herbivores having the longest guts, which become disproportionately longer than body size as the fishes grow, omnivores intermediate gut lengths, and carnivores the shortest. A carnivore from an adjacent clade, Anoplarchus purpurescens, had the shortest gut, which did not change in length relative to body length as the fish grew. Overall, our results clarify the patterns of dietary evolution within the Stichaeidae and lay the foundation for more detailed studies of dietary and digestive specialization in fishes in the family.

  13. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  14. Oily fish, coffee and walnuts: Dietary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vikas; Mah, Xian-Jun; Garcia, Maria Carmela; Antonypillai, Christina; van der Poorten, David

    2015-10-07

    Rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing worldwide in tandem with the metabolic syndrome, with the progressive form of disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) likely to become the most common cause of end stage liver disease in the not too distant future. Lifestyle modification and weight loss remain the main focus of management in NAFLD and NASH, however, there has been growing interest in the benefit of specific foods and dietary components on disease progression, with some foods showing protective properties. This article provides an overview of the foods that show the most promise and their potential benefits in NAFLD/NASH, specifically; oily fish/ fish oil, coffee, nuts, tea, red wine, avocado and olive oil. Furthermore, it summarises results from animal and human trials and highlights potential areas for future research.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis questions claims of improved cardiac efficiency by dietary fish oil

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Eden; Chapman, Brian; Hickey, Anthony J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in the literature describe the ability of dietary supplementation by omega-3 fish oil to increase the pumping efficiency of the left ventricle. Here we attempt to reconcile such studies with our own null results. We undertake a quantitative analysis of the improvement that could be expected theoretically, subject to physiological constraints, by posing the following question: By how much could efficiency be expected to increase if inefficiencies could be eliminated? Our approach utilizes thermodynamic analyses to investigate the contributions, both singly and collectively, of the major components of cardiac energetics to total cardiac efficiency. We conclude that it is unlikely that fish oils could achieve the required diminution of inefficiencies without greatly compromising cardiac performance. PMID:27574288

  16. Short communication: influence of dietary tallow and fish oil on milk fat composition.

    PubMed

    Jones, D F; Weiss, W P; Palmquist, D L

    2000-09-01

    Four midlactation Holstein cows in a 4 x 4 Latin square design were fed one of four diets that contained 3% added fat (dry matter basis) as 100:0, 67:33, 50:50, or 33:67 tallow:fish oil. Feed intake and yield and composition of milk were not affected by treatment. The proportion of fatty acids 18:0 and cis-18:1 decreased and trans-18:1, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3, 20:4, and 20:5 increased in milk fat with increasing fish oil. The efficiency of transferring dietary 20:5 and 22:6 to milk fat was < 7%.

  17. Oily fish, coffee and walnuts: Dietary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vikas; Mah, Xian-Jun; Garcia, Maria Carmela; Antonypillai, Christina; van der Poorten, David

    2015-01-01

    Rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing worldwide in tandem with the metabolic syndrome, with the progressive form of disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) likely to become the most common cause of end stage liver disease in the not too distant future. Lifestyle modification and weight loss remain the main focus of management in NAFLD and NASH, however, there has been growing interest in the benefit of specific foods and dietary components on disease progression, with some foods showing protective properties. This article provides an overview of the foods that show the most promise and their potential benefits in NAFLD/NASH, specifically; oily fish/ fish oil, coffee, nuts, tea, red wine, avocado and olive oil. Furthermore, it summarises results from animal and human trials and highlights potential areas for future research. PMID:26457022

  18. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementation interacts and protects embryos from maternal diabetes-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Higa, R; Kurtz, M; Mazzucco, M B; Musikant, D; White, V; Jawerbaum, A

    2012-05-01

    Maternal diabetes increases the risk of embryo malformations. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementations have been shown to reduce embryo malformations in experimental models of diabetes. In this study we here tested whether folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact to prevent embryo malformations in diabetic rats, and analyzed whether they act through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), and nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species production. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration prior to mating. From Day 0.5 of pregnancy, rats did or did not receive folic acid (15 mg/kg) and/or a 6% safflower oil-supplemented diet. Embryos and decidua were explanted on Day 10.5 of gestation for further analysis of embryo resorptions and malformations, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels, NO production and lipid peroxidation. Maternal diabetes induced resorptions and malformations that were prevented by folic acid and safflower oil supplementation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were increased in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats and decreased with safflower oil and folic acid supplementations. In diabetic animals, the embryonic and decidual TIMPs were increased mainly with safflower oil supplementation in decidua and with folic acid in embryos. NO overproduction was decreased in decidua from diabetic rats treated with folic acid alone and in combination with safflower oil. These treatments also prevented increases in embryonic and decidual lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact and protect the embryos from diabetes-induced damage through several pathways related to a decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators.

  19. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  20. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-08-28

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  1. Restoring piscivorous fish populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes causes seabird dietary change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hebert, C.E.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Idrissi, A.; Arts, M.T.; O'Gorman, R.; Gorman, O.T.; Locke, B.; Madenjian, C.P.; Roseman, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem change often affects the structure of aquatic communities thereby regulating how much and by what pathways energy and critical nutrients flow through food webs. The availability of energy and essential nutrients to top predators such as seabirds that rely on resources near the water's surface will be affected by changes in pelagic prey abundance. Here, we present results from analysis of a 25-year data set documenting dietary change in a predatory seabird from the Laurentian Great Lakes. We reveal significant declines in trophic position and alterations in energy and nutrient flow over time. Temporal changes in seabird diet tracked decreases in pelagic prey fish abundance. As pelagic prey abundance declined, birds consumed less aquatic prey and more terrestrial food. This pattern was consistent across all five large lake ecosystems. Declines in prey fish abundance may have primarily been the result of predation by stocked piscivorous fishes, but other lake-specific factors were likely also important. Natural resource management activities can have unintended consequences for nontarget ecosystem components. Reductions in pelagic prey abundance have reduced the capacity of the Great Lakes to support the energetic requirements of surface-feeding seabirds. In an environment characterized by increasingly limited pelagic fish resources, they are being offered a Hobsonian choice: switch to less nutritious terrestrial prey or go hungry. ?? 2008 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Variations of niacin content in saltwater fish and their relation with dietary RDA in Polish subjects grouped by age.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Michał; Lebiedzińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A rich and natural source of readily assimilated dietary protein together with invaluable vitamins and minerals are fish, particularly the saltwater species. The quality of any given foodstuff is determined by its nutritional value, which in turn depends on the food type and methods used for manufacture, processing and storage. Many fish products contain fewer water soluble vitamins than the source foodstuff as a result of using various technologies during food processing, such as smoking or deep freezing, where vitamins are often either degraded or leached out. In the case of niacin it is relatively easy to make good such losses by eating niacin-rich foods or by taking dietary supplements e.g. the essential amino acid L-tryptophan. To determine niacin content in sea fish that are commonly available on the Polish market and to assess whether this dietary source is sufficient to satisfy the RDA requirements for various age groups of selected subjects living in Poland. Niacin levels were measured firstly in 10 saltwater fish species together with butterfish and Norwegian salmon that formed a separate group. Altogether, 15 types of fish products were analysed in all. They consisted of smoked fish: whitefish, butterfish, sprat, trout, herring (kippers) and mackerel, and frozen fish: butterfish, Norwegian salmon, sole, grenadier and panga. Each product was measured as ten replicates, thus in total 150 analyses were performed. A microbiologically-based method was used for the niacin determination, with enzyme hydrolysis by 40 mg papain and diastase on a 2 g sample (according to the AOAC procedure) to release the free form from the bioavailable form that is bound to NAD and NADP. The most plentiful sources of niacin were found in smoked fish with the highest amounts in butterfish, after warm temperature smoking, and in mackerel; respectively 9.03 and 8.90 mg/100 g. Such 100 g portions of smoked fish are a good dietary source of niacin, in that for men and women above 19

  3. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    1998-07-17

    We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors.

  4. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    PubMed Central

    Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subjects with MeatDiet and in 12% with FishDiet. Negative effects on bone were observed in 2.7% of FishDiet and in 47.9% of MeatDiet. Major negative effects of MeatDiet were found in subjects located in the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Italy, Norway, UK and Spain who do not sustain a Mediterranean diet (92.7%); in Korea (27.1%); in Brazil and Mexico (96.4%); and in Australia (62.5%). This study suggests that protein intake from fish or meat is not harmful to bone. Negative effects on bone linked to FishDiet are almost null. Negative effects on bone were associated to MeatDiet in the setting of a Western Diet but not in Mediterranean or Asian Diets.

  5. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Jeffries, Rebecca A

    2008-05-01

    Despite many claims of broad benefits, especially for in utero development, derived from the consumption of fish as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, individual species of fish and shellfish provide substantially varied levels of these fatty acids. Likewise, mean methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations for fish and shellfish species differ by greater than an order of magnitude. Consideration of within-species variability would increase this variation farther. Exposures to both MeHg and to the omega-3 fatty acids reflect dietary choices including species consumed, frequency of consumption, and portion size. In view of these sources of variability, data on dietary patterns and blood mercury (microg/L) among women of child-bearing age (e.g., 16-49 years) provided an indication of exposures in the United States. Utilizing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for survey years 1999--2002, calculated consumption of MeHg and omega-3 fatty acids from fish and shellfish have been estimated based on results from 3614 women who provided 30-day dietary recall and 24-hours records. Statistics from NHANES when appropriately weighted are representative of the US population. The association between dietary MeHg from fish and shellfish and dietary fish intake yielded a Pearson correlation of 0.68. The Pearson correlation between estimated 30-day intake from fish/shellfish consumption for omega-3 fatty acids and MeHg was 0.66. Evaluation of the most commonly consumed fish and shellfish species as sources of MeHg and omega-3 fatty acids indicated that salmon followed by shrimp are principal sources of omega-3 fatty acids and are lesser sources of MeHg, in contrast with tuna which provides omega-3 fatty acids, but considerably higher levels of MeHg. These data can be used to guide selection of individual fish and shellfish species that are higher in omega-3 content and low in MeHg concentrations. This more refined dietary approach contrasts with generic

  6. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Jinap, S; Ang, S J; Abdul-Hamid, A; Hajeb, P; Lioe, H N; Zaidul, I S M

    2010-08-01

    The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

  7. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  8. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  9. Dietary fish oil blocks carcinogen-induced down-regulation of colonic protein kinase C isozymes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y H; Lupton, J R; Chapkin, R S

    1997-02-01

    In order to elucidate the influence of dietary constituents on colonic intracellular signal transduction, the effect of different fats on rat colonic epithelial protein kinase C (PKC) alpha (classical), delta (novel) and lambda-zeta (atypical) expression was determined in carcinogen-treated animals. Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of two fats (corn oil and fish oil); plus or minus the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and killed at two time points (15 and 37 weeks) in a 2x2x2 factorial design. At 5 and 6 weeks of age, animals were injected s.c. with either AOM at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight or saline once a week for 2 weeks and continued on the same diet until termination of the study. At 15 and 37 weeks after the second injection, 10 rats from each treatment group were killed. Colonic PKC alpha, delta and lambda-zeta steady-state protein and mRNA levels were determined using immunoblotting and relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Colonic mucosa from rats injected with AOM had significantly suppressed membrane and cytosolic PKC alpha and cytosolic lambda-zeta protein levels (P < 0.05) as compared to saline-injected control animals at both time points. In contrast, rats fed fish oil diets had significantly higher (P < 0.05) cytosolic PKC delta and lambda-zeta protein levels relative to animals fed corn oil diets. However, the effect of diet and AOM on the steady-state expression of PKC alpha, delta and zeta mRNA was not consistent with changes in the respective isozyme protein levels, suggesting regulation at the post-transcriptional level. These data demonstrate that dietary fish oil blocks the carcinogen-induced decrease in the steady-state levels of colonic mucosal PKC delta and lambda-zeta, which may in part explain why this fat source protects against colon cancer development.

  10. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Djoussé, Luc; Gaziano, J Michael; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min

    2011-01-01

    Although dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may confer some cardiovascular benefits, it is unclear whether these nutrients may also unfavorably affect risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated whether dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption were associated with increased risk of T2D. This was a prospective study of 36,328 women (mean age: 54.6 y) who participated in the Women's Health Study and who were followed from 1992 to 2008. Incident T2D was self-reported and validated primarily through the collection of supplementary information from participants. Information on omega-3 and fish intakes was obtained by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted relative risks. During an average follow-up of 12.4 y, 2370 women developed T2D. Marine but not plant-based omega-3 fatty acids were positively associated with incident T2D. From the lowest to highest quintiles of marine omega-3 intake, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for T2D were 1.0 (referent), 1.17 (1.03, 1.33), 1.20 (1.05, 1.38), 1.46 (1.28, 1.66), and 1.44 (1.25, 1.65), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). A similar association was observed with fish intake, but additional adjustment for docosahexaenoic acid led to the elimination of the association. The relation between marine omega-3 fatty acids and T2D was observed in hypertensive and nonhypertensive subjects and in women who reported infrequent fish consumption. Our data suggest an increased risk of T2D with the intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, especially with higher intakes (≥ 0.20 g omega-3/d or ≥ 2 servings of fish/d). The Women's Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000479.

  11. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  12. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  13. High fish plus fish oil intake is associated with slightly reduced risk of venous thromboembolism: the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Krone, Ida J; Enga, Kristin F; Südduth-Klinger, Julie M; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Watkins, Steven; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2014-06-01

    Current knowledge of the effect of fish consumption on risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce and diverging. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fish consumption and fish oil supplements on the risk of VTE in a population-based cohort. Weekly intake of fish for dinner and intake of fish oil supplements during the previous year were registered in 23,621 persons aged 25-97 y who participated in the Tromsø Study from 1994 to 1995. Incident VTE events were registered throughout follow-up (31 December 2010). Cox-regression models were used to calculate HRs for VTE, adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, physical activity, and education level. During a median of 15.8 y of follow-up there were 536 incident VTE events. High fish consumption was associated with a slightly reduced risk of VTE. Participants who ate fish ≥3 times/wk had 22% lower risk of VTE than those who consumed fish 1-1.9 times/wk (multivariable HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.01; P = 0.06). The addition of fish oil supplements strengthened the inverse association with risk of VTE. Participants who consumed fish ≥3 times/wk who additionally used fish oil supplements had 48% lower risk than those who consumed fish 1-1.9 times/wk but did not use fish oil supplements (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.79; P = 0.002). In conclusion, a high weekly intake (≥3 times/wk) of fish was associated with a slightly reduced risk of VTE, and the addition of fish oil supplements strengthened the inverse effect. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  15. Replacement of dietary fish oil with increasing levels of linseed oil: modification of flesh fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a fish oil finishing diet.

    PubMed

    Bell, J Gordon; Henderson, R James; Tocher, Douglas R; Sargent, John R

    2004-03-01

    Five groups of salmon, of initial mean weight 127 +/- 3 g, were fed increasing levels of dietary linseed oil (LO) in a regression design. The control diet contained capelin oil (FO) only, and the same oil was blended with LO to provide the experimental diets. After an initial period of 40 wk, all groups were switched to a finishing diet containing only FO for a further 24 wk. Growth and flesh lipid contents were not affected by dietary treatment. The FA compositions of flesh total lipids were linearly correlated with dietary FA compositions (r2 = 0.88-1.00, P < 0.0001). LO included at 50% of added dietary lipids reduced flesh DHA and EPA (20:5n-3) concentrations to 65 and 58%, respectively, of the concentrations in fish fed FO. Feeding 100% LO reduced flesh DHA and EPA concentrations to 38 and 30%, respectively, of the values in fish fed FO. Differences between diet and flesh FA concentrations showed that 16:0, 18:1n-9, and especially DHA were preferentially retained in flesh, whereas 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and 22:1n-11 were selected against and presumably utilized for energy. In fish previously fed 50 and 100% LO, feeding a finishing diet containing FO for 16 wk restored flesh DHA and EPA concentrations, to approximately 80% of the values in fish fed FO throughout. Flesh DHA and EPA concentrations in fish fed up to 50% LO were above recommended intake values for humans for these EFA. This study suggests that LO can be used as a substitute for FO in seawater salmon feeds and that any reductions in DHA and EPA can be largely overcome with a finishing diet high in FO before harvest.

  16. Effects of dietary fish oil lipids on allergic and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Arm, J P; Horton, C E; Crea, A E; Mencia-Huerta, J M; Spur, B W

    1991-01-01

    Fish oil is rich in the polyunsaturated N-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DCHA). EPA competes with arachidonic acid (AA) for metabolism by the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Selective metabolites derived from EPA have reduced biological activities as compared with the AA-derived counterparts. Dietary supplementation with EPA led to incorporation of EPA into membrane phospholipids, an inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase pathway activity, and a reduction of the elaboration of platelet-activating factor. Neutrophil chemotaxis and the capacity of these cells to adhere to endothelial cells are substantially attenuated. This suggests that EPA has anti-inflammatory potential. Clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and bronchial asthma have shown beneficial effects. Whether the benefit obtained clinically is sufficient to replace or significantly reduce any clinical condition remains to be answered.

  17. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Casner, Caroline; Ramos, Jeremiah; Serafine, Katherine M

    2017-09-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to negative health consequences, including obesity and insulin resistance. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as those found in fish oil) prevent high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Eating a high fat diet also enhances sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of drugs that act on dopamine systems (e.g. quinpirole, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist). To test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhanced sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg), male rats ate standard laboratory chow, high fat chow, standard chow with fish oil, or high fat chow with fish oil (20% w/w). After 5 weeks, rats eating high fat chow were more sensitive (e.g. leftward shift of the quinpirole dose-response curve) than rats eating standard chow to yawning induced by quinpirole. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented this effect. That is, quinpirole dose-response curves were not different between rats eating high fat chow supplemented with fish oil and standard chow fed controls. These data add to a growing literature showing the complex relationship between diet and dopamine systems, and the health benefits of fish oil.

  18. Effect of sunflower oil supplementation and milking frequency reduction on sheep milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Bodas, R; López-Campos, Ó; Andrés, S; López, S; Giráldez, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking frequency reduction and dietary lipid supplementation on intake, BW, and milk yield and composition in high yielding dairy ewes. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 2 experimental groups (n=5). Ewes were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum and 34 g·kg(-1) of BW of a concentrate feed with either 0 (Control group) or 43 g of sunflower oil·kg(-1) of DM (SO group). The experiment lasted 63 d and consisted of 3 periods. During Period 1 (from d 1 to 21), ewes were milked twice a day. During Period 2 (from d 22 to 49), ewes were unilaterally milked, so that each gland of each ewe was milked either once or twice daily. During Period 3 (from d 50 to the end of the experiment), both udder halves were again milked twice daily. Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly and milk production from each half udder was recorded twice a week. Total DM intake, BW, and milk yield in Period 1 were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be increased in the ewes fed the SO diet in periods 2 (P=0.093) and 3 (P=0.067). Oil supplementation (SO diet) significantly (P<0.05) decreased milk protein and total solids concentrations in the 3 experimental periods and fat content in Period 3, and tended (P=0.077) to decline fat content in Period 2. Lactose content and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P>0.10) by dietary lipid supplementation in any of the experimental periods. There were no significant (P>0.10) differences between half udders in milk yield and composition in Period 1, and in SCC in any of the experimental periods. Fat and total solids contents were unaffected (P>0.10) by reducing milking frequency. Nevertheless, milk protein content was increased (P<0.001) when glands were milked only once daily whereas milk yield and lactose content were decreased (P=0.001). The interaction between gland and diet was significant for lactose in Period 2, suggesting a

  19. Dietary supplement use in people being treated for depression.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Karen M; Woolley, Cheryl C; Hedderley, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased over the past 10 years, with up to 50% of adults being reported to have taken dietary supplements. The types of supplements taken are often related to physical morbidities. However, information about their use in combination with prescription drugs is lacking. In particular, there is little information on the use of supplements by people with depression. Our aim was to examine the use of dietary supplements by people being treated for depression. Seventy-two participants who were being treated for depression in the community were recruited for a clinical trial to determine the effect of fish oil on mood in the treatment of depression. The results of the primary analysis are reported elsewhere. Exclusion criteria included any co-existing psychiatric disorder (except anxiety disorders), blood clotting disorders, unstable medical conditions, and those taking fish oil supplements. Demographic information, details about the participants' depression and current therapies, use of dietary and herbal supplements in the previous 12 months, and physical activity data were collected at baseline. Characteristics of supplement users were compared with those of non-users using either chi-square or Mann-Whitney U tests. Forty-five (63%) of 72 participants who provided dietary supplement information had taken at least one dietary supplement within the previous 12 months. On average, supplement users were found to have taken 2.8 (SD=1.56) dietary supplements during the assessment period. Women were more likely to be taking supplements than men (P<0.001). In conclusion, the use of dietary supplements is common among people being treated for depression. This has important implications for clinical practice as little is known about supplement-drug interactions.

  20. Anthropogenic and naturally occurring organobrominated compounds in fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan; Vetter, Walter; Gelbin, Anke; Jorens, Philippe G; Blust, Ronny; Neels, Hugo

    2007-08-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements (FODS) are recommended to increase the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), renowned for their beneficial effects on human health. However, FODS also contain anthropogenic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Sixty-nine (n=69) PUFA-enriched FODS from 37 producers were collected in 2006 and then analyzed for their levels of organobrominated compounds. Levels of the sum of tri- to hepta-BDEs (BDEs 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were typically below 5 ng/g oil, while only a few had higher values of up to 44 ng/g oil. Several peaks in the chromatograms were identified as methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated hexahydroxanthene derivatives (PBHDs). These two groups of compounds have been suggested to be produced by marine organisms (e.g., algae and sponges) and have also been reported in marine samples, such as fish and marine mammals. Median concentrations of MeO-PBDEs and PBHDs (6.2 and 5.3 ng/g oil, respectively) were higher than median concentrations of PBDEs (0.6 ng/g oil), and their maximum values were 1670 and 200 ng/g oil, respectively. FODS are intended to be consumed on a daily basis, and the median daily intakes of MeO-PBDEs and PBHDs from FODS were 3 and 6 times higher than the median intake of PBDEs (3 ng/day). Consumption of FODS does not appear to substantially increase the total dietary intake of PBDEs since the median daily intake

  1. Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, T; Matsuda, S; Shichijyo, K; Sugimoto, H; Hata, K

    2000-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, and high dietary levels are associated with a lower incidence of inflammatory diseases. However, only limited effects have been demonstrated in asthma. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil for 10 months in 29 children with bronchial asthma was investigated in a randomized controlled fashion. In order to minimize the effects of environmental inhaled allergens and diet, this study was performed in a long-term treatment hospital. Subjects received fish oil capsules containing 84 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 36 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or control capsules containing 300 mg olive oil. The daily dosages of EPA and DHA were 17.0-26.8 and 7.3-11.5 mg x kg body weight(-1), respectively. Asthma symptom scores decreased and responsiveness to acetylcholine decreased in the fish oil group but not in the control group. In addition, plasma EPA levels increased significantly only in the fish oil group (p<0.0088). No significant side-effects were observed. The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid is beneficial for children with bronchial asthma in a strictly controlled environment in terms of inhalant allergens and diet.

  2. Dietary fried fish intake increases risk of CVD: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.

    PubMed

    Nahab, Fadi; Pearson, Keith; Frankel, Michael R; Ard, Jamy; Safford, Monika M; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Howard, Virginia J; Judd, Suzanne

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship of dietary fried fish consumption and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Prospective cohort study among participants of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who resided in the USA. The primary outcome measures included the hazard ratios (HR) of incident CVD including first incident fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke or myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality, based on cumulative average fish consumption ascertained at baseline. Participants (n 16 479) were enrolled between 2003 and 2007, completed the self-administered Block98 FFQ and were free of CVD at baseline. There were 700 cardiovascular events over a mean follow-up of 5·1 years. After adjustment for sociodemographic variables, health behaviours and other CVD risk factors, participants eating ≥2 servings fried fish/week (v. <1 serving/month) were at a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR=1·63; 95 % CI 1·11, 2·40). Intake of non-fried fish was not associated with risk of incident CVD. There was no association found with dietary fried or non-fried fish intake and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. Fried fish intake of two or more servings per week is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Given the increased intake of fried fish in the stroke belt and among African Americans, these data suggest that dietary fried fish intake may contribute to geographic and racial disparities in CVD.

  3. Studies on the protective effect of dietary fish oil on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Naqshbandi, Ashreeb; Khan, Md Wasim; Rizwan, Sana; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Khan, Farah

    2012-02-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a major antineoplastic drug for the treatment of solid tumors, however, dose dependent nephrotoxicity remains the major concern for its long term use. Several agents/strategies were attempted to prevent CP nephrotoxicity but were not found suitable for clinical practice. Dietary fish oil (FO) enriched in ω-3 fatty acids has been shown to prevent/reduce the progression of certain types of cancers, cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was undertaken to see whether FO can prevent CP-induced nephrotoxic and other deleterious effects. Rats were prefed experimental diets for 10days and then received a single dose of CP (6mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally while still on diet. Serum/urine parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM) and oxidative stress in rat kidney were analyzed. CP nephrotoxicity was recorded by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. CP decreased the activities of metabolic enzymes, antioxidant defense system and BBM enzymes. In contrast, FO alone increased enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism and brush border membrane (BBM). FO feeding to CP treated rats markedly enhanced resistance to CP-elicited deleterious effects. Dietary FO supplementation ameliorated CP induced specific metabolic alterations and oxidative damage due to its intrinsic biochemical antioxidant properties.

  4. Dietary fish oil does not protect rats exposed to restraint or sleep deprivation stress.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Ryan, Donna H; Harris, Ruth B S

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that fish oil (FO) prevents weight loss caused by physiological stress such as cancer, injury, or cardiovascular disorders. Previously, we observed that a high-fat diet containing corn and coconut oil exaggerated weight loss caused by the mixed physiological and psychological stress of repeated restraint (RR). This experiment tested the effects of a high-fat diet containing FO as the predominant lipid source in rats exposed to the mixed physiological and psychological stress of either RR or sleep deprivation (SD). FO did not prevent stress-induced hypophagia or weight loss in RR or SD rats but exaggerated the negative effects of stress on body weight in SD rats by promoting loss of lean body mass. RR caused a reduction in body fat content irrespective of dietary treatment. In SD rats, both stress and FO independently reduced body fat mass. FO did not have any effect on adrenal and thymus weights during RR or SD and did not influence corticosterone levels after 1 h of RR or after 48 or 96 h of SD. In conclusion, our results suggest that high levels of dietary FO do not improve the response to stress in rats exposed to mixed stressors.

  5. Dietary cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene increased intestinal metallothionein expression in the fish Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Rezvankhah, Saeid; Perez-Matus, Alejandro; Mitelberg, A.; Torruellas, K.; Van Veld, P. A.

    2008-10-17

    To test the effect of dietary exposure to cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene on induction of metallothionein mRNA in the Fundulus heteroclitus, fish were individually fed a pelletized gel food containing cadmium, benzo(a)pyrene, or a combination of the two over a period of seven days, then analyzed for relative levels of metallothionein mRNA in the intestine, liver, and gill using real-time RT-qPCR. An initial experiment with only cadmium exposure showed an apparent 10-fold induction in the intestine, but no induction in liver or gill. Ingestion of contaminated pellets varied in individual fish, and because it was possible to monitor individual ingestion rates with our method, individual cadmium doses were estimated from the amount of ingested cadmium. When the levels of metallothionein mRNA were related to the dose to each fish, a linear dose-response relationship was observed for the intestine, but not the other organs, which showed no induction. In a second experiment, dose was controlled by placing the entire daily cadmium dose into a single contaminated pellet that was fed first (thereby, effectively controlling the effect of variable ingestion rates), and the interaction between cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene was also investigated. The intestine was again the primary organ for metallothionein induction by cadmium, with a 20-fold increase in metallothionein mRNA over control levels. When benzo(a)pyrene was administered together with cadmium, induction of metallothionein was potentiated by the presence of benzo(a)pyrene, with the main effect seen in the intestine, where already high levels of induction by cadmium alone increased by 1.74-fold when benzo(a)pyrene was present.

  6. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  7. Dietary fish oil and fish and borage oil suppress intrapulmonary proinflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis and attenuate pulmonary neutrophil accumulation in endotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, P; Whelan, J; DeMichele, S J; Snider, C C; Guszcza, J A; Karlstad, M D

    1997-07-01

    Proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines are important mediators of local inflammation in acute lung injury. We determined if enteral nutrition with anti-inflammatory fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and gamma-linolenic acid would reduce the intrapulmonary synthesis of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines and pulmonary neutrophil accumulation in a rat model of acute lung injury. Prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Research laboratory at a university medical center. Male Long-Evans rats (250 g). Rats were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups and fed nutritionally complete diets (300 kcal/kg/day) containing 55.2% of the total calories from fat with either 97% corn oil, 20% fish oil, or 20% fish and 20% borage oil for 21 days. On day 22, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 2 hrs after an intravenous injection of Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin (10 mg/kg) or saline. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4/D4, thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, 6 keto-prostaglandin F1alpha, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Lung myeloperoxidase activity (a marker for neutrophil accumulation) and phospholipid fatty acid composition were also determined. Lung phospholipid concentrations of arachidonic acid were lower and the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were higher with fish oil and fish and borage oil as compared with corn oil. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, the desaturated and elongated intermediate of gamma-linolenic acid, increased with fish and borage oil as compared with fish oil and corn oil. The levels of leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4/D4, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha, and thromboxane B2 with corn oil were significantly increased with endotoxin as compared with saline. In contrast to the corn oil group, endotoxin did not significantly increase bronchoalveolar lavage levels of leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4/D4, and

  8. Grains, vegetables, and fish dietary pattern is inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in South korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Jo, Inho

    2011-08-01

    Dietary patterns are critical in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the association between habitual dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults. The study sample was composed of 9,850 Korean adults (aged ≥19 years) who participated in the second and third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hour recall method. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Four dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis (white rice and kimchi pattern; meat and alcohol pattern; high fat, sweets, and coffee pattern; and grains, vegetables, and fish pattern). Each dietary pattern explained 8.6%, 6.7%, 5.7%, and 5.7% of the variation in food intakes, respectively. The meat and alcohol pattern was adversely associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend 0.01) and elevated blood pressure (P for trend 0.01) after adjustments for potential risk factors of metabolic syndrome such as age, sex, body mass index, energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking status, and physical activity. In contrast, the grains, vegetables, and fish pattern was associated with lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend 0.0002) and was also inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome after adjusting for risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (P for trend 0.02). Our study suggests that a specific Korean dietary pattern that includes grains, vegetables, and fish may be associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary habits, nutrients and bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women: the contribution of fish to better bone health.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Rey-Sanchez, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2012-12-27

    The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05) bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5-7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women.

  10. Dietary Habits, Nutrients and Bone Mass in Spanish Premenopausal Women: The Contribution of Fish to Better Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Garcia, Julian F.; Moran, Jose M.; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Rey-Sanchez, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Velasco, Francisco J.; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D.

    2012-01-01

    The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05) bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5–7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women. PMID:23271510

  11. Uncoupling EPA and DHA in Fish Nutrition: Dietary Demand is Limited in Atlantic Salmon and Effectively Met by DHA Alone.

    PubMed

    Emery, James A; Norambuena, Fernando; Trushenski, Jesse; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2016-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of marine fish oil resources, the aquaculture industry is developing more efficient strategies for the utilization of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). A better understanding of how fish utilize EPA and DHA, typically provided by fish oil, is needed. However, EPA and DHA have different physiological functions, may be metabolized and incorporated into tissues differently, and may vary in terms of their importance in meeting the fatty acid requirements of fish. To address these questions, Atlantic salmon were fed experimental diets containing, as the sole added dietary lipid source, fish oil (positive control), tallow (negative control), or tallow supplemented with EPA, DHA, or both fatty acids to ~50 or 100% of their respective levels in the positive control diet. Following 14 weeks of feeding, the negative control diet yielded optimum growth performance. Though surprising, these results support the notion that Atlantic salmon requirements for n-3 LC-PUFA are quite low. EPA was largely β-oxidized and inefficiently deposited in tissues, and increasing dietary levels were associated with potential negative effects on growth. Conversely, DHA was completely spared from catabolism and very efficiently deposited into flesh. EPA bioconversion to DHA was largely influenced by substrate availability, with the presence of preformed DHA having little inhibitory effect. These results clearly indicate EPA and DHA are metabolized differently by Atlantic salmon, and suggest that the n-3 LC-PUFA dietary requirements of Atlantic salmon may be lower than reported and different, if originating primarily from EPA or DHA.

  12. Effects of rosa mosqueta oil supplementation in lipogenic markers associated with prevention of liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Dossi, Camila G; Cadagan, Cynthia; San Martín, Marcela; Espinosa, Alejandra; González-Mañán, Daniel; Silva, David; Mancilla, Rodrigo A; Tapia, Gladys S

    2017-02-22

    Rosa mosqueta (RM) oil is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) - a precursor of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and it has a high antioxidant activity due to its abundant content of tocopherols. Additionally, it has been observed that RM oil administration prevents hepatic steatosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the antilipogenic mechanism related to RM oil administration in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice model by evaluating markers associated with the regulation of lipid droplet metabolism (PLIN2, PLIN5 and PPAR-γ), and proteins associated with lipogenesis (FAS and SREBP-1c). C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet or a HFD, with and without RM oil supplementation for 12 weeks. The results showed that RM oil supplementation decreases hepatic PLIN2 and PPAR-γ mRNA expression and SREBP-1c, FAS and PLIN2 protein levels, whereas we did not find changes in the level of PLIN5 among the groups. These results suggest that modulation of lipogenic markers could be one of the mechanisms, through which RM oil supplementation prevents the hepatic steatosis induced by HFD consumption in a mice model.

  13. A Canola Oil-Supplemented Diet Prevents Type I Diabetes-Caused Lipotoxicity and Renal Dysfunction in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio; Camargo, Estela Melendez; Esteves-Carmona, María Miriam; Oliart-Ros, Rosa Maria; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated. The mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads were dissected and weighed. The kidneys were used for lipid peroxidation (LP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantifications. Diabetic rats fed with a canola oil-supplemented diet had higher body weights, were less hyperphagic, and their mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads weighed more than diabetic rats on an unsupplemented diet. The canola oil-supplemented diet decreased plasmatic concentrations of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol; showed improved osmolarity, water clearances, and creatinine depuration; and had decreased LP and ROS. A canola oil-supplemented diet decreases hyperphagia and prevents lipotoxicity and renal dysfunction in a type I diabetes mellitus model.

  14. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish and assessment of dietary exposure: a study in Hyderabad City, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M Noor; Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Vemula, Sudershan Rao; Sivaperumal, P; Vasudev, K; Ashu, Shaik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Bhatnagar, V

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in different fish species collected from fish outlets in the south Indian city of Hyderabad. The samples of fish extracted by using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 45 congeners) were determined by gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-μECD) method. The intake of individual PCB congeners through fish, toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs), hazardous quotient, quantitative assessment, and risk evaluations was estimated in the Indian population. Daily dietary intakes of PCBs at the 95th-percentile-measured concentrations were twice the values of the 50th-percentile-measured concentrations in all socio-economic groups. The dietary intakes of PCBs through fish consumption in middle-income group, low-income group, and industrial laborers (0.023 μg kg(-1) day(-1)), the high-income group (0.031 μg kg(-1) day(-1)), and slum dwellers (0.039 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) exceeded the reference dose. The observed estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of our study for all socio-economic sections (0.0087 μg/kg/day) crossed the cancer benchmark concentration of 0.0003 μg/kg/day. In slum dwellers, the ingestion of fish from freshwater and marine water results in the highest lifetime cancer risks of 4.7 in 100,000 and 7.8 in 100,000, respectively. Ultimately, the concentrations of PCBs were determined high in all of the fish species collected. Risk assessment showed that the fish were highly contaminated with PCBs and may pose health threats to consumers in the city of Hyderabad as well as a lifetime cancer risk.

  15. Dietary fish oil promotes colonic apoptosis and mitochondrial proton leak in oxidatively stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Ran, Qitao; Toyokuni, Shinya; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Callaway, Evelyn S; Lupton, Joanne R; Chapkin, Robert S

    2011-08-01

    An alteration of mitochondrial function can result in disruption of redox homeostasis and is associated with abnormal cancer cell growth. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) are two of the most important antioxidant defense enzymes that protect cells against oxidative stress. We had previously shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promote colonocyte apoptosis, a marker of colon cancer risk, in part by enhancing phospholipid oxidation. To elucidate the mechanisms regulating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vivo, we fed heterozygous SOD2(Het), Gpx4(Het), and transgenic Gpx4(Tg) mice diets containing either 15% corn oil by weight (CO, enriched in n-6 PUFA) or 3.5% CO + 11.5% fish oil (FO, enriched in n-3 PUFA) for 4 weeks. Our data showed that (i) genetic predeposition to oxidative stress facilitates apoptosis in the mouse colon (Gpx4(Het) > SOD2(Het) > Wt > Gpx4(Tg)), (ii) dietary n-3 PUFA have an additive effect on the induction of apoptosis in Gpx4(Het) and SOD2(Het) mice; and (iii) dietary n-3 PUFA reverse the phenotype in oxidatively protected Gpx4(Tg) mice by elevating apoptosis to a level observed in wild-type (Wt; control) animals. Complimentary experiments examining colonic mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles indicate that FO-fed mice exhibit a significantly (P < 0.05) increased respiration-induced proton leak relative to control CO treatment. This finding was consistent with a loss of membrane potential in response to chronic oxidative stress and supports the contention that n-3 PUFA alter mitochondrial metabolic activity, thereby enhancing apoptosis and reducing colon cancer risk.

  16. Allometric shape change of the lower pharyngeal jaw correlates with a dietary shift to piscivory in a cichlid fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellig, Christoph J.; Kerschbaumer, Michaela; Sefc, Kristina M.; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-07-01

    The morphological versatility of the pharyngeal jaw of cichlid fishes is assumed to represent a key factor facilitating their unparalleled trophic diversification and explosive radiation. It is generally believed that the functional design of an organism relates to its ecology, and thus, specializations to different diets are typically associated with distinct morphological designs, especially manifested in the cichlids’ pharyngeal jaw apparatus. Thereby, the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) incorporates some of the most predictive features for distinct diet-related morphotypes. Thus, considering that piscivorous cichlids experience an ontogenetic dietary shift from typically various kinds of invertebrates to fish, concomitant morphological changes in the LPJ are expected. Using Lepidiolamprologus elongatus, a top predator in the shallow rocky habitat of Lake Tanganyika, as model, and applying geometric and traditional morphometric techniques, we demonstrate an allometric change in ontogenetic LPJ shape development coinciding with the completion of the dietary shift toward piscivory. The piscivorous LPJ morphotype is initiated in juvenile fish by increasing elongation and narrowing of the LPJ and—when the fish reach a size of 80-90 mm standard length—further refined by the elongation of the posterior muscular processes, which serve as insertion for the fourth musculus levator externus. The enlarged muscular processes of the fully mature piscivorous morphotype provide for the construction of a powerful lever system, which allows the large individuals to process large prey fish and rely on exclusive piscivory.

  17. Gut Microbiota Dynamics during Dietary Shift in Eastern African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Laura; Riera, Joan Lluís; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Albà, M. Mar; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota structure reflects both a host phylogenetic history and a signature of adaptation to the host ecological, mainly trophic niches. African cichlid fishes, with their array of closely related species that underwent a rapid dietary niche radiation, offer a particularly interesting system to explore the relative contribution of these two factors in nature. Here we surveyed the host intra- and interspecific natural variation of the gut microbiota of five cichlid species from the monophyletic tribe Perissodini of lake Tanganyika, whose members transitioned from being zooplanktivorous to feeding primarily on fish scales. The outgroup riverine species Astatotilapia burtoni, largely omnivorous, was also included in the study. Fusobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented the dominant components in the gut microbiota of all 30 specimens analysed according to two distinct 16S rRNA markers. All members of the Perissodini tribe showed a homogenous pattern of microbial alpha and beta diversities, with no significant qualitative differences, despite changes in diet. The recent diet shift between zooplantkon- and scale-eaters simply reflects on a significant enrichment of Clostridium taxa in scale-eaters where they might be involved in the scale metabolism. Comparison with the omnivorous species A. burtoni suggests that, with increased host phylogenetic distance and/or increasing herbivory, the gut microbiota begins differentiating also at qualitative level. The cichlids show presence of a large conserved core of taxa and a small set of core OTUs (average 13–15%), remarkably stable also in captivity, and putatively favoured by both restricted microbial transmission among related hosts (putatively enhanced by mouthbrooding behavior) and common host constraints. This study sets the basis for a future large-scale investigation of the gut microbiota of cichlids and its adaptation in the process of the host adaptive radiation. PMID:25978452

  18. Heterospecific aggression and dominance in a guild of coral-feeding fishes: the roles of dietary ecology and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Blowes, Shane A; Pratchett, Morgan S; Connolly, Sean R

    2013-08-01

    Interspecific competition mediates biodiversity maintenance and is an important selective pressure for evolution. Competition is often conceptualized as being exploitative (indirect) or involving direct interference. However, most empirical studies are phenomenological, focusing on quantifying effects of density manipulations, and most competition theory has characterized exploitation competition systems. The effects on resource use of traits associated with direct, interference competition has received far less attention. Here we examine the relationships of dietary ecology and phylogeny to heterospecific aggression in a guild of corallivorous reef fishes. We find that, among chaetodontids (butterflyfishes), heterospecific aggression depends on a synergistic interaction of dietary overlap and specialization: aggression increases with dietary overlap for interactions between specialists but not for interactions involving generalists. Moreover, behavioral dominance is a monotonically increasing function of dietary specialization. The strong, positive relationship of dominance to specialization suggests that heterospecific aggression may contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity where it promotes resource partitioning. Additionally, we find strong phylogenetic signals in dietary overlap and specialization but not behavioral dominance. Our results support the use of phylogeny as a proxy for ecological similarity among butterflyfishes, but we find that direct measures of dietary overlap and specialization predict heterospecific agression much better than phylogeny.

  19. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODEL FOR DIETARY UPTAKE OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY FISH: I. FEEDING STUDIES WITH 2,2',5,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe dietary uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds by fish. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was modeled using four compartments corresponding to the stomach, pyloric ceca, upper intestine, and lower intesti...

  20. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODEL FOR DIETARY UPTAKE OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY FISH: I. FEEDING STUDIES WITH 2,2',5,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe dietary uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds by fish. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was modeled using four compartments corresponding to the stomach, pyloric ceca, upper intestine, and lower intesti...

  1. Brominated flame retardants in fish and shellfish - levels and contribution of fish consumption to dietary exposure of Dutch citizens to HBCD.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; de Boer, Jacob

    2008-02-01

    In order to determine the contamination with brominated flame retardants (BFR) in fish regularly consumed by Dutch citizens, 44 samples of freshwater fish, marine fish, and shellfish were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) and its methylated derivative (me-TBBP-A), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), including its alpha-, beta- and gamma-diastereomers. The highest BFR concentrations were found in pike-perch and eel from the highly industrialized and urbanized rivers Rhine and Meuse. The sum concentrations of BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209, and brominated biphenyl (BB) 153 and HBCD (selection based on The European Food Safety Authority monitoring recommendation) ranged from below quantification limits to 17 ng/g wet weight (ww) in marine fish and in freshwater fish from 0.6 ng/g ww in pike-perch to 380 ng/g ww in eel. The BDE congener profile in all fish and shellfish samples is dominated by BDE 47, followed by BDE 99, except for eel in which BDE 100 is higher than BDE 99. BDE 209 was detected in two mussel samples, most likely due to BDE 209 contaminated particulate matter in their intestines. Total-HBCD (as determined by GC/electron capture negative ion (ECNI)-MS) was detected in 22 out of the 44 samples in concentrations between 0.20 ng/g in marine fish and 230 ng/g ww in eel. Three HBCD diastereomers were determined by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS. alpha-HBCD was the prevalent congener in most fish samples, followed by gamma-HBCD. beta-HBCD, TBBP-A and me-TBBP-A were only detected in a few samples and at low concentrations. A considerable difference was found between HBCD results obtained from GC/ECNI-MS and HPLC/ESI-MS/MS: the GC/ECNI-MS results were 4.4 times higher, according to regression analysis. There is hardly any data on human dietary exposure to HBCD available. We have estimated the fish-related dietary exposure of HBCD for the average Dutch population. The medium bound intake was estimated at 8.3 ng/day for a

  2. Fish oil at low dietary levels enhances physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil at a level of 80 g/kg strongly stimulated the physiological activity of a sesame sesamin preparation containing sesamin and episesamin at equal amounts to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. This study was conducted to clarify whether fish oil at lower dietary levels enhances the physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g sesamin/kg, and containing 0, 15 or 30 g fish oil/kg for 15 days. Among rats fed sesamin-free diets, diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg slightly increased the activity of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin increased these values irrespective of the presence or absence of fish oil in diets; however, the extent of the increase of many parameters was much greater in rats given fish oil-containing diets than in those fed a fish oil-free diet. Diets simultaneously containing sesamin and fish oil increased the gene expression of various peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes in a synergistic manner; but they were ineffective in causing a synergistic increase in mRNA levels of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. The extent of the synergistic increase in the activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes and mRNA levels of the peroxisomal enzymes was indistinguishable between diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg and appeared comparable to that observed previously with a diet containing 80 g fish oil/kg.

  3. What a difference a bay makes: natural variation in dietary resources mediates growth in a recently settled herbivorous fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Mark A.; Halford, Andrew R.; Clements, Kendall D.; Douglas, Emily; Abellana, Sheena L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-12-01

    Processes acting during the early stages of coral reef fish life cycles have a disproportionate influence on their adult abundance and community structure. Higher growth rates, for example, confer a major fitness advantage in larval and juvenile fishes, with larger fish undergoing significantly less mortality. The role of dietary resources in the size-structuring process has not been well validated, especially at the early post-settlement phase, where competition and predation are seen as preeminent drivers of juvenile fish assemblage structure. Here, we report on a size differential of 10-20% between recently settled Siganus spinus rabbitfish recruits from different bays around the Pacific island of Guam. This difference was maintained across multiple recruitment events within and between years. After confirming the validity of our observations through otolith increment analysis, subsequent investigation into the drivers of this variation revealed significant differences in the structure of algal assemblages between bays, congruent with the observed differences in size of the recently settled fish. Gut analyses showed a greater presence of algal types with higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stomachs of fish from Tanguisson, the bay with the largest observed recruits. To ensure this mechanism was one of causation and not correlation, we conducted a fully factorial experiment in which S. spinus recruits sampled from different bays were reared on all combinations of algal diets representative of the different bays. Recruits on the `Tanguisson' diet grew faster than recruits on other diets, regardless of their origin. We propose that the greater availability of high-quality dietary resources at this location is likely conferring benefits that impact on the population-level dynamics of this species. The spatial and temporal extent of this process clearly implicates food as a limiting resource, capable of mediating fish population dynamics at multiple

  4. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Results Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Conclusions Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and

  5. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Moldal, Torfinn; Løkka, Guro; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Austbø, Lars; Torstensen, Bente E; Rosenlund, Grethe; Dale, Ole Bendik; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2014-03-07

    Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon.The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and impaired nutrient absorption and

  6. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    acids ( PUFA ), particularly omega -3 fatty acids , inhibits SREBP-1 activation, resulting in a decreased transcription of FAS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate...Cancer; Lipid Metabolism; Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...controls, Menendez et al demonstrated that addition of omega -3 fatty acids (-3 FA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), alpha- linolenic acid

  7. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    an even greater supply of olive oil placebos from Perfect Source. Because of the large number of olive oil capsules we have received, we will be able...to use the 4 olive oil as placebos for the statin arm of this study as well. Upon DOD HSSRD approval for the statin arm of this study, the Portland VA...Medical Center (PVAMC) Research Pharmacy has agreed to encapsulate the study drug, simvastatin, and the olive oil placebos in a different color than

  8. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    risk of prostate cancer due to standard clinical indicators such as a PSA >4μg/ ml . BODY During FY04 this award has supported study coordination...of prostate tissue. After the intial homogenization and solubilization we were able to obtain a protein concentration of about 20 mg/ ml . A... 3710 SW Veterans Hospital Rd. Portland, OR 97239 VA Clinician: Mark Garzotto, MD OHSU Clinician Mitchell Sokoloff, MD

  9. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    heart disease ’ (a very vague and broad term) was deleted from our screening lists (DOD approval for PVAMC and OHSU approvals: 1/26/06 and 1/29/06...neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer and has been suggested as an independent predictor of disease stage. Additionally, inhibition of FAS has been...INTRODUCTION SPECIFIC AIMS: The proposal aims have been modified to reflect our decision to drop the statin arm of this trial. Please see

  10. Dietary fish oil decreases superoxide generation by human neutrophils: relation to cyclooxygenase pathway and lysosomal enzyme release.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, R; Saldeen, T

    1996-09-01

    12 volunteers with slightly elevated serum triglyceride levels were given 30 ml fish oil (5.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 3.2 g docosahexaenoic acid) daily for 4 weeks. The percentage of eicosapentaenoic acid increased (P < 0.01) and the percentage of linoleic (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (P < 0.01) decreased in neutrophil phospholipids. Superoxide generation by neutrophils initiated by phorbol myristate acetate decreased significantly from 48.6 +/- 8.8 to 34.7 +/- 11.1 nmol/10 min/400,000 cells (means +/- SD, P < 0.01, n = 11). Treatment of the cells with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin had no significant influence on the decrease in superoxide generation, indicating that cyclooxygenase products were not involved in this effect of fish oil. Neutrophil elastase release did not change significantly, suggesting that neutrophil lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide generation may be under separate control. In conclusion, dietary fish oil decreased superoxide generation by human neutrophils without involvement of the cyclooxygenase pathway and without altering neutrophil lysosomal enzyme release. Dietary fish oil could have beneficial effects in pathological conditions with activated neutrophils, such as ischaemic heart disease.

  11. Quantitative three-dimensional microtextural analyses of tooth wear as a tool for dietary discrimination in fishes.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Mark; Seehausen, Ole; Galis, Frietson

    2012-09-07

    Resource polymorphisms and competition for resources are significant factors in speciation. Many examples come from fishes, and cichlids are of particular importance because of their role as model organisms at the interface of ecology, development, genetics and evolution. However, analysis of trophic resource use in fishes can be difficult and time-consuming, and for fossil fish species it is particularly problematic. Here, we present evidence from cichlids that analysis of tooth microwear based on high-resolution (sub-micrometre scale) three-dimensional data and new ISO standards for quantification of surface textures provides a powerful tool for dietary discrimination and investigation of trophic resource exploitation. Our results suggest that three-dimensional approaches to analysis offer significant advantages over two-dimensional operator-scored methods of microwear analysis, including applicability to rough tooth surfaces that lack distinct scratches and pits. Tooth microwear textures develop over a longer period of time than is represented by stomach contents, and analyses based on textures are less prone to biases introduced by opportunistic feeding. They are more sensitive to subtle dietary differences than isotopic analysis. Quantitative textural analysis of tooth microwear has a useful role to play, complementing existing approaches, in trophic analysis of fishes-both extant and extinct.

  12. Dietary interventions for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Kåre Birger; Byfuglien, Marte Gjeitung; Falzon, Louise; Olsen, Sissel Urke; Smedslund, Geir

    2009-01-21

    The question of what potential benefits and harms are associated with certain dietary regimes used in rheumatoid arthritis is an important one for many patients and health care providers. To assess the effectiveness and safety of dietary interventions in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)(The Cochrane Library, issue 1 2008), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and reference lists of relevant articles (up to January 2008), and contacted authors of included articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) where the effectiveness of dietary manipulation was evaluated. Dietary supplement studies (including fish oil supplements) were not included. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the internal validity of included trials and extracted data. Investigators were contacted to obtain missing information. Fourteen RCTs and one CCT, with a total of 837 patients, were included. Due to heterogeneity of interventions and outcomes, baseline imbalance and inadequate data reporting, no overall effects were calculated. A single trial with a moderate risk of bias found that fasting, followed by 13 months on a vegetarian diet, may reduce pain (mean difference (MD) on a 0 to 10 scale -1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.62 to -0.16), but not physical function or morning stiffness immediately after intervention. Another single trial with a moderate risk of bias found that a 12-week Cretan Mediterranean diet may reduce pain (MD on a 0 to 100 scale -14.00, 95% CI -23.6 to -4.37), but not physical function or morning stiffness immediately after intervention. Two trials compared a 4-week elemental diet with an ordinary diet and reported no significant differences in pain, function or stiffness. Due to inadequate data reporting, the effects of vegan and elimination diets are uncertain. When comparing any dietary manipulation with an ordinary diet we found

  13. Effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation on the lipid metabolism in hepatoma-bearing rats with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Miura, Yutaka; Funabiki, Ryuhei; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    The effects of simultaneous dietary fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid (L-methionine and L-cystine) supplementation on serum lipid concentrations and various parameters related to the lipid metabolism were studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with an ascites hepatoma cell line, AH109A. A diet containing 10% fish oil was found to reduce serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, (very-low-density lipoprotein plus low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in these animals, and dietary supplementation of 1.2% L-methionine and L-cystine also suppressed these serum lipid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and the availability of serum NEFA were decreased, and epididymal adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was elevated by dietary fish oil, while LPL activity in various tissues and hepatic fatty acid oxidation were increased by dietary sulfur amino acids, resulting in a reduction in the serum triglyceride concentration by dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Dietary fish oil suppressed the hepatoma-induced increase in cholesterogenesis in the host liver, and dietary methionine and cystine enhanced bile acid excretion into feces, which were the causes of the hypocholesterolemic effect. In these serum lipid concentrations, there were significant effects of fish oil ingestion and sulfur amino acid supplementation, but no significant interaction between these two factors was seen. These results indicate that dietary fish oil and sulfur amino acid, L-methionine and L-cystine, have hypolipidemic effects in cancer-related hyperlipidemia, and that the effects of these two factors on the decrease in these serum lipid concentrations are additive; these two factors may affect the lipid metabolism via different pathways and mechanisms.

  14. Hepatic transcriptome analysis and identification of differentially expressed genes response to dietary oxidized fish oil in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Longfei; Yan, Jie; Wei, Yanxing; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group. 2,813 genes were differentially expressed between FO and HO, including 1,256 down- and 1,552 up-regulated genes in the HO group. 2,075 differentially expressed genes were found in the comparison of MO and HO, including 1,074 up- and 1,001 down-regulated genes in the MO group. Some differentially expressed genes, such as fatty acid transport protein (fatp), fatty acid binding protein (fabp), apolipoprotein (apo), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (ppar-γ), acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (alox5), were involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting these genes in the loach were responsive to dietary oxidized fish oil. Results of transcriptome profilings here were validated using quantitative real time PCR in fourteen randomly selected unigenes. The present study provides insights into hepatic transcriptome profile of the loach, which is a valuable resource for studies of loach genomics. More importantly, this study identifies some important genes responsible for dietary oxidized fish oil, which will benefit researches of lipid metabolism in fish.

  15. Hepatic transcriptome analysis and identification of differentially expressed genes response to dietary oxidized fish oil in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Liang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Longfei; Yan, Jie; Wei, Yanxing; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group. 2,813 genes were differentially expressed between FO and HO, including 1,256 down- and 1,552 up-regulated genes in the HO group. 2,075 differentially expressed genes were found in the comparison of MO and HO, including 1,074 up- and 1,001 down-regulated genes in the MO group. Some differentially expressed genes, such as fatty acid transport protein (fatp), fatty acid binding protein (fabp), apolipoprotein (apo), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (ppar-γ), acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (alox5), were involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting these genes in the loach were responsive to dietary oxidized fish oil. Results of transcriptome profilings here were validated using quantitative real time PCR in fourteen randomly selected unigenes. The present study provides insights into hepatic transcriptome profile of the loach, which is a valuable resource for studies of loach genomics. More importantly, this study identifies some important genes responsible for dietary oxidized fish oil, which will benefit researches of lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:28212448

  16. Effects of Pinus pinaster and Pinus koraiensis seed oil supplementation on lipoprotein metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Asset, G; Staels, B; Wolff, R L; Baugé, E; Madj, Z; Fruchart, J C; Dallongeville, J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of vegetal oils obtained from Pinus pinaster and P. koraiensis seeds on plasma lipoprotein levels and apolipoprotein (apo) gene expression in rats. These oils contain two particular fatty acids of the delta5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acid (delta5-UPIFA) family: all-cis-5,9,12-1 8:3 (pinolenic) and/or all-cis-5,11,14-20:3 (sciadonic) acids. Rats were fed for 28 d a diet containing 5% (w/w) oil supplement. Two control diets were prepared to match the fatty acid composition of P. pinaster or P. koraiensis oils with the exception of delta5-UPIFA, which were replaced by oleic acid. Pinus pinaster seed oil decreased serum triglycerides by 30% (P < 0.02), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglycerides by 40% (P < 0.01), and VLDL-cholesterol by 33% (P < 0.03). Pinus koraiensis seed oil decreased serum triglycerides by 16% [not statistically significant (ns)] and VLDL-triglycerides by 21% (ns). Gel permeation chromatography and nondenaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a tendency of high density lipoprotein to shift toward larger particles in pine seed oil-supplemented rats. Finally, P. pinaster seed oil treatment was associated with a small decrease of liver apoC-III (P < 0.02) but not in apoE, apoA-I, or apoA-II mRNA levels. The levels of circulating apo were not affected by pine seed oil supplementation. In conclusion, P. pinaster seed oil has a triglyceride-lowering effect in rats, an effect that is due to a reduction in circulating VLDL.

  17. Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Jemma B; Tsai, Michael Y; Hanson, Naomi Q; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Data on the relation of plasma and dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) with heart failure (HF) risk have been inconsistent. We evaluated the relation of n-3 FAs with HF in US male physicians. We used nested case-control (n = 1572) and prospective cohort study designs (n = 19,097). Plasma phospholipid n-3 FAs were measured by using gas chromatography, and food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary n-3 FAs and fish intake. Incident HF was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n-3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ~0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month. Our data are consistent with an inverse and nonlinear relation of plasma phospholipid ALA and DPA, but not EPA or DHA, with HF risk. Fish consumption greater than once per month was associated with a lower HF risk.

  18. Dietary carbohydrates improve oxidative status of common dentex (Dentex dentex) juveniles, a carnivorous fish species.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; Cardenete, Gabriel; Morales, Amalia E; Hidalgo, M Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Common dentex (Dentex dentex) is an appreciated carnivorous fish with high growth rate and life cycle adaptable to existing farming techniques. Since the use of carbohydrates is an economic and sustainable alternative for a protein-sparing effect, the study of how this macronutrient affects the welfare of carnivorous species must be studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different types and levels of carbohydrates on common dentex oxidative status. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22MJkg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types (pregelatinized starch-PS, dextrin-Dx and maltodextrin-Mx) and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates. The activities of catalase-CAT, superoxide dismutase-SOD, glutathione peroxidase-GPX, glutathione reductase-GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-G6PDH, SOD isoenzymatic profile, lipid peroxidation-LPO and protein oxidation-PO were determined in liver and white muscle. SOD and CAT were not affected. GPX in liver and white muscle and GR in liver increased at higher inclusion carbohydrates levels. The lowest levels of GR and G6PDH in both tissues and LPO in liver were observed in maltodextrin groups. No significant effects by carbohydrate source were observed in liver PO and white muscle LPO. Regarding carbohydrate level effect, 18% and 24% dietary inclusion level decreased LPO in white muscle and PO in liver. LPO in liver was also decreased at 24% inclusion level. Altogether, results indicate the use of carbohydrates as an alternative energy source does not produce negative effects on oxidative status of common dentex, on the contrary, even contribute to their oxidative protection.

  19. The future for long chain n-3 PUFA in the prevention of coronary heart disease: do we need to target non-fish-eaters?

    PubMed

    Hall, W L

    2017-08-01

    Dietary guidelines in many countries include a recommendation to consume oily fish, mainly on the basis of evidence from prospective cohort studies that fish consumption is cardioprotective. However, average intakes are very low in a large proportion of the UK population. Some groups, such as vegans and vegetarians, purposely omit fish (along with meat) from their diet resulting in zero or trace intakes of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Although the efficacy of dietary fish oil supplementation in the prevention of CVD has been questioned in recent years, the balance of evidence indicates that LC n-3 PUFA exert systemic pleiotropic effects through their influence on gene expression, cell signalling, membrane fluidity and by conversion to specialised proresolving mediators; autacoid lipid mediators that resolve inflammatory events. The long-term impact of reduced tissue LC n-3 PUFA content on cardiovascular health is surprisingly poorly understood, particularly with regard to how low proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in cell membranes may affect cardiac electrophysiology and chronic inflammation. Randomised controlled trials investigating effects of supplementation on prevention of CHD in populations with low basal LC n-3 PUFA tissue status are lacking, and so the clinical benefits of supplementing non-fish-eating groups with vegetarian sources of LC n-3 PUFA remain to be determined. Refocusing dietary LC n-3 PUFA intervention studies towards those individuals with a low LC n-3 PUFA tissue status may go some way towards reconciling results from randomised controlled trials with the epidemiological evidence.

  20. Role of dietary fish oil on nitric oxide synthase activity and oxidative status in mice red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcela A; Moss, Monique B; Mendes, Iara K S; Águila, Márcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio

    2014-12-01

    The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish oil concomitant with a reduced intake of saturated fats is associated with cardiovascular benefits, which may result from the participation of nitric oxide (NO). In contrast, PUFAs are vulnerable to peroxidation, which could affect the oxidative stability of the cell and reduce NO bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high fat diets with increasing amounts of fish oil (0-40% of energy) in place of lard on the l-arginine-NO pathway, the arginase pathway and oxidative status in mice red blood cells (RBC). We found that l-arginine transport, as well as NO synthase (NOS) expression and activity, was enhanced by the highest doses of fish oil (30 and 40%). In contrast, diets rich in lard led to NOS expression and activity impairment. Arginase expression was not significantly affected by any of the dietary regimens. No significant difference in protein and lipid oxidative markers was observed among any of the fish-oil fed mice; only lard feeding induced protein damage in addition to a decreased superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggest that a substantial dose of fish oil, but not low doses, activates the RBC l-arginine-NO pathway without resulting in oxidative damage.

  1. Species composition and dietary relationships in a brackish shallow water fish assemblage in the Bothnian Sea, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan; Wiederholm, Anne-Marie

    1984-09-01

    A nearshore fish assemblage inhabiting a shallow bay in the southern Bothnian Sea, Sweden, with demanding environmental conditions (c. 5‰; >15°C during 4 months 1980 and 1 month 1981) was studied during a two-year period, in 1980 and 1981. Seasonal distribution patterns, dietary relationships, and growth rates were studied in Pungitius pungitius (L.), Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas.), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and Gobius niger L. The structure of the juvenile populations changed both over seasons and years but the adult populations remained constant. Lower water temperature, fewer individuals, lower and delayed fish growth, and lower interspecific food overlaps were found in 1981 compared to 1980. Few significant correlations were found in both years between the following community parameters: diversity, niche width, food overlap, and the proportion of each species in the fish assemblage. According to these results it is suggested that food competition and resource partitioning were of minor importance for the structuring of the fish community in the present area. Rather, the extreme salinity and the fluctuations in temperature regulated the fish populations. One may conclude that the populations of juveniles were more influenced by short-term changes in the environment than those of the adults.

  2. Porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta mediates the lipolytic effects of dietary fish oil to reduce body fat deposition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y H; Wang, P H; Cheng, W T K; Mersmann, H J; Wu, S C; Ding, S T

    2010-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta promotes fatty acid catabolism and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. A ligand for PPARdelta is required to activate PPARdelta function. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potential ligands for PPARdelta activation. The current experiment was designed to determine the potential for PUFA, particularly from dietary fish oil, to activate porcine PPARdelta in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated to overexpress porcine PPARdelta in the adipose tissue. Mice were fed a high-saturated fat (13% beef tallow), or high-unsaturated fat (13% fish oil) diet, or a diet containing 4 mg/kg of a PPARdelta ligand (L165041) for 4 mo. Compared with beef tallow feeding, fish oil feeding reduced fat mass and decreased (P < 0.05) plasma triacylglycerol and FFA concentrations in the transgenic mice. Adipose tissue expression of genes involved in adipogenesis (i.e., lipoprotein lipase and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein) was decreased in transgenic mice fed fish oil or the PPARdelta ligand. In the same mice, expression of the lipolytic gene, hormone-sensitive lipase was increased (P < 0.05). Fish oil feeding also stimulated expression of genes participating in fatty acid oxidation in the liver of transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Overall, these results indicate that PUFA may serve as natural and effective regulators of lipid catabolism in vivo and many of these effects may be generated from activation of PPARdelta.

  3. Effects of dietary 2,2', 4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) exposure in growing medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    González-Doncel, Miguel; Carbonell, Gregoria; García-Mauriño, José Enrique; Sastre, Salvador; Beltrán, Eulalia María; Fernàndez Torija, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    In this research work, we addressed the effects of a diet fortified with BDE-47 (0, 10, 100, 1000ng/g) dosed to 4-7 day-old post-hatch medaka fish for 40 days, followed by an 80-day depuration period. BDE-47 accumulation and overall growth were evaluated throughout the dosing period, and its elimination was quantified over the following 60 days. The histological condition of the thyroid gland, liver and gonads from the 1000ng BDE-47-treated fish were assessed 5 and 70days after exposures finished. The phenotypic males to females ratio was also quantified 70days after treatments finished. Sixty days after the BDE-47 exposures, reproductive capacity (i.e. fecundity, fertility and hatchability) was evaluated in mating groups for a 20-day period. BDE-47 exposure via food from larval through juvenile life stages of medaka fish resulted in steady accumulation with time dose-dependently. This accumulation tendency rapidly decreased after dosing ended. The growth rates showed a significant increase only at the highest concentration 70days after exposures finished. The histological survey did not reveal BDE-47-related alterations in the condition of the potential target organs. However, a morphometrical approach suggested BDE-47-related differences in the thickness of the epithelium that lines thyroid follicles. The reproduction studies showed comparable values for the fecundity, fertility and hatching rates. Dietary BDE-47 dosed for 40days to growing medaka fish did not alter the phenotypic sex ratios at maturity. The dietary approach used herein could not provide conclusive evidence of effects on medaka development and thriving despite the fact that BDE-47 underwent rapid accumulation in whole fish during the 40-day treatment.

  4. Quantitative three-dimensional microtextural analyses of tooth wear as a tool for dietary discrimination in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Mark; Seehausen, Ole; Galis, Frietson

    2012-01-01

    Resource polymorphisms and competition for resources are significant factors in speciation. Many examples come from fishes, and cichlids are of particular importance because of their role as model organisms at the interface of ecology, development, genetics and evolution. However, analysis of trophic resource use in fishes can be difficult and time-consuming, and for fossil fish species it is particularly problematic. Here, we present evidence from cichlids that analysis of tooth microwear based on high-resolution (sub-micrometre scale) three-dimensional data and new ISO standards for quantification of surface textures provides a powerful tool for dietary discrimination and investigation of trophic resource exploitation. Our results suggest that three-dimensional approaches to analysis offer significant advantages over two-dimensional operator-scored methods of microwear analysis, including applicability to rough tooth surfaces that lack distinct scratches and pits. Tooth microwear textures develop over a longer period of time than is represented by stomach contents, and analyses based on textures are less prone to biases introduced by opportunistic feeding. They are more sensitive to subtle dietary differences than isotopic analysis. Quantitative textural analysis of tooth microwear has a useful role to play, complementing existing approaches, in trophic analysis of fishes—both extant and extinct. PMID:22491979

  5. The relationship of dietary fish intake to level of pulmonary function in the first National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES I)

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J; Weiss, S T

    1994-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which predominates in marine fish, tends to counteract and inhibit the uptake and incorporation of arachidonic acid and membrane phospholipids and dilute arachidonic acid as a potential substrate for oxidation. Thus, fish intake may be protective for the occurrence of asthma and other pulmonary diseases. We wanted to examine the relationship between the effect of chronic dietary intake to fish and its relationship to level of pulmonary function. We performed this analysis using data from the First National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES I). A detailed subsample of 2,526 adults had a medical history questionnaire, that included a 24-hour dietary recall, and performed spirometric examination. Log of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) served as a dependent variable in regression analysis which included an adjustment for height, age, cigarette smoking and gender. When added to the regression model including the above variables dietary fish intake showed a protective association with FEV1 (beta = 0.008 +/- 0.004, p = 0.028). When smokers were excluded from the analysis, the effect of fish intake on pulmonary function appeared to increase slightly (beta = 0.0108 +/- 0.006, p = 0.61). These data suggest that chronic dietary intake of fish is associated with higher levels of pulmonary function and is consistent with the hypothesis of an effect of fish oil on arachidonic acid metabolism.

  6. Influence of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on growth, nutritional composition and immune function in marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Yue, Yanfeng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Wang, Jiangang

    2014-09-01

    A 60-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on growth, nutritional composition and immune function of marine fish Sebastiscus marmoratus. Five diets containing 3.6, 10.2, 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg n-3 LC-PUFA were prepared. The results reveal significant influences of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA on the final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and condition factor. As dietary n-3 LCPUFA increased, weight gain and specific growth rate increased and were significantly higher in groups fed 18.2, 26.5 and 37.0 g/kg than in groups fed 3.6 and 10.2 g/kg ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between groups fed 18.2, 26.5, or 37.0 g/kg ( P>0.05). With increasing dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid content in muscle and liver increased significantly, immunoglobulin class M content gradually increased from 9.1 to 14.8 μg/L, and lysozyme activity content increased from 1 355 to 2 268 U/mL. Broken line model analysis according to weight gain indicated that a dietary n-3 LC-PUFA level of 18.2 g/kg is essential for normal growth at a fat level of 125 g/kg. Therefore, appropriate dietary n-3 LC-PUFA not only promote growth and improve the n-3 LC-PUFA content, but also enhance immune function in S. marmoratus.

  7. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuates inflammation and adipocyte hypertrophy in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Lima, Edson A; Silveira, Loreana S; Masi, Laureane N; Crisma, Amanda R; Davanso, Mariana R; Souza, Gabriel I G; Santamarina, Aline B; Moreira, Renata G; Martins, Amanda Roque; de Sousa, Luis Gustavo O; Hirabara, Sandro M; Rosa Neto, Jose C

    2014-01-01

    Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF) induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided into four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HF, (c) CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO), and (d) HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO). CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages.

  8. Macadamia Oil Supplementation Attenuates Inflammation and Adipocyte Hypertrophy in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Edson A.; Silveira, Loreana S.; Masi, Laureane N.; Crisma, Amanda R.; Davanso, Mariana R.; Souza, Gabriel I. G.; Santamarina, Aline B.; Moreira, Renata G.; Roque Martins, Amanda; de Sousa, Luis Gustavo O.; Hirabara, Sandro M.; Rosa Neto, Jose C.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of saturated fatty acids in the diet has been associated with obesity, leading to systemic disruption of insulin signaling, glucose intolerance, and inflammation. Macadamia oil administration has been shown to improve lipid profile in humans. We evaluated the effect of macadamia oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profile, and adipocyte size in high-fat diet (HF) induced obesity in mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided into four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HF, (c) CD supplemented with macadamia oil by gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week, for 12 weeks (CD + MO), and (d) HF diet supplemented with macadamia oil (HF + MO). CD and HF mice were supplemented with water. HF mice showed hypercholesterolemia and decreased insulin sensitivity as also previously shown. HF induced inflammation in adipose tissue and peritoneal macrophages, as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Macadamia oil supplementation attenuated hypertrophy of adipocytes and inflammation in the adipose tissue and macrophages. PMID:25332517

  9. Long-term flaxseed oil supplementation diet protects BALB/c mice against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Saini, Archana; Harjai, Kusum; Mohan, Harsh; Punia, Raj Pal Singh; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2010-02-01

    Intense host immune response to infection contributes significantly to the pathology of pneumococcal pneumonia. Therefore, the regulation of host immune response is critical for the successful outcome of pneumonia in such patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA, i.e. flaxseed oil supplementation for short (4 weeks) as well as long (9 weeks) term, on the course of S. pneumoniae D39 serotype 2 infection in mice. The efficacy of flaxseed oil supplementation was investigated in terms of survival of animals and production of various inflammatory molecules (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide) in the lung homogenate of animals. This was correlated with bacteriological and histopathological parameters. The immunomodulation was studied in terms of cytokines in the lungs following infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results suggest that long-term flaxseed supplementation protected the mice against bacterial colonization of lungs with Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced histopathological involvement of lung tissue. Moderate pneumonia was observed in supplemented, infected mice compared to severe pneumonia seen in control mice. This was accompanied by decreased inflammatory markers (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide) as the disease progressed. In addition, difference in the levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines was observed in the flaxseed fed animals. On the contrary, short-term supplementation did not show such an effect on lung colonization.

  10. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  11. Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andrea S; Lombardo, Yolanda B; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chicco, Adriana G; Rouault, Christine; Slama, Gérard; Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2005-08-01

    Insulin resistance and adiposity induced by a long-term sucrose-rich diet (SRD) in rats could be reversed by fish oil (FO). Regulation of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels, as well as their gene expression, by FO might be implicated in these findings. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term regulation of leptin and adiponectin by dietary FO in a dietary model of insulin resistance induced by long-term SRD in rats and to determine their impact on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Rats were randomized to consume a control diet (CD; n = 25) or an SRD (n = 50) for 7 mo. Subsequently, the SRD-fed rats were randomized to consume SRD+FO or to continue on SRD for an additional 2 mo. Long-term SRD induced overweight and decreased both plasma leptin and adiponectin levels without change in gene expression. Dyslipidemia, adiposity, and insulin resistance accompanied these modifications. Shifting the source of fat to FO for 2 mo increased plasma levels of both adipokines, reversed insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, and improved adiposity. These results were not associated with modifications in gene expression. These results suggest that increasing both adipokines by dietary FO might play an essential role in the normalization of insulin resistance and adiposity in dietary-induced, insulin-resistant models.

  12. FADS1 FADS2 gene variants modify the association between fish intake and the docosahexaenoic acid proportions in human milk.

    PubMed

    Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P; Müller, André; Jansen, Eugène; Zeegers, Maurice P; Thijs, Carel

    2010-05-01

    The genes encoding Delta(5)- and Delta(6)-desaturases (FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster) were reported to be associated with n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) fatty acid proportions in human plasma, tissues, and milk. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be supplied especially by dietary fish or fish oil and synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid through a pathway involving these desaturases. We evaluated whether FADS gene variants modify the effect of maternal fish and fish-oil intake on plasma and milk DHA proportions. FADS1 rs174561, FADS2 rs174575, and intergenic rs3834458 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 309 women from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in The Netherlands. Plasma was collected at 36 wk of pregnancy, and milk was collected at 1 mo postpartum. Fish and fish-oil intake was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire at 34 wk of pregnancy and updated for the week of milk collection. Gene-diet interactions were tested by linear regression analysis. DHA proportions were lower in women homozygous for the minor allele than in women who were homozygous for the major allele (DHA proportions in plasma phospholipids: P < 0.01; DHA proportions in milk: P < 0.05). Fish intake ranged from 0 to 2.5 portions of fatty fish/wk, and 12 women took fish-oil supplements during pregnancy. DHA proportions in plasma phospholipids increased with increasing fish and fish-oil intake, irrespective of the genotype. DHA proportions in milk increased only with fish and fish-oil intake in the major-allele carriers. Lower proportions of DHA in milk from women who were homozygous for the minor allele could not be compensated for by increasing fish and fish-oil intake, possibly because of limited incorporation into milk.

  13. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cod liver oil supplementation on the stearoyl-CoA desaturase index in obese children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukihiko; Okada, Tomoo; Abe, Yuriko; Kazama, Minako; Saito, Emiko; Kuromori, Yuki; Iwata, Fujihiko; Hara, Mitsuhiko; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity, we treated 10 obese children (mean age: 12.9 years) with cod liver oil once daily for 12 weeks. The effects of cod liver oil supplementation on SCD activity, as estimated by the palmitoleate/palmitate ratio, depended on the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents at baseline. Baseline DHA contents were negatively correlated with baseline SCD activity. After the treatment, baseline DHA contents were found to be significantly associated with the reduction of SCD activity. Cod liver oil supplementation may be a complementary treatment for obese children with low baseline contents of DHA.

  15. An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Chen, T C; Zhang, A; Persons, K S; Kohn, N; Berkowitz, R; Martinello, S; Holick, M F

    2007-03-01

    It has been suggested that the major source of vitamin D should come from dietary sources and not sun exposure. However, the major fortified dietary source of vitamin D is milk which often does not contain at least 80% of what is stated on the label. Fish has been touted as an excellent source of vitamin D especially oily fish including salmon and mackerel. Little is known about the effect of various cooking conditions on the vitamin D content in fish. We initiated a study and evaluated the vitamin D content in several species of fish and also evaluated the effect of baking and frying on the vitamin D content. Surprisingly, farmed salmon had approximately 25% of the vitamin D content as wild salmon had. The vitamin D content in fish varied widely even within species. These data suggest that the tables that list the vitamin D content are out-of-date and need to be re-evaluated.

  16. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species.

    PubMed

    Schrama, J W; Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Heinsbroek, L T N; Kaushik, S J; Verreth, J A J

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (k(gDE)). Furthermore, literature data on k(gDE) across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient composition. A total of twelve groups of fish were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design: two diets ('fat' v. 'starch') and two feeding levels ('low' v. 'high'). In the 'fat'-diet, 125 g fish oil and in the 'starch'-diet 300 g maize starch were added to 875 g of an identical basal mixture. Fish were fed restrictively one of two ration levels ('low' or 'high') for estimating k(gDE). Nutrient digestibility, N and energy balances were measured. For estimating k(gDE), data of the present study were combined with previous data of Nile tilapia fed similar diets to satiation. The type of NPE affected k(gDE) (0.561 and 0.663 with the 'starch' and 'fat'-diets, respectively; P < 0.001). Across fish species, literature values of k(gDE) range from 0.31 to 0.82. Variability in k(gDE) was related to dietary macronutrient composition, the trophic level of the fish species and the composition of growth (fat:protein gain ratio). The across-species comparison suggested that the relationships of k(gDE) with trophic level and with growth composition were predominantly induced by dietary macronutrient composition. Reported k(gDE) values increased linearly with increasing dietary fat content and decreasing dietary carbohydrate content. In contrast, k(gDE) related curvilinearly to dietary crude protein content. In conclusion, energy utilisation for growth is influenced by dietary macronutrient composition.

  17. Dietary fish oil alleviates soleus atrophy during immobilization in association with Akt signaling to p70s6k and E3 ubiquitin ligases in rats.

    PubMed

    You, Jae-Sung; Park, Mi-Na; Song, Wook; Lee, Yeon-Sook

    2010-06-01

    Reduced muscle activity leads to impaired insulin signaling, which leads to loss of contractile proteins and muscle mass via the Akt pathway. Dietary fish oil rich in long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been shown to prevent insulin signaling resistance in skeletal muscle. This study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of dietary fish oil on disuse-induced perturbations in insulin signaling and soleus muscle atrophy. To accomplish this, rats were fed a corn-oil- (control) or fish-oil-based diet for 2 weeks, and then subjected to hindlimb immobilization while still receiving the same diets. After 10 days of immobilization, the soleus muscle mass and myosin heavy chain level had markedly decreased; however, these losses were significantly suppressed in rats fed dietary fish oil, compared with the control group. Dietary fish oil nearly completely attenuated the disturbances in activation of the Akt and p70 S6 kinase proteins, as well as the gene expression of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases (muscle atrophy F-box and muscle RING finger 1). However, insulin receptor substrate 1 associated with the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase was not altered during immobilization. Dietary fish oil also inhibited alterations in the gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, with no additional observation of oxidative stress. Collectively, these findings indicate that dietary fish oil prior to and during immobilization may alleviate the immobilization-induced soleus muscle atrophy, at least in part, via the Akt pathway through E3 ubiquitin ligases and p70s6k.

  18. Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Harold M; Lu, Jing; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-07-14

    We have previously shown nutritional intervention with fish oil (n-3 PUFA) to reduce numerous complications associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the JCR:LA-corpulent (cp) rat. In the present study, we sought to explore the potential role of fish oil to prevent glomerulosclerosis in JCR:LA-cp rats via renal eicosanoid metabolism and lipidomic analysis. Male lean and MetS JCR:LA-cp rats were fed a lipid-balanced diet supplemented with fish oil (5 or 10 % of total fat). After 16 weeks of feeding, albuminuria was significantly reduced in MetS rats supplemented with 5 or 10 % fish oil ( - 53 and - 70 %, respectively, compared with the untreated MetS rats). The 5 % fish oil diet resulted in markedly lower glomerulosclerosis ( - 43 %) in MetS rats and to a lesser extent in those supplemented with 10 % fish oil. Interestingly, untreated MetS rats had higher levels of 11- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) v. lean rats. Dietary fish oil reduced these levels, as well as other (5-, 9- and 15-) HETE. Whilst genotype did not alter prostanoid levels, fish oil reduced endogenous renal levels of 6-keto PGF1α (PGI2 metabolite), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), PGF2α and PGD2 by approximately 60 % in rats fed 10 % fish oil, and TxB2 ( - 50 %) and PGF2α ( - 41 %) in rats fed 5 % fish oil. In conclusion, dietary fish oil prevented glomerular damage in MetS rats and mitigated the elevation in renal HETE levels. These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS.

  19. Dietary toxicity of field-contaminated invertebrates to marine fish: effects of metal doses and subcellular metal distribution.

    PubMed

    Dang, Fei; Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-09-15

    There is growing awareness of the toxicological effects of metal-contaminated invertebrate diets on the health of fish populations in metal-contaminated habitats, yet the mechanisms underlying metal bioaccumulation and toxicity are complex. In the present study, marine fish Terapon jurbua terepon were fed a commercial diet supplemented with specimens of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor or the clam Scrobicularia plana, collected from four metal-impacted estuaries (Tavy, Restronguet Creek, West Looe, Gannel) in southwest England, as environmentally realistic metal sources. A comparative toxicological evaluation of both invertebrates showed that fish fed S. plana for 21 d exhibited evident mortality compared to those fed N. diversicolor. Furthermore, a spatial effect on mortality was observed. Differences in metal doses rather than subcellular metal distributions between N. diversicolor and S. plana appeared to be the cause of such different mortalities. Partial least squares regression was used to evaluate the statistical relationship between multiple-metal doses and fish mortality, revealing that Pb, Fe, Cd and Zn in field-collected invertebrates co-varied most strongly with the observed mortality. This study provides a step toward exploring the underlying mechanism of dietary toxicity and identifying the potential causality in complex metal mixture exposures in the field.

  20. Dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish and meat by residents of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Liu, Xiaohua; Gao, Zishen; Xian, Qimin; Feng, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Wei, Si; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congers were measured in 137 samples of fish and meat from Nanjing, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Total concentrations of PBDEs were less in fish (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 8.0-1100 pg/g ww), but more in non fish foods (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 15-950 pg/g ww) than those reported from other countries. The total dietary intake of PBDEs and PCBs by humans were 9.9 ng PBDE/d and 870 ng PCB/d, respectively. The daily intake by a 60 kg adult of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO)) from PCBs was estimated to be 49 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/d (0.82 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/kg bw), which is less than the tolerable daily intake suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The daily intake of meat and fish accounted for 57.2% and 42.8% of the total intake of (PCB)TEQ(WHO).

  1. The role of adipose tissue in mediating the beneficial effects of dietary fish oil

    PubMed Central

    Puglisi, Michael J.; Hasty, Alyssa H.; Saraswathi, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    Fish oil improves several features of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Fish oil may mediate some of its beneficial effects by modulating the storage and/or secretory functions of adipose tissue. The storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue is regulated by the availability of free fatty acids as well as the degree of lipolysis in adipose tissue. Fish oil has been shown to reduce lipolysis in several studies indicating improved triglyceride storage. Importantly, adipose tissue secretes a variety of adipokines and fish oil feeding is associated with remarkable changes in the plasma levels of two key adipokines, adiponectin and leptin. Much attention has been focused on the contribution of adiponectin in fish oil mediated improvements in metabolic syndrome. However, emerging evidence also indicates a role of leptin in modulating the components of the metabolic syndrome upon fish oil feeding. In addition to improving the storage and secretory functions of adipose tissue, fish oil, and the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, has been shown to reduce inflammation in adipose tissue. These effects may be in part a result of activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ or inhibition of toll-like receptor 4. Thus, there is compelling evidence that fish oil mediates its beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome by improving adipose tissue storage and secretory functions and by reducing inflammation. PMID:21145721

  2. Dietary soy, meat, and fish proteins modulate the effects of prebiotic raffinose on composition and fermentation of gut microbiota in rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gaowa; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-09-28

    Soy, meat (mixture of pork and beef), and fish proteins were fed to rats with and without prebiotic raffinose (RAF), and the composition and fermentation of gut microbiota were examined. Bifidobacterium spp. populations were higher, and propionic acid concentration was lower in soy protein-fed than meat protein-fed rats. Likewise, Enterobacteriaceae populations were higher in fish protein-fed rats than other rats. RAF feeding increased Bifidobacterium spp. and decreased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii populations regardless of the dietary protein source. Interactions between dietary proteins and RAF were shown for Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium perfringens group; the increase of Lactobacillus spp. populations by RAF was seen only for soy protein-fed rats, whereas the reduction of C. perfringens group by RAF was evident in fish and meat protein-fed rats. It is concluded that dietary proteins may differentially modulate the effects of prebiotic oligosaccharides on gut fermentation and microbiota, with differences observed between plant and animal proteins.

  3. Distinct effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex on the renal oxylipin profile in models of polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Devassy, Jessay G; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Zhou, Jing; Aukema, Harold M

    2017-08-01

    Oxylipins are bioactive lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are important regulators of kidney function and health. Targeted lipidomic analyses of renal oxylipins from four studies of rodent models of renal disease were performed to investigate the differential effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex. Across all studies, dietary fish oil was more effective than flax oil in reducing n-6 PUFA derived oxylipins and elevating eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived oxylipins, whereas dietary flax oil resulted in higher α-linolenic acid (ALA) oxylipins. Dietary soy protein compared to casein resulted in higher linoleic acid (LA) derived oxylipins. Kidneys from females had higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) oxylipins, but similar or lower levels of oxylipins from other PUFA. Modulation of the oxylipin profile by diet and sex may help elucidate their effects on renal physiology and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) on growth performance, chemical body composition and hematological and immune parameters of fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Abedian Amiri, Armin; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Nematolahi, Amin; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a very popular herb. While numerous effects have been described in mammals, its effects on fish have received so far limited attention. The effects of dietary administration of peppermint on fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases of growth parameters (WG and SGR), mucus skin (protein concentration, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity) and seric (lysozyme and IgM) and blood leucocyte respiratory burst activities and different hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, seric hemoglobin and hematocrit content) were recorded in fry fish fed supplemented diets. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leucocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was increased and decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Present results corroborate that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main hematological and immune humoral (both mucosal and systemic) parameters of fry Caspian white fish. This study may provide new applications of peppermint and, at the same time, promote rational development and utilization of peppermint resources.

  5. Contribution of fish to intakes of micronutrients important for fetal development: a dietary survey of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Bonham, Maxine P; Duffy, Emeir M; Robson, Paula J; Wallace, Julie M; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Tom W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2009-09-01

    To characterise the diets of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles and to determine the contribution of fish to intakes of nutrients important for fetal and neonatal development. Observational, prospective study. Seychelles Child Development Centre, Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women (n 300) were recruited at their first visit to an antenatal clinic. At 28 weeks' gestation subjects completed a 4 d diet diary (n 273) and intakes were analysed using dietary analysis software. Mean (sd) energy intake was 9.0 (2.5) MJ/d and fat intakes were higher than UK recommendations for almost two-thirds of the cohort. Fish consumption was lower than in previous surveys, suggesting a move towards a more Westernised diet. Low intakes of a number of nutrients important during pregnancy for fetal development (Fe, Zn, Se and iodine) were observed. However, women who met the current recommendations for these nutrients consumed significantly more fish than those who did not (97 v. 73 g/d). The present study highlights the importance of fish in the diet of pregnant Seychellois women for ensuring adequate intakes of micronutrients important in fetal development. Dietary patterns in Seychelles, however, are in a state of transition, with a move towards a Western-style diet as evidenced by higher fat and lower fish intakes. If these dietary trends continue and fish consumption declines further, micronutrient status may be compromised. These findings suggest caution in establishing public health policies that promote limitation of fish intake during pregnancy.

  6. Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Peter; Appleby, Paul N; Mizdrak, Anja; Briggs, Adam D M; Travis, Ruth C; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    The production of animal-based foods is associated with higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than plant-based foods. The objective of this study was to estimate the difference in dietary GHG emissions between self-selected meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Subjects were participants in the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. The diets of 2,041 vegans, 15,751 vegetarians, 8,123 fish-eaters and 29,589 meat-eaters aged 20-79 were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Comparable GHG emissions parameters were developed for the underlying food codes using a dataset of GHG emissions for 94 food commodities in the UK, with a weighting for the global warming potential of each component gas. The average GHG emissions associated with a standard 2,000 kcal diet were estimated for all subjects. ANOVA was used to estimate average dietary GHG emissions by diet group adjusted for sex and age. The age-and-sex-adjusted mean (95 % confidence interval) GHG emissions in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents per day (kgCO2e/day) were 7.19 (7.16, 7.22) for high meat-eaters ( > = 100 g/d), 5.63 (5.61, 5.65) for medium meat-eaters (50-99 g/d), 4.67 (4.65, 4.70) for low meat-eaters ( < 50 g/d), 3.91 (3.88, 3.94) for fish-eaters, 3.81 (3.79, 3.83) for vegetarians and 2.89 (2.83, 2.94) for vegans. In conclusion, dietary GHG emissions in self-selected meat-eaters are approximately twice as high as those in vegans. It is likely that reductions in meat consumption would lead to reductions in dietary GHG emissions.

  7. Dietary fish oil and curcumin combine to modulate colonic cytokinetics and gene expression in dextran sodium sulphate-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qian; Ivanov, Ivan; Zlatev, Zlatomir Z.; Alaniz, Robert C.; Weeks, Brad R.; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Goldsby, Jennifer S.; Davidson, Laurie A.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Zhou, Lan; Lupton, Joanne R.; McMurray, David N.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Both fish oil (FO) and curcumin have potential as anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory agents. To further explore their combined effects on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis, C57BL/6 mice were randomised to four diets (2 × 2 design) differing in fatty acid content with or without curcumin supplementation (FO, FO + 2 % curcumin, maize oil (control, MO) or MO + 2 % curcumin). Mice were exposed to one or two cycles of DSS in the drinking-water to induce either acute or chronic intestinal inflammation, respectively. FO-fed mice exposed to the single-cycle DSS treatment exhibited the highest mortality (40 %, seventeen of forty-three) compared with MO with the lowest mortality (3 %, one of twenty-nine) (P = 0·0008). Addition of curcumin to MO increased (P = 0·003) mortality to 37 % compared with the control. Consistent with animal survival data, following the one- or two-cycle DSS treatment, both dietary FO and curcumin promoted mucosal injury/ulceration compared with MO. In contrast, compared with other diets, combined FO and curcumin feeding enhanced the resolution of chronic inflammation and suppressed (P < 0·05) a key inflammatory mediator, NF-κB, in the colon mucosa. Mucosal microarray analysis revealed that dietary FO, curcumin and FO plus curcumin combination differentially modulated the expression of genes induced by DSS treatment. These results suggest that dietary lipids and curcumin interact to regulate mucosal homeostasis and the resolution of chronic inflammation in the colon. PMID:21401974

  8. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on the airways response to inhaled allergen in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Arm, J P; Horton, C E; Spur, B W; Mencia-Huerta, J M; Lee, T H

    1989-06-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on the airways responses to allergen and neutrophil biochemistry and function have been studied in 17 atopic asthmatic subjects. Nine subjects received 18 capsules of Max-EPA (3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docosahexaenoic acid) a day and eight subjects received identical capsules containing olive oil, for 10 wk in a double-blind fashion. There were no differences between prediet values and those observed after dietary supplementation with Max-EPA or placebo in the dose of allergen causing an acute asthmatic response as assessed by a 35% fall in specific airways conductance (PD35), the extinction dose of allergen on skin prick testing, the histamine PD35, or the total serum IgE concentrations. Twelve of the 17 subjects developed late asthmatic responses after allergen challenge prediet. Six of these subjects received Max-EPA, and six received placebo capsules. As compared to prediet values, the magnitude of the allergen-induced late asthmatic response was significantly attenuated from 2 to 7 h after allergen challenge following dietary supplementation with Max-EPA (p less than 0.005) but not with placebo. The attenuation of the late response was not accompanied by any significant change in the clinical severity of disease as assessed by diurnal peak expiratory flow rates, symptom scores, or bronchodilator drug usage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Dietary fish oil and curcumin combine to modulate colonic cytokinetics and gene expression in dextran sodium sulphate-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qian; Ivanov, Ivan; Zlatev, Zlatomir Z; Alaniz, Robert C; Weeks, Brad R; Callaway, Evelyn S; Goldsby, Jennifer S; Davidson, Laurie A; Fan, Yang-Yi; Zhou, Lan; Lupton, Joanne R; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2011-08-01

    Both fish oil (FO) and curcumin have potential as anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory agents. To further explore their combined effects on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis, C57BL/6 mice were randomised to four diets (2 × 2 design) differing in fatty acid content with or without curcumin supplementation (FO, FO+2 % curcumin, maize oil (control, MO) or MO+2 % curcumin). Mice were exposed to one or two cycles of DSS in the drinking-water to induce either acute or chronic intestinal inflammation, respectively. FO-fed mice exposed to the single-cycle DSS treatment exhibited the highest mortality (40 %, seventeen of forty-three) compared with MO with the lowest mortality (3 %, one of twenty-nine) (P = 0·0008). Addition of curcumin to MO increased (P = 0·003) mortality to 37 % compared with the control. Consistent with animal survival data, following the one- or two-cycle DSS treatment, both dietary FO and curcumin promoted mucosal injury/ulceration compared with MO. In contrast, compared with other diets, combined FO and curcumin feeding enhanced the resolution of chronic inflammation and suppressed (P < 0·05) a key inflammatory mediator, NF-κB, in the colon mucosa. Mucosal microarray analysis revealed that dietary FO, curcumin and FO plus curcumin combination differentially modulated the expression of genes induced by DSS treatment. These results suggest that dietary lipids and curcumin interact to regulate mucosal homeostasis and the resolution of chronic inflammation in the colon.

  10. The Effect of Krill Oil Supplementation on Exercise Performance and Markers of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Da Boit, Mariasole; Mastalurova, Ina; Brazaite, Goda; McGovern, Niall; Thompson, Keith; Gray, Stuart Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Krill oil is a rich source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which may alter immune function after exercise. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of krill oil supplementation on post exercise immune function and performance. Methods Nineteen males and 18 females (age: 25.8 ± 5.3 years; mean ± S.D.) were randomly assigned to 2 g/day of krill oil (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19) supplementation for 6 weeks. A maximal incremental exercise test and cycling time trial (time to complete set amount of work) were performed pre-supplementation with the time trial repeated post-supplementation. Blood samples collected pre- and post- supplementation at rest, and immediately, 1 and 3h post-exercise. Plasma IL-6 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations and, erythrocyte fatty acid composition were measured. Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production were also measured. Results No effects of gender were noted for any variable. PBMC IL-2 and NK cell cytotoxic activity were greater (P < 0.05) 3h post exercise in the krill oil compared to the control group. Plasma IL-6 and TBARS, PBMC IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production, along with performance and physiological measures during exercise, were not different between groups. Conclusion Six weeks of krill oil supplementation can increase PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity 3h post-exercise in both healthy young males and females. Krill oil does not modify exercise performance. PMID:26407095

  11. A preliminary investigation of the fish food web in the Gironde estuary, France, using dietary and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquaud, S.; Elie, P.; Jeantet, C.; Billy, I.; Martinez, P.; Girardin, M.

    2008-06-01

    Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses were used to investigate an estuarine fish food web and identify the contribution of these two methods to the knowledge and understanding of the food web's structure and its functioning. The nine most abundant fish species during the warm period in the Gironde estuary (southwest France, Europe) are examined. Observation of the stomach contents reflects a variety of feeding modes between fish species that consume a diverse assortment of prey, with limited dietary overlap. Nevertheless, when regarding the whole fish community, few prey species dominate the stomach contents. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate a high intraspecific variability inducing an interspecific covering of the signatures. However, a tendency to δ 15N enrichment according to the trophic position of the species studied was observed. Fish assemblages show a trend towards enrichment of their carbon isotopic signatures from the upper estuary (-20.8 ± 1.8‰) towards the lower estuary (-18.3 ± 1.6‰). But whatever the capture zone considered, most of the individual δ 13C values for each fish analysed are comprised between -22 and -16‰. Only few specimens, belonging to migratory amphihaline species, have significantly lighter values. The stomach contents method of analysis has the advantage of giving an initial view of the ichthyological trophic structure of the system by describing the food relations between a fish species and its prey. From these results, hypotheses can be drawn about the network's functioning, suggesting a sharing of resources between species and a "wasp-waist" control of this estuarine food web. The stable isotope analysis method enables us to improve our structural knowledge by positioning the different species in a food web, with their position being determined by the number of energy transfers (analysis of δ 15N). Conversely, in environments as complex and changing as estuaries, it appears difficult to

  12. Effects of dietary uranium on reproductive endpoints--fecundity, survival, reproductive success--of the fish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Simon, Olivier; Mottin, Elmina; Geffroy, Benjamin; Hinton, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to metal-contaminated water has been shown to result in a number of reproductive abnormalities in adult and larvae fish, such as failure of oocyte maturation and teratogenic effects. Recently, dietary uptake of metals by fish has been recognized as a critical route of exposure, however, the mechanisms of metal uptake and toxicity are poorly understood and in need of further investigation. The objectives of the present study are to quantify uranium (U dietary transfers from spiked artificial diets) in Danio rerio tissues and embryos, as well as establish its effect on reproduction and embryonic development. Uranium's environmental prominence is currently increasing because of new mining and milling activities. Uranium concentrations range from 0.02 µg/L in natural waters to 2 mg/L. The focus of this study was to examine the trophic transfer and effects of U following exposure modalities (dose, exposure duration 1 to 20 d). Two different isotopes were used to distinguish between chemical and radioactivity toxicity of U. Results showed that U trophic transfer was low (0.52%). Uranium tissue distributions showed that accumulation occurred in digestive organs (liver, digestive tract) following dietary exposure. High levels of U were measured in the gonads (female in particular, >20% of relative burden). High U accumulation levels in eggs indicated maternal transfer of the contaminant. Moreover, U trophic exposure led to a reduction in reproduction success as a function of U accumulated levels. High U exposure conditions strongly reduced the total number of eggs (50%) and their viability at 10 d (reduction of the clutch number, low quality of eggs).

  13. Dietary fish intake and sleep quality: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Ha, Jung-Eun; Gillman, Jennifer; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R

    2016-01-01

    Due to the content of omega-3 and vitamin D, fish consumption is likely to be associated with better sleep. However, current data are limited to a single study that is not representative of the population at large. The present study aimed to assess the effects of oily fish consumption on sleep quality in community dwelling adults living in rural coastal Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years and who were identified during a door-to-door survey were interviewed with field instruments directed at assessing cardiovascular risk factors, sleep quality, and fish consumption. Using parametric regression and generalized linear models adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, the study evaluated whether oily fish consumption is associated with a lower Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Out of 721 eligible people, 677 (94%) were enrolled. Mean oily fish consumption was 9 ± 6 servings per week (one serving = 140 grams). Poor sleep quality was noticed in 187 (28%) individuals. Oily fish intake was higher in individuals with good sleep quality (p = 0.013). There was an inverse association between the PSQI score and oily fish servings per week in both parametric regression (β = -0.040; 95% CI -0.690 to -0.011, p = 0.007) and the adjusted generalized linear model (β = -0.032; 95% CI -0.605 to -0.004, p = 0.025). Oily fish consumption is associated with better sleep quality. Even in people who ingest more than the recommended amount of fish, an increase in fish intake is associated with further improvement in the quality of sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary fish protein alters blood lipid concentrations and hepatic genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anjali; Bettzieche, Anja; Hirche, Frank; Brandsch, Corinna; Stangl, Gabriele I; Eder, Klaus

    2006-10-01

    It is known that various dietary plant proteins are capable of influencing the lipid metabolism of human subjects and animals when compared with casein. Less, however, is known about the effects of fish protein on the cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism. Therefore, two experiments were conducted in which rats were fed diets containing 200 g of either fish protein, prepared from Alaska pollack fillets, or casein, which served as control, per kilogram, over 20 and 22 d, respectively. As parameters of lipid metabolism, the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the plasma and liver, the faecal excretion of bile acids and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in lipid homeostasis were determined. In both experiments, rats fed fish protein had higher concentrations of cholesteryl esters in the liver, a lower concentration of cholesterol in the HDL fraction (rho > 1.063 kg/l) and lower plasma triacylglycerol concentrations than rats fed casein (P < 0.05). The gene expression analysis performed in experiment 2 showed that rats fed fish protein had higher relative mRNA concentrations of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, LDL receptor, apo AI, scavenger receptor B1 and lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase in their liver than did rats fed casein (P < 0.05). The faecal excretion of bile acids and the mRNA concentrations of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, SREBP-1c and corresponding target genes were not altered. These findings show that fish protein had multiple effects on plasma and liver lipids that were at least in part caused by an altered expression of the hepatic genes involved in lipid homeostasis.

  15. Effect of dietary meat and fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Kap, Lisanne; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis. However, their association with colorectal cancer incidence is not conclusive. We investigated the influence of isocaloric replacement of red meat with fatty fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water in apparently healthy human volunteers on controlled diets. Fourteen volunteers consumed a high red meat, a combined red meat/fish and a high fish diet for 8 days each. Faecal homogenates were analysed for haem, nitroso compounds (NOC) and calprotectin and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Both faecal NOC and haem excretion decreased with more fish and less meat in the diet. Nitrosyl iron (FeNO) was the main contributor to total NOC on all diets. The proportion of other NOC increased with more fish and less meat in the diet (P = 0.01), resulting in a non-statistically significant decrease in the proportion of FeNO on the fish diet. There was no statistically significant difference in faecal calprotectin (P = 0.54) and faecal water-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines between the diets (P > 0.36). Increasing fish intake and reducing the intake of red meat does not seem to have an effect on inflammation and faecal water-induced (oxidative) DNA damage; however, it does reduce the formation of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic NOC and may as such beneficially affect colorectal risk.

  16. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    PubMed

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  17. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status. The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. Methods During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Results Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. Conclusions The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective

  18. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Grindel, Annemarie; Staps, Frank; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2013-11-14

    Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status.The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective FA in blood fractions indicate the cheek

  19. Why US adults use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Miller, Paige E; Thomas, Paul R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-03-11

    Dietary supplements are used by more than half of adults, although to our knowledge, the reasons motivating use have not been previously examined in US adults using nationally representative data. The purpose of this analysis was to examine motivations for dietary supplement use, characterize the types of products used for the most commonly reported motivations, and to examine the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about dietary supplements. Data from adults (≥20 years; n = 11 956) were examined in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional, population-based survey. The most commonly reported reasons for using supplements were to "improve" (45%) or "maintain" (33%) overall health. Women used calcium products for "bone health" (36%), whereas men were more likely to report supplement use for "heart health or to lower cholesterol" (18%). Older adults (≥60 years) were more likely than younger individuals to report motivations related to site-specific reasons like heart, bone and joint, and eye health. Only 23% of products were used based on recommendations of a health care provider. Multivitamin-mineral products were the most frequently reported type of supplement taken, followed by calcium and ω-3 or fish oil supplements. Supplement users are more likely to report very good or excellent health, have health insurance, use alcohol moderately, eschew cigarette smoking, and exercise more frequently than nonusers. Supplement users reported motivations related to overall health more commonly than for supplementing nutrients from food intakes. Use of supplements was related to more favorable health and lifestyle choices. Less than a quarter of supplements used by adults were recommended by a physician or health care provider.

  20. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations. PMID:27898676

  1. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations.

  2. Suppressive effects of dietary EPA-rich fish oil on the degradation of elastin fibers in the aortic wall in nicotine-administered mice.

    PubMed

    Kugo, Hirona; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Onozato, Megumi; Miyamoto, Chie; Hashimoto, Keisuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta. Recent studies suggest that nicotine, which is a primary component in cigarette smoke, is closely associated with the development and rupture of an AAA. Nicotine accelerates AAA development through the weakening of the vascular wall by increasing oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. However, little is known about preventing the AAA induced by nicotine. A non-surgical means of preventing the weakening of the vascular wall before the onset of AAA by functional food factors would be a valuable option over surgery. Fish oil is a functional food that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary fish oil on the weakening of the aortic wall due to nicotine administration in a mouse model. Histological analysis showed that the dietary fish oil suppressed the degradation of elastin fibers in the nicotine-administered mice. Additionally, the dietary fish oil suppressed the protein level of MMP-12, macrophage infiltration, and the oxidative stress in the vascular wall. These results suggest that fish oil could suppress the weakening of the vascular wall by suppressing the elastin fiber degradation caused by nicotine. By suppressing the nicotine induced weakening of the vascular wall, fish oil might help prevent the development of AAA.

  3. Effect of a single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils on plasma phospholipid fatty acids over 48 hours

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil-in-water emulsions may offer an advantage in digestion and absorption thereby increasing the bioavailability of fatty acids. We evaluated the effect of three oil-in-water emulsified fish oils (Emulsion B, Emulsion ...

  4. Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

    2010-12-01

    Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukine 1β (IL-1β) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-ΔΔCt)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as

  5. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on β-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have

  6. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Morais, Sofia; Silva, Tomé; Cordeiro, Odete; Rodrigues, Pedro; Guy, Derrick R; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-09-04

    Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on β-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have higher responsiveness to low

  7. Dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids do not diminish eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of fish oil supplements on diminishing airway inflammation in asthma have been studied in mouse models and human intervention trials with varying results. However, the independent effects of the main omega-3 PUFAs found in fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (D...

  8. Hexabromocyclododecane in consumer fish from South China: implications for human exposure via dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Xiang, Nan; Duan, Yan-Ping; Chen, Ling; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-07-01

    Levels of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in 12 consumer fish species from South China. The concentrations of the sum of HBCD diastereoisomers (ΣHBCD) ranged from nondetectable to 194 pg/g wet weight, with a detectable frequency of 70%. This was at the low end of the concentration range globally observed. Carnivorous fish species contained higher HBCD concentrations than herbivorous and detritivorous ones, suggesting the potential for biomagnification of HBCDs via the trophic chain. Moreover, ΣHBCD concentrations were higher in both freshwater and seawater farmed fish than in wild marine fish, indicating that human activities were probably an important input source of HBCD in aquaculture. Among the three diastereoisomers, α-HBCD dominated in most samples, with a mean relative abundance of 70%. In agreement with previous studies, a difference in the diastereomer patterns was observed from commercial products and several environmental media to biota samples. For farm-raised snubnose pompano, the concentrations of ΣHBCD were moderately linearly correlated with lipid contents but were not significantly correlated with fish body lengths and weights. In the worst-case exposure, the mean estimated daily intake of ΣHBCD via fish consumption for residents of South China ranged from 13 to 16 pg/kg body weight/d for various age groups, much lower than its lowest observed adverse effect level derived from a two-generation reproductive toxicity study on rats.

  9. Dietary Accumulation of PCBs from a Contaminated Sediment Source by a Demersal Fish Species (Leiostomus xanthurus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    PCBs prior to dietary exposure and to provide a PCB- contaminated food source . Whole bcdy concentrations of PCBs in spot and sandworms exposed to...potential food ., source for infaunal and epibenthic food webs. 23. Current regulations dealing with conditions for the release of 4 contaminoted

  10. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-10-19

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as "excellent" "good" and "moderate"). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 "excellent" fish; (ii) 1 "excellent" and 1 "good" fish, and depending on life-stage, 3-4 lean red meat, 0-2 eggs and 3-26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20-59 enriched foods; (iv) 37-66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  11. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 “excellent” fish; (ii) 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv) 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. PMID:26492269

  12. The 2014 FDA assessment of commercial fish: practical considerations for improved dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jennifer; Kaplan, Jason; Lapolla, John; Kleiner, Rima

    2016-07-13

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently released its report: A Quantitative Assessment of the Net Effects on Fetal Neurodevelopment from Eating Commercial Fish (As Measured by IQ and also by Early Age Verbal Development in Children). By evaluating the benefits and potential concerns of eating fish during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the analysis suggests that pregnant women consuming two seafood meals (8-12 oz) per week could provide their child with an additional 3.3 IQ points by age 9. Recent insights from behavioral economics research indicate that other factors, such as concerns about price and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure, appear to reduce fish consumption in many individuals.To assess the net effects of eating commercial fish during pregnancy, we compared the consumption of select fish species necessary to achieve IQ benefits with the amount necessary to have adverse developmental effects due to MeHg exposure. For the species or market types evaluated, the number of servings necessary to reach MeHg exposure to observe an adverse effect was at least twice that the amount estimated to achieve peak developmental benefit. We then reported average costs of fresh and canned or pouched fish, and calculated the cost per week for pregnant women to achieve maximum IQ benefits for their gestating child. Canned light tuna was the least expensive option at $1.83 per week to achieve maximum IQ benefit.Due to their relatively low cost, canned and pouched fish products eaten with enough regularity are likely to provide peak cognitive benefits. Because of its popularity, canned and pouched tuna could provide some of the largest cognitive benefits from fish consumption in the U.S. Future FDA consumer advice and related educational initiatives could benefit from a broader perspective that highlights the importance of affordable and accessible fish choices. These observations underscore the importance of clear public health messaging that address both health

  13. Effects of therapeutic lifestyle change diets high and low in dietary fish-derived fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in middle-aged and elderly subjects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diets, low and high in dietary fish on apolipoprotein metabolism were examined. Subjects were provided with a Western diet for 6-weeks followed by 24-weeks of either of two TLC diets (10/group). Apolipoprotein kinetics were determined in the fed stat...

  14. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  15. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  16. Dietary Fish Oil Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory and ER Stress Signalling Pathways in the Liver of Sows during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Denise K.; Gröne, Birthe; Couturier, Aline; Rosenbaum, Susann; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Lactating sows have been shown to develop typical signs of an inflammatory condition in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Hepatic inflammation is considered critical due to the induction of an acute phase response and the activation of stress signaling pathways like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), both of which impair animal´s health and performance. Whether ER stress-induced UPR is also activated in the liver of lactating sows and whether dietary fish oil as a source of anti-inflammatory effects n-3 PUFA is able to attenuate hepatic inflammation and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of sows is currently unknown. Based on this, two experiments with lactating sows were performed. The first experiment revealed that ER stress-induced UPR occurs also in the liver of sows during lactation. This was evident from the up-regulation of a set of genes regulated by the UPR and numerically increased phosphorylation of the ER stress-transducer PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB. The second experiment showed that fish oil inhibits ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of lactating sows. This was demonstrated by decreased mRNA levels of a number of UPR-regulated genes and reduced phosphorylation of PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB in the liver of the fish oil group. The mRNA levels of various nuclear factor-κB-regulated genes encoding inflammatory mediators and acute phase proteins in the liver of lactating sows were also reduced in the fish oil group. In line with this, the plasma levels of acute phase proteins were reduced in the fish oil group, although differences to the control group were not significant. In conclusion, ER stress-induced UPR is present in the liver of lactating sows and fish oil is able to inhibit inflammatory signaling pathways and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver. PMID:26351857

  17. Dietary Fish Oil Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory and ER Stress Signalling Pathways in the Liver of Sows during Lactation.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Denise K; Gröne, Birthe; Couturier, Aline; Rosenbaum, Susann; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Lactating sows have been shown to develop typical signs of an inflammatory condition in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Hepatic inflammation is considered critical due to the induction of an acute phase response and the activation of stress signaling pathways like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), both of which impair animal's health and performance. Whether ER stress-induced UPR is also activated in the liver of lactating sows and whether dietary fish oil as a source of anti-inflammatory effects n-3 PUFA is able to attenuate hepatic inflammation and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of sows is currently unknown. Based on this, two experiments with lactating sows were performed. The first experiment revealed that ER stress-induced UPR occurs also in the liver of sows during lactation. This was evident from the up-regulation of a set of genes regulated by the UPR and numerically increased phosphorylation of the ER stress-transducer PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB. The second experiment showed that fish oil inhibits ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of lactating sows. This was demonstrated by decreased mRNA levels of a number of UPR-regulated genes and reduced phosphorylation of PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB in the liver of the fish oil group. The mRNA levels of various nuclear factor-κB-regulated genes encoding inflammatory mediators and acute phase proteins in the liver of lactating sows were also reduced in the fish oil group. In line with this, the plasma levels of acute phase proteins were reduced in the fish oil group, although differences to the control group were not significant. In conclusion, ER stress-induced UPR is present in the liver of lactating sows and fish oil is able to inhibit inflammatory signaling pathways and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver.

  18. Dietary inclusion of salmon, herring and pompano as oily fish reduces CVD risk markers in dyslipidaemic middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Song, Pengkun; Frøyland, Livar; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2012-10-28

    Dietary intervention studies to assess the cardioprotective effects of oily fish are scarce in China. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the oily fish, Norwegian salmon, herring and local farmed pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) on CVD risk markers when included in the Chinese diet. In this 8-week, parallel-arm, randomised intervention study, 126 Chinese women with hypertriacylglycerolaemia, aged 35-70 years, were assigned to four groups to consume an experimental lunch containing 80 g fillets of either one of three oily fish or a mix of commonly eaten meats (pork/chicken/beef/lean fish) for 5 d/week. The results showed that inclusion of the three oily fish significantly increased the intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) while decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Compared to the control group, significant increases of DHA, EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFA in plasma choline phosphoglyceride were observed in the three oily fish groups. Plasma TAG levels were significantly reduced only in the salmon and herring groups. When compared to the baseline level, the three oily fish diets significantly decreased serum concentrations of TAG, apoB, apoCII and apoCIII, but only the salmon and herring diets significantly lowered TNF-α and raised adiponectin levels in serum. The salmon diet additionally decreased the serum concentration of IL-6. To conclude, dietary inclusion of salmon, herring and pompano as oily fish can effectively increase serum n-3 LC-PUFA content and are associated with favourable biochemical changes in dyslipidaemic middle-aged and elderly Chinese women, and these beneficial effects are mainly associated with n-3 LC-PUFA contents.

  19. Dietary fish and meat intake and dementia in Latin America, China, and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study123

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Guerra, Sara S Gallardo; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Llibre de Rodriguez, Juan; Noriega, Lisseth Hernandex; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata M; Williams, Joseph; Ferri, Cleusa P; Prince, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence of an association between fish and meat consumption and risk of dementia is inconsistent and nonexistent in populations in developing countries. Objective: The objective was to investigate associations between fish and meat consumption with dementia in low- and middle-income countries. Design: One-phase cross-sectional surveys were conducted in all residents aged ≥65 y in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru. A total of 14,960 residents were assessed by using the 10/66 standardized protocol, which includes face-to-face interviews for dietary habits and a cross-culturally validated dementia diagnosis. Results: Dietary intakes and the prevalence of dementia varied between sites. We combined site-specific Poisson regression prevalence ratios (PRs) for the association between fish and meat consumption and dementia in 2 fixed-effect model meta-analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics and fish and meat consumption as appropriate. We found a dose-dependent inverse association between fish consumption and dementia (PR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.91) that was consistent across all sites except India and a less-consistent, dose-dependent, direct association between meat consumption and prevalence of dementia (PR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.31). Conclusions: Our results extend findings on the associations of fish and meat consumption with dementia risk to populations in low- and middle-income countries and are consistent with mechanistic data on the neuroprotective actions of omega-3 (n–3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish. The inverse association between fish and prevalent dementia is unlikely to result from poorer dietary habits among demented individuals (reverse causality) because meat consumption was higher in those with a diagnosis of dementia. PMID:19553298

  20. Stable isotope analysis indicates a lack of inter- and intra-specific dietary redundancy among ecologically important coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plass-Johnson, J. G.; McQuaid, C. D.; Hill, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    Parrotfish are critical consumers on coral reefs, mediating the balance between algae and corals, and are often categorised into three functional groups based on adult morphology and feeding behaviour. We used stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N) to investigate size-related ontogenetic dietary changes in multiple species of parrotfish on coral reefs around Zanzibar. We compared signatures among species and functional groups (scrapers, excavators and browsers) as well as ontogenetic stages (immature, initial and terminal phase) within species. Stable isotope analysis suggests that ontogenetic dietary shifts occurred in seven of the nine species examined; larger individuals had enriched δ13C values, with no relationship between size and δ15N. The relationship between fish length and δ13C signature was maintained when species were categorised as scrapers and excavators, but was more pronounced for scrapers than excavators, indicating stronger ontogenetic changes. Isotopic mixing models classified the initial phase of both the most abundant excavator ( Chlorurus sordidus) as a scraper and the immature stage of the scraper Scarus ghobban (the largest species) as an excavator, indicating that diet relates to size rather than taxonomy. The results indicate that parrotfish may show similar intra-group changes in diet with length, but that their trophic ecology is more complex than suggested by morphology alone. Stable isotope analyses indicate that feeding ecology may differ among species within functional groups, and according to ontogenetic stage within a species.

  1. Prediction of the bioconcentration factor in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using data from the dietary exposure bioaccumulation fish test.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Naoki; Tanabe, Aiko; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Sawada, Takashi; Murakami, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Sumi, Shinichiro; Tsubokura, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Ajimi, Shozo; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Kotaro

    2014-06-01

    An approach to predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCFpre ) from the predicted uptake rate constant (k1 pre ) and the depuration rate constant measured in the dietary exposure bioaccumulation fish test (k2 dietary ) [BCFpre  = k1 pre /k2 dietary ] is proposed in test guideline 305 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Data were collected on the BCFs of 197 test chemicals from Japan's Chemical Substances Control Law database. To demonstrate how the BCFpre compares with experimentally derived BCF under optimum conditions, 48 of 197 test chemicals, including a number of studies that could be considered problematic, were excluded from the analysis. The k1 pre was calculated by using 22 published prediction methods: the correlations between experimental uptake rate constants (k1 aqueous ) and k1 pre for all prediction methods were very low and were statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Three prediction methods were also selected that gave relatively good values for the geometric mean of k1 pre /k1 aqueous and calculated values of BCFpre for 12 test chemicals. Linear relationships (p < 0.05) are presented between logarithm of experimental and predicted BCF. The correlation coefficients of growth-corrected experimental and predicted BCF tended to be higher than values that were not growth corrected. For some test chemicals, use of predicted BCF led to a bioaccumulation classification different from that of existing regulatory criteria. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Serafine, Katherine M; Labay, Caitlin; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to obesity, chronic metabolic disease, and increased inflammation in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dietary supplements that are high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce or prevent these negative health consequences in rats. Eating high fat chow also increases the sensitivity of rats to behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems (e.g., cocaine), and this effect is greatest in adolescent females. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat chow induced increases in sensitivity to cocaine in adolescent female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 25-27) ate standard laboratory chow (5.7% fat), high fat chow (34.4% fat), or high fat chow supplemented with fish oil (20% w/w). Cocaine dose dependently (1-17.8mg/kg) increased locomotion and induced sensitization across 6 weeks of once-weekly testing in all rats; however, these effects were greatest in rats eating high fat chow. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented enhanced locomotion and sensitization in rats eating high fat chow. There were no differences in inflammatory markers in plasma or the hypothalamus among dietary conditions. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish oil can prevent high fat diet-induced sensitization to cocaine, but they fail to support the view that these effects are due to changes in proinflammatory cytokines. These data add to a growing literature on the relationship between diet and drug abuse and extend the potential health benefits of fish oil to stimulant drug abuse prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is asthma the next target for n-3 fatty acid supplements?

    PubMed

    Stephensen, Charles B

    2004-12-01

    Eating fish or taking n-3 fatty acid supplements can decrease the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease. Such supplements also provide symptomatic relief for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Recent research suggests that asthma, another highly prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease, may also respond to fish oil supplements.

  4. USING STABLE ISOTOPES FOR FISH DIETARY ANALYSES: COPING WITH TOO MANY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope analysis can provide a useful tool for determining time-integrated measures of proportional food source contributions to fish diets. Ratios of stable (non-radioactive) isotopes of common elements (e.g., C,N,S) vary among food sources, and tissues of consumers (e.g...

  5. USING STABLE ISOTOPES FOR FISH DIETARY ANALYSES: COPING WITH TOO MANY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope analysis can provide a useful tool for determining time-integrated measures of proportional food source contributions to fish diets. Ratios of stable (non-radioactive) isotopes of common elements (e.g., C,N,S) vary among food sources, and tissues of consumers (e.g...

  6. Dietary fish oil reverse epididymal tissue adiposity, cell hypertrophy and insulin resistance in dyslipemic sucrose fed rat model small star, filled.

    PubMed

    Soria, Ana; Chicco, Adriana; Eugenia D'Alessandro, María; Rossi, Andrea; Lombardo, Yolanda B.

    2002-04-01

    The present work was designed to assess the possible benefits of (7% w/w) dietary fish oil in reversing the morphological and metabolic changes present in the adipose tissue of rats fed an SRD for a long time. With this purpose, in the epididymal fat tissue, we investigated the effect of dietary fish oil upon: i) the number, size and distribution of cells, ii) the basal and stimulated lipolysis, iii) the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, and iv) the antilipolytic action of insulin. The study was conducted on rats fed an SRD during 120 days with fish oil being isocaloric substituted for corn oil for 90-120 days in half the animals. Permanent hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and abnormal glucose homeostasis were present in the rats before the source of fat in the diet was replaced. The major new findings of this study are the following: i) Dietary fish oil markedly reduced the fat pads mass, the hypertrophy of fat cells and improved the altered cell size distribution. ii) The presence of fish oil in the diet corrected the inhibitory effect of high sucrose diet upon the antilipolytic action of insulin, reduced the "in vitro" enhanced basal lipolysis and normalized isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis. Fat pads lipoprotein lipase activity decreased reaching values similar to those observed in age-matched controls fed a control diet (CD). These effects were not accompanied by any change in rat body weight. All these data suggest that the dyslipemic rats fed a moderate amount of dietary fish oil constitute a useful animal model to study diet-regulated insulin action.

  7. Daily sesame oil supplement attenuates joint pain by inhibiting muscular oxidative stress in osteoarthritis rat model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chu, Pei-Yi; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, affecting approximately 15% of the population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sesame oil in controlling OA pain in rats. Rat joint pain was induced by medial meniscal transection in Sprague-Dawley rats and assessed by using hindlimb weight distribution method. Muscular oxidative stress was assessed by determining lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species and circulating antioxidants. Sesame oil significantly decreased joint pain compared with positive control group in a dose-dependent manner. Sesame oil decreased lipid peroxidation in muscle but not in serum. Further, sesame oil significantly decreased muscular superoxide anion and peroxynitrite generations but increased muscular glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels. Further, sesame oil significantly increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2) expression compared with positive control group. We concluded that daily sesame oil supplement may attenuate early joint pain by inhibiting Nrf2-associated muscular oxidative stress in OA rat model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2002-08-01

    The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are found in high proportions in oily fish and fish oils. The n-3 PUFA are structurally and functionally distinct from the n-6 PUFA. Typically, human inflammatory cells contain high proportions of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid and low proportions of n-3 PUFA. The significance of this difference is that arachidonic acid is the precursor of 2-series prostaglandins and 4-series leukotrienes, which are highly-active mediators of inflammation. Feeding fish oil results in partial replacement of arachidonic acid in inflammatory cell membranes by EPA. This change leads to decreased production of arachidonic acid-derived mediators. This response alone is a potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of n-3 PUFA. However, n-3 PUFA have a number of other effects which might occur downstream of altered eicosanoid production or might be independent of this activity. For example, animal and human studies have shown that dietary fish oil results in suppressed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and can decrease adhesion molecule expression. These effects occur at the level of altered gene expression. This action might come about through antagonism of the effects of arachidonic acid-derived mediators or through more direct actions on the intracellular signalling pathways which lead to activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFB). Recent studies have shown that n-3 PUFA can down regulate the activity of the nuclear transcription factor NFB. Fish oil feeding has been shown to ameliorate the symptoms in some animal models of chronic inflammatory disease and to protect against the effects of endotoxin and similar inflammatory challenges. Clinical studies have reported that oral fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and among some patients with asthma, supporting the idea that the n-3 PUFA in fish oil are anti

  9. Effect of Dietary Combination of Methionine and Fish Oil on Cellular Immunity and Plasma Fatty Acids in Infectious Bursal Disease Challenged Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Teck Chwen, Loh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN-γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN-γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens. PMID:24198724

  10. Effect of dietary combination of methionine and fish oil on cellular immunity and plasma fatty acids in infectious bursal disease challenged chickens.

    PubMed

    Maroufyan, Elham; Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Teck Chwen, Loh; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN- γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN- γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens.

  11. Fish Movement and Dietary History Derived from Otolith (delta)13C

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P K; Finlay, J C; Power, M E; Phillis, C C; Ramon, C E; Eaton, G F; Ingram, B L

    2005-09-08

    Habitat use and food web linkages are critical data for fish conservation and habitat restoration efforts, particularly for threatened salmonids species. Otolith microchemistry has been shown to be a powerful tool for reconstructing fish movement, but over small distances (kilometers), geology-derived differences in otolith chemistry are rare. Here, we demonstrate that otolith {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio (i.e. {delta}{sup 13}C) of anadromous steelhead trout can be used to distinguish residence in small streams from residence in larger streams and rivers. While previous research has shown that water dissolved inorganic carbon {delta}{sup 13}C is the primary source of carbon in otoliths, the downstream change in food {delta}{sup 13}C in this watershed appears to be the primary control on otolith {delta}{sup 13}C. As a result, this method can also be applied to the problem of reconstructing feeding history at a location.

  12. Dietary niche overlap in sympatric asexual and sexual livebearing fishes Poecilia spp.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, K; Plath, M; Winemiller, K O; Tobler, M

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the spatiotemporal patterns in trophic resource use in a system of a gynogenetic poeciliid fish, the Amazon molly Poecilia formosa, and its sexual congeners the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna and the Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana using gut contents analysis. No statistically significant differences in trophic resource use were found between sexual and gynogenetic species, but gut contents varied significantly across sites and over time. In addition, variation in trophic morphology (i.e. gut length) was significant across sites but not species, and laboratory experiments indicated that gut length is phenotypically plastic. Overall, trophic differentiation between coexisting asexual and sexual Poecilia appears to be minimal, and it is unlikely that niche differentiation contributes to a stable coexistence of the two reproductive forms. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. In Vivo Regulation of Colonic Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, Apoptosis and P27Kip1 by Dietary Fish Oil and Butyrate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D.; Murphy, Mary E.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally-induced colon cancer and the protective effect is enhanced by co-administration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanism(s) have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27Kip1 mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24 or 48 h post azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL) and p27Kip1 (cell cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N7-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P=0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P=0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P=0.039) compared to corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 h post AOM injection compared to a corn oil/butyrate diet (P=0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in fish oil/butyrate group (r= −0.53, P=0.040). Corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27Kip1 expression and proliferation (r= 0.61, P=0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. PMID:26323483

  15. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Michael J; Villeneuve, Laure AN; Obach, Alex; Jensen, Linda; Bron, James E; Tocher, Douglas R; Taggart, John B

    2008-01-01

    Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol

  16. Association between fish consumption, dietary omega-3 fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants intake, and type 2 diabetes in 18 First Nations in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Marushka, Lesya; Batal, Malek; David, William; Schwartz, Harold; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Sharp, Donald; Black, Andrew; Tikhonov, Constantine; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-07-01

    First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally higher rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population. Recent data suggest that a high consumption of fish may help prevent T2D. On the other hand, fish might also be a potential source of environmental contaminants which could potentially be a risk factor for T2D. To investigate the potential associations between self-reported T2D and consumption of locally-harvested fish, dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) and persistent organic pollutants intake among adult FNs living on reserve in Ontario. Data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, which included a cross-sectional study of 1429 Ontario FNs adults living in 18 communities across 4 ecozones in 2012 were analyzed. Social and lifestyle data were collected using household interviews. The consumption of locally-harvested fish was estimated using a traditional food frequency questionnaire along with portion size information obtained from 24hr recalls. Fish samples were analyzed for the presence of contaminants including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dietary intakes of DDE and PCBs were estimated using community-specific levels of DDE/PCBs in fish species. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential covariates including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, smoking, and education were developed. The prevalence of T2D in Ontario FNs was 24.4%. A significant positive association between fish consumption of one portion per week and more and T2D compared to no fish consumption was found (OR=2.5 (95% CI: 1.38-4.58). Dietary DDE and PCBs intake was positively associated with T2D (OR=1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.75) for DDE and OR=1.07 (95%CI: 1.004-1.27) for PCBs) per unit increase in DDE/PCBs while n-3-FAs intake, adjusted for DDE/PCBs intake, showed an inverse effect against T2D among older individuals

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented fish silage on serum biochemical parameters of broiler Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Panda, Sasmita; Babu, Laxman Kumar; Panda, Arun Kumar; S, Tanuja; Mohanty, Anurag; Panigrahy, Kuldeep Kumar; Samal, Pinaki

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented fish silage (FFS) on serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 192, 7-day-old broiler Japanese quail chicks of either sex, were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments with four replicates in each group having 12 chicks in each replicate pen. The dietary treatments were T1 - Control diet, T2 - Diet containing 5% FFS, T3 - Diet containing 10% FFS, and T4 - Diet containing 15% FFS. Group body weight and feed consumption were recorded at weekly intervals. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was derived by dividing the feed consumed with the weekly body weight gain. At the end of the experiment, 8 birds from each treatment were selected randomly and sacrificed by cervical dislocation to study the carcass traits expressed as % pre-slaughter live weight. At 5 weeks of age, about 2 ml of blood was taken from the jugular vein of each selected bird, and serum samples were separated after centrifugation. Total protein, albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, calcium, phosphorus, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were estimated in the serum. The cumulative body weight gains from 1 to 5 weeks of age did not vary significantly between control and 5% FFS group. However, a linear decrease in body weight gain was observed by increasing the levels of FFS beyond 5% in the diet. The cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in case of birds under control group during 1-5 weeks of age as compared to birds fed FFS based diet (5%, 10%, and 15%). No statistical difference in cumulative feed conversion ratio could be noticed during 1-5 weeks of age. The eviscerated yield decreased and giblet weight increased due to the dietary supplementation of FFS at 15

  18. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  19. Effect of dietary hydrogenated fish oil on the plasma lipoprotein profile and on the fatty acid composition of different tissues on the rat.

    PubMed

    Morgado, N; Sanhueza, J; Galleguillos, A; Garrido, A; Nieto, S; Valenzuela, A

    1999-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids are actively incorporated into membrane lipids, and fat intake can modify the composition and the biochemical activity of cellular membranes and the pattern of plasma lipoproteins. Industrial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils leads to the formation of isomeric trans fatty acids which are incorporated into cellular membranes when they are present in the diet. The trans fatty acid amount present in hydrogenated oils depends on the degree of hydrogenation, being high for partially hydrogenated oils and low for highly hydrogenated oils. Hydrogenated fish oil is widely used in some countries for the production of margarine and industrial fats. This study compares the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocytes, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and hepatic microsomal membranes and the plasma lipoprotein profile after feeding rats with a synthetic diet containing either fish oil, partially hydrogenated fish oil, or highly hydrogenated fish oil. It is observed that the tissue content of monounsaturated fatty acids increases and that the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases after an increase of the degree of hydrogenation of the dietary fat. Tissues from animals fed partially hydrogenated fish oil show significant amounts of trans fatty acids only. The plasma triacylglyceride composition and the lipoprotein profile are also altered by the degree of hydrogenation of the dietary fat. Triacylglycerides decrease after highly hydrogenated fat feeding only. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are significantly increased after partially hydrogenated fat feeding. Although no direct evidence is presented, this effect may be attributable to the high content of trans isomers of this dietary fat which nutritionally may behave as saturated fatty acids.

  20. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed oxidized fish oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liang, Gui-Ying; Yang, Hui-Jun; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yun-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Six oxidized fish oil contained diets were formulated to investigate the effect of graded levels of vitamin E (V(E)) (α-tocopherol acetate: 160, 280, and 400 mg kg(-1)) associated with either 1.2 or 1.8 mg kg(-1) selenium (Se) on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism of juvenile largemouth bass. Another control diet containing fresh fish oil with 160 mg kg(-1) V(E) and 1.2 mg kg(-1) Se was also prepared. Over a 12-week feeding trial, about 5 % of Micropterus salmoide fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 showed inflammation and hemorrhage symptoms at the base of dorsal, pectoral, and tail fin. Fish in all treatments survived well (above 90 %). Feed intakes (88.42-89.58 g fish(-1)) of all treatments were comparable. Growth performances (weight gain and specific growth rate) and feed utilization (feed and protein efficiency ratio) were significantly impaired by dietary oil oxidation, and they did not benefit from neither V(E) nor Se supplementation. Regardless of dietary V(E) and Se supplementation, oxidized oil ingestion resulted in markedly decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio. Oxidized oil ingestion also induced markedly lower liver and muscle lipid contents, and these effects could be alleviated by dietary Se supplementation. Dietary oil oxidation stimulated hepatic catalase activities relative to the control, and supplementation of V(E) abrogated this effect. Hepatic reduced glutathione content in the control was markedly higher than that of treatment OxSe1.2/V(E)160, without any significant differences comparing with the other oxidized oil receiving groups. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and liver Se concentration reflected dietary Se profile, whereas liver V(E) level reflected dietary V(E) profile. Compared with the control, fish fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 obtained markedly higher serum, liver and muscle malondialdehyde contents, which droppe significantly with increasing either V(E) or Se supplementation. In conclusion

  1. Thrombogenicity of dietary milkfat, fish oil and hydrogenated coconut oil in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K G; James, K A; Maccoll, A J; Arthur, D G

    1995-01-06

    Abstract Extract Several indicators of thrombosis and thrombolysis were measured in four groups of 16 pigs fed for 10 weeks on either a low fat basal ration or rations containing 10% anhydrous milkfat (AMF), 10% fish oil (MaxEPA), or 10% hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO). At the end of the feeding period, pigs on the three test fat/oil rations were subjected to balloon angioplasty of both femoral arteries. Thrombus size at the site of injury was measured both morphometrically and using autologous blood platelets labelled with (99)Tc-HMPAO (technetium - "Deretec").

  2. Dietary fish oil inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J I; Chandler, D B; Fulmer, J D; Wert, M B; Grizzle, W E

    1989-03-01

    Intratracheal bleomycin induces pulmonary fibrosis in experimental animals, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Since altered levels of fatty acid metabolites are associated with bleomycin-induced lung injury, we examined the effects of a change in dietary fat on bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Previously we have shown that an essential fatty acid-deficient diet can reduce the severity of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The present study examined the effect of replacement of usual dietary fat with menhaden oil, rich in eicosapentaenoic acid, on the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Weanling rats were raised on a standard laboratory diet or a diet consisting of a fat-free powder to which was added 25% (w/w) of menhaden oil. After 8 weeks of feeding, the animals received either 1.5 units of bleomycin or an equivalent volume of saline intratracheally. In animals receiving the laboratory diet, bleomycin treatment produced a 44% increase in total lung protein content when compared to saline-treated controls (p less than 0.001) and a 77% increase in total lung hydroxyproline content (p less than 0.01). In contrast, bleomycin-treated animals receiving the menhaden oil diet had only small increases, which did not reach statistical significance, in protein and hydroxyproline content in the lung. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity did not differ among the treatment groups, but the percentage of lavage macrophages was slightly diminished in bleomycin-treated animals receiving the laboratory diet. Cellular differentials of lavage fluid did not differ significantly between bleomycin- and saline-treated animals receiving the menhaden oil diet. Bleomycin-induced histologic changes, quantitated by morphometric analysis, were significantly reduced with the menhaden oil diet. We conclude that a diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid can significantly ameliorate bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, possibly via alterations in eicosanoid metabolism.

  3. The effect of consuming oxidized oil supplemented with fiber on lipid profiles in rat model*

    PubMed Central

    Shafaeizadeh, Shila; Jamalian, Jalal; Owji, Ali Akbare; Azadbakht, Leila; Ramezani, Roghayeh; Karbalaei, Narges; Rajaeifard, Abdolreza; Tabatabai, Negar

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming thermally oxidized oil supplemented with pectin on liver glutathione peroxidase activity, serum malondialdehyde and lipid profiles in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Fifty growing male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into different groups. The diets differed only in their fat and pectin content. The diets had fresh sunflower oil or thermally oxidized sunflower oil. The diets were supplemented with pectin in the amount of 50 g/kg diet or not supplemented. Thus, there were four experimental groups: “fresh oil”, “oxidized oil”, “fresh oil + pectin”, “oxidized oil + pectin”. Study duration was 42 days. Non parametric, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate mean values of variables in groups. RESULTS: In oil consumption, peroxide, p- Anisidine, thiobarbituric acid, free fatty acid values and total polar compounds increased but iodine value was decreased. In the oxidized oil group compared to the fresh oil group, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and malondialdehyde increased (p < 0.05). Serum malondialdehyde was decreased in the “oxidized oil + pectin” group compared to the oxidized oil alone (2.82 ± 0.51 vs. 3.61 ± 0.72 nmol/ml; p < 0.05). Total cholesterol decreased in both groups containing pectin compared to their respective diets without supplementation (70.10 ± 10.75 vs. 81.20 ± 13.10 mg/dl; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pectin consumption could decrease serum malondialdehyde and cholesterol in the diet that contains oxidized oil. Pectin supplementation could decrease the detrimental effects of thermally oxidized oil. PMID:22973361

  4. Effect of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-12-01

    Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were used to determine the effects of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Three treatments were as follows: basal diet (56:44 Roughage:concentrate [R:C] ratio, dry matter basis) supplemented with 500 g of palm oil as control (PO), 500 g mixture (1:1, w/w) of palm oil and linseed oil (POLSO) and 500 g of linseed oil (LSO). The LSO supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and milk composition. Compared to control cows, cows supplemented with LSO increased milk concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 FA (P < 0.05), particularly C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Feeding LSO reduced concentrations of milk short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) while it increased concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Milk proportions of n-3 FA increased, whereas n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the LSO as compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on corn silage with LSO at 500 g/day could improve the nutritional value of milk with potential health-beneficial FA without detrimental effect on milk composition or cow's performance. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Dietary β-glucan improved growth performance, Vibrio counts, haematological parameters and stress resistance of pompano fish, Trachinotus ovatus Linnaeus, 1758.

    PubMed

    Do Huu, Hoang; Sang, Huynh Minh; Thanh Thuy, Nguyen Thi

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of graded levels of dietary β-glucan (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 g kg(-1)) on growth performance, haematological parameters, intestinal Vibrio counts, dose requirement and salinity stress resistance in pompano fish Trachinotus ovatus (6.45 g ± 0.06 (SEM)). After 8-weeks of diet feeding, growth was significantly higher in fish fed diets with 0.10% β-glucan compared to fish fed control diet (no β-glucan). Survival increased significantly in fish fed 0.05 and 0.10% β-glucan compared to control diet. There were significant increases in red blood cells (in 0.20% β-glucan diet), in total leukocytes (in 0.05-0.20% β-glucan diet), in both lymphocyte and monocyte count in fish fed 0.10%-0.40% β-glucan diet. However, dietary β-glucan did not affect neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil counts. Intestinal Vibrio counts were reduced in fish fed any level of β-glucan compared to control. In addition, dietary β-glucan levels highly correlated with growth, survival, intestinal Vibrio counts and haematological index. Optimal β-glucan levels for maximal growth of fish were predicted to be 0.122% at day 21 (R(2) = 98.53%), 0.120% at day 28 (R(2) = 78.55%), 0.115% at day 42 (R(2) = 62.21%) and 0.090% at day 56 (R(2) = 75.18%), showing a decreasing β-glucan requirement with increasing fish size. Furthermore, optimal β-glucan levels for maximal haematological parameters based on lymphocyte count, was estimated to be 0.120% (R(2) = 98.53%) at day 56. Also, fish fed 0.05%-0.20% β-glucan showed better resistance against salinity stress. In conclusion, β-glucan supplementation is effective for improving growth, intestinal Vibrio counts and boosted stress resistance of the pompano fish, T. ovatus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary high-linoleate safflower oil is not hypocholesterolemic in aged mice after a long-term feeding--comparison with lard, perilla oil and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, A; Ito, A; Sakai, K; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Okuyama, H

    1995-04-01

    Aged mice (6 months of age) fed a conventional diet were shifted to diets containing 10% lard, high-linoleate safflower seed oil, high alpha-linolenate perilla seed oil or high-docosahexaenoate fish oil. A significant increase in whole body cholesterol (/g wt) was seen within 30 d after the shift (rapid response), followed by a gradual decrease in 60 to 120 d (slow response); similar changes occurred in all the dietary groups. Shortly after the shift, the serum cholesterol concentrations increased to higher levels in the lard and safflower oil groups than in the other groups, and the levels at 120 d were in the group order of safflower oil > lard > perilla oil > fish oil. Rapid and slow responses to dietary shifts were also seen in hepatic cholesterol levels (/g wt), which were higher in the lard group than in the other groups at 120 d. The arterial cholesterol contents of the fish oil group tended to be less than in the other groups at 120 d. Thus in aged mice after a relatively long-term feeding (> one tenth of the life-span), safflower oil was not hypocholesterolemic as compared with lard and other omega 3-rich oils. Long-term feeding of fish oil maintained serum cholesterol concentrations at lower levels than feeding with safflower oil or lard and without accumulating cholesterol in the aorta, liver or whole body; perilla oil was also hypocholesterolemic but to a lesser degree than fish oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effects of dietary fish oil replacement on fillet lipids in North American Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumers want fish that contain high amount of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for the health benefits. Fish producers desire to supply fish with these fatty acids while reducing the amount of fish oil included in the diet and replacing the fish oil with alternative oils. Two studies were conducte...

  8. A single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils has equivalent effects on chylomicron fatty acids over 8 hours

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long chain omega-3 fatty acids are important in nutrition and disease management. Flavored emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil in water emulsions may offer an advantage in bio-availability of the fatty acids. Chylomicrons transport triglyceride from...

  9. Vitamin D intoxication due to an erroneously manufactured dietary supplement in seven children.

    PubMed

    Kara, Cengiz; Gunindi, Figen; Ustyol, Ala; Aydin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric cases of vitamin D intoxication (VDI) with dietary supplements have not been previously reported. We report on 7 children with VDI caused by consumption of a fish oil supplement containing an excessively high dose of vitamin D due to a manufacturing error. Seven children aged between 0.7 and 4.2 years were admitted with symptoms of hypercalcemia. Initial median (range) serum concentrations of calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 16.5 (13.4-18.8) mg/dL and 620 (340-962) ng/mL, respectively. Repeated questioning of the parents revealed use of a fish oil that was produced recently by a local manufacturer. Analysis of the fish oil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the vitamin D3 content was ~4000 times the labeled concentration. Estimated daily amounts of vitamin D3 intake varied between 266,000 and 800,000 IU. Patients were successfully treated with intravenous hydration, furosemide, and pamidronate infusions. With treatment, serum calcium returned to the normal range within 3 days (range: 2-7 days). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels normalized within 2 to 3 months. Complications, including nephrocalcinosis, were not observed throughout the 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, errors in manufacturing of dietary supplements may be a cause of VDI in children. Physicians should be aware of this possibility in unexplained VDI cases and repeatedly question the families about dietary supplement use. To prevent the occurrence of such unintentional incidents, manufacturers must always monitor the levels of ingredients of their products and should be rigorously overseen by governmental regulatory agencies, as is done in the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Effect of dietary intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on severity of asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, L; Salome, C M; Hughes, J M; Liu-Brennan, D; Rimmer, J; Allman, M; Pang, D; Armour, C; Woolcock, A J

    1998-02-01

    We assessed the clinical and biochemical effects in asthmatic children of fish oil supplementation and a diet that increases omega-3 and reduces omega-6 fatty acids. Thirty nine asthmatic children aged 8-12 yrs participated in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial for 6 months during which they received fish oil capsules plus canola oil and margarine (omega-3 group) or safflower oil capsules plus sunflower oil and margarine (omega-6 group). Plasma fatty acids, stimulated tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) production, circulating eosinophil numbers and lung function were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of dietary modification. Day and night symptoms, peak flow rates and medication use were recorded for 1 week prior to laboratory visits. Plasma phospholipid omega-3 fatty acids were significantly greater in the omega-3 group at 3 and 6 months compared to the omega-6 group (p<0.001). In the omega-3 group TNFalpha production fell significantly compared with baseline (p=0.026), but the magnitude of change between groups did not reach significance (p=0.075). There were no significant changes in clinical outcome measures. Dietary enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids over 6 months increased plasma levels of these fatty acids, reduced stimulated tumour necrosis factor alpha production, but had no effect on the clinical severity of asthma in these children.

  11. The effect of dietary walnuts compared to fatty fish on eicosanoids, cytokines, soluble endothelial adhesion molecules and lymphocyte subsets: a randomized, controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Lan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David; Sabaté, Joan

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that walnut consumption can exert effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial activation similar to those produced by fish consumption. In a crossover dietary intervention trial, 25 normal to mildly hyperlipidemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic diets: a walnut diet incorporating 42.5 g of walnuts per 10.1 mJ 6 times per week (1.8% of energy n-3 fat); a fish diet providing 113 g of fatty fish per 10.1 mJ 2 times per week (0.8% of energy n-3 fat), or a control diet (no nuts or fish, 0.4% of energy n-3 fat) for 4 weeks on each diet. Both the walnut and fish diets inhibited circulating concentrations of prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) and 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, but demonstrated no effect on blood interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α¯ (TNF-α¯), and C-reactive protein (CRP) or the number of circulating lymphocyte subsets. On the walnut diet the proportion of plasma phospholipid α¯-linolenic acid (ALA) increased 140% and arachidonic acid (AA) decreased 7% compared to both the control and fish diets. The proportion of plasma phospholipid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increased about 200% and 900% respectively on the fish diet relative to either the control or walnut diet. The walnut diet inhibited E-selectin by 12.7% relative to the fish diet, and the fish diet inhibited secretory intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1) by 4.5% relative to the control diet. Both walnuts and fish in commonly consumed amounts may have modest albeit distinct effects on circulating adhesion molecules.

  12. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD.

  13. Specific PCR assays to determine bovine, porcine, fish and plant origin of gelatin capsules of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jo, Cheon-Ho; Jung, Yoo-Kyung; Kwon, Kisung; Kang, Tae Sun

    2016-11-15

    Gelatin, a purified protein derived mostly from pig skin and bovine tissue, is used widely in both food and pharmaceutical industries. Here, to determine the species of origin of capsule gelatin, we developed a sensitive and reliable test using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, which included 1) species-specific or universal primer sets, designed to detect short 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from cow, pig, and fish (tilapia) as well as genes encoding the large subunit of plant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and 2) species-specific PCR coupled with whole-genome amplification. This method was used to verify manufacturing label claims of 28 gelatin capsule samples sold as dietary supplements. The results from 27 samples were consistent with gelatin-related information on the manufacturer label, while one sample that mentioned tilapia gelatin was found to contain only bovine DNA. This rapid method can therefore be used to verify the authenticity of gelatin capsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of plasma phosphatidylcholine molecular species in rabbits fed fish oil is modulated by dietary n-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Koba, K; Horrobin, D F; DeMarco, A C; Ni, I H; Huang, Y S

    1995-12-01

    The present study examined the distribution of plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species in rabbits fed a chow diet supplemented with fish oil (FO) in combination with either hydrogenated coconut oil or the n-6 fatty acid-rich evening primrose oil (EPO) for 4 weeks. Significant proportions of plasma PC molecular species contained long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Addition of EPO to the FO supplemented diet increased the incorporation of n-6 fatty acids into plasma PC molecules; it also raised the proportions of 16:0-18:2, n-6, 18:1-18:2, n-6, 18:2, n-6-18:2, n-6, and 16:0-20:4, n-6. The increase of n-6 fatty acid-containing PC was at the expense of n-3 fatty acid containing PC species. However, feeding n-6 fatty acids did not affect the distribution of PC molecular species based on total carbon chain length. The most interesting observation was that dietary suplementation with EPO, raised the ratio of 22:6, n-3-containing to 20:5, n-3-containing molecular species, suggesting an enhanced conversion of 20:5, n-3 to 22:6, n-3.

  15. Fish oil enhances intestinal integrity and inhibits TLR4 and NOD2 signaling pathways in weaned pigs after LPS challenge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulan; Chen, Feng; Odle, Jack; Lin, Xi; Jacobi, Sheila K; Zhu, Huiling; Wu, Zhifeng; Hou, Yongqing

    2012-11-01

    Long-chain (n-3) PUFA exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases in animal models and clinical trials. In addition, pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NOD) play a critical role in intestinal inflammation. We hypothesized that fish oil could alleviate Escherichia coli LPS-induced intestinal injury via modulation of TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways. Twenty-four weaned piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design and the main factors included a dietary treatment (5% corn oil or 5% fish oil) and immunological challenge (LPS or saline). After feeding fish oil or corn oil diets for 21 d, pigs were injected with LPS or saline. At 4 h postinjection, blood samples were collected and pigs were killed. EPA, DHA, and total (n-3) PUFA were enriched in intestinal mucosa through fish supplementation. Fish oil improved intestinal morphology, indicated by greater villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and intestinal barrier function, indicated by decreased plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and increased mucosal DAO activity as well as enhanced protein expression of intestinal tight junction proteins including occludin and claudin-1. Moreover, fish oil decreased intestinal TNFα and PGE(2) concentrations and caspase-3 and heat shock protein 70 protein expression. Finally, fish oil downregulated the mRNA expression of intestinal TLR4 and its downstream signals myeloid differentiation factor 88, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, TNFα receptor-associated factor 6, and NOD2, and its adaptor molecule, receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2. Fish oil decreased the protein expression of intestinal NFκB p65. These results indicate that fish oil supplementation is associated with inhibition of TLR4 and NOD2 signaling pathways and concomitant improvement of intestinal integrity under an inflammatory condition.

  16. The effects of dietary xylooligosaccharide on mucosal parameters, intestinal microbiota and morphology and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Sharifian, Maryam; Vesaghi, Mohammad Javad; Khalili, Mohsen; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different levels of dietary xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on skin mucus bactericidal activity and protein content, intestinal microbiota and morphology as well as growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry. The specimens (1.54 ± 0.03 g) were fed experimental diets supplemented with different levels of XOS [0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3%] for 8 weeks. The results revealed that feeding on XOS significantly increased skin mucus antibacterial activity and protein levels (P < 0.05) and the highest levels were observed in 3% XOS treatment. The total autochthonous intestinal heterotrophic bacteria significantly increased following XOS administration in diet (P < 0.05). Administration of 2 or 3% XOS in fry diet significantly elevated the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (P < 0.05). However, dietary XOS had no significant effect on intestinal morphology, growth performance and diet utilisation of Caspian white fish fry (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate beneficial effects of dietary XOS on different parameters of mucosal immunity (both skin mucus and intestinal microbiota) and encourage further studies regards various aspect of XOS administration in early life stages of fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of potential probiotic Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG-2 on the innate immunity and disease resistance of tropical freshwater fish, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V

    2012-06-01

    The effects of dietary Pseudomonas aeruginosa VSG-2 supplementation on innate immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in Labeo rohita. Fish were fed for 60 days with control diet or 3 experimental diets containing P. aeruginosa VSG-2 at 10(5), 10(7), and 10(9) cfu g(-l), respectively. Various innate immune parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Fish were challenged with A. hydrophila 60 days post-feeding and mortalities were recorded over 10 days post-infection. Dietary supplementation of P. aeruginosa VSG-2 significantly increased serum lysozyme and alternative complement pathway (ACP) activities, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst activity in head kidney macrophages of L. rohita throughout the experimental period. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased after 60 days in the groups fed diets containing 10(7) and 10(9) cfu g(-1) P aeruginosa. Serum IgM levels were significantly higher in the treatment groups than in the control group after 30 days of feeding; however, the opposite result was observed at 60 days. Moreover, fish fed diets containing 10(7) and 10(9) cfu g(-1)P. aeruginosa had significantly higher post-challenge survival rates against A. hydrophila infection. Further, P. aeruginosa VSG-2 was found to be safe for mammals. These results indicate that dietary P. aeruginosa VSG-2 supplementation at 10(7) cfu g(-1) can effectively improve innate immunity and disease resistance in L. rohita.

  18. Fish oil improves learning impairments of diabetic rats by blocking PI3K/AKT/nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Jia, D; Heng, L-J; Yang, R-H; Gao, G-D

    2014-01-31

    Previous research has demonstrated that diabetes induces learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanism of memory impairment induced by diabetes is poorly understood. Dietary fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to enhance learning and memory and prevent memory deficits in various experimental conditions. The present study investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on the lipid peroxidation, inflammation and neuron apoptosis in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The effects of diabetes and fish oil treatment on the spatial learning and memory were also evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. STZ-induced diabetes impaired spatial learning and memory of rats, which was associated with the inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Fish oil administration ameliorated cognitive deficit, reduced oxidative stress and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), protected the hippocampal neurons by increasing Protein Kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and decreasing caspase-9 expression. These results suggested that the principle mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic and neuroprotective effect of fish oil were its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis potential, supporting a potential role for fish oil as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.

  19. Correlations between Fruit, Vegetables, Fish, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids Estimated by Web-Based Nonconsecutive Dietary Records and Respective Biomarkers of Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    It is of major importance to measure the validity of self-reported dietary intake using web-based instruments before applying them in large-scale studies. This study aimed to validate self-reported intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes assessed by a web-based self-administered dietary record tool used in the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study, against the following concentration biomarkers: plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. One hundred ninety-eight adult volunteers (103 men and 95 women, mean age=50.5 years) were included in the protocol: they completed 3 nonconsecutive-day dietary records and two blood samples were drawn 3 weeks apart. The study was conducted in the area of Paris, France, between October 2012 and May 2013. Reported fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes and plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared. Simple and adjusted Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were estimated after de-attenuation for intra-individual variation. Regarding food groups in men, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.20 for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.49 for fruits and plasma vitamin C, and from 0.40 for fish and plasma c20:5 n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) to 0.55 for fish and plasma c22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In women, correlations ranged from 0.13 (nonsignificant) for vegetables and plasma vitamin C to 0.41 for fruits and vegetables and plasma beta carotene, and from 0.27 for fatty fish and EPA to 0.54 for fish and EPA+docosahexaenoic acid. Regarding micronutrients, adjusted correlations ranged from 0.36 (EPA) to 0.58 (vitamin C) in men and from 0.32 (vitamin C) to 0.38 (EPA) in women. The findings suggest that three nonconsecutive web-based dietary records provide reasonable estimates of true intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 fatty acids. Along with other validation

  20. Relationship of estimated dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish with peripheral nerve function after adjusting for mercury exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Werner, Robert; Gillespie, Brenda; Basu, Niladri; Franzblau, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Objectives We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals. Methods We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates. Results The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05μg/L) and hair (0.49μg/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve. Conclusions In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam. PMID:23538138

  1. Dietary back-calculation using stable isotopes: can activities of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism be used to improve estimates of trophic shifts in fish?

    PubMed

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the effects of dietary protein content and feeding level on trophic shifts of C and N isotopes (Delta delta(13)C(tissue-diet) and Delta delta(15)N(tissue-diet)) and (2) to test whether the measurement of the activities of two enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids could improve the accuracy of estimation of the trophic shifts of C and N isotopes. For this, 36 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were kept under controlled conditions for 8 weeks and fed at three different levels (2, 4 and 8 g kg(-0.8) d(-1)) with three diets differing in their protein content only (20, 29 and 39 %). For each fish, food to fish body trophic shifts of C and N isotopes were measured as well as the hepatic activities of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The feeding level affected the activities of ASAT and GDH as well as the trophic shifts of C and N isotopes significantly but the dietary protein content had no significant effect except on the specific activity of ASAT. Fish fed at the lowest level had significantly higher trophic shifts of C and N isotopes than fish fed at higher levels. The trophic shifts were significantly lower in fish with a high protein utilisation. Values of the 'goodness-of-fit' for linear regressions between enzyme activities and trophic shifts were low. Thus, activities of ASAT and GDH are not suitable for predicting estimates of trophic shifts in situations where the amount of food consumed or the dietary protein content is not known. In further studies, activities of enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids combined with measurements of the activities of other enzymes should be used to try and improve the accuracy of estimates of trophic shifts.

  2. Fish Oil Slows Prostate Cancer Xenograft Growth Relative to Other Dietary Fats and is Associated with Decreased Mitochondrial and Insulin Pathway Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Jessica C.; Masko, Elizabeth M.; Wu, Chenwei; Keenan, Melissa M.; Pilla, Danielle M.; Aronson, William J.; Chi, Jen-Tsan A.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous mouse studies suggest that decreasing dietary fat content can slow prostate cancer (PCa) growth. To our knowledge, no study has yet compared the effect of multiple different fats on PCa progression. We sought to systematically compare the effect of fish oil, olive oil, corn oil, and animal fat on PCa progression. Methods A total of 96 male SCID mice were injected with LAPC-4 human PCa cells. Two weeks following injection, mice were randomized to a fish oil, olive oil, corn oil, or animal fat-based Western diet (35% kcals from fat). Animals were euthanized when tumors reached 1,000mm3. Serum was collected at sacrifice and assayed for PSA, insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and PGE-2 levels. Tumors were also assayed for PGE-2 and COX-2 levels and global gene expression analyzed using Affymetrix microarrays. Results Mice weights and tumor volumes were equivalent across groups at randomization. Overall, fish oil consumption was associated with improved survival, relative to other dietary groups (p=0.014). On gene expression analyses, the fish oil group had decreased signal in pathways related to mitochondrial physiology and insulin synthesis/secretion. Conclusions In this xenograft model, we found that consuming a diet in which fish oil was the only fat source slowed tumor growth and improved survival, compared to mice consuming diets composed of olive oil, corn oil, or animal fat. While prior studies showed that the amount of fat is important for PCa growth, the current study suggests that type of dietary fat consumed may also be important. PMID:23877027

  3. Fish oil slows prostate cancer xenograft growth relative to other dietary fats and is associated with decreased mitochondrial and insulin pathway gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J C; Masko, E M; Wu, C; Keenan, M M; Pilla, D M; Aronson, W J; Chi, J-Ta; Freedland, S J

    2013-12-01

    Previous mouse studies suggest that decreasing dietary fat content can slow prostate cancer (PCa) growth. To our knowledge, no study has yet compared the effect of multiple different fats on PCa progression. We sought to systematically compare the effect of fish oil, olive oil, corn oil and animal fat on PCa progression. A total of 96 male severe combined immunodeficient mice were injected with LAPC-4 human PCa cells. Two weeks following injection, mice were randomized to a Western diet based on fish oil, olive oil, corn oil or animal fat (35% kilocalories from fat). Animals were euthanized when tumor volumes reached 1000 mm(3). Serum was collected at death and assayed for PSA, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1-binding protein-3 and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) levels. Tumors were also assayed for PGE-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels, and global gene expression was analyzed using Affymetrix microarrays. Mice weights and tumor volumes were equivalent across groups at randomization. Overall, fish oil consumption was associated with improved survival relative to other dietary groups (P=0.014). On gene expression analyses, the fish oil group had decreased signal in pathways related to mitochondrial physiology and insulin synthesis/secretion. In this xenograft model, we found that consuming a diet in which fish oil was the only fat source slowed tumor growth and improved survival compared with that in mice consuming diets composed of olive oil, corn oil or animal fat. Although prior studies showed that the amount of fat is important for PCa growth, this study suggests that the type of dietary fat consumed may also be important.

  4. Dietary habits of invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies in the Croatian part of the Danube River basin and their potential impact on benthic fish communities.

    PubMed

    Piria, Marina; Jakšić, Goran; Jakovlić, Ivan; Treer, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Ponto-Caspian (P-C(1)) gobies have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structures throughout the Danube basin. While their presence in the Croatian part of the basin has been noted and distribution studied, their dietary habits and impacts on native fish communities have, until now, been unknown. In 2011, 17 locations in the Sava River Basin were sampled for fish and 15 for benthic invertebrates. Fish population monitoring data, available for nine seasons (2003-2006 and 2010-2014) and 12 locations, were used to analyse the impacts of P-C gobies on benthic fish abundance. Gut content analysis indicates that the monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis diet is very diverse, but dominated by Trichoptera, Chironomidae, Bivalvia and Odonata. The diet overlaps considerably with the round goby Neogobius melanostomus diet, although Gastropoda are dominant in the latter's diet. Small fish and Gammarus sp. dominate the bighead goby Ponticola kessleri diet. Comparison of gut content with the prey available in the environment indicates that monkey and round gobies exhibit preference for Trichoptera, Megaloptera and Coleoptera, and bighead goby for Trichoptera, Gammarus sp. and Pisces. P-C gobies in the Sava River are spreading upstream, towards the reaches with lower fish diversity. Analyses indicate potentially positive impacts of P-C gobies' presence on some fish populations: round and bighead goby on Balkan golden loach Sabanejewia balcanica and monkey goby on common carp Cyprinus carpio, crucian carp Carassius carassius, burbot Lota lota and Balkan loach Cobitis elongata. However, there are also indications that bighead and round goby could adversely impact the native chub Squalius cephalus and zingel Zingel zingel populations, respectively. As P-C gobies are still in the expansionary period of invasion and the ecosystem still adapting to new circumstances, continued monitoring of fish population dynamics in the Sava basin is needed to determine the

  5. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. n-3 PUFA fortification of high n-6 PUFA farmed tilapia with linseed could significantly increase dietary contribution and support nutritional expectations of fish.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Niva; Weill, Pierre; Sharon, Ossie; Loewenbach, Rachel; Berzak, Ofer

    2009-03-25

    Farmed fish high in n-6 PUFA may undermine fish nutritional expectations and intake recommendations for n-3 PUFA requirements and exacerbate rather than improve already high n-6/n-3 PUFA diets. Dietary contribution of fish fortification by linseed-based n-3 PUFA was evaluated. Mango tilapia (12 months old) with high n-6 PUFA (21.8 FA%, n-6/n-3 ratio 4.6:1) were fed standard/control (T(C)) or linseed-supplemented (5%, T(5%); 7%, T(7%)) feed for 61 days regular-growth and 120 days stock-growth (to 650 g). Compared to T(C), n-3 PUFA increased in T(5%) 46% and T(7%) 58%; ALA in T(5%) increased 100% and T(7%) 167%; EPA+DHA in T(5%) increased 14% and T(7%) 23% (p < 0.05); n-6 PUFA/LCPUFA were unchanged. T(7%) EPA+DHA 168 mg/100 g of raw fillet is comparable to current American intake and Dietary Reference Intakes; controlled cooking preserved approximately 90% EPA+DHA. n-6/n-3 ratios decreased 16-38% in total PUFA to 2.3:1 and in LCPUFA to 0.61:1. Linseed supplementation could improve tilapia n-3 PUFA/LCPUFA, ameliorating n-3 PUFA scarcity and unexpectedly high fish n-6 PUFA content, potentially making a significant nutritional contribution.

  7. EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

  8. Dietary Enrichment with 20% Fish Oil Decreases Mucus Production and the Inflammatory Response in Mice with Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Hartman, Jaye; Skinner, Monica M.; Schwindt, Adam R.; Fischer, Kay A.; Vorachek, William R.; Bobe, Gerd; Valentine, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contained in fish oil. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary PUFA enrichment decreases mucus production or the inflammatory response associated with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation. Mice (n = 10/group) were fed control, 20% fish oil, or 20% corn oil enriched diets for a total of 12 weeks. At 8 and 10 weeks, mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of saline (10 control-fed mice) or OVA (30 remaining mice). Once at 10 weeks and on 3 consecutive days during week 12, mice were challenged by nebulizing with saline or OVA. Mice were euthanized 24 hours after the last challenge and blood was collected for plasma FA analysis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected to determine cell composition and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-13) concentrations. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) + mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue were quantified using morphometric analysis. Relative abundance of mRNA for mucin (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) genes were compared with ß-actin by qPCR. Supplementation with either corn oil or fish oil effectively altered plasma FA profiles towards more (n-6) FA or (n-3) FA, respectively (P < 0.0001). Sensitization and challenge with OVA increased the proportion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, and decreased the proportion of macrophages and concentrations of IL-13 in BAL fluid; increased the percentage of PAS+ mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue; and increased gene expression of mucins (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) in lung tissue of control-fed mice. Dietary PUFA reversed the increase in PAS+ mucus-producing cells (P = 0.003). In addition, dietary

  9. Dietary Enrichment with 20% Fish Oil Decreases Mucus Production and the Inflammatory Response in Mice with Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Hartman, Jaye; Skinner, Monica M; Schwindt, Adam R; Fischer, Kay A; Vorachek, William R; Bobe, Gerd; Valentine, Beth A

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contained in fish oil. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary PUFA enrichment decreases mucus production or the inflammatory response associated with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation. Mice (n = 10/group) were fed control, 20% fish oil, or 20% corn oil enriched diets for a total of 12 weeks. At 8 and 10 weeks, mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of saline (10 control-fed mice) or OVA (30 remaining mice). Once at 10 weeks and on 3 consecutive days during week 12, mice were challenged by nebulizing with saline or OVA. Mice were euthanized 24 hours after the last challenge and blood was collected for plasma FA analysis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected to determine cell composition and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-13) concentrations. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) + mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue were quantified using morphometric analysis. Relative abundance of mRNA for mucin (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) genes were compared with ß-actin by qPCR. Supplementation with either corn oil or fish oil effectively altered plasma FA profiles towards more (n-6) FA or (n-3) FA, respectively (P < 0.0001). Sensitization and challenge with OVA increased the proportion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, and decreased the proportion of macrophages and concentrations of IL-13 in BAL fluid; increased the percentage of PAS+ mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue; and increased gene expression of mucins (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) in lung tissue of control-fed mice. Dietary PUFA reversed the increase in PAS+ mucus-producing cells (P = 0.003). In addition, dietary

  10. Determination of preservative and antimicrobial compounds in fish from Manila Bay, Philippines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Amano, Atsuko; Miller, Todd W; Siringan, Fernando P; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-09-15

    Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of four paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl) and two antimicrobial agents (triclosan and triclocarban) belonging to personal care products (PCPs) in 20 species of fish from Manila Bay (Philippines) was performed. Detection of PCPs with greater frequency indicates the ubiquitous contamination of Manila Bay. Concentrations of total paraben were one order of magnitude higher than the antimicrobials in almost all fish, except in Stolephorus indicus and Leiognathus equulus. A positive correlation was observed between parabens concentration and fish length (r = 0.31-0.49; p<0.05 to <0.001) and fish weight (r = 0.28-0.49; p<0.05 to <0.001), but not for the antimicrobials. The estimated dietary exposure values of the four parabens in the Philippines through fish is four orders of magnitude lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 10mg/kg/day, but the values of antimicrobials are just half of the ADI of TCS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCPs contamination in fish from Philippines.

  11. Serum fatty acid composition in normal Japanese and its relationship with dietary fish and vegetable oil contents and blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Takebe, K; Tando, Y; Arai, Y; Yamada, N; Ishii, M; Kikuchi, H; Machida, K; Imamura, K; Terada, A

    1995-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 110 normal Japanese adults (55 men and 55 women) to determine their caloric intake, dietary fat content and its origin (animal, plant, or marine). In addition, their blood lipid levels and fatty acid compositions were examined. Men in their 30s-50s consumed 2,600-2,800 calories and 60 g of fats, while women in the same age range consumed 2,000-2,200 calories and 52-58 g of fats. In both sexes, caloric, fat, and cholesterol intakes were lower for those in their 60s but protein and crude fiber consumption remained generally unchanged. When the dietary fats were classified according to origin, men and women in their 30s were found to consume less oil of marine origin. This appeared to be the result of a western style diet for Japanese adults in their 30s. Compared with men, women exhibited lower blood lipid levels. As age increased, the total cholesterol level of the blood rose in women. Thus the blood lipid level was generally equal in the two groups in their 60s. There was a positive correlation between the blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and dietary consumption of fish oil. The marine/plant lipid ratio was positively correlated with the blood EPA/arachidonic acid ratio. Therefore, it was believed that the origin of the dietary fats consumed is a factor in determining the blood fatty acid profile. The linoleic acid (18:2), arachidonic acid (20:4), and 18:2 + 20:4 contents were negatively correlated to the total cholesterol level in the blood but positively correlated to the HDL-cholesterol level. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4 + 20:5 + 22:6) were negatively correlated with the blood triglyceride level. From the findings presented above, we concluded that dietary fats not derived from animal sources should be classified into fish and vegetable oils to evaluate their dietary significance. We also noted that Japanese in their 30s consume less fish oil, indicating the western trend in their

  12. Dietary fish oil increases fat absorption and fecal bile acid content without altering bile acid synthesis in 20-d-old weanling rats following massive ileocecal resection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Lan, Tian; Chen, Yuegang; Dawson, Paul A

    2012-07-01

    Dietary fish oil (FO) was reported to lower fecal fat excretion in a weanling rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS) after ileocecal resection (ICR), and to induce changes in secretion and synthesis of bile acid (BA) in adults. We hypothesized that dietary FO, as compared with corn oil (CO), increases intestinal fat absorption in weanling SBS rats in part due to increased hepatic BA synthesis and luminal BA concentrations. After undergoing ICR, 20-d-old rats were fed ad lib for 7 d with a CO or FO diet containing 5% sucrose polybehenate (SPB), a marker for dietary fat absorption. Fecal fatty acid, fecal and intestine luminal BA, liver mRNA expressions of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7α1) and sterol-12α-hydroxylase (Cyp8β1), and serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-1 (7αC4) levels were determined. As compared with CO-ICR rats, FO-ICR rats had higher intestinal absorption of total fat and most individual fatty acids. Although the BA content per gram of dry stool was increased in FO-ICR rats, there were no differences between groups for the BA content in remnant jejunum, liver mRNA expression of BA biosynthetic enzymes, Cyp7α1 and Cyp8β1, or serum 7αC4, a marker for BA synthesis. Dietary FO increases dietary fat absorption without increasing hepatic BA synthesis in weanling SBS rats.

  13. Diet and eczema: a review of dietary supplements for the treatment of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan J.; Vandersall, Abbey; Katta, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    In the context of increasing popularity of “natural” alternatives to conventional medicine, several dietary supplements have gained the attention of researchers and consumers alike in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Readily available without a prescription and frequently perceived to have fewer side effects than traditional medications, these “natural” remedies may be featured in discussions with patients, and clinicians should therefore be familiar with their efficacy and safety. Based on trials to date, no dietary supplements can be recommended for routine use in the treatment of AD. However, some promising results have been noted from the use of probiotics and prebiotics taken in combination. Given significant differences in study design to date, however, further studies would be needed to clarify dose and strains of probiotics. Studies of vitamin D have been limited and have produced conflicting results, although further trials in selected subsets of patients may be indicated. Very limited data is available on fish oil supplements, while future studies on Chinese herbal medicine would require evaluation of comparable herbs and formulations. Finally, multiple trials of evening primrose oil and borage seed oil have shown improvement similar to placebo, and neither is currently recommended in eczema therapy. PMID:27648380

  14. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P < 0.05). Evaluation of appetite related gene expression showed down-regulation of ghrelin in probiotic fed fish compared those of control treatment (P < 0.05). However, administration of different levels of L. acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary intake of fish, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and survival after breast cancer: A population-based follow-up study on Long Island, New York.

    PubMed

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Steck, Susan E; He, Ka; Olshan, Andrew F; Shen, Jing; Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Yu; Ahsan, Habibul; Terry, Mary Beth; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2015-07-01

    In laboratory experiments, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to reduce inflammatory eicosanoids resulting from ω-6 PUFA metabolism via competitive inhibition, and the ω-3-induced cytotoxic environment increases apoptosis and reduces cell growth in breast cancer cells. To the authors' knowledge, epidemiologic investigations regarding whether dietary ω-3 PUFA intake benefits survival after breast cancer are limited and inconsistent. The authors used resources from a population-based follow-up study conducted on Long Island, New York, among 1463 women newly diagnosed with first primary breast cancer who were interviewed an average of approximately 3 months after diagnosis to assess risk and prognostic factors, including dietary intake (using a food frequency questionnaire). Vital status was determined through 2011, yielding a median follow-up of 14.7 years and 485 deaths. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. All-cause mortality was reduced among women with breast cancer reporting the highest quartile of intake (compared with never) for tuna (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92), other baked/broiled fish (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97), and the dietary long-chain ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92) and eicosapentaenoic acid (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97). All-cause mortality was reduced by 16% to 34% among women with breast cancer who reported a high intake of fish and long-chain ω-3 PUFAs. Long-chain ω-3 PUFA intake from fish and other dietary sources may provide a potential strategy to improve survival after breast cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. Metal concentrations in selected brands of canned fish in Nigeria: estimation of dietary intakes and target hazard quotients.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn) were determined in selected brands of canned mackerel, sardine, and tuna in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the dietary intakes of metals and lifelong health hazards associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The mean concentrations of metals in canned mackerel, sardine, and tuna were found as 0.04-0.58, 0.06-0.44, 0.32-0.83 μg/g for Cd; 0.05-2.82, 0.70-2.98, 0.23-2.56 μg/g for Pb, 1.33-11.33, <0.20-17.53, nd-34.2 μg/g for Ni, 0.49-3.79, 0.22-1.89, 0.66-14.39 μg/g for Cr, 0.33-0.92, 0.03-1.51, <0.08-1.31 μg/g for Cu, 0.11-2.17, nd-0.75, 0.14-0.50 μg/g for Co, 6.45-26.90, 6.06-53.54, 3.06-95.78 μg/g for Fe, 2.30-3.84, 0.95-21.78, 1.65-2.33 μg/g for Mn, 1.15-7.19, 3.60-17.88, 1.21-5.35 μg/g for Zn, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe in some of these brands of canned fish were above their permissible limits while other metals occurred at levels below their permissible limits. The estimated daily intakes of metals from consumption of 20.8 g fish per day by a 60 kg body weight adult were below the provisional tolerable daily intakes for Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu and recommended daily intakes for Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The estimated target hazard quotients of the examined metals were less than 1 in the majority of the samples indicating no long-term health hazard at the present circumstance.

  18. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rappold, Ana G.; Caughey, Melissa; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Bassett, Maryann; Montilla, Tracey; Case, Martin W.; Berntsen, Jon; Bromberg, Philip A.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Devlin, Robert B.; Samet, James M.

    2015-01-01

    JM. 2015. Dietary supplementation with olive oil or fish oil and vascular effects of concentrated ambient particulate matter exposure in human volunteers. Environ Health Perspect 123:1173–1179; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408988 PMID:25933197

  19. Methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption in vulnerable racial/ethnic populations: probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model analyses using 1999-2006 NHANES and 1990-2002 TDS data.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie G; Liu, Shi V; Geller, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    NHANES subjects self-identified as "Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, or multiracial" (A/P/N/M) have higher levels of blood organic mercury than other racial/ethnic groups; however, the reasons for this have been unclear. This research uses exposure modeling to determine the reasons for elevated blood methylmercury (MeHg) levels, and also extends previous analyses of observed NHANES blood levels. The probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model was applied, using MeHg fish residue data from FDA's Total Diet Study (1990-2002) combined with NHANES/WWEIA (1999-2006) fish consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by race/ethnicity, age group, and fish type. Statistical analyses of blood methylmercury levels in the (6 times larger) 1999-2006 NHANES data were compared against previous published results for 1999-2002 data. The A/P/N/M group has higher fish intake, modeled MeHg exposures, and blood levels than the general population and other racial/ethnic groups. Tuna, other saltwater fish, and other freshwater fish are key food types driving dietary MeHg exposure. The 1-<3 years-old A/P/N/M group has the highest mean dietary MeHg intake per body weight (0.06 μg/kg/day; ~2.3 times higher than the rest of the population). Fish intake and modeled exposure predictions correlate well with NHANES blood biomarker levels. This study, using the SHEDS-Dietary model with national data, reinforces and expands upon previous observations that dietary exposure via fish consumption is an important route for methylmercury intake by the general population, and especially for racial/ethnic groups with higher fish consumption. These probabilistic dietary modeling approaches could be applied for local populations (e.g., tribes) and other chemicals and foods, if data are available.

  20. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  1. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    PubMed

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk.

  2. Associations of Dietary Long-Chain ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Fish Consumption With Endometrial Cancer Risk in the Black Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Brasky, Theodore M.; Sponholtz, Todd R.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary long-chain (LC) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which derive primarily from intakes of fatty fish, are thought to inhibit inflammation and de novo estrogen synthesis. This study prospectively examined the associations of dietary LC ω-3 PUFAs and fish with endometrial cancer risk in 47,602 African-American women living in the United States, aged 21–69 years at baseline in 1995, and followed them until 2013 (n = 282 cases). Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of LC ω-3 PUFA (quintiled) and fish (quartiled) intake with endometrial cancer risk, overall and by body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2). The hazard ratio for quintile 5 of total dietary LC ω-3 PUFAs versus quintile 1 was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 1.24); there was no linear trend. Hazard ratios for the association were smaller among normal-weight women (BMI <25: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.18, 1.58) than among overweight/obese women (BMI ≥25: HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.43), but these differences were not statistically significant. Fish intake was also not associated with risk (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.56, 1.31). Again hazard ratios were smaller among normal-weight women (HR = 0.65) than among overweight/obese women (HR = 0.94). While compatible with no association, the hazard ratios observed among leaner African-American women are similar to those from recent prospective studies conducted in predominantly white populations. PMID:26755676

  3. Dietary combination effects of conjugated linoleic acid and flaxseed or fish oil on the concentration of linoleic and arachidonic acid in poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Narciso-Gaytán, C; Park, J H; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2011-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the combination of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids on the linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) concentrations of broiler chicken breast and thigh muscles. One hundred and twenty broilers were raised to 6 wk of age. All chicks were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet containing 5 different fat sources at an inclusion level of 2% total fat: 1) CLA, 2) flaxseed oil, 3) menhaden fish oil, 4) CLA and flaxseed oil, and 5) CLA and menhaden fish oil. Eight broilers from each treatment were processed at 4 and 6 wk of age. Breast and thigh muscle samples were collected and analyzed for total fat content and fatty acid composition. The results showed that broilers from the CLA and fish oil treatment had lower arachidonic acid concentrations in both breast and thigh muscles than those fed the flaxseed oil diet or the CLA and flaxseed oil diet (P < 0.05). The arachidonic acid concentration and n-6:n-3 ratio of breast and thigh samples from the menhaden fish oil diet were similar to those of the CLA and fish oil diet (P > 0.05), but the inclusion of linoleic acid into chicken thigh muscles of broilers fed the CLA and menhaden fish oil diet improved significantly when compared with that of the diet containing menhaden fish oil only. Thus, the combination of CLA and menhaden fish oil is recommended to reduce the concentrations of linoleic and arachidonic acids in broiler chicken breast and thigh muscles.

  4. Association Between Use of Specialty Dietary Supplements and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Peters, Ulrike; Rehm, Colin D.; White, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests that certain specialty dietary supplements have antiinflammatory properties, though evidence in humans remains limited. Data on a nationally representative sample of 9,947 adults from the 1999–2004 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess the associations between specialty supplement use and inflammation, as measured by serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration. Using survey-weighted multivariate linear regression, significant reductions in hs-CRP concentrations were associated with regular use of glucosamine (17%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 26), chondroitin (22%, 95% CI: 8, 33), and fish oil (16%, 95% CI: 0.3, 29). No associations were observed between hs-CRP concentration and regular use of supplements containing methylsulfonylmethane, garlic, ginkgo biloba, saw palmetto, or pycnogenol. These results suggest that glucosamine and chondroitin supplements are associated with reduced inflammation in humans and provide further evidence to support an inverse association between use of fish oil supplements and inflammation. It is important to further investigate the potential antiinflammatory role of these supplements, as there is a need to identify safe and effective ways to reduce inflammation and the burden of inflammation-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23139249

  5. Interaction of potassium carbonate and soybean oil supplementation on performance of early-lactation dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Avila, A R; Baumann, E; Charbonneau, É; Chouinard, P Y; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R

    2017-09-06

    Potassium carbonate supplementation is known to improve milk fat synthesis and to modify milk mineral composition in dairy cows. The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 on production performance, biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FA), and mineral composition of milk in early-lactation dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet with or without soybean oil (SBO), as a source of polyunsaturated FA. Twenty-eight ruminally fistulated Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment lasted 33 d, including a 5-d pretreatment collection period used as a covariate. Experimental treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with 0 or 1.5% K2CO3 and with 0 or 2% SBO, and balanced to contain 40% forage (57% corn silage + 43% grass silage) and 60% concentrate. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to assess the effects of K2CO3, SBO, and their interaction. Feeding K2CO3 did not affect milk yield, but tended to increase 4% fat-corrected milk and fat yield when combined with SBO. However, adding SBO to diets increased milk yield. Dietary K2CO3 supplementation did not affect milk fat concentration of trans-10 18:1 or any other identified biohydrogenation intermediates. Soybean oil supplementation decreased milk fat concentration of C16 and de novo synthesized FA, and increased preformed FA. Among the other effects of SBO supplementation observed, concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 increased, as well as most of the cis and trans isomers of 18:1 and 18:0. Milk urea N decreased in cows fed K2CO3 as compared with unsupplemented diets. A positive relation was established between milk Cl concentration and milk yield, suggesting that the equilibrium of this ion is linked to the efficiency of lactogenesis. The effect of K2CO3 on this mineral equilibrium in the mammary gland remains to be established. Overall, results have shown that potential effect of K2CO3 on milk fat synthesis is dependent on the levels of dietary

  6. DHA derivatives of fish oil as dietary supplements: a nutrition-based drug discovery approach for therapies to prevent metabolic cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yonggang; Lindsey, Merry L; Halade, Ganesh V

    2012-08-01

    During the early 1970s, Danish physicians Jorn Dyerberg and colleagues observed that Greenland Eskimos consuming fatty fishes exhibited low incidences of heart disease. Fish oil is now one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements. In 2004, concentrated fish oil was approved as a drug by the FDA for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Fish oil contains two major omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). With advancements in lipid concentration and purification techniques, EPA- or DHA-enriched products are now commercially available, and the availability of these components in isolation allows their individual effects to be examined. Newly synthesized derivatives and endogenously discovered metabolites of DHA exhibit therapeutic utility for obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the distinct effects of EPA and DHA to prevent metabolic syndrome and reduce cardiotoxicity risk. Since EPA is an integral component of fish oil, we will briefly review EPA effects, but our main theme will be to summarize effects of the DHA derivatives that are available today. We focus on using nutrition-based drug discovery to explore the potential of DHA derivatives for the treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The safety and efficacy evaluation of DHA derivatives will provide novel biomolecules for the drug discovery arsenal. Novel nutritional-based drug discoveries of DHA derivatives or metabolites may provide realistic and alternative strategies for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Tsuji, Tomoko

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans by a double- blind, randomized, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled trial. In the Active group, eleven subjects ingested a supplement containing omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (docosahexaenoic acid 783 mg/day, eicosapentaenoic acid 162 mg/day), bilberry extract (anthocyanidin 59 mg/day), and lutein (17.5 mg/day) in soft gel capsule form, every day for 4 weeks. In the Placebo group, nine subjects ingested placebo capsules. Before and after supplementation, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their asthenopia symptoms and were also assessed for mental fatigue symptom by the visual analog scale (VAS) test. Asthenopia symptoms such as "stiff shoulder, low back pain", "frustration", "dry-eye", and "stuffy head" were improved in the Active group. Furthermore, a score of mental fatigue was improved after 4 weeks of supplementation, and no side effects were observed after the 4-week supplementation and a 2-week washout period in the Active group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with the combination of omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein may safely improve subjective symptoms of asthenopia and mental fatigue in humans.

  8. The Effect on Selenium Concentrations of a Randomized Intervention with Fish and Mussels in a Population with Relatively Low Habitual Dietary Selenium Intake

    PubMed Central

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik H.; Andersen, Klaus K.; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Selenium status of the Danish population is below that assumed optimal for the suggested protective effects against chronic diseases, including certain cancers. Fish and shellfish are important dietary sources of selenium in Denmark. We investigated the effect of increased fish and mussel intake on selenium blood concentrations in a population with relatively low habitual dietary selenium intake. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all non-smokers) aged 48–76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received 1000 g fish and mussels/week for 26 weeks (~50 μg selenium/day). Controls received no intervention. Non-fasting blood samples were taken and whole blood selenium was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and plasma selenoprotein P (SelP) was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. All available observations were included in linear multiple regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the intervention. The difference in mean change for intervention compared with control persons was 14.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 10.2, 19.7) for whole blood selenium, and 7.0 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.1, 10.9) for plasma SelP (Weeks 0–26). Selenium concentrations were significantly increased after 26 weeks of intervention, albeit to a lower degree than expected. PMID:25599275

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of Fish Oil Capsules: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Quantitation Plus Detection of Ethyl Esters and Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Daniel P; Marshall, Susan N; Burgess, Elaine J; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B

    2017-05-03

    Fish oils are the primary dietary source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but these compounds are prone to oxidation, and commercial fish oil supplements sometimes contain less PUFA than claimed. These supplements are predominantly sold in softgel capsules. In this work, we show that Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectra of fish oils (n = 5) and ω-3 PUFA concentrates (n = 6) can be acquired directly through intact softgel (gelatin) capsules. These spectra could be used to rapidly distinguish supplements containing ethyl esters from those containing triacylglyceride oils. Raman spectroscopy calibrated with partial least-squares regression against traditional fatty acid methyl ester analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be used to rapidly and nondestructively quantitate PUFA and other fatty acid classes directly though capsules. We also show that FT-Raman spectroscopy can noninvasively detect oxidation with high sensitivity. Oils with peroxide values of as low as 10 mequiv kg(-1), which are on the cusp of falling outside of specification, could be readily distinguished from oils that were within specification (7 mequiv kg(-1)).

  10. Effects of oxidised dietary fish oil and high-dose vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, feed utilisation and antioxidant defence enzyme activities of juvenile large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Houguo; Zuo, Rantao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of oxidised dietary lipids and high-dose vitamin E (VE) on growth performance and immune responses of large yellow croaker. Juvenile fish (initial average body weight of 7·82 (sem 0·68) g) were fed diets containing either fresh fish oil (fresh diet, peroxide value (POV)=1·72 mEq/kg) or fish oil oxidised to varying degrees (oxidised diets, POV=28·29-104·21 mEq/kg), with or without supplementary 600 mg VE/kg diet, for 10 weeks in floating cages. Growth was significantly lower and feed intake (g/100 g body weight per d) was higher in fish fed the oxidised diet. Supplementation with VE increased the growth of fish fed the oxidised diets, but significantly decreased the growth of fish fed the fresh diet. Hepatosomatic index increased with increasing dietary POV and decreased with VE supplementation. Hepatic catalase activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde content were significantly higher in fish fed the oxidised diets, and these values decreased significantly following VE supplementation. However, hepatic SOD activity was enhanced by VE supplementation in fish fed the fresh diet. Air-exposure mortality was significantly increased by dietary POV, and this effect was inhibited by VE supplementation. These results suggest that dietary oxidised fish oil could stimulate the activities of antioxidant defence enzymes in stressed large yellow croaker. High-dose VE supplementation can alleviate oxidative stress of large yellow croaker fed oxidised fish oil, but can exert deleterious effects on fish in the absence of oxidative stress.

  11. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  12. Effect of DHA-rich fish oil on PPARγ target genes related to lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Anahita; Sotoudeh, Gity; Djalali, Mahmoud; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Keramatipour, Mohammad; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh; Shidfar, Farzad; Alvandi, Ehsan; Toupchian, Omid; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid levels are well documented. However, the related molecular mechanisms are widely unknown. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are natural ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil supplementation on modulation of some PPARγ-responsive genes related to lipid metabolism. Patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to consume either DHA-rich fish oil (containing 2400 mg/d fish oil; DHA: 1450 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid: 400 mg) or placebo for 8 weeks. Lipid profile and glycemic control parameters as well as the gene expression of PPARγ, liver x receptor-a, ATP-binding cassette A1, and CD36 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. DHA-rich fish oil supplementation resulted in decreased triglycerides (TG) level compared with placebo group, independently of the baseline value of TG (all patients (P = .003), hypertriglyceridemic subjects (P = .01), and normotriglyceridemic subjects (P = .02)). Moreover, a higher reduction in TG level was observed in hypertriglyceridemic subjects, comparing to normotriglyceridemic subjects with DHA-rich fish oil supplementation (P = .01). Other lipid parameters as well as the expression of PPARγ, liver x receptor-a, ATP-binding cassette A1, and CD36 were not affected by DHA-rich fish oil supplementation. Only in hypertriglyceridemic subjects, DHA-rich fish oil supplementation upregulated CD36 expression, compared with the placebo group (P = .01). DHA-rich fish oil supplementation for 8 weeks increased CD36 expression in hypertriglyceridemic subjects, which might result to higher reduction in TG level, comparing with normotriglyceridemic subjects. However, this finding should be investigated in further studies. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Hata, N; Misawa, Y; Okuyama, H

    2000-01-03

    We have noted that n-3 fatty acid-rich oils, such as fish oil, perilla oil and flaxseed oil as well as ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA) prolonged the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) rats by approximately 10% as compared with linoleate (n-6)-rich safflower oil. Rapeseed oil with a relatively low n-6/n-3 ratio unusually shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, suggesting the presence of minor components unfavorable to SHRSP rats. This study examined the effects of dietary oils and DHA on renal injury and gene expression related to renal injury in SHRSP rats. Rats fed rapeseed oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets developed more severe proteinuria than those fed soybean oil-supplemented diet used as a control, but there were no significant differences in blood pressure. In contrast, the DHA-supplemented diet inhibited the development of proteinuria and suppressed hypertension. The mRNA levels for renal TGF-beta, fibronectin and renin were higher in the rapeseed oil and safflower oil groups after 9 weeks of feeding of the experimental diet than in the soybean oil and DHA groups. The fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids was markedly affected by these diets. These results indicate that the renal injury observed in the groups fed safflower oil with a high n-6/n-3 ratio and rapeseed oil with presumed minor components is accompanied by increased expression of the TGF-beta, renin and fibronectin genes, and that dietary DHA suppresses renal injury and gene expression as compared with soybean oil.

  14. Failure of a dietary model to affect markers of inflammation in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress and inflammation can be altered by dietary factors in various species. However, little data are available in true carnivorous species such as domestic cats. As numerous anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative additives become available and might be of use in cats with chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases, the current study aimed to develop a model of diet-induced inflammation by use of two opposite diets. It was hypothesized that a high fat diet enhanced in n-6 PUFA and with lower concentrations of antioxidants would evoke inflammation and oxidative stress in domestic cats. Results Sixteen healthy adult cats were allocated to two groups. One group received a moderate fat diet, containing pork lard and salmon oil (AA:(EPA + DHA) ratio 0.19) (MFn-3), while the other group was fed a high fat diet, containing pork lard and chicken fat (AA:(EPA + DHA) ratio 2.06) (HFn-6) for 12 weeks. Prior to and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks after starting the testing period, blood samples were collected. Erythrocytic fatty acid profile showed clear alterations in accordance to the dietary fatty acid profile. Serum thiobarbituric aci